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antidiabetic drug research

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Cardiovascular prevention represents a cornerstone of modern strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. It is of key importance to prevent cardiovascular diseases and associated events, not only to reduce morbidity and mortality, but also to increase the years of wellness in the aging population and to make the growing socio-economic burden imposed by cardiovascular events more sustainable.The current approach to prevention is based on an integrated use of effective lifestyle measures and, whenever appropriate, of antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs, lipid-lowering agents and antiplatelet drugs...
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Adriana Mihaela Ilieșiu, Andreea Simona Hodorogea
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a growing epidemiologic problem affecting more than half of the patients with heart failure (HF). HFpEF has a significant morbidity and mortality and so far no treatment has been clearly demonstrated to improve the outcomes in HFpEF, in contrast to the efficacy of treatment in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).The failure of proven beneficial drugs in HFrEF to influence the outcome of patients with HFpEF could be related to the heterogeneity of the disease, its various phenotypes and multifactorial pathophysiology, incompletely elucidated yet...
March 2, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ala Keyany, Johannes T H Nielen, Patrick C Souverein, Frank de Vries, Bart van den Bemt
BACKGROUND: Use of oral glucocorticoids (GCs) has been associated with hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, unlike oral GCs, there is minimal or no data on the effect of parenteral GC use on T2DM. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between use of parenteral GCs and the risk of receiving a first prescription of a non-insulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) as a proxy for new onset of T2DM. METHODS: A population based case-control study was performed using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Sarfaraz Iqbal, Syed Bilal Shah, Tahir Rasheed, Hafiz M N Iqbal
BACKGROUND: The naturally inspired treatment options for several disease conditions and human-health related disorders such as diabetes mellitus have gained considerable research interest. In this context, naturally occurring plants and herbs with medicinal functionalities have gained special place than ever before in the current medicinal world. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to extend the current knowledge in the clinical field related to the diabetic complications...
February 21, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
S C Bridgeman, G C Ellison, P E Melton, P Newsholme, Cds Mamotte
There is a growing body of evidence that links epigenetic modifications to type 2 diabetes. Researchers have more recently investigated effects of commonly used medications, including those prescribed for diabetes, on epigenetic processes. This work reviews the influence of the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin on epigenomics, microRNA levels and subsequent gene expression and potential clinical implications. Metformin may influence the activity of numerous epigenetic modifying enzymes, mostly via modulating the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
February 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Naeem Ullah Jan, Amjad Ali, Bashir Ahmad, Naveed Iqbal, Achyut Adhikari, Inayat-Ur-Rehman, Abid Ali, Safdar Ali, Azra Jahan, Hamid Ali, Ijaz Ali, Anwar Ullah, Syed Ghulam Musharraf
The demand for natural medicines has increased because of their limited adverse effects. The aim of study is to explore the antidiabetic potential of isolated steroidal alkaloid from Sarcococca saligna in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. To determine the antidiabetic activity of steroidal alkaloids, diabetes was induced in rats by injecting streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a dose of 40 mg/Kg. After a week of STZ injection the treatment were started and the 8th day was considered as the 1st day of treatment and up to four weeks the rats were treated with steroidal alkaloids...
February 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Amany A Thabet, Fadia S Youssef, Mohamed El-Shazly, Abdel Nasser B Singab
OBJECTIVES: Sterculia and Brachychiton are two related genera (Malvaceae) containing more than 300 species. Most of these species are ornamental trees that are native to Australia and widely cultivated in many countries. Different members of the two genera were used by various cultures for medicinal and economical purposes. This review sheds light on the medicinal values and chemical composition of various species of these two genera. KEY FINDINGS: Sterculia and Brachychiton species were used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, microbial infection, skin diseases, inflammation and many other conditions...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Dimitrios Patoulias, Alexandros Manafis, Christos Mitas, Konstantinos Avranas, Georgios Lales, Ioanna Zografou, Christos Sambanis, Asterios Karagiannis
BACKGROUND: SGLT-2 inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic drugs, recently approved for the treatment of patients with T2DM. Their cardioprotective and renoprotective action, along with their beneficial effects on metabolic parameters, make them an attractive therapeutic option. Since 2015, when the US FDA issued warning regarding the increased risk of euDKA in the setting of SGLT-2 inhibitors administration, a vivid discussion upon the direct connection between this novel class and the major metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus is still ongoing...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
Tatsuhiko Urakami
The principal treatment for children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes is dietary and exercise management. However, the blood glucose levels of some patients receiving this treatment fail to improve; thus, pharmacological treatment is eventually required. The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in pediatric patients appears to be similar to that in adults; thus, the range of antidiabetic drugs used in adults is likely to be effective in pediatric patients as well. However, in the majority of countries, including Japan, only metformin, glimepiride, and insulin have been approved for use in pediatric patients...
2018: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
Christina S Kwon, Enrique Seoane-Vazquez, Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) typically use several drug treatments during their lifetime. There is a debate about the best second-line therapy after metformin monotherapy failure due to the increasing number of available antidiabetic drugs and the lack of comparative clinical trials of secondary treatment regimens. While prior research compared the cost-effectiveness of two alternative drugs, the literature assessing T2D treatment pathways is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) compared to sulfonylureas (SU) as second-line therapy in combination with metformin in patients with T2D...
February 1, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Claudia Becker, Cornelia Schneider, Samuel Aballéa, Clare Bailey, Rupert Bourne, Susan Jick, Christoph Meier
AIMS: To analyze the risk of incident cataract (diagnosis or extraction) in patients with or without diabetes focusing on other comorbid conditions, antidiabetic drug use, and diabetes duration. METHODS: The study population comprised newly diagnosed diabetes patients (≥40 years) from the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) between 2000 and 2015, and a random sample of the general population matched for age, sex, general practice, and year of diabetes diagnosis...
February 1, 2018: Eye
Aishwarya Shevade, Vera Strogolova, Marianna Orlova, Chay Teng Yeo, Sergei Kuchin
Snf1 protein kinase of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a member of the highly conserved eukaryotic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family, which is involved in regulating responses to energy limitation. Under conditions of carbon/energy stress, such as during glucose depletion, Snf1 is catalytically activated and enriched in the nucleus to regulate transcription. Snf1 catalytic activation requires phosphorylation of its conserved activation loop threonine (Thr210) by upstream kinases. Catalytic activation is also a prerequisite for Snf1's subsequent nuclear enrichment, a process that is mediated by Gal83, one of three alternate β-subunits of the Snf1 kinase complex...
January 2018: MSphere
Ponnuvel Deepa, Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan, Songmun Kim, Se Jin Park
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common global health concerns, with a rapidly increasing incidence. A variety of medicinal plants, particularly those belonging to the genus Ficus (Moraceae), and their active compounds have been used to treat diabetes and related chronic disorders since ancient times. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this review is to provide information regarding traditional and scientific knowledge of Ficus species with antidiabetic activity to researchers...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hui-Zhen Zhang, Zhi-Long Zhao, Cheng-He Zhou
Oxazole compounds containing nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the five-membered aromatic ring are readily able to bind with a variety of enzymes and receptors in biological systems via diverse non-covalent interactions, and thus display versatile biological activities. The related researches in oxazole-based derivatives including oxazoles, isoxazoles, oxazolines, oxadiazoles, oxazolidones, benzoxazoles and so on, as medicinal drugs have been an extremely active topic, and numerous excellent achievements have been acquired...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Devin Abrahami, Hui Yin, Oriana H Y Yu, Michael N Pollak, Laurent Azoulay
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the safety of the incretin-based drugs (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] analogues and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors) with respect to colorectal cancer is contradictory. The objective of this study was to determine whether use of incretin-based drugs is associated with risk of incident colorectal cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Using data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified a cohort of 112,040 patients newly treated with antidiabetic drugs between 1 January 2007 and 31 March 2015...
March 2018: Epidemiology
Maria Rosa Felice, Letterio Giuffre, Lamya El Aamri, Majida Hafidi, Giuseppe Criseo, Orazio Romeo, Fabio Scordino
In an era in which antimicrobial resistance is increasing at an alarming pace, it's very important to find new antimicrobial agents effective against pathogenic microrganisms resistant to traditional treatments. Among the notable breakthroughs in the past years of research in natural-drug discovery there is the identification and testing of flavonoids, a group of plant-derived substances capable of promoting many beneficial effects on humans. These compounds show different biological activities such as inhibition of neuroinflammation and tumor growth as well as antidepressant, antiarthritic, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antidiabetic, antiulcer and antiasthmatic activities...
December 25, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Chenxiao Yu, Yang Jiao, Jiao Xue, Qi Zhang, Hongying Yang, Ligang Xing, Guangxia Chen, Jinchang Wu, Shuyu Zhang, Wei Zhu, Jianping Cao
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, is widely studied as a cancer chemopreventive agent with potential anti-cancer effects. The NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway is considered to mediate cellular resistance to EGCG. Metformin, a classical antidiabetic drug, has been shown to prevent cancer progression. Researchers have not reported whether metformin potentiates the anti-cancer efficacy of EGCG...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Habtamu Admassu, Mohammed Abdalbasit A Gasmalla, Ruijin Yang, Wei Zhao
Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are the biggest causes of death globally. Therefore, prevention of these diseases is a focus of pharmaceuticals and functional food manufacturers. This review summarizes recent research trends and scientific knowledge in seaweed protein-derived peptides with particular emphasis on production, isolation and potential health impacts in prevention of hypertension, diabetes and oxidative stress. The current status and future prospects of bioactive peptides are also discussed...
January 2018: Journal of Food Science
Michael Ej Lean, Wilma S Leslie, Alison C Barnes, Naomi Brosnahan, George Thom, Louise McCombie, Carl Peters, Sviatlana Zhyzhneuskaya, Ahmad Al-Mrabeh, Kieren G Hollingsworth, Angela M Rodrigues, Lucia Rehackova, Ashley J Adamson, Falko F Sniehotta, John C Mathers, Hazel M Ross, Yvonne McIlvenna, Renae Stefanetti, Michael Trenell, Paul Welsh, Sharon Kean, Ian Ford, Alex McConnachie, Naveed Sattar, Roy Taylor
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disorder that requires lifelong treatment. We aimed to assess whether intensive weight management within routine primary care would achieve remission of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We did this open-label, cluster-randomised trial (DiRECT) at 49 primary care practices in Scotland and the Tyneside region of England. Practices were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated list, to provide either a weight management programme (intervention) or best-practice care by guidelines (control), with stratification for study site (Tyneside or Scotland) and practice list size (>5700 or ≤5700)...
December 4, 2017: Lancet
Petr Sucharda
Weight loss drugs or anti-obesity drugs have a long history but are still far from being successful. Only in two last decades have the drugs been launched, which, when appropriately indicated, may be significantly beneficial to patients in need of weight loss as they are comparably effective to intensive programs to promote changes in eating habits and lifestyles. The combination naltrexone/bupropion is promising for food intake control including the reward mechanism, but the experience with its use has only been short-term...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
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