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antidiabetic drug research

Shota Hamada, Martin C Gulliford
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate primary care drug utilisation during the last year of life, focusing on antidiabetic and cardiovascular drugs, in patients of advanced age with diabetes. DESIGN: population-based cohort study. SETTING: primary care database in the UK. SUBJECTS: patients with type 2 diabetes who died at over 80 years of age between 2011 and 13. METHODS: main outcome measures included proportions of patients prescribed different classes of drugs, comparing the first (Q1) and the fourth quarters (Q4) of the last year of life...
October 15, 2016: Age and Ageing
Chang-Ik Choi
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition associated with the metabolic impairment of insulin actions, leading to the development of life-threatening complications. Although many kinds of oral antihyperglycemic agents with different therapeutic mechanisms have been marketed, their undesirable adverse effects, such as hypoglycemia, weight gain, and hepato-renal toxicity, have increased demand for the discovery of novel, safer antidiabetic drugs. Since the important roles of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) for glucose homeostasis in the kidney were recently elucidated, pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 has been considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Samy Suissa, Erica E M Moodie, Sophie Dell'Aniello
PURPOSE: Studies of the real-world comparative effectiveness of drugs conducted using computerized healthcare databases typically involve an incident new-user cohort design for head-to-head comparisons between two medications, using exclusively treatment-naïve patients. However, the desired contrast often involves one new drug compared with an older drug, of which many users of the new drug may have switched from, seriously restricting the scope of incident new-user studies. METHODS: We introduce prevalent new-user cohort designs for head-to-head comparative drug effect studies, where incident new users are scarce...
September 9, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Chien-Yi Hsu, Yu-Wen Su, Yung-Tai Chen, Shih-Hung Tsai, Chun-Chin Chang, Szu-Yuan Li, Po-Hsun Huang, Jaw-Wen Chen, Shing-Jong Lin
BACKGROUND: Pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular protection have been suggested in several oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD). The impacts of OADs on aortic aneurysm (AA) growth have been found in animal studies, but the evidence of their beneficial effects for AA protection in human are lacking. We investigated the relationship between OAD therapy and the risk of developing AA. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control analysis using the database extracted from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database...
2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Nella Bieszk, Shannon L Reynolds, Wenhui Wei, Cralen Davis, Pravin Kamble, Claudia Uribe
BACKGROUND: Clinical inertia, which has been defined as the recognition of a problem with a patient's management but failing to act, is a concern in type 2 diabetes (T2D) because it places the patient at risk of diabetes-related complications. Despite managed care organizations making significant investment in this area, little is known about the impact of educational programs aimed at aligning patients and their physicians with diabetes guidelines and thus overcoming clinical inertia...
September 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Nella Bieszk, Shannon L Reynolds, Wenhui Wei, Cralen Davis, Pravin Kamble, Claudia Uribe
BACKGROUND: Clinical inertia, which has been defined as the recognition of a problem with a patient's management but failing to act, is a concern in type 2 diabetes (T2D) because it places the patient at risk of diabetes-related complications. Despite managed care organizations making significant investment in this area, little is known about the impact of educational programs aimed at aligning patients and their physicians with diabetes guidelines and thus overcoming clinical inertia...
September 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Machaon Bonafede, Arthi Chandran, Stefan DiMario, Rita Saltiel-Berzin, Drilon Saliu
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to describe medication usage patterns in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) initiating treatment with non-insulin antidiabetic drugs (NIADs), basal insulin, or prandial/mixed insulin using real-world data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis using the Truven Health MarketScan Research Databases was conducted to identify adults (≥18 years) with T2DM from 2006 to 2012. Patients were categorized into four cohorts based on diabetes treatment...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Michal Ozery-Flato, Liat Ein-Dor, Naama Parush-Shear-Yashuv, Ranit Aharonov, Hani Neuvirth, Martin S Kohn, Jianying Hu
The availability of electronic health records creates fertile ground for developing computational models of various medical conditions. We present a new approach for detecting and analyzing patients with unexpected responses to treatment, building on machine learning and statistical methodology. Given a specific patient, we compute a statistical score for the deviation of the patient's response from responses observed in other patients having similar characteristics and medication regimens. These scores are used to define cohorts of patients showing deviant responses...
September 2016: Big Data
Anne E de Leeuw, Rudolf A de Boer
Diabetes is a growing epidemic worldwide characterized by an elevated concentration of blood glucose, associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Although in general reduction of hyperglycaemia is considered a therapeutic goal, hypoglycaemic therapies do not necessarily reduce cardiovascular mortality and may even aggravate cardiovascular risk factors, such as body weight. A new class of antidiabetic drugs acts by inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), which (partially) prevents reabsorption of glucose from the renal filtrate...
October 2016: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
Fahmida Alam, Md Asiful Islam, M A Kamal, Siew Hua Gan
Over the years, natural products have shown success as antidiabetics in vitro, in vivo and in clinical trials. Because natural product-derived drugs are more affordable and effective with fewer side-effects compared to conventional therapies, pharmaceutical research is increasingly leaning towards the discovery of new antidiabetic drugs from natural products targeting pathways or components associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathophysiology. However, the drug discovery process is very lengthy and costly with significant challenges...
August 13, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Caterina Palleria, Christian Leporini, Francesca Maida, Elena Succurro, Giovambattista De Sarro, Franco Arturi, Emilio Russo
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease that can cause serious damage to various organs. Among the best-known complications, an important role is played by cognitive impairment. Impairment of cognitive functioning has been reported both in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. While this comorbidity has long been known, no major advances have been achieved in clinical research; it is clear that appropriate control of blood glucose levels represents the best current (although unsatisfactory) approach in the prevention of cognitive impairment...
July 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Puttaswamy Ganashree, Krishnaswamy Bhuvana, Narayana Sarala
OBJECTIVE: Drug promotional literatures (DPLs) are used as a promotional tool to advertise new drugs entering the market to doctors. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy of DPLs by using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. METHODS: An observational study was conducted from March to August 2014. The DPLs were collected from various departments at R.L. Jalappa Hospital and Research Centre attached to Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar, India...
July 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
Abhimanu Pandey, Vijay L Kumar
Preclinical Research The antidiabetic drug, metformin, can inhibit the release of inflammatory mediators in several disease conditions. The present study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of metformin in ameliorating edema formation, oxidative stress, mediator release and vascular changes associated with acute inflammation in the rat carrageenan model. Metformin dose-dependently inhibited paw swelling induced by carrageenan and normalized the tissue levels of the inflammatory markers myeloperoxidase and nitrite...
September 2016: Drug Development Research
Adi J Klil-Drori, Laurent Azoulay, Michael N Pollak
The prevalence of obesity, of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and of cancer are all increasing globally. The relationships between these diseases are complex, and thus difficult to elucidate; nevertheless, evidence supports the hypothesis that obesity increases the risks of both T2DM and certain cancers. Further complexity arises from controversial evidence that specific drugs used in the treatment of T2DM increase or decrease cancer risk or influence cancer prognosis. Herein, we review the current evidence from studies that have addressed these relationships, and summarize the methodological challenges that are frequently encountered in such research...
August 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Kevin Ita
It has been suggested that destruction of β cells through apoptosis leads to type 1 diabetes (T1DM) while type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is caused mainly by increased insulin resistance. Several therapeutic agents are available for the management of diabetes. While researchers continue to investigate disease-modifying compounds, it is also important to develop alternative drug delivery systems for existing medications with the goal of modulating bioavailability and/or pharmacokinetic half-life. Transdermal drug delivery offers a number of advantages including improved compliance, lack of gastric irritation and the possibility of altering bioavailability and and/or half-life...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Drug Targeting
Jean-Luc Faillie, Oriana H Yu, Hui Yin, Dominique Hillaire-Buys, Alan Barkun, Laurent Azoulay
Importance: The use of dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues-a group of drugs used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus-may be associated with an increased risk of bile duct and gallbladder disease. To date, no observational study has assessed this possible association. Objective: To determine whether the use of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 analogues is associated with an increased risk of incident bile duct and gallbladder disease in patients with type 2 diabetes...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Fatai Oladunni Balogun, Natu Thomas Tshabalala, Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) belongs to the group of five leading important diseases causing death globally and remains a major health problem in Africa. A number of factors such as poverty, poor eating habit, and hormonal imbalance are responsible for the occurrence of the disease. It poses a major health challenge in Africa continent today and the prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Various treatment options particularly the usage of herbs have been effective against diabetes because they have no adverse effects...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
M A Daniels, C Kan, D M Willmes, K Ismail, F Pistrosch, D Hopkins, G Mingrone, S R Bornstein, A L Birkenfeld
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast progressing disease reaching pandemic proportions. T2DM is specifically harmful because of its severe secondary complications. In the course of the disease, most patients require treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs), for which a relatively large number of different options are available. The growing number of individuals affected by T2DM as well as marked interindividual differences in the response to treatment call for individualized therapeutic regimens that can maximize treatment efficacy and thus reduce side effects and costs...
October 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Anand Duraiswamy, Devanand Shanmugasundaram, Changam Sheela Sasikumar, Sanjay M Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen Cherian
There has recently been much advancement in the diagnosis, treatment, and research of metabolic disorders, especially diabetes. Current research around the world is focused on finding an alternative source of treatment from natural resources for diabetic management, apart from the available synthetic medicines. The present study is a preliminary study of a polyherbal formulation using edible natural resources and an assessment of its antidiabetic activity. The formulation was screened for its phytochemical constituents, total phenols, flavonoids, and vitamin C content...
July 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Judith van Dalem, Martijn C G J Brouwers, Coen D A Stehouwer, André Krings, Hubert G M Leufkens, Johanna H M Driessen, Frank de Vries, Andrea M Burden
OBJECTIVE:  To determine the association between use of sulphonylureas and risk of hypoglycaemia in relation to renal function and sulphonylurea metabolic group compared with use of metformin. DESIGN:  Population based cohort study using routinely collected data from general practices in England. SETTING:  Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database, 2004-12. PARTICIPANTS:  120 803 new users of a non-insulin antidiabetic agent with at least one prescription and aged 18 years or more...
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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