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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761508/the-microscopic-anatomy-of-the-esophagus-including-the-individual-layers-specialized-tissues-and-unique-components-and-their-responses-to-injury
#1
REVIEW
Xuchen Zhang, Deepa Patil, Robert D Odze, Lei Zhao, Mikhail Lisovsky, Maha Guindi, Robert Riddell, Andrew Bellizzi, Rhonda K Yantiss, Ilke Nalbantoglu, Henry D Appelman
The esophagus, a straight tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach, has the complex architecture common to the rest of the gastrointestinal tract with special differences that relate to its function as a conduit of ingested substances. For instance, it has submucosal glands that are unique and have a specific protective function. It has a squamous lining that exists nowhere else in the gut except the anus and it has a different submucosal nerve plexus when compared to the stomach and intestines. All of the layers of the esophageal wall and the specialized structures including blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves have specific responses to injury...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721407/3d-fabrication-with-integration-molding-of-a-graphene-oxide-polycaprolactone-nanoscaffold-for-neurite-regeneration-and-angiogenesis
#2
Yun Qian, Jialin Song, Xiaotian Zhao, Wei Chen, Yuanming Ouyang, Weien Yuan, Cunyi Fan
Treating peripheral nerve injury faces major challenges and may benefit from bioactive scaffolds due to the limited autograft resources. Graphene oxide (GO) has emerged as a promising nanomaterial with excellent physical and chemical properties. GO has functional groups that confer biocompatibility that is better than that of graphene. Here, GO/polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoscaffolds are fabricated using an integration molding method. The nanoscaffolds exhibit many merits, including even GO nanoparticle distribution, macroporous structure, and strong mechanical support...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710394/adipose-derived-stem-cells-reduce-fibrosis-and-promote-nerve-regeneration-in-rats
#3
Pietro G di Summa, Luigi Schiraldi, Mario Cherubino, Carlo M Oranges, Daniel F Kalbermatten, Wassim Raffoul, Srinivas Madduri
Peripheral nerve regeneration is critical and challenging in the adult humans. High level of collagen infiltration (i.e., scar tissue), in the niche of injury, impedes axonal regeneration and path finding. Unfortunately, studies focusing on the modulation of scar tissue in the nerves are scarce. To address part of this problem, we have evaluated the differentiated adipose derived stem cells (dASCs) for their anti-fibrotic and regenerative effects in a 10 mm nerve gap model in rats. Three different animal groups (n=5) were treated with fibrin nerve conduits (empty), or seeded with dASCs (F+dASCs) and autograft respectively...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702292/tissue-engineered-spiral-nerve-guidance-conduit-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#4
Wei Chang, Munish B Shah, Paul Lee, Xiaojun Yu
Recently in peripheral nerve regeneration, preclinical studies have shown that the use of nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) with multiple longitudinally channels and intra-luminal topography enhance the functional outcomes when bridging a nerve gap caused by traumatic injury. These features not only provide guidance cues for regenerating nerve, but also become the essential approaches for developing a novel NGC. In this study, a novel spiral NGC with aligned nanofibers and wrapped with an outer nanofibrous tube was first developed and investigated...
April 24, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701919/electrophysiological-assessment-of-a-peptide-amphiphile-nanofiber-nerve-graft-for-facial-nerve-repair
#5
Jacqueline J Greene, Mark T McClendon, Nicholas Stephanopoulos, Zaida Álvarez, Samuel I Stupp, Claus-Peter Richter
Facial nerve injury can cause severe long-term physical and psychological morbidity. There are limited repair options for an acutely transected facial nerve not amenable to primary neurorrhaphy. We hypothesize that a peptide amphiphile nanofiber neurograft may provide the nanostructure necessary to guide organized neural regeneration. Five experimental groups were compared, animals with 1) an intact nerve, 2) following resection of a nerve segment, and following resection and immediate repair with either a 3) autograft (using the resected nerve segment), 4) neurograft, or 5) empty conduit...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700056/ablation-of-the-ligament-of-marshall-and-left-stellate-ganglion-similarly-reduces-ventricular-arrhythmias-during-acute-myocardial-infarction
#6
Shan Liu, Xiaomei Yu, Da Luo, Zhiliang Qin, Xiaoying Wang, Wenbo He, Ruisong Ma, Huihui Hu, Jing Xie, Bo He, Zhibing Lu, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic denervation exerts protective effects against ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) induced by acute myocardial infarction. The results of a previous study indicated that the distal part of the ligament of Marshall (LOMLSPV ) might be a sympathetic conduit between the left stellate ganglion (LSG) and the ventricles. The present study was designed to compare the effects between LSG and LOMLSPV ablation on ischemia-induced VAs. METHODS: Twenty-nine dogs were randomly divided into sham ablation group (group 1, n=9), LOMLSPV ablation group (group 2, n=10), and LSG ablation group (group 3, n=10)...
May 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696301/-radical-cystectomy-and-urinary-diversion-what-is-important
#7
REVIEW
J Noldus, G Niegisch, A Pycha, A Karl
BACKGROUND: In Germany, radical cystectomy with urinary diversion is the primary therapeutic option for localized muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer. Modifications in the pre-, peri-, and postoperative phase have significantly improved outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Different factors and parameters are directly associated with patients' outcome. An overview on how to best approach this procedure is provided in this article. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data regarding preparation and the procedure for the radical cystectomy followed by urinary diversion are separately analyzed...
April 25, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696095/improving-the-glial-differentiation-of-human-schwann-like-adipose-derived-stem-cells-with-graphene-oxide-substrates
#8
Andrea Francesco Verre, Alessandro Faroni, Maria Iliut, Claudio Silva, Cristopher Muryn, Adam J Reid, Aravind Vijayaraghavan
There is urgent need to improve the clinical outcome of peripheral nerve injury. Many efforts are directed towards the fabrication of bioengineered conduits, which could deliver stem cells to the site of injury to promote and guide peripheral nerve regeneration. The aim of this study is to assess whether graphene and related nanomaterials can be useful in the fabrication of such conduits. A comparison is made between graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO substrates. Our results show that the graphene substrates are highly biocompatible, and the reduced GO substrates are more effective in increasing the gene expression of the biomolecules involved in the regeneration process compared to the other substrates studied...
June 6, 2018: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685562/superficial-peroneal-nerve-to-deep-peroneal-nerve-transfer-with-allograft-conduit-for-neuroma-in-continuity
#9
Christopher Bibbo, Edgardo Rodrigues-Colazzo, Adam G Finzen
The anterior approach to the ankle for surgery can result in injury to the superficial peroneal nerve, resulting in a painful neuroma and significant patient morbidity. A paucity of data is available evaluating the role of the superficial peroneal nerve to deep peroneal nerve transfer as a method of treatment of neuromas in continuity after ankle arthrodesis. We describe 11 patients who underwent nerve transfer with nerve allograft and conduit repair to treat recalcitrant painful neuromas after ankle arthrodesis...
May 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671218/neuroimaging-of-meckel-s-cave-in-normal-and-disease-conditions
#10
REVIEW
Ajay Malhotra, Long Tu, Vivek B Kalra, Xiao Wu, Ali Mian, Rajiv Mangla, Elias Michaelides, Pina Sanelli, Dheeraj Gandhi
Meckel's cave is a dural recess in the posteromedial portion of the middle cranial fossa that acts as a conduit for the trigeminal nerve between the prepontine cistern and the cavernous sinus, and houses the Gasserian ganglion and proximal rootlets of the trigeminal nerve. It serves as a major pathway in perineural spread of pathologies such as head and neck neoplasms, automatically upstaging tumours, and is a key structure to assess in cases of trigeminal neuralgia. The purpose of this pictorial review is threefold: (1) to review the normal anatomy of Meckel's cave; (2) to describe imaging findings that identify disease involving Meckel's cave; (3) to present case examples of trigeminal and non-trigeminal processes affecting Meckel's cave...
April 18, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663842/mir-7-inhibited-peripheral-nerve-injury-repair-by-affecting-neural-stem-cells-migration-and-proliferation-through-cdc42
#11
Nan Zhou, Shuang Hao, Zongqiang Huang, Weiwei Wang, Penghui Yan, Wei Zhou, Qihang Zhu, Xiaokang Liu
Objective Neural stem cells play an important role in the recovery and regeneration of peripheral nerve injury, and the microRNA-7 (miR-7) regulates differentiation of neural stem cells. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-7 in neural stem cells homing and proliferation and its influence on peripheral nerve injury repair. Methods The mice model of peripheral nerve injury was created by segmental sciatic nerve defect (sciatic nerve injury), and neural stem cells treatment was performed with a gelatin hydrogel conduit containing neural stem cells inserted into the sciatic nerve injury mice...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659600/reconstruction-of-a-10-mm-long-median-nerve-gap-in-an-ischemic-environment-using-autologous-conduits-with-different-patterns-of-blood-supply-a-comparative-study-in-the-rat
#12
Diogo Casal, Eduarda Mota-Silva, Inês Iria, Sara Alves, Ana Farinho, Cláudia Pen, Nuno Lourenço-Silva, Luís Mascarenhas-Lemos, José Silva-Ferreira, Mário Ferraz-Oliveira, Valentina Vassilenko, Paula Alexandra Videira, João Goyri-O'Neill, Diogo Pais
The aim of this study was to evaluate in the Wistar rat the efficacy of various autologous nerve conduits with various forms of blood supply in reconstructing a 10-mm-long gap in the median nerve (MN) under conditions of local ischemia. A 10-mm-long median nerve defect was created in the right arm. A loose silicone tube was placed around the nerve gap zone, in order to simulate a local ischemic environment. Rats were divided in the following experimental groups (each with 20 rats): the nerve Graft (NG) group, in which the excised MN segment was reattached; the conventional nerve flap (CNF) and the arterialized neurovenous flap (ANVF) groups in which the gap was bridged with homonymous median nerve flaps; the prefabricated nerve flap (PNF) group in which the gap was reconstructed with a fabricated flap created by leaving an arteriovenous fistula in contact with the sciatic nerve for 5 weeks; and the two control groups, Sham and Excision groups...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657092/the-critical-chemical-and-mechanical-regulation-of-folic-acid-on-neural-engineering
#13
Gloria B Kim, Yongjie Chen, Weibo Kang, Jinshan Guo, Russell Payne, Hui Li, Qiong Wei, Julianne Baker, Cheng Dong, Sulin Zhang, Pak Kin Wong, Elias B Rizk, Jiazhi Yan, Jian Yang
The mandate of folic acid supplementation in grained products has reduced the occurrence of neural tube defects by one third in the U.S since its introduction by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998. However, the advantages and possible mechanisms of action of using folic acid for peripheral nerve engineering and neurological diseases still remain largely elusive. Herein, folic acid is described as an inexpensive and multifunctional niche component that modulates behaviors in different cells in the nervous system...
April 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656561/advances-in-controlling-differentiation-of-adult-stem-cells-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Metin Uz, Suprem R Das, Shaowei Ding, Donald S Sakaguchi, Jonathan C Claussen, Surya K Mallapragada
Adult stems cells, possessing the ability to grow, migrate, proliferate, and transdifferentiate into various specific phenotypes, constitute a great asset for peripheral nerve regeneration. Adult stem cells' ability to undergo transdifferentiation is sensitive to various cell-to-cell interactions and external stimuli involving interactions with physical, mechanical, and chemical cues within their microenvironment. Various studies have employed different techniques for transdifferentiating adult stem cells from distinct sources into specific lineages (e...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652609/an-optimized-collagen-fibrin-blend-engineered-neural-tissue-promotes-peripheral-nerve-repair
#15
Christina Maria Anna Pia Schuh, Adam George Edward Day, Heinz Redl, James Phillips
Tissue engineering approaches in nerve regeneration often aim to improve results by bridging nerve defects with conduits that mimic key features of the nerve autograft. One such approach uses Schwann cell self-alignment and stabilisation within collagen gels to generate engineered neural tissue (EngNT). Here we investigated whether a novel blend of fibrin and collagen could be used to form EngNT, as prior to EngNT design a beneficial effect of fibrin on Schwann cell proliferation was observed. A range of blend formulations was tested in terms of mechanical behavior (gel formation, stabilisation, swelling, tensile strength and stiffness) and lead formulations were assessed in vitro...
March 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649641/hydrogel-derived-from-porcine-decellularized-nerve-tissue-as-a-promising-biomaterial-for-repairing-peripheral-nerve-defects
#16
Tao Lin, Sheng Liu, Shihao Chen, Shuai Qiu, Zilong Rao, Jianghui Liu, Shuang Zhu, Liwei Yan, Haiquan Mao, Qingtang Zhu, Daping Quan, Xiaolin Liu
Decellularized matrix hydrogels derived from tissues or organs have been used for tissue repair due to their biocompatibility, tunability, and tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components. However, the preparation of decellularized peripheral nerve matrix hydrogels and their use to repair nerve defects have not been reported. Here, we developed a hydrogel from porcine decellularized nerve matrix (pDNM-G), which was confirmed to have minimal DNA content and retain collagen and glycosaminoglycans content, thereby allowing gelatinization...
April 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619886/assessment-of-conduit-assisted-primary-nerve-repair-strength-with-varying-suture-size-number-and-location
#17
Nikola Babovic, Derek Klaus, Matthew J Schessler, Patrick J Schimoler, Alexander Kharlamov, Mark C Miller, Peter Tang
BACKGROUND: Outcomes following digital nerve repair are suboptimal despite much research and various methods of repair. Increased tensile strength of the repair and decreased suture material at the repair site may be 2 methods of improving biologic and biomechanical outcomes, and conduit-assisted repair can aid in achieving both of these goals. METHODS: Ninety-nine fresh-frozen digital nerves were equally divided into 11 different groups. Each group uses a different combination of number of sutures at the coaptation site and number of sutures at each end of the nerve-conduit junction, as well as 2 calibers of nylon suture...
April 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618417/emerging-strategies-on-adjuvant-therapies-for-nerve-recovery
#18
REVIEW
Laviel Fernandez, David E Komatsu, Mikhail Gurevich, Lawrence C Hurst
Current strategies for promoting faster and more effective peripheral nerve healing have utilized a wide variety of techniques and approaches. Nerve grafts, conduits, and stem cell therapy all have their respective advantages. However, there are still some difficulties in attaining complete functional recovery with a single treatment modality. The utilization of adjuvant treatments, in combination with current standard-of-care methods, offers the potential to improve patient outcomes. This paper highlights the current landscape of adjuvant treatments for enhancing peripheral nerve repair and regeneration...
April 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614796/voluntary-exercise-positively-affects-the-recovery-of-long-nerve-gap-injury-following-tube-bridging-with-human-skeletal-muscle-derived-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Hiroya Seta, Daisuke Maki, Akihito Kazuno, Ippei Yamato, Nobuyuki Nakajima, Shuichi Soeda, Yoshiyasu Uchiyama, Tetsuro Tamaki
The therapeutic effects of voluntary exercise on the recovery of long-gap nerve injury following the bridging of an acellular conduit filled with human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs) have been described. Human Sk-SCs were sorted as CD34⁺/45- (Sk-34) cells, then cultured/expanded under optimal conditions for 2 weeks. Surgery to generate a long-gap sciatic nerve injury was performed in athymic nude mice, after which the mice were divided into exercise (E) and non-exercise (NE) groups. The mice were housed in standard individual cages, and voluntary exercise wheels were introduced to the cages of the E group one week after surgery...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603044/genipin-cross-linked-chitosan-nerve-conduits-containing-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibitors-for-peripheral-nerve-repair
#20
Li Zhang, Weijia Zhao, Changmei Niu, Yujie Zhou, Haiyan Shi, Yalin Wang, Yumin Yang, Xin Tang
Tissue engineered nerve grafts (TENGs) are considered a promising alternative to autologous nerve grafting, which is considered the "gold standard" clinical strategy for peripheral nerve repair. Here, we immobilized tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors onto a nerve conduit, which was introduced into a chitosan (CS) matrix scaffold utilizing genipin (GP) as the crosslinking agent, to fabricate CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits. The in vitro release kinetics of TNF-α inhibitors from the CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography...
March 30, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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