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Natalie J Forde, Ahmad S Kanaan, Joanna Widomska, Shanmukha S Padmanabhuni, Ester Nespoli, John Alexander, Juan I Rodriguez Arranz, Siyan Fan, Rayan Houssari, Muhammad S Nawaz, Francesca Rizzo, Luca Pagliaroli, Nuno R Zilhäo, Tamas Aranyi, Csaba Barta, Tobias M Boeckers, Dorret I Boomsma, Wim R Buisman, Jan K Buitelaar, Danielle Cath, Andrea Dietrich, Nicole Driessen, Petros Drineas, Michelle Dunlap, Sarah Gerasch, Jeffrey Glennon, Bastian Hengerer, Odile A van den Heuvel, Cathrine Jespersgaard, Harald E Möller, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl, Thaïra J C Openneer, Geert Poelmans, Petra J W Pouwels, Jeremiah M Scharf, Hreinn Stefansson, Zeynep Tümer, Dick J Veltman, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Ludolph, Peristera Paschou
Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by the presence of multiple motor and phonic tics with a fluctuating course of intensity, frequency, and severity. Up to 90% of patients with GTS present with comorbid conditions, most commonly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), thus providing an excellent model for the exploration of shared etiology across disorders. TS-EUROTRAIN (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN, Grant Agr.No. 316978) is a Marie Curie Initial Training Network (http://ts-eurotrain...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jean-François Pelletier, Christine Boisvert, Marie-Claude Galipeau-Leduc, Christian Ducasse, Denis Pouliot-Morneau, Julie Bordeleau
Objectives Located at the heart of a mental health university institute in Montreal, Canada, the University of Recovery (UR) is a peer-run agency of service users who came together as a private non-profit organization to promote their experiential knowledge in science and public health, and to transform the academic milieu as an inclusive work environment conducive to recovery and full citizenship. UR students can thus have access to scientific conferences and classes on various topics and invite scientists or other professionals to further discuss new discoveries and techniques, and possible ways of improving healthcare from a patients' and service users' perspective...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Giada Pietrabissa, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Padraic Gibson, Donald Boardman, Alessio Gori, Gianluca Castelnuovo
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling psychopathology. The mainstay of treatment includes cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and medication management. However, individual suffering, functional impairments as well as the direct and indirect costs associated with the disease remain substantial. New treatment programmes are necessary and the brief strategic therapy (BST) has recently shown encouraging results in clinical practice but no quantitative study has as yet been conducted...
2016: BMJ Open
Alberto González-Robles, Azucena García-Palacios, Rosa Baños, Antonio Riera, Ginés Llorca, Francisco Traver, Gonzalo Haro, Vicente Palop, Guillem Lera, José Enrique Romeu, Cristina Botella
BACKGROUND: Emotional disorders (depression and anxiety disorders) are highly prevalent mental health problems. Although evidence showing the effectiveness of disorder-specific treatments exists, high comorbidity rates among emotional disorders limit the utility of these protocols. This has led some researchers to focus their interest on transdiagnostic interventions, a treatment perspective that might be more widely effective across these disorders. Also, the current way of delivering treatments makes it difficult provide assistance to all of the population in need...
2015: Trials
An Tong Gong, Adrian Furnham
This study was concerned with the general mental health literacy of lay people in mainland China. It replicates in part many studies done in America, Australia, and Europe. A total of 212 participants were asked to read vignettes depicting people with schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, depression, bipolar disorder, stress, child attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), child depression, and child "daily troubles." For each vignette they were asked to label the vignette character's main problem, to evaluate various suggestions for helping that person, to rate their attitudes towards the character, and finally their confidence in all their responses...
June 2014: PsyCh Journal
Magnús Haraldsson
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late...
February 2015: Læknablađiđ
Sarah Young, Paul Rhodes, Stephen Touyz, Phillipa Hay
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) traits and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are commonly associated with patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The aim of this review was to systematically search the literature to examine whether OCPD and OCD are positively associated with excessive exercise in patients with AN. METHOD: A systematic electronic search of the literature (using PsycInfo, Medline and Web of Knowledge) was undertaken to identify relevant publications until May 2012...
2013: Journal of Eating Disorders
Chunping Ni, Lihua Ma, Bo Wang, Yongping Yan, Yueqin Huang, Gwenyth R Wallen, Lu Li, Hongjuan Lang, Qianzhen Hua
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed knowledge of neurotic disorders, and attitudes and preferences toward professional help and treatment for them, among general medical outpatients in general hospitals in Xi'an, China. METHODS: General medical outpatients (N=372) from general hospitals in China were recruited by using a stratified cluster sampling method between June and September 2010. In face-to-face interviews, participants age 16 years or older were assessed for their knowledge, attitudes, and help-seeking preferences in regard to neurotic disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and panic disorder)...
August 1, 2014: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Fritz-Georg Lehnhardt, Astrid Gawronski, Kathleen Pfeiffer, Hanna Kockler, Leonhard Schilbach, Kai Vogeley
BACKGROUND: As a result of the increased public interest in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), certain core manifestations of ASD--impaired social interaction and communication, bizarre interests--are now commonly recognized as being typical of autism, not only in children, but in adults as well. More often than before, general practitioners, neurologists, and psychiatrists find themselves being asked whether a patient is suffering from previously unrecognized Asperger syndrome (AS). The prevalence of ASD is estimated at 1%, and the ratio of diagnosed to undiagnosed cases at about 3:2...
November 8, 2013: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Fidias E Leon-Sarmiento, Elías Granadillo, Edgardo A Bayona
Magnetic stimulation has called the attention of neuroscientists and the public due to the possibility to stimulate and "control" the nervous system in a non-invasive way. It has helped to make more accurate diagnosis, and apply more effective treatments and rehabilitation protocols in several diseases that affect the nervous system. Likewise, this novel tool has increased our knowledge about complex neural behavior, its connections as well as its plastic modulation. Magnetic stimulation applied in simple or paired-pulse protocols is a useful alternative in the diagnosis of diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, epilepsy, dystonia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and sleep disorders...
March 2013: Investigación Clínica
Meredith E Coles, Richard G Heimberg, Barry D Weiss
BACKGROUND: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling condition associated with significant personal and societal burdens. Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, in most cases, the disorder remains unrecognized and untreated. Lack of knowledge (i.e. poor mental health literacy, MHL) regarding OCD may be an impediment to seeking treatment. Therefore, the current study assessed public knowledge and beliefs about OCD and examined factors influencing MHL. METHODS: Five hundred seventy-seven US adults participated in a telephone survey...
August 2013: Depression and Anxiety
Alexandre Rafael de Mello Schier, Natalia Pinho de Oliveira Ribeiro, Adriana Cardoso de Oliveira e Silva, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak, José Alexandre S Crippa, Antonio E Nardi, Antonio Waldo Zuardi
OBJECTIVES: To review and describe studies of the non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), as an anxiolytic drug and discuss its possible mechanisms of action. METHOD: The articles selected for the review were identified through searches in English, Portuguese, and Spanish in the electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed, and PsycINFO, combining the search terms "cannabidiol and anxiolytic", "cannabidiol and anxiolytic-like", and "cannabidiol and anxiety"...
June 2012: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Adrian Furnham, Julian Winceslaus
BACKGROUND: This study was concerned with investigating the mental health literacy of lay people in regard to the personality disorders. METHOD: 223 participants responded to a questionnaire entitled 'eccentric people' which contained vignettes of 10 personality disorders which they rated as well as labelled. RESULTS: Lay people recognize people with personality disorders as being unhappy, unsuccessful at work and as having poor personal relationships, but do not associate these problems with psychological causes...
2012: Psychopathology
Meredith E Coles, Shannon L Coleman
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders represent the single largest mental health problem in the United States [Greenberg et al., 1999. J Clin Psychiatry 60:427-435; Rice and Miller, 1998. Br J Psychiatry 173:4-9]. However most individuals with anxiety disorders never seek treatment [Henderson et al., 2002. Can J Psychiatry 47:819-824; Mojtabai et al., 2002. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:77-84; Roness et al., 2005. Acta Psychiatr Scand 111:51-58]. Deficits in the ability to recognize anxiety disorders and beliefs about them, (i...
2010: Depression and Anxiety
Adrian Furnham
BACKGROUND: Whereas there is now a rapidly emerging literature on psychiatric literacy (Jorm, 2000), there is much less work on the public's knowledge of, and beliefs about the purpose of, and processes involved in, psychotherapy. This study looked at what lay people think happens during psychotherapy; what the processes and aims are; and the aetiology, treatment and prognosis for a mood and psychotic (bipolar, schizophrenia) and two neurotic (depression, obsessive-compulsive) disorders...
November 2009: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
N M M Mol Debes, H Hjalgrim, L Skov
OBJECTIVE: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by the presence of tics and is often accompanied by other symptoms, like attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder. The presenting symptoms are supposed to be tics. Onset is usually around school age. Early diagnosis of TS is important in order to provide patients with the necessary support as early as possible. METHODS: We examined the diagnostic process via a systematic interview in 314 children with TS...
April 2008: Neuropediatrics
Sîan M J Hemmings, Dan J Stein
During the last 2 decades, a large number of association studies have been dedicated to disentangling the genetic components that may be involved in the etiology of OCD. The preliminary and frequently in consistent nature of the data represented in the majority of OCD psychiatric genetic-association studies may seem discouraging. Failure to replicate, and thus to confirm, previously identified susceptibility loci could result from a number of reasons, including the potential for population admixture, the clinical heterogeneity of OCD, small sample sizes (and subsequent lack of power),publication bias, epistasis, or failure to account for multiple testing...
June 2006: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Guilherme Borges, María Elena Medina-Mora, Sergio López-Moreno
Mental disorders, including substance abuse, are part of the Mexican epidemiologic scenario and will remain so during several decades. They may even become more prominent as causes of disease, disability, and death in our country. It is thus imperative to frame appropriate management strategies to curb these problems without delay. This paper aims at outlining epidemiology of mental diseases as a field of study, and to identify its limitations. Emphasis is made on common elements shared with other more traditional fields of epidemiology, as well as on the specific contributions made by this particular field to epidemiology and to psychiatry in general...
September 2004: Salud Pública de México
P Gosselin, B Laberge
Generalized Anxiety disorder (GAD) is a widespread psychiatric syndrome involving significant consequences on people's health. However, recent data show that this disorder has received little attention when compared to other anxiety disorders. A review of the publication on GAD also stated that the majority of research has been conducted on descriptive issues, whereas etiological factors received lower rates of publication. This may be explained by the fact that changes in the conceptualization of GAD slowed down the progression of researches focussing on the identification of factors implicated in the development and the maintenance of its symptoms...
July 2003: L'Encéphale
M V Mendlowicz, M B Stein
OBJECTIVE: Quality-of-life indices have been used in medical practice to estimate the impact of different diseases on functioning and well-being and to compare outcomes between different treatment modalities. An integrated view of the issue of quality of life in patients with anxiety disorders can provide important information regarding the nature and extent of the burden associated with these disorders and may be useful in the development of strategies to deal with it. METHOD: A review of epidemiological and clinical studies that have investigated quality of life (broadly conceptualized) in patients with panic disorder, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder was conducted by searching MEDLINE and PsycLIT citations from 1984 to 1999...
May 2000: American Journal of Psychiatry
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