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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645309/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infects-the-olfactory-bulb-shortly-following-ocular-infection-and-exhibits-a-long-term-inflammatory-profile-in-the-form-of-effector-and-hsv-1-specific-t-cells
#1
Chandra M Menendez, Daniel J J Carr
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can result in a life-threatening condition known as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Trafficking patterns by which the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS) following ocular infection are unresolved. We evaluated early viral dissemination pathways following ocular infection that involve trafficking to the olfactory bulb (OB). Additionally, we have characterized the capacity of HSV-1 to establish latency within OB tissue and profiled the local T lymphocyte response over the course of the acute infection into latency...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632137/electrospun-silk-polyaniline-conduits-for-functional-nerve-regeneration-in-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#2
Suradip Das, Manav Sharma, Dhiren Saharia, Kushal Sarma, Elizabeth Muir, Utpal Bora
The present study describes the fabrication of polyaniline-silk fibroin nanocomposite based nerve conduits and its subsequent implantation in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for peripheral nerve regeneration. This is the first in vivo study of polyaniline based nerve conduit describing the safety and efficacy of the conduits in treating peripheral nerve injuries. The nanocomposite was synthesised by electrospinning a mixture of silk fibroin protein and polyaniline wherein the silk nanofibers were observed to be uniformly coated with polyaniline nanoparticles...
June 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604388/targeting-neuronal-gap-junctions-in-mouse-retina-offers-neuroprotection-in-glaucoma
#3
Abram Akopian, Sandeep Kumar, Hariharasubramanian Ramakrishnan, Kaushambi Roy, Suresh Viswanathan, Stewart A Bloomfield
The progressive death of retinal ganglion cells and resulting visual deficits are hallmarks of glaucoma, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In many neurodegenerative diseases, cell death induced by primary insult is followed by a wave of secondary loss. Gap junctions (GJs), intercellular channels composed of subunit connexins, can play a major role in secondary cell death by forming conduits through which toxic molecules from dying cells pass to and injure coupled neighbors. Here we have shown that pharmacological blockade of GJs or genetic ablation of connexin 36 (Cx36) subunits, which are highly expressed by retinal neurons, markedly reduced loss of neurons and optic nerve axons in a mouse model of glaucoma...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601937/nerve-perivascular-fat-communication-as-a-potential-influence-on-the-performance-of-blood-vessels-used-as-coronary-artery-bypass-grafts
#4
Andrzej Loesch, Michael R Dashwood
Perivascular fat, the cushion of adipose tissue surrounding blood vessels, possesses dilator, anti-contractile and constrictor actions. The majority of these effects have been demonstrated in vitro and may depend on the vessel and/or the experimental method or species used. In general, the relaxant effect of perivascular adipose tissue is local and may be either endothelium-dependent or endothelium-independent. However, nerve stimulation studies show that, in general, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has an anti-contractile vascular effect likely to involve an action of the autonomic vascular nerves...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575952/biocompatibility-and-neurotoxicity-of-magnesium-alloys-potentially-used-for-neural-repairs
#5
Jianjun Fei, Xiaoxiao Wen, Xiao Lin, Saijilafu, Weihua Wang, Olga Ren, Xinjian Chen, Lili Tan, Ke Yang, Huilin Yang, Lei Yang
Nerve injury, especially the large-size nerve damage, is a serious problem affecting millions of people. Entubulation of two ends of the injured nerve by using an implantable device, e.g., nerve guidance conduit (NGC), to guide the regeneration of nerve tissue is a promising approach for treating the large-size nerve defect. Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are biodegradable, conductive, and own good mechanical properties. Mg(2+) ion, one of the main degradation products of Mg and its alloys, was reported to promote the proliferation of neural stem cells and their neurite production...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561191/platelet-rich-fibrin-conduits-as-an-alternative-to-nerve-autografts-for-peripheral-nerve-repair
#6
Felipe Roth, Marcela Fernandes, Sandra G Valente, João B G Santos, Rebeca Barros Furukawa, Carlos Henrique Fernandes, Vilnei M Leite, Flávio Faloppa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560006/fat-tissue-a-potential-schwann-cell-reservoir-isolation-and-identification-of-adipose-derived-schwann-cells
#7
Lulu Chen, Yuqing Jin, Xiaonan Yang, Zhangyin Liu, Yang Wang, Gangyang Wang, Zuoliang Qi, Zunli Shen
Schwann cells can be used to promote peripheral nerve repair. However, it is challenging to obtain abundant autologous Schwann cells without sacrificing nerve integrity. In this study, we isolated Schwann cells from murine inguinal adipose tissue and identified the cell phenotype and function in vivo and in vitro. Through H&E and immunofluorescence staining, we detected tiny nerve fibers and Schwann cells in adipose tissue. We evaluated the phenotype of spindle-shaped cells (Schwann cell-like cells, SCLCs) isolated from adipose tissue using immunofluorescence staining and real-time RT-PCR...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557906/ultrasound-imaging-of-median-nerve-conduit-in-a-patient-with-persistent-median-nerve-symptoms
#8
Santoshi Billakota, David S Ruch, Lisa D Hobson-Webb
Peripheral nerve injury can be reconstructed using composite polymer nerve autografts, but the sonographic appearance of nerve wraps and conduits have not been well documented. This case report describes the sonographic findings in a 42-year-old woman with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome status post nerve repair with a conduit. The cross-sectional area of the left median nerve was 24 mm at the carpal tunnel inlet and 5 mm at the forearm. The wrist to forearm ratio was 4.8. There was a hypoechoic space surrounding the nerve that was 1...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556533/in-vitro-evaluation-of-gel-encapsulated-adipose-derived-stem-cells-biochemical-cues-for-in-vivo-peripheral-nerve-repair
#9
A C de Luca, C M Fonta, W Raffoul, P G di Summa, S P Lacour
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) are becoming one of the most exploited cells in peripheral nerve repair. They are fast-growing and able to protect neurons from apoptosis; they can reduce post-injury latency, and the risk of muscle atrophy. This study evaluates laminin-loaded fibrin gel as an ASC-carrying scaffold for nerve repair. In vitro, ASC retained their proliferative activity, but showed significant increase in proliferation rate when encapsulated in gels with low laminin concentrations (i.e. 1μg/mL)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532897/mast-cells-improve-functional-recovery-of-transected-peripheral-nerve-a-novel-preliminary-study
#10
Behrooz Ilkhanizadeh, Leila Zarei, Negin Farhad, Mehran Bahrami-Bukani, Rahim Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Employment of regenerative properties of cells at the service of nerve repair has been initiated during recent decades. Effects of local transplantation of bone marrow-derived mast cells on peripheral nerve regeneration were studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 10-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using a conduit chitosan-based hybrid conduit filled with BMMCs in BMMC group. In positive control group (Pos), the conduit was filled with phosphate-buffered saline alone...
May 11, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531139/dual-component-gelatinous-peptide-reactive-oligomer-formulations-as-conduit-material-and-luminal-filler-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#11
Caroline Kohn-Polster, Divya Bhatnagar, Derek J Woloszyn, Matthew Richtmyer, Annett Starke, Alexandra H Springwald, Sandra Franz, Michaela Schulz-Siegmund, Hilton M Kaplan, Joachim Kohn, Michael C Hacker
Toward the next generation of nerve guidance conduits (NGCs), novel biomaterials and functionalization concepts are required to address clinical demands in peripheral nerve regeneration (PNR). As a biological polymer with bioactive motifs, gelatinous peptides are promising building blocks. In combination with an anhydride-containing oligomer, a dual-component hydrogel system (cGEL) was established. First, hollow cGEL tubes were fabricated by a continuous dosing and templating process. Conduits were characterized concerning their mechanical strength, in vitro and in vivo degradation and biocompatibility...
May 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529011/the-effect-of-in-vivo-created-vascularized-neurotube-on-peripheric-nerve-regeneration
#12
Abdul Kerim Yapici, Yalcin Bayram, Hakan Akgun, Recep Gumus, Fatih Zor
INTRODUCTION: Creating vascularized nerve conduits for treatment of nerve gaps have been researched, however, these methods need microsurgical anastomosis thereby complicating the nerve repair process. Thus, the concept of vascularized nerve conduits has not popularized up till now. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of vascularized and non-vascularized biological conduits on peripheral nerve regeneration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Following ethical board approval, 15 Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study...
May 11, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522397/cellulose-acetate-poly-lactic-acid-coaxial-wet-electrospun-scaffold-containing-citalopram-loaded-gelatin-nanocarriers-for-neural-tissue-engineering-applications
#13
Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Majid Salehi, Shahriar Hojjati-Emami
The current study aimed to develop a biodegradable three-dimensional drug-loaded scaffold with the core-shell structured fibrils using coaxial wet-electrospinning for neural tissue engineering application. Poly lactic acid was wet-electrospun as the core, whereas cellulose acetate was fabricated into the fibril's shell. The scaffold then was coated with the citalopram-loaded gelatin nanocarriers (CGNs) produced by nanoprecipitation method. Scanning electron microscope observation revealed that the fibrils formed a nonwoven structure with the average diameter of ∼950nm...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509699/penis-transplantation-first-us-experience
#14
Curtis L Cetrulo, Kai Li, Harry M Salinas, Matthew D Treiser, Ilse Schol, Glen W Barrisford, Francis J McGovern, Adam S Feldman, Michael T Grant, Cigdem Tanrikut, Jeffrey H Lee, Richard J Ehrlichman, Paul W Holzer, Garry M Choy, Raymond W Liu, Zhi Yang Ng, Alexandre G Lellouch, Josef M Kurtz, William G Austen, Jonathan M Winograd, Branko Bojovic, Kyle R Eberlin, Ivy A Rosales, Robert B Colvin, Dicken S C Ko
OBJECTIVE: We describe the first successful penis transplant in the United States in a patient with a history of subtotal penectomy for penile cancer. BACKGROUND: Penis transplantation represents a new paradigm in restoring anatomic appearance, urine conduit, and sexual function after genitourinary tissue loss. To date, only 2 penis transplants have been performed worldwide. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, extensive medical, surgical, and radiological evaluations of the patient were performed...
May 15, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485084/electrospun-silk-fibroin-based-neural-scaffold-for-bridging-a-long-sciatic-nerve-gap-in-dogs
#15
Chengbin Xue, Hui Zhu, Dehua Tan, Hechun Ren, Xiaokun Gu, Yahong Zhao, Ping Zhang, Zhichao Sun, Yumin Yang, Jianhui Gu, Yun Gu, Xiaosong Gu
Silk fibroin (SF) derived silkworms represent a type of highly biocompatible biomaterial for tissue engineering. We have previously investigated biocompatibility of silk fibroin with neural cells isolated from central nervous system or peripheral nerve system in vitro, and also developed a SF-based nerve graft conduit (NGC) or tissue engineered nerve grafts (TENGs) by introducing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), as support cells, into SF-based scaffold and evaluated the outcomes of peripheral nerve repair in rat model...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479468/a-ten-year-experience-using-a-hybrid-endovascular-approach-to-treat-aberrant-subclavian-arterial-aneurysms
#16
Mathew Wooster, Martin Back, Danielle Sutzko, Hollie Gaeto, Paul Armstrong, Murray Shames
BACKGROUND: To describe a single center experience using combined extra-anatomic open arch branch revascularization with aortic arch endovascular exclusion for treatment of aberrant subclavian artery aneurysms. METHODS: All patients undergoing management of aberrant subclavian aneurysms were identified from a prospective patient registry. Means of revascularization included carotid-subclavian bypass or subclavian transposition and origin occlusion was performed by surgical ligation or endovascular embolization at surgeon discretion...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473159/the-role-of-nerve-graft-substitutes-in-motor-and-mixed-motor-sensory-peripheral-nerve-injuries
#17
REVIEW
Nadia Rbia, Alexander Y Shin
Alternatives to nerve autograft have been invented and approved for clinical use. The reported outcomes of these alternatives in mixed motor nerve repair in humans are scarce and marked by wide variabilities. The purpose of our Current Concepts review is to provide an evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of nerve conduits and allografts in motor and mixed sensory/motor nerve reconstruction. Nerve graft substitutes have good outcomes in mixed/motor nerves in gaps less than 6 mm and internal diameters between 3 and 7 mm...
May 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443569/can-a-small-intestine-segment-be-an-alternative-biological-conduit-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#18
Mehmet S Arda, Emre A Koçman, Emre Özkara, Erdem Söztutar, Orhan Özatik, Aydan Köse, Cengiz Çetin
BACKGROUND: Autologous nerve grafts are used to bridge peripheral nerve defects. Limited sources and donor site morbidity are the major problems with peripheral nerve grafts. Although various types of autologous grafts such as arteries, veins and muscles have been recommended, an ideal conduit has not yet been described. AIMS: To investigate the effectiveness of a small intestinal conduit for peripheral nerve defects. STUDY DESIGN: Animal experimentation...
May 5, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412554/prompt-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-induced-by-a-hierarchically-aligned-fibrin-nanofiber-hydrogel
#19
Jinrong Du, Jianheng Liu, Shenglian Yao, Haiquan Mao, Jiang Peng, Xun Sun, Zheng Cao, Yongdong Yang, Bo Xiao, Yiguo Wang, Peifu Tang, Xiumei Wang
Fibrin plays a crucial role in peripheral nerve regeneration, which could occur spontaneously in the format of longitudinally oriented fibrin cables during the initial stage of nerve regeneration. This fibrin cable can direct migration and proliferation of Schwann cells and axonal regrowth, which is very important to nerve regeneration. In the present study, we prepared a three-dimensional hierarchically aligned fibrin nanofiber hydrogel (AFG) through electrospinning and molecular self-assembly to resemble the architecture and biological function of the native fibrin cable...
April 12, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406608/functionalized-carbon-nanotube-and-graphene-oxide-embedded-electrically-conductive-hydrogel-synergistically-stimulates-nerve-cell-differentiation
#20
Xifeng Liu, A Lee Miller, Sungjo Park, Brian E Waletzki, Zifei Zhou, Andre Terzic, Lichun Lu
Nerve regeneration after injury is a critical medical issue. In previous work, we have developed an oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) hydrogel incorporated with positive charges as a promising nerve conduit. In this study, we introduced cross-linkable bonds to graphene oxide and carbon nanotube to obtain the functionalized graphene oxide acrylate (GOa) and carbon nanotube poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate (CNTpega). An electrically conductive hydrogel was then fabricated by covalently embedding GOa and CNTpega within OPF hydrogel through chemical cross-linking followed by in situ reduction of GOa in l-ascorbic acid solution...
April 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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