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antidiabetic drug research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924636/safety-and-tolerability-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-unresolved-and-emerging-issues
#1
Denis Raccah
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are a mainstay of treatment options for Type 2 diabetes. They contribute to lowering blood glucose levels, generally have a favorable tolerability profile, and can be used alone or in combination with other antidiabetic agents. Based on the duration of their effects, GLP-1 RAs can be divided into two classes: short-acting and long-acting. Differences exist between these sub-classes, and between each drug, in terms of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles...
December 7, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883260/the-use-of-incretin-agents-and-risk-of-acute-and-chronic-pancreatitis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Lotte M Knapen, Roy G P J de Jong, Johanna H M Driessen, Yolande C Keulemans, Nielka P van Erp, Marie L De Bruin, Hubert G M Leufkens, Sander Croes, Frank de Vries
BACKGROUND: Incretin-based therapies (Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 inhibitors and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists) are effective new agents for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). While incretin-based therapies have been associated with pancreatitis, evidence is conflicting for acute pancreatitis and lacks for chronic pancreatitis. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between the use of incretin agents and the risk of any, acute and chronic pancreatitis...
November 24, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846886/antidiabetic-and-hypolipidemic-activities-of-hydroethanolic-root-extract-of-uvaria-chamae-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-albino-rats
#3
Jonathan Emeka Emordi, Esther Oluwatoyin Agbaje, Ibrahim Adekunle Oreagba, Osede Ignis Iribhogbe
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterised by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. It is a global epidemic ravaging both developed and developing countries. The situation will worsen if nothing is done urgently. In fact, the need to identify natural products with antidiabetic potentials is of great importance as supported by several research efforts all over the world, in search of antidiabetic plant based products that are safe and efficacious...
November 15, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783546/risk-of-nondherence-to-diabetes-medications-among-medicare-advantage-enrollees-development-of-a-validated-risk-prediction-tool
#4
Shivani K Mhatre, Omar Serna, Shubhada Sansgiry, Marc L Fleming, E James Essien, Sujit S Sansgiry
BACKGROUND: Low adherence to oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in the Medicare population can greatly reduce Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) star ratings for managed care organizations (MCOs). OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a risk assessment tool (Prescription Medication Adherence Prediction Tool for Diabetes Medications [RxAPT-D]) to predict nonadherence to OADs using Medicare claims data. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, claims data for members enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MA-PD) program in Houston, Texas, were used...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765361/aralia-elata-var-mandshurica-rupr-maxim-j-wen-an-overview-of-pharmacological-studies
#5
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744304/drug-prescribing-during-the-last-year-of-life-in-very-old-people-with-diabetes
#6
Shota Hamada, Martin C Gulliford
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate primary care drug utilisation during the last year of life, focusing on antidiabetic and cardiovascular drugs, in patients of advanced age with diabetes. DESIGN: population-based cohort study. SETTING: primary care database in the UK. SUBJECTS: patients with type 2 diabetes who died at over 80 years of age between 2011 and 13. METHODS: main outcome measures included proportions of patients prescribed different classes of drugs, comparing the first (Q1) and the fourth quarters (Q4) of the last year of life...
October 15, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618891/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors-from-natural-products-discovery-of-next-generation-antihyperglycemic-agents
#7
REVIEW
Chang-Ik Choi
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition associated with the metabolic impairment of insulin actions, leading to the development of life-threatening complications. Although many kinds of oral antihyperglycemic agents with different therapeutic mechanisms have been marketed, their undesirable adverse effects, such as hypoglycemia, weight gain, and hepato-renal toxicity, have increased demand for the discovery of novel, safer antidiabetic drugs. Since the important roles of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) for glucose homeostasis in the kidney were recently elucidated, pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 has been considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610604/prevalent-new-user-cohort-designs-for-comparative-drug-effect-studies-by-time-conditional-propensity-scores
#8
Samy Suissa, Erica E M Moodie, Sophie Dell'Aniello
PURPOSE: Studies of the real-world comparative effectiveness of drugs conducted using computerized healthcare databases typically involve an incident new-user cohort design for head-to-head comparisons between two medications, using exclusively treatment-naïve patients. However, the desired contrast often involves one new drug compared with an older drug, of which many users of the new drug may have switched from, seriously restricting the scope of incident new-user studies. METHODS: We introduce prevalent new-user cohort designs for head-to-head comparative drug effect studies, where incident new users are scarce...
September 9, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585542/association-between-use-of-oral-antidiabetic-drugs-and-the-risk-of-aortic-aneurysm-a-nested-case-control-analysis
#9
Chien-Yi Hsu, Yu-Wen Su, Yung-Tai Chen, Shih-Hung Tsai, Chun-Chin Chang, Szu-Yuan Li, Po-Hsun Huang, Jaw-Wen Chen, Shing-Jong Lin
BACKGROUND: Pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular protection have been suggested in several oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD). The impacts of OADs on aortic aneurysm (AA) growth have been found in animal studies, but the evidence of their beneficial effects for AA protection in human are lacking. We investigated the relationship between OAD therapy and the risk of developing AA. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control analysis using the database extracted from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database...
2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579824/-act-on-threes-paradigm-for-treatment-intensification-of-type-2-diabetes-in-managed-care-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-study-with-an-educational-intervention-targeting-improved-glycemic-control
#10
Nella Bieszk, Shannon L Reynolds, Wenhui Wei, Cralen Davis, Pravin Kamble, Claudia Uribe
BACKGROUND: Clinical inertia, which has been defined as the recognition of a problem with a patient's management but failing to act, is a concern in type 2 diabetes (T2D) because it places the patient at risk of diabetes-related complications. Despite managed care organizations making significant investment in this area, little is known about the impact of educational programs aimed at aligning patients and their physicians with diabetes guidelines and thus overcoming clinical inertia...
September 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574744/-act-on-threes-paradigm-for-treatment-intensification-of-type-2-diabetes-in-managed-care-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-study-with-an-educational-intervention-targeting-improved-glycemic-control
#11
Nella Bieszk, Shannon L Reynolds, Wenhui Wei, Cralen Davis, Pravin Kamble, Claudia Uribe
BACKGROUND: Clinical inertia, which has been defined as the recognition of a problem with a patient's management but failing to act, is a concern in type 2 diabetes (T2D) because it places the patient at risk of diabetes-related complications. Despite managed care organizations making significant investment in this area, little is known about the impact of educational programs aimed at aligning patients and their physicians with diabetes guidelines and thus overcoming clinical inertia...
September 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547410/medication-usage-treatment-intensification-and-medical-cost-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-retrospective-database-study
#12
Machaon Bonafede, Arthi Chandran, Stefan DiMario, Rita Saltiel-Berzin, Drilon Saliu
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to describe medication usage patterns in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) initiating treatment with non-insulin antidiabetic drugs (NIADs), basal insulin, or prandial/mixed insulin using real-world data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis using the Truven Health MarketScan Research Databases was conducted to identify adults (≥18 years) with T2DM from 2006 to 2012. Patients were categorized into four cohorts based on diabetes treatment...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541627/identifying-and-investigating-unexpected-response-to-treatment-a-diabetes-case-study
#13
Michal Ozery-Flato, Liat Ein-Dor, Naama Parush-Shear-Yashuv, Ranit Aharonov, Hani Neuvirth, Martin S Kohn, Jianying Hu
The availability of electronic health records creates fertile ground for developing computational models of various medical conditions. We present a new approach for detecting and analyzing patients with unexpected responses to treatment, building on machine learning and statistical methodology. Given a specific patient, we compute a statistical score for the deviation of the patient's response from responses observed in other patients having similar characteristics and medication regimens. These scores are used to define cohorts of patients showing deviant responses...
September 2016: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533948/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibition-cardioprotection-by-treating-diabetes-a-translational-viewpoint-explaining-its-potential-salutary-effects
#14
REVIEW
Anne E de Leeuw, Rudolf A de Boer
Diabetes is a growing epidemic worldwide characterized by an elevated concentration of blood glucose, associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Although in general reduction of hyperglycaemia is considered a therapeutic goal, hypoglycaemic therapies do not necessarily reduce cardiovascular mortality and may even aggravate cardiovascular risk factors, such as body weight. A new class of antidiabetic drugs acts by inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), which (partially) prevents reabsorption of glucose from the renal filtrate...
October 2016: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528060/updates-on-managing-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-natural-products-towards-antidiabetic-drug-development
#15
Fahmida Alam, Md Asiful Islam, M A Kamal, Siew Hua Gan
Over the years, natural products have shown success as antidiabetics in vitro, in vivo and in clinical trials. Because natural product-derived drugs are more affordable and effective with fewer side-effects compared to conventional therapies, pharmaceutical research is increasingly leaning towards the discovery of new antidiabetic drugs from natural products targeting pathways or components associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathophysiology. However, the drug discovery process is very lengthy and costly with significant challenges...
August 13, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521218/potential-effects-of-current-drug-therapies-on-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Caterina Palleria, Christian Leporini, Francesca Maida, Elena Succurro, Giovambattista De Sarro, Franco Arturi, Emilio Russo
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease that can cause serious damage to various organs. Among the best-known complications, an important role is played by cognitive impairment. Impairment of cognitive functioning has been reported both in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. While this comorbidity has long been known, no major advances have been achieved in clinical research; it is clear that appropriate control of blood glucose levels represents the best current (although unsatisfactory) approach in the prevention of cognitive impairment...
July 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512705/critical-review-of-drug-promotional-literature-using-the-world-health-organization-guidelines
#17
Puttaswamy Ganashree, Krishnaswamy Bhuvana, Narayana Sarala
OBJECTIVE: Drug promotional literatures (DPLs) are used as a promotional tool to advertise new drugs entering the market to doctors. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy of DPLs by using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. METHODS: An observational study was conducted from March to August 2014. The DPLs were collected from various departments at R.L. Jalappa Hospital and Research Centre attached to Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar, India...
July 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510757/protective-effect-of-metformin-against-acute-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-rat
#18
Abhimanu Pandey, Vijay L Kumar
Preclinical Research The antidiabetic drug, metformin, can inhibit the release of inflammatory mediators in several disease conditions. The present study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of metformin in ameliorating edema formation, oxidative stress, mediator release and vascular changes associated with acute inflammation in the rat carrageenan model. Metformin dose-dependently inhibited paw swelling induced by carrageenan and normalized the tissue levels of the inflammatory markers myeloperoxidase and nitrite...
September 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502359/cancer-obesity-diabetes-and-antidiabetic-drugs-is-the-fog-clearing
#19
REVIEW
Adi J Klil-Drori, Laurent Azoulay, Michael N Pollak
The prevalence of obesity, of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and of cancer are all increasing globally. The relationships between these diseases are complex, and thus difficult to elucidate; nevertheless, evidence supports the hypothesis that obesity increases the risks of both T2DM and certain cancers. Further complexity arises from controversial evidence that specific drugs used in the treatment of T2DM increase or decrease cancer risk or influence cancer prognosis. Herein, we review the current evidence from studies that have addressed these relationships, and summarize the methodological challenges that are frequently encountered in such research...
August 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499038/insights-into-the-percutaneous-penetration-of-antidiabetic-agents
#20
Kevin Ita
It has been suggested that destruction of β cells through apoptosis leads to type 1 diabetes (T1DM) while type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is caused mainly by increased insulin resistance. Several therapeutic agents are available for the management of diabetes. While researchers continue to investigate disease-modifying compounds, it is also important to develop alternative drug delivery systems for existing medications with the goal of modulating bioavailability and/or pharmacokinetic half-life. Transdermal drug delivery offers a number of advantages including improved compliance, lack of gastric irritation and the possibility of altering bioavailability and and/or half-life...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Drug Targeting
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