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antidiabetic drug research

Opeyemi Joshua Olatunji, Jian Tang, Adesola Tola, Florence Auberon, Omolara Oluwaniyi, Zhen Ouyang
The genus Cordyceps has about 750 identified species which are distributed in many regions of the World, but mainly found in South Asia, Europe and North America. The species of the genus are highly priced and are widely used as food and medicine for the treatment of various ailments. This present review compiles literature information on the ethno-medicinal, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of species in the genus Cordyceps. In addition, the review also suggest recommendations for the future researches...
May 15, 2018: Fitoterapia
Roy G P J de Jong, Paul J H L Peeters, Andrea M Burden, Marie L de Bruin, Harm R Haak, Ad A M Masclee, Frank de Vries, Maryska L G Janssen-Heijnen
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been shown to have higher incidences of liver, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer compared to non-diabetic individuals. Current evidence is conflicting for other gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Therefore, we aimed to determine incidence rates (IRs) of all GI cancers in patients with and without T2DM. METHODS: A cohort study was performed using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (1988-2012). A cohort of antidiabetic drug users was matched at baseline to a non-diabetic cohort, by age, sex, and practice...
April 26, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Han Weina, Niu Yuhu, Holscher Christian, Li Birong, Shen Feiyu, Wang Le
Recent studies indicate that metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity are a major risk factor of psychiatric diseases. This relationship opens the opportunity to develop new antidepressant drugs by repurposing antidiabetic drugs. Previous research has demonstrated that GLP-1 analogs are neuroprotective in several neurological disease models including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and stroke. In addition, the GLP-1 analog liraglutide has been shown to promote neurogenesis, which is seen to play important roles in memory formation and cognitive and emotional processing...
April 26, 2018: Brain Research
György Jermendy
Although the outcomes of the follow-up investigation period of the randomized clinical studies for evaluating the efficacy of a treatment or an antidiabetic drug may be confounded or potentially biased by several factors, the results are widely accepted by the diabetes community. In line with the theory of metabolic memory or metabolic legacy, early and intensive antihyperglycaemic treatment should be provided for all diabetic patients as this strategy can result in beneficial effects even in the long run. The recent cardiovascular safety trials with new, innovative antidiabetic drugs differ in several aspects from the former efficacy studies...
April 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Antonin Levy, Jérôme Doyen
Despite exciting advances of the anticancer armamentarium in the recent years, mortality of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains high and novel treatments are requisite. Therapy intensification is explored with promising, but expensive and potentially toxic new compounds. Repositioning already existing drugs for cancer treatment could save money and improve patient outcomes in specific contexts. Observational data suggest that use of the standard antidiabetic agent metformin decreases lung cancer incidence and mortality...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Ming Peng, Ya X Yi, Tong Zhang, Yue Ding, Jian Le
Panax notoginseng (Sanqi), a traditional Chinese medical drug which has been applied to medical use for over four centuries, contains high content of dammarane-type tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins. A number of stereoisomeric dammarane-type saponins exist in this precious herb, and some are particularly regarded as "biomarkers" in processed notoginseng. Contemporary researches have indicated that some saponin stereoisomers may show stereospecific pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, antioxidative, anti-photoaging, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and neuro-protective activities, as well as stereoselective effects on ion channel current regulation, cardiovascular system, and immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Devin Abrahami, Antonios Douros, Hui Yin, Oriana Hoi Yun Yu, Christel Renoux, Alain Bitton, Laurent Azoulay
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors is associated with the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: More than 700 general practices contributing data to the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 141 170 patients, at least 18 years of age, starting antidiabetic drugs between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2016, with follow-up until 30 June 2017...
March 21, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Massimo Volpe, Giuliano Tocci, Domenico Accettura, Allegra Battistoni, Simonetta Bellone, Paolo Bellotti, Marco Bertolotti, Claudio Borghi, Maurizio Casasco, Agostino Consoli, Raffaele Coppini, Alberto Corsini, Gianfranco Costanzo, Giovambattista Desideri, Claudio Ferri, Giorgio Galanti, Franco Giada, Giancarlo Icardi, Niccolò Lombardi, Maria Grazia Modena, Pietro Amedeo Modesti, Giorgio Monti, Alessandro Mugelli, Andrea Orsi, Gianfranco Parati, Roberto F.E. Pedretti, Gianluca Perseghin, Matteo Pirro, Roberta Ricotti, Damiano Rizzoni, Carlo Rotella, Speranza Rubattu, Guido Salvetti, Patrizio Sarto, Federico Tassinari, Bruno Trimarco, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Roberto Volpe
Cardiovascular prevention represents a cornerstone of modern strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. It is of key importance to prevent cardiovascular diseases and associated events, not only to reduce morbidity and mortality, but also to increase the years of wellness in the aging population and to make the growing socio-economic burden imposed by cardiovascular events more sustainable.The current approach to prevention is based on an integrated use of effective lifestyle measures and, whenever appropriate, of antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs, lipid-lowering agents and antiplatelet drugs...
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Adriana Mihaela Ilieșiu, Andreea Simona Hodorogea
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a growing epidemiologic problem affecting more than half of the patients with heart failure (HF). HFpEF has a significant morbidity and mortality and so far no treatment has been clearly demonstrated to improve the outcomes in HFpEF, in contrast to the efficacy of treatment in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).The failure of proven beneficial drugs in HFrEF to influence the outcome of patients with HFpEF could be related to the heterogeneity of the disease, its various phenotypes and multifactorial pathophysiology, incompletely elucidated yet...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ala Keyany, Johannes T H Nielen, Patrick C Souverein, Frank de Vries, Bart van den Bemt
BACKGROUND: Use of oral glucocorticoids (GCs) has been associated with hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, unlike oral GCs, there is minimal or no data on the effect of parenteral GC use on T2DM. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between use of parenteral GCs and the risk of receiving a first prescription of a non-insulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) as a proxy for new onset of T2DM. METHODS: A population based case-control study was performed using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)...
March 10, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Sarfaraz Iqbal, Syed Bilal Shah, Tahir Rasheed, Hafiz M N Iqbal
BACKGROUND: The naturally inspired treatment options for several disease conditions and human-health related disorders such as diabetes mellitus have gained considerable research interest. In this context, naturally occurring plants and herbs with medicinal functionalities have gained special place than ever before in the current medicinal world. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to extend the current knowledge in the clinical field related to the diabetic complications...
February 21, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Stephanie Claire Bridgeman, Gaewyn Colleen Ellison, Phillip Edward Melton, Philip Newsholme, Cyril Desire Sylvain Mamotte
There is a growing body of evidence that links epigenetic modifications to type 2 diabetes. Researchers have more recently investigated effects of commonly used medications, including those prescribed for diabetes, on epigenetic processes. This work reviews the influence of the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin on epigenomics, microRNA levels and subsequent gene expression, and potential clinical implications. Metformin may influence the activity of numerous epigenetic modifying enzymes, mostly by modulating the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
February 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Naeem Ullah Jan, Amjad Ali, Bashir Ahmad, Naveed Iqbal, Achyut Adhikari, Inayat-Ur-Rehman, Abid Ali, Safdar Ali, Azra Jahan, Hamid Ali, Ijaz Ali, Anwar Ullah, Syed Ghulam Musharraf
The demand for natural medicines has increased because of their limited adverse effects. The aim of study is to explore the antidiabetic potential of isolated steroidal alkaloid from Sarcococca saligna in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. To determine the antidiabetic activity of steroidal alkaloids, diabetes was induced in rats by injecting streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a dose of 40 mg/Kg. After a week of STZ injection the treatment were started and the 8th day was considered as the 1st day of treatment and up to four weeks the rats were treated with steroidal alkaloids...
April 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Amany A Thabet, Fadia S Youssef, Mohamed El-Shazly, Abdel Nasser B Singab
OBJECTIVES: Sterculia and Brachychiton are two related genera (Malvaceae) containing more than 300 species. Most of these species are ornamental trees that are native to Australia and widely cultivated in many countries. Different members of the two genera were used by various cultures for medicinal and economical purposes. This review sheds light on the medicinal values and chemical composition of various species of these two genera. KEY FINDINGS: Sterculia and Brachychiton species were used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, microbial infection, skin diseases, inflammation and many other conditions...
April 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Dimitrios Patoulias, Alexandros Manafis, Christos Mitas, Konstantinos Avranas, Georgios Lales, Ioanna Zografou, Christos Sambanis, Asterios Karagiannis
BACKGROUND: SGLT-2 inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic drugs, recently approved for the treatment of patients with T2DM. Their cardioprotective and renoprotective action, along with their beneficial effects on metabolic parameters, make them an attractive therapeutic option. Since 2015, when the US FDA issued warning regarding the increased risk of euDKA in the setting of SGLT-2 inhibitors administration, a vivid discussion upon the direct connection between this novel class and the major metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus is still ongoing...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
Tatsuhiko Urakami
The principal treatment for children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes is dietary and exercise management. However, the blood glucose levels of some patients receiving this treatment fail to improve; thus, pharmacological treatment is eventually required. The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in pediatric patients appears to be similar to that in adults; thus, the range of antidiabetic drugs used in adults is likely to be effective in pediatric patients as well. However, in the majority of countries, including Japan, only metformin, glimepiride, and insulin have been approved for use in pediatric patients...
2018: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
Christina S Kwon, Enrique Seoane-Vazquez, Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) typically use several drug treatments during their lifetime. There is a debate about the best second-line therapy after metformin monotherapy failure due to the increasing number of available antidiabetic drugs and the lack of comparative clinical trials of secondary treatment regimens. While prior research compared the cost-effectiveness of two alternative drugs, the literature assessing T2D treatment pathways is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) compared to sulfonylureas (SU) as second-line therapy in combination with metformin in patients with T2D...
February 1, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Claudia Becker, Cornelia Schneider, Samuel Aballéa, Clare Bailey, Rupert Bourne, Susan Jick, Christoph Meier
AIMS: To analyze the risk of incident cataract (diagnosis or extraction) in patients with or without diabetes focusing on other comorbid conditions, antidiabetic drug use, and diabetes duration. METHODS: The study population comprised newly diagnosed diabetes patients (≥40 years) from the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) between 2000 and 2015, and a random sample of the general population matched for age, sex, general practice, and year of diabetes diagnosis...
February 1, 2018: Eye
Aishwarya Shevade, Vera Strogolova, Marianna Orlova, Chay Teng Yeo, Sergei Kuchin
Snf1 protein kinase of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a member of the highly conserved eukaryotic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family, which is involved in regulating responses to energy limitation. Under conditions of carbon/energy stress, such as during glucose depletion, Snf1 is catalytically activated and enriched in the nucleus to regulate transcription. Snf1 catalytic activation requires phosphorylation of its conserved activation loop threonine (Thr210) by upstream kinases. Catalytic activation is also a prerequisite for Snf1's subsequent nuclear enrichment, a process that is mediated by Gal83, one of three alternate β-subunits of the Snf1 kinase complex...
January 2018: MSphere
Ponnuvel Deepa, Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan, Songmun Kim, Se Jin Park
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common global health concerns, with a rapidly increasing incidence. A variety of medicinal plants, particularly those belonging to the genus Ficus (Moraceae), and their active compounds have been used to treat diabetes and related chronic disorders since ancient times. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this review is to provide information regarding traditional and scientific knowledge of Ficus species with antidiabetic activity to researchers...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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