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methyl-CpG binding domain protein

Changxun Fang, Weisi Chen, Chengxun Li, Xin Jian, Yingzhe Li, Hongmei Lin, Wenxiong Lin
UVB radiation causes cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) to form on the DNA of living organisms. This study found that overexpression of the silicon absorbance gene Lsi1 reduced the accumulation of CPDs in rice, which profited from the reactivation by photolyase. The transcript abundance of deoxyribodipyrimidine photolyase (Os10g0167600) was generally correlated with the silicon content of the rice, and the up-regulation of Os10g0167600 was found to be highest in the UVB-treated Lsi1-overexpressed (Lsi1-OX) rice...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jinhee Lee, Wataru Yoshida, Koichi Abe, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Hironobu Wakeda, Kenichiro Hata, Christophe A Marquette, Loïc J Blum, Koji Sode, Kazunori Ikebukuro
DNA methylation level at a certain gene region is considered as a new type of biomarker for diagnosis and its miniaturized and rapid detection system is required for diagnosis. Here we have developed a simple electrochemical detection system for DNA methylation using methyl CpG-binding domain (MBD) and a glucose dehydrogenase (GDH)-fused zinc finger protein. This analytical system consists of three steps: (1) methylated DNA collection by MBD, (2) PCR amplification of a target genomic region among collected methylated DNA, and (3) electrochemical detection of the PCR products using a GDH-fused zinc finger protein...
September 17, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Joanna Bednarczyk, Konrad J Dębski, Anna M Bot, Katarzyna Lukasiuk
The aim of the present study was to examine involvement of MBD3 (methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3), a protein involved in reading DNA methylation patterns, in epileptogenesis and epilepsy. We used a well-characterized rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy that is triggered by status epilepticus, evoked by electrical stimulation of the amygdala. Stimulated and sham-operated animals were sacrificed 14 days after stimulation. We found that MBD3 transcript was present in neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes in both control and epileptic animals...
2016: Scientific Reports
Pejman Rahimian, Johnny J He
BACKGROUND: Synaptodendritic damage is a pathological hallmark of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, and HIV-1 Tat protein is known to cause such injury in the central nervous system. In this study, we aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms of Tat-induced neurite shortening, specifically the roles of miR-132, an important regulator of neurite morphogenesis in this process. METHODS: The relationship between Tat expression and miR-132 expression was first determined using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) in Tat-transfected astrocytes and neurons, astrocytes from Tat-transgenic mice, and HIV-infected astrocytes...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ruijie Shi, Jiahui Zhang, Jingyuan Li, Ketao Wang, Haiying Jia, Lin Zhang, Putong Wang, Jun Yin, Fanrong Meng, Yongchun Li
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic marker in plants that plays a crucial role in transcriptional and developmental regulation. The DNA methylation 'code' is thought to be 'read' by a set of proteins containing methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD). However, little is known about MBD genes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, we report the isolation and characterization of TaMBD6 and its homeologues (TaMBD6_A, TaMBD6_B, and TaMBD6_D) in hexaploid wheat. The cDNA was quite different among the three homeologues and InDel mutations were detected in 5'-UTR and coding region...
September 1, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
C Stirzaker, J Z Song, W Ng, Q Du, N J Armstrong, W J Locke, A L Statham, H French, R Pidsley, F Valdes-Mora, E Zotenko, S J Clark
Cancer is characterised by DNA hypermethylation and gene silencing of CpG island-associated promoters, including tumour-suppressor genes. The methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) family of proteins bind to methylated DNA and can aid in the mediation of gene silencing through interaction with histone deacetylases and histone methyltransferases. However, the mechanisms responsible for eliciting CpG island hypermethylation in cancer, and the potential role that MBD proteins play in modulation of the methylome remain unclear...
September 5, 2016: Oncogene
Jyothi Mahadevan, David G Skalnik
Mammalian CXXC finger protein 1 (Cfp1) is a DNA-binding protein that is a component of the Setd1 histone methyltransferase complexes and is a critical epigenetic regulator of both histone and cytosine methylation. Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells lacking Cfp1 exhibit a loss of histone H3-Lys4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) at many CpG islands, and a mis-localization of this epigenetic mark to heterochromatic sub-nuclear domains. Furthermore, these cells fail to undergo cellular differentiation in vitro. These defects are rescued upon introduction of a Cfp1-expression vector...
December 5, 2016: Gene
Qingming Shen, Mengxing Fan, Yin Yang, Hui Zhang
DNA demethylation and demethylase activity play important roles in DNA self-repair, and their detection is key to early diagnosis of fatal diseases. Herein, a facile electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) sensor was developed for the sensitive detection of DNA demethylation and demethylase activity based on an enzyme cleavage strategy. The thiol modified hemi-methylated hairpin probe DNA (pDNA) was self-assembled on a Au electrode surface through the formation of AuS bonds. The hemi-methylated pDNA served as the substrate of DNA demethylase (using methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) as an example)...
August 31, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Jyh Yea Chia, Wen Siang Tan, Chyan Leong Ng, Nien-Jen Hu, Hooi Ling Foo, Kok Lian Ho
DNA methylation in a CpG context can be recognised by methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) via its methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). An A/T run next to a methyl-CpG maximises the binding of MeCP2 to the methylated DNA. The A/T run characteristics are reported here with an X-ray structure of MBD A140V in complex with methylated DNA. The A/T run geometry was found to be strongly stabilised by a string of conserved water molecules regardless of its flanking nucleotide sequences, DNA methylation and bound MBD. New water molecules were found to stabilise the Rett syndrome-related E137, whose carboxylate group is salt bridged to R133...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tarun Gupta, Hannah R Morgan, Jessica A Bailey, Sarah J Certel
Proteins containing a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) bind 5mC and convert the methylation pattern information into appropriate functional cellular states. The correct readout of epigenetic marks is of particular importance in the nervous system where abnormal expression or compromised MBD protein function, can lead to disease and developmental disorders. Recent evidence indicates the genome of Drosophila melanogaster is methylated and two MBD proteins, dMBD2/3 and dMBD-R2, are present. Are Drosophila MBD proteins required for neuronal function, and as MBD-containing proteins have diverged and evolved, does the MBD domain retain the molecular properties required for conserved cellular function across species? To address these questions, we expressed the human MBD-containing protein, hMeCP2, in distinct amine neurons and quantified functional changes in sleep circuitry output using a high throughput assay in Drosophila...
August 4, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Heng Zhu, Guohua Wang, Jiang Qian
Recent technological advances have made it possible to decode DNA methylomes at single-base-pair resolution under various physiological conditions. Many aberrant or differentially methylated sites have been discovered, but the mechanisms by which changes in DNA methylation lead to observed phenotypes, such as cancer, remain elusive. The classical view of methylation-mediated protein-DNA interactions is that only proteins with a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) can interact with methylated DNA. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that transcription factors lacking a MBD can also interact with methylated DNA...
August 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Yasuhiko Mizuguchi, Yuriko Saiki, Akira Horii, Shinichi Fukushige
DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors are epigenetic drugs used to treat myelodysplastic syndrome. They not only induce DNA demethylation but also have significant cytostatic and cytotoxic effects; however, the relationships between these characteristics have not been established yet due to the lack of a method to induce only DNA demethylation. Herein, we show that a fusion protein comprised of the methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) and the catalytic domain of Ten-eleven translocation protein 1 (TET1-CD) globally demethylates and upregulates a number of methylated genes...
September 2016: Cancer Medicine
Alison A Williams, Vera J Mehler, Christina Mueller, Fernando Vonhoff, Robin White, Carsten Duch
Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a widely abundant, multifunctional protein most highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations causing Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified along the entire MECP2 locus, but symptoms vary depending on mutation type and location. C-terminal mutations are prevalent, but little is known about the function of the MeCP2 C-terminus. We employ the genetic efficiency of Drosophila to provide evidence that expression of p.Arg294* (more commonly identified as R294X), a human MECP2 E2 mutant allele causing truncation of the C-terminal domains, promotes apoptosis of identified neurons in vivo...
2016: PloS One
Sergei Khrapunov, Yisong Tao, Huiyong Cheng, Camille Padlan, Richard Harris, Aristea S Galanopoulou, John M Greally, Mark E Girvin, Michael Brenowitz
Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a multifunctional protein that guides neuronal development through its binding to DNA, recognition of sites of methyl-CpG (mCpG) DNA modification, and interaction with other regulatory proteins. Our study explores the relationship between mCpG and hydroxymethyl-CpG (hmCpG) recognition mediated by its mCpG binding domain (MBD) and binding cooperativity mediated by its C-terminal polypeptide. Previous study of the isolated MBD of MeCP2 documented an unusual mechanism by which ion uptake is required for discrimination of mCpG and hmCpG from CpG...
August 9, 2016: Biochemistry
Ye Yang, Tugba G Kucukkal, Jing Li, Emil Alexov, Weiguo Cao
Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) binds to methylated cytosine in CpG island through its methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). Here, the effects of the Rett syndrome-causing missense mutations on binding affinity of MBD to cytosine (C), methylcytosine (mC), hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC), formylcytosine (fC), and carboxylcytosine (caC) in CpG dinucleotide are investigated. MeCP2-MBD binds to mC-containing variants of double stranded CpG stronger than any other cytosine modified CpG with the strongest affinity to mC/mC...
October 21, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Kathleen H Wood, Zhaolan Zhou
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that is essential for many biological processes and is linked to diseases such as cancer. Methylation is usually associated with transcriptional silencing, but new research has challenged this model. Both transcriptional activation and repression have recently been found to be associated with DNA methylation in a context-specific manner. How DNA methylation patterns are interpreted into different functional output remains poorly understood. One mechanism involves the protein 'readers' of methylation, which includes the methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) family of proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
Dominique C Stephens, Gregory M K Poon
Transactivation by the ETS family of transcription factors, whose members share structurally conserved DNA-binding domains, is variably sensitive to methylation of their target genes. The mechanism by which DNA methylation controls ETS proteins remains poorly understood. Uncertainly also pervades the effects of hemi-methylated DNA, which occurs following DNA replication and in response to hypomethylating agents, on site recognition by ETS proteins. To address these questions, we measured the affinities of two sequence-divergent ETS homologs, PU...
June 7, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Teng-Wei Huang, Mikhail Y Kochukov, Christopher S Ward, Jonathan Merritt, Kaitlin Thomas, Tiffani Nguyen, Benjamin R Arenkiel, Jeffrey L Neul
UNLABELLED: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Severe breathing abnormalities are common in RTT and are reproduced in mouse models of RTT. Previously, we found that removing MeCP2 from the brainstem and spinal cord in mice caused early lethality and abnormal breathing. To determine whether loss of MeCP2 in functional components of the respiratory network causes specific breathing disorders, we used the Cre/LoxP system to differentially manipulate MeCP2 expression throughout the brainstem respiratory network, specifically within HoxA4-derived tissues, which include breathing control circuitry within the nucleus tractus solitarius and the caudal part of ventral respiratory column but do not include more rostral parts of the breathing control circuitry...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Satoshi Suzuki, Moriya Iwaizumi, Stephanie Tseng-Rogenski, Yasushi Hamaya, Hiroaki Miyajima, Shigeru Kanaoka, Ken Sugimoto, John M Carethers
Methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) is a DNA glycosylase that can remove 5-fluorodeoxyuracil from DNA as well as repair T:G or U:G mismatches. MBD4 is a target for frameshift mutation with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, creating a truncated MBD4 protein (TruMBD4) that lacks its glycosylase domain. Here we show that TruMBD4 plays an important role for enhancing 5-fluorouracil (5FU) sensitivity in MMR-deficient colorectal cancer cells. We found biochemically that TruMBD4 binds to 5FU incorporated into DNA with higher affinity than MBD4...
July 2, 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Godwin Job, Christiane Brugger, Tao Xu, Brandon R Lowe, Yvan Pfister, Chunxu Qu, Sreenath Shanker, José I Baños Sanz, Janet F Partridge, Thomas Schalch
Nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complexes are co-transcriptional regulators implicated in differentiation, development, and diseases. Methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins play an essential role in recruitment of NuRD complexes to their target sites in chromatin. The related SHREC complex in fission yeast drives transcriptional gene silencing in heterochromatin through cooperation with HP1 proteins. How remodeler and histone deacetylase (HDAC) cooperate within NuRD complexes remains unresolved...
April 21, 2016: Molecular Cell
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