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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108498/mglur2-versus-mglur3-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-primate-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-postsynaptic-mglur3-strengthen-working-memory-networks
#1
Lu E Jin, Min Wang, Veronica C Galvin, Taber C Lightbourne, Peter Jeffrey Conn, Amy F T Arnsten, Constantinos D Paspalas
The newly evolved circuits in layer III of primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) generate the neural representations that subserve working memory. These circuits are weakened by increased cAMP-K(+) channel signaling, and are a focus of pathology in schizophrenia, aging, and Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive deficits in these disorders are increasingly associated with insults to mGluR3 metabotropic glutamate receptors, while reductions in mGluR2 appear protective. This has been perplexing, as mGluR3 has been considered glial receptors, and mGluR2 and mGluR3 have been thought to have similar functions, reducing glutamate transmission...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107705/incorporation-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-nanostructured-lipid-membrane-mimetic-bilayer-cubosomes
#2
Thomas G Meikle, Alexandru Zabara, Lynne J Waddington, Frances Separovic, Calum J Drummond, Charlotte E Conn
The inverse bicontinuous lipidic cubic phase offers a simple and robust membrane mimetic with the ability to encapsulate peptides, potentially increasing bioavailability, while also offering a platform from which functionalized, targeted nanoparticles can be developed. Herein we have investigated the use of a number of cubic phase nanoparticle systems with encapsulated antimicrobial peptides gramicidin A', melittin, and alamethicin. The optimal peptide loading ranges, over which cubic symmetry was retained, were determined using small angle X-ray scattering...
January 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106662/medication-adherence-interventions-among-hypertensive-black-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Todd M Ruppar, Jacqueline M Dunbar-Jacob, David R Mehr, Lisa Lewis, Vicki S Conn
BACKGROUND: Black adults have higher rates of hypertension and lower rates of blood pressure (BP) control than white adults. Improving BP control requires attention to use of antihypertensive medications, but antihypertensive regimen adherence remains low, preventing improved BP control. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a comprehensive search and systematic review of intervention studies testing interventions to improve adherence to BP medications among black adults with hypertension...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097791/alpha-thalassaemia-promotes-frequent-vaso-occlusive-crises-in-children-with-sickle-cell-anaemia-through-haemorheological-changes
#4
Céline Renoux, Philippe Connes, Elie Nader, Sarah Skinner, Camille Faes, Marie Petras, Yves Bertrand, Nathalie Garnier, Daniela Cuzzubbo, Lydia Divialle-Doumdo, Kamila Kebaïli, Cécile Renard, Alexandra Gauthier, Maryse Etienne-Julan, Giovanna Cannas, Cyril Martin, Marie-Dominique Hardy-Dessources, Vincent Pialoux, Marc Romana, Philippe Joly
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a severe hereditary haemoglobinopathy characterised by haemorheological abnormalities, which play a role in the occurrence of several acute and chronic clinical complications. While β(S) -haplotypes and alpha-thalassaemia modulate SCA clinical severity, their effects on blood rheology have been incompletely described. The aim of this study was to test the effects of these genetic modifiers on the haemorheological properties and clinical complication of children with SCA...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069888/human-non-coding-rna-886-nc886-adopts-two-structurally-distinct-conformers-that-are-functionally-opposing-regulators-of-pkr
#5
Brenda M Calderon, Graeme L Conn
The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) senses dsRNA produced during viral infection and halts cellular protein synthesis to block viral replication. How basal PKR activity is controlled in the absence of infection was unclear until the recent identification of a potential endogenous regulator, the cellular non-coding RNA 886 (nc886). However, nc886 adopts two distinct conformations for which the structural details and potential functional differences remain unclear. Here, we isolated and separately dissected the function of form of nc886 to more clearly define the molecular mechanism of nc886-mediated PKR inhibition...
January 9, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058099/adenomatoid-tumor-of-the-adrenal-gland-in-young-woman-from-clinical-and-radiological-to-pathological-study
#6
Brankica Krstevska, Sasha Jovanovska Mishevska, Rubens Jovanovic
Adenomatoid tumors are neoplasms of mesothelial origin, usually occurring in the male and female genital tracts. Extragenital localization sites such as adrenal glands are rare but have been reported. When found in the adrenals, they represent great clinical, radiological and pathological diagnostic challenge, with wide range of differential diagnoses to be considered. We present a case of a 30 years old female, with incidental ultrasound finding of unilateral tumor in the right adrenal gland. Multi slices CT scan was of value in localizing this tumor, but not in the precise diagnosis...
November 17, 2016: Rare Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054479/persistent-risk-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-more-than-a-decade-of-successful-hepatitis-b-virus-suppression
#7
Andrew Dargan, She Y Wong, Robert Coben, Mitchell Conn, Anthony J Dimarino, Hie W Hann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053881/effect-of-novel-dietary-supplement-on-metabolism-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#8
Roger A Vaughan, Ailish C White, Jason R Beam, Nicholas P Gannon, Randi Garcia-Smith, Roy M Salgado, Marco Bisoffi, Kristina A Trujillo, Carole A Conn, Christine M Mermier
Obesity is an increasingly prevalent and preventable morbidity with multiple behavioral, surgical and pharmacological interventions currently available. Commercial dietary supplements are often advertised to stimulate metabolism and cause rapid weight and/or fat loss, although few well-controlled studies have demonstrated such effects. We describe a commercially available dietary supplement (purportedly containing caffeine, catechins, and other metabolic stimulators) on resting metabolic rate in humans, and on metabolism, mitochondrial content, and related gene expression in vitro...
January 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045170/predicting-the-release-profile-of-small-molecules-from-within-the-ordered-nanostructured-lipidic-bicontinuous-cubic-phase-using-translational-diffusion-coefficients-determined-by-pfg-nmr
#9
Thomas G Meikle, Shenggen Yao, Alexandru Zabara, Charlotte E Conn, Calum J Drummond, Frances Separovic
The ordered nanostructured lipidic bicontinuous cubic phase has demonstrated potential as a drug release material, due to its ability to encapsulate a wide variety of compounds, which may undergo sustained, diffusion controlled release over time. Control of drug release has been shown to depend on the nanostructural parameters of the lipid mesophase. Herein, the diffusion and release of two amino acids, encapsulated within a range of different lipidic cubic mesophases are investigated. Pulsed-field gradient NMR was used to determine the diffusion coefficient of the encapsulated amino acid, which was found to be correlated with the nanoscale diameter of the water channels within the cubic mesophase...
January 3, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034583/differential-hypertensive-protease-expression-in-the-thoracic-versus-abdominal-aorta
#10
Jean Marie Ruddy, Adam W Akerman, Denise Kimbrough, Elizabeth K Nadeau, Robert E Stroud, Rupak Mukherjee, John S Ikonomidis, Jeffrey A Jones
BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, can drive pathologic remodeling of the macro- and microcirculation. Patterns of aortic pathology differ, however, suggesting regional heterogeneity of the pressure-sensitive protease systems triggering extracellular matrix remodeling in the thoracic (TA) and abdominal aortas (AA). This study tested the hypothesis that the expression of two major protease systems (matrix metalloproteinases [MMPs] and cathepsins) in the TA and AA would be differentially affected with HTN...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031456/a-novel-motif-for-s-adenosyl-l-methionine-binding-by-the-ribosomal-rna-methyltransferase-tlya-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Marta A Witek, Emily G Kuiper, Elizabeth Minten, Emily K Crispell, Graeme L Conn
Capreomycin is a potent ribosome-targeting antibiotic that is an essential component of current antituberculosis treatments, particularly in the case of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Optimal capreomycin binding and Mtb ribosome inhibition requires ribosomal RNA (rRNA) methylation in both ribosome subunits by TlyA (Rv1694), an enzyme with dual 2'-O-methytransferase and putative hemolytic activities. Despite TlyA's important role in capreomycin sensitivity and identification of inactivating mutations in the corresponding Mtb gene tylA which cause resistance to capreomycin, our current structural and mechanistic understanding of TlyA action remains limited...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024789/quantitative-evaluation-of-maxillary-alveolar-cortical-bone-thickness-and-density-using-computed-tomography-imaging
#12
Henry Ohiomoba, Andrew Sonis, Alfa Yansane, Bernard Friedland
INTRODUCTION: Primary stability is essential to the success of orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) and heavily depends on the mechanical retention between OMIs and their supporting bone. Alveolar cortical bone commonly serves as the supporting bone for OMIs during treatment. The purposes of this study were to characterize alveolar cortical bone thickness and density in the maxilla and to explore patient factors that may significantly affect these bone properties. METHODS: Sixty medical computed tomography scans of the maxilla were analyzed from a selected sample of patients seen at the Radiology Department of Boston Children's Hospital...
January 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007777/non-invasive-measurement-of-mtorc1-signaling-with-89zr-transferrin
#13
Charles Truillet, John T Cunningham, Matthew F L Parker, Loc T Huynh, Crystal S Conn, Davide Ruggero, Jason S Lewis, Michael J Evans
PURPOSE: mTOR regulates many normal physiological processes and when hyperactive, can drive numerous cancers and human diseases. However, it is very challenging to detect and quantify mTOR signaling non-invasively in clinically relevant animal models of disease or man. We hypothesized that a nuclear imaging tool measuring intracellular mTOR activity could address this unmet need. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Although the biochemical activity of mTOR is not directly amenable to nuclear imaging probe development, we show that the transferrin receptor can be used to indirectly measure intracellular changes in mTOR activity...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001356/diverse-effects-on-m1-signaling-and-adverse-effect-liability-within-a-series-of-m1-ago-pams
#14
Jerri M Rook, Masahito Abe, Hyekyung P Cho, Kellie D Nance, Vincent B Luscombe, Jeffrey J Adams, Jonathan W Dickerson, Daniel H Remke, Pedro M Garcia-Barrantes, Darren W Engers, Julie L Engers, Sichen Chang, Jarrett J Foster, Anna L Blobaum, Colleen M Niswender, Carrie K Jones, P Jeffrey Conn, Craig W Lindsley
Both historical clinical and recent preclinical data suggest that the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is an exciting target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and the cognitive and negative symptom clusters in schizophrenia; however, early drug discovery efforts targeting the orthosteric binding site have failed to afford selective M1 activation. Efforts then shifted to focus on selective activation of M1 via either allosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). While M1 PAMs have robust efficacy in rodent models, some chemotypes can induce cholinergic adverse effects (AEs) that could limit their clinical utility...
January 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000557/the-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-networks-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome
#15
Ting Chen, Ming Yang, Bin Liu, Yu-Ting Liu, Hui-Xin Zhang, Chuan-Chuan Liu, Yue Zhu, Zhi-Chun Huang, Ti-Fei Yuan
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is normally linked to cognitive and functional dysfunctions. In this study, we explored the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the default mode network (DMN) to show the mechanism of neurophysiology in patients with OSAHS. Resting-state structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data were obtained from sixteen male moderate-to- severe patients with untreated OSAHS and 15 male matched healthy control subjects. The rsFC in the DMN was analyzed between OSAHS and healthy controls by the CONN software...
December 19, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994625/effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-platelet-rich-plasma-on-the-bone-healing-of-ovariectomized-rats
#16
Bo Wei, Chengshuo Huang, Mingyan Zhao, Peng Li, Xiang Gao, Junchao Kong, Yanru Niu, Rui Huang, Juanhua Quan, Jinsong Wei, Jiaqi Chu
We evaluated the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in combination with allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for the treatment of osteoporotic bone defects in an ovariectomized rat model. By day 42 after injury, in vivo microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging revealed that bone defects of control rats and ovariectomized rats treated with PRP and BMSCs were completely repaired, whereas those of ovariectomized rats treated with PRP or BMSCs alone exhibited slower healing. Histological data were consistent with these results...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987251/simultaneous-rsfmri-and-eeg-recordings-of-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#17
Eiji Kirino, Shoji Tanaka, Mayuko Fukuta, Rie Inami, Heii Arai, Reiichi Inoue, Shigeki Aoki
AIMS: It remains unclear how functional connectivity (FC) may be related to specific cognitive domains in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we used simultaneous resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) recording in patients with schizophrenia, to evaluate FC within and outside the default mode network (DMN). METHODS: Our study population included 14 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy control participants. From all participants, we acquired rsfMRI data, and simultaneously recorded EEG data using an MR-compatible amplifier...
December 17, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984639/exacerbation-of-oxidative-stress-during-sickle-vaso-occlusive-crisis-is-associated-with-decreased-anti-band-3-autoantibodies-rate-and-increased-red-blood-cell-derived-microparticle-level-a-prospective-study
#18
Régine Hierso, Nathalie Lemonne, Rinaldo Villaescusa, Marie-Laure Lalanne-Mistrih, Keyne Charlot, Maryse Etienne-Julan, Benoit Tressières, Yann Lamarre, Vanessa Tarer, Yohann Garnier, Ada Arce Hernandez, Serge Ferracci, Philippe Connes, Marc Romana, Marie-Dominique Hardy-Dessources
Painful vaso-occlusive crisis, a hallmark of sickle cell anaemia, results from complex, incompletely understood mechanisms. Red blood cell (RBC) damage caused by continuous endogenous and exogenous oxidative stress may precipitate the occurrence of vaso-occlusive crises. In order to gain insight into the relevance of oxidative stress in vaso-occlusive crisis occurrence, we prospectively compared the expression levels of various oxidative markers in 32 adults with sickle cell anaemia during vaso-occlusive crisis and steady-state conditions...
December 16, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981643/ugt1a1-ta-n-genotype-is-not-the-major-risk-factor-of-cholelithiasis-in-sickle-cell-disease-children
#19
Philippe Joly, Céline Renoux, Philippe Lacan, Yves Bertrand, Giovanna Cannas, Nathalie Garnier, Daniella Cuzzubbo, Kamila Kebaïli, Cécile Renard, Alexandra Gauthier, Vincent Pialoux, Cyril Martin, Marc Romana, Philippe Connes
Because of the increased hemolytic rate, a significant proportion of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are prone to develop cholelithiasis. The present study investigated the role of several genetic factors (UGT1A1 promoter (TA)n repeat polymorphism, alpha-globin status), hematological parameters, clinical severity and hydroxyurea (HU) therapy on the occurrence of cholelithiasis in SCD METHODS: One hundred and fifty eight children (2-18 years old) and regularly followed at the university hospital of Lyon (France) were included...
December 16, 2016: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976759/the-nanoscience-behind-the-art-of-in-meso-crystallization-of-membrane-proteins
#20
Alexandru Zabara, Thomas G Meikle, Janet Newman, Thomas S Peat, Charlotte E Conn, Calum J Drummond
The structural changes occurring at the nanoscale level within the lipid bilayer and driving the in-meso formation of large well-diffracting membrane protein crystals have been uniquely characterized for a model membrane protein, intimin. Importantly, the order to order transitions taking place within the bilayer and the lipidic nanostructures required for crystal growth have been shown to be general, occurring for both the cubic and the sponge mesophase crystallization pathways. For the first time, a transient fluid lamellar phase has been observed and unambiguously assigned for both crystallization pathways, present at the earliest stages of protein crystallogenesis but no longer observed once the crystals surpass the size of the average lyotropic liquid crystalline domain...
December 15, 2016: Nanoscale
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