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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166306/the-surgical-management-of-nerve-gaps-present-and-future
#1
Samer Bassilios Habre, Grant Bond, Xi Lin Jing, Epameinondas Kostopoulos, Robert D Wallace, Petros Konofaos
Peripheral nerve injuries can result in significant morbidity, including motor and/or sensory loss, which can affect significantly the life of the patient. Nowadays, the gold standard for the treatment of nerve section is end-to-end neurorrhaphy. Unfortunately, in some cases, there is segmental loss of the nerve trunk. Nerve mobilization allows primary repair of the sectioned nerve by end-to-end neurorrhaphy if the gap is less than 1 cm. When the nerve gap exceeds 1 cm, autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard of treatment...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160628/the-role-of-chitin-and-chitosan-in-peripheral-nerve-reconstruction
#2
REVIEW
Michał Bąk, Olga N Gutkowska, Ewa Wagner, Jerzy Gosk
Chitin is a natural polysaccharide commonly found in nature and chitosan is its partially deacetylated derivative. The properties of both biopolymers allow their wide use in medicine and various industries. This paper presents the possibilities offered by chitin and chitosan for the creation of neurotubes utilized in peripheral nerve repair procedures. In the initial part of this manuscript, experimental studies on both polysaccharides carried out by numerous authors have been presented and their results have been discussed...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160149/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-silk-fibroin-functionalized-with-gaba-and-allopregnanolone-for-schwann-cell-and-neuron-survival
#3
Chiara Gm Gennari, Francesco Cilurzo, Nico Mitro, Donatella Caruso, Paola Minghetti, Valerio Magnaghi
AIM: This in vitro and in vivo study reports on silk fibroin (SF) scaffold, functionalized for in situ delivery of GABA and/or allopregnanolone (ALLO), as biomaterial for potential application in tissue engineering and nerve regeneration. MATERIALS & METHODS: We evaluated the feasibility to design 2D scaffolds (films) made of regenerated Bombyx mori SF, functionalized with GABA and/or ALLO to enhance in vitro biological functions, health, survival and growth of Schwann cells and sensitive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia...
November 21, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156496/sensation-mechanoreceptor-and-nerve-fiber-function-after-nerve-regeneration
#4
Christian Krarup, Birgitta Rosén, Michel Boeckstyns, Allan Ibsen Sørensen, Göran Lundborg, Mihai Moldovan, Simon J Archibald
OBJECTIVE: Sensation is essential for recovery after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relationship between sensory modalities and function of regenerated fibers is uncertain. We have investigated the relationships between touch threshold, tactile gnosis and mechanoreceptor and sensory fiber function after nerve regeneration. METHODS: Twenty-one median or ulnar nerve lesions were repaired by a collagen nerve conduit or direct suture. Quantitative sensory hand function and sensory conduction studies by near-nerve technique including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors were followed for 2 years, and results were compared to non-injured hands...
November 20, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140901/-state-of-the-art-techniques-in-treating-peripheral-nerve-injury
#5
Carrie A Kubiak, Theodore A Kung, David L Brown, Paul S Cederna, Stephen W P Kemp
BACKGROUND -: Peripheral nerve injuries remain a major clinical concern as they often lead to chronic disability and significant health care expenditures. Despite advancements in microsurgical techniques to enhance nerve repair, biologic approaches are needed to augment nerve regeneration and improve functional outcomes after injury. METHODS -: Presented herein is a review of the current literature on state of the art techniques to enhance functional recovery for patients with nerve injury...
November 11, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130658/-vein-nerve-conduit-supported-by-vascular-stent-in-the-regeneration-of-peripheral-nerve-in-rabbits
#6
Wei-Kun Meng, Zhong Huang, Zhen Tan, Liang Li, Qiang Guo, Zhen Zhang, Cheng-Xi Wu, Lei Liu, Fu-Guo Huang, Guang-Lin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of autologous vein nerve conduit supported by vascular stent in repairing a 10 mm gap peroneal nerve in white New Zealand rabbits. METHODS: 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: autologous nerve group (group A),conventional autologous vein nerve conduit group (group B),autologous vein nerve conduit supported by vascular stent group (group C). 10 mm common peroneal nerve was cut off. In groups A,the peroneal nerve was turned 180 ° before suturing...
September 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129635/three-dimensional-and-non-destructive-characterization-of-nerves-inside-conduits-using-laboratory-based-micro-computed-tomography
#7
Christos Bikis, Peter Thalmann, Lucas Degrugillier, Georg Schulz, Bert Müller, Daniel F Kalbermatten, Srinivas Madduri, Simone E Hieber
BACKGROUND: Histological assessment of peripheral nerve regeneration in animals is tedious, time-consuming and challenging for three-dimensional analysis. NEW METHOD: The present study reports on how and to what extent micro computed tomography of paraffin-embedded samples can provide a reliable three-dimensional approach for quantitative analysis of peripheral nerves. RESULTS: Rat sciatic nerves were harvested, formalin-fixated, positioned into nerve conduits (NC), paraffin-embedded, and imaged using a laboratory-based X-ray microtomography system with an isotropic voxel length of 4μm...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125428/schwann-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-laminin-or-fibronectin-aligned-matrices-and-regeneration-across-a-critical-size-defect-of-15-mm-in-the-rat-sciatic-nerve
#8
Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Joaquim Hernández, Claudia Heimann, James B Phillips, Esther Udina, Xavier Navarro
OBJECTIVE Artificial nerve guides are being developed to substitute for autograft repair after peripheral nerve injuries. However, the use of conduits is limited by the length of the gap that needs to be bridged, with the success of regeneration highly compromised in long gaps. Addition of aligned proregenerative cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components inside the conduit can be a good strategy to achieve artificial grafts that recreate the natural environment offered by a nerve graft. The purpose of this study was to functionalize chitosan devices with different cell types to support regeneration in limiting gaps in the rat peripheral nerve...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121040/ossification-of-the-petrosphenoid-ligament-a-case-study
#9
Janusz Skrzat, Izabela Mróz, Alexandru Spulber, Michał Zarzecki, Jerzy Walocha
The current study presents a case in which a human skull revealed a partially ossified petrosphenoid ligament. The ossified ligament appears as a hooked bony trabecula emerging below the right posterior clinoid process. Another bony trabecula arises from the petrous apex and runs towards the clivus. Both trabecula face each other but do not fuse, having a small gap between their tips. Their positions clearly indicate that they must have formed an overhang above the abducens nerve. Therefore, they should be considered a part of the walls of Dorello's canal, which is a conduit for the abducens nerve and associated vascular structures...
2017: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117721/enhanced-sciatic-nerve-regeneration-by-human-endometrial-stem-cells-in-an-electrospun-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-collagen-nbg-nerve-conduit-in-rat
#10
Forouzan Mohamadi, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mohammad Reza Nourani, Korosh Mansoori, Majid Salehi, Ali Akbar Alizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Tavangar, Farshid Sefat, Siavash Sharifi, Jafar Ai
In recent years, for neurodegenerative diseases therapy, research has focused on the stem cells therapy. Due to promising findings in stem cell therapy, there are various sources of stem cells for transplantation in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate sciatic nerve regeneration in the rat after nerve transaction followed by human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) treatment into poly (e-caprolactone)/collagen/nanobioglass (PCL/collagen/NBG) nanofibrous conduits. After treatment of animals, the performance in motor and sensory tests, showed significant improvement in rats treated with hEnSCs as an autograft...
November 8, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102892/multi-tubule-conduit-filler-constructs-loaded-with-gradient-distributed-growth-factors-for-neural-tissue-engineering-applications
#11
Hua Wu, Qing Fang, Jiaoyan Liu, Xiaofeng Yu, Yigui Xu, Ying Wan, Bo Xiao
Chitosan/silk fibroin/glycerophosphate gels were loaded with nerve growth factor (NGF) and further processed into multi-tubule fillers. NGF was loaded into the fillers in such a way so that a NGF gradient was established longitudinally along the filler length. A type of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA)/chitosan(CH) porous conduit was fabricated using a pre-crosslinking method. The filler was fully filled into the lumen of conduits to build multi-tubule conduit-filler constructs that are intended for long-gap peripheral nerve repair...
October 27, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098916/a-novel-conduit-based-coaptation-device-for-primary-nerve-repair
#12
Ravinder Bamba, D Colton Riley, Nathaniel D Kelm, Nancy Cardwell, Alonda C Pollins, Ashkan Afshari, Lyly Ngyuen, Richard D Dortch, Wesley P Thayer
BACKGROUND: Conduit-based nerve repairs are commonly used for small nerve gaps, whereas primary repair may be performed if there is no tension on nerve endings. We hypothesize a conduit-based nerve coaptation device will improve nerve repair outcomes by avoiding sutures at the nerve repair site and utilizing the advantages of a conduit-based repair. METHODS: The left sciatic nerves of female Sprague-Dawley rats were transected and repaired using a novel conduit-based device...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096406/hydrogel-composition-and-laser-micro-patterning-to-regulate-sciatic-nerve-regeneration
#13
Yulia Berkovitch, Talia Cohen, Eli Peled, Robert Schmidhammer, Hildner Florian, Andreas Teuschl, Susanne Wolbank, Dvir Yelin, Heinz Redl, Dror Seliktar
Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries has evolved over the past several decades to include the use of sophisticated new materials endowed with trophic and topographical cues that are essential for in vivo nerve fiber regeneration. In this research, we explored the use of an advanced design strategy for peripheral nerve repair, using biological and semi-synthetic hydrogels that enable controlled environmental stimuli to regenerate neurons and glial cells in a rat sciatic nerve resection model. The provisional nerve growth conduits were comprised of either natural fibrin, or adducts of synthetic polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fibrinogen or gelatin...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090249/effects-of-nerve-cells-and-adhesion-molecules-on-nerve-conduit-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#14
Joo-Ryun Chung, Jong-Won Choi, Joseph P Fiorellini, Kyung-Gyun Hwang, Chang-Joo Park
BACKGROUND: For peripheral nerve regeneration, recent attentions have been paid to the nerve conduits made by tissue-engineering technique. Three major elements of tissue-engineering are cells, molecules, and scaffolds. METHODS: In this study, the attachments of nerve cells, including Schwann cells, on the nerve conduit and the effects of both growth factor and adhesion molecule on these attachments were investigated. RESULTS: The attachment of rapidly-proliferating cells, C6 cells and HS683 cells, on nerve conduit was better than that of slowly-proliferating cells, PC12 cells and Schwann cells, however, the treatment of nerve growth factor improved the attachment of slowly-proliferating cells...
September 2017: J Dent Anesth Pain Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090001/phenotypic-changes-of-schwann-cells-on-the-proximal-stump-of-injured-peripheral-nerve-during-repair-using-small-gap-conduit-tube
#15
Shi-Jun Zhang, Wen-Liang Wu, Kai-Yun Yang, Yun-Zhen Chen, Hai-Chun Liu
Dedifferentiation of Schwann cells is an important feature of the response to peripheral nerve injury and specific negative myelination regulators are considered to have a major role in this process. However, most experiments have focused on the distal nerve stump, where the Notch signaling pathway is strongly associated with Schwann cell dedifferentiation and repair of the nerve. We observed the phenotypic changes of Schwann cells and changes of active Notch signaling on the proximal stump during peripheral nerve repair using small gap conduit tubulization...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090000/scaffoldless-tissue-engineered-nerve-conduit-promotes-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-tibial-nerve-injury-in-rats
#16
Aaron M Adams, Keith W VanDusen, Tatiana Y Kostrominova, Jacob P Mertens, Lisa M Larkin
Damage to peripheral nerve tissue may cause loss of function in both the nerve and the targeted muscles it innervates. This study compared the repair capability of engineered nerve conduit (ENC), engineered fibroblast conduit (EFC), and autograft in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap. ENCs were fabricated utilizing primary fibroblasts and the nerve cells of rats on embryonic day 15 (E15). EFCs were fabricated utilizing primary fibroblasts only. Following a 12-week recovery, nerve repair was assessed by measuring contractile properties in the medial gastrocnemius muscle, distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, and histology of muscle and nerve...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053076/protective-effect-of-biodegradable-nerve-conduit-against-peripheral-nerve-adhesion-after-neurolysis
#17
Kosuke Shintani, Takuya Uemura, Kiyohito Takamatsu, Takuya Yokoi, Ema Onode, Mitsuhiro Okada, Hiroaki Nakamura
OBJECTIVE Peripheral nerve adhesion caused by extraneural and intraneural scar formation after neurolysis leads to nerve dysfunction. The authors previously developed a novel very flexible biodegradable nerve conduit composed of poly(L-lactide) and poly(ε-caprolactone) for use in peripheral nerve regeneration. In the present study, they investigated the effect of protective nerve wrapping on preventing adhesion in a rat sciatic nerve adhesion model. METHODS Rat sciatic nerves were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups: a no-adhesion group, which involved neurolysis alone without an adhesion procedure; an adhesion group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis, but no treatment was subsequently administered; a nerve wrap group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis and protective nerve wrapping was then performed with the nerve conduit; and a hyaluronic acid (HA) group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis and nerve wrapping was then performed with a 1% sodium HA viscous solution...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029631/neurotrophic-support-by-traumatized-muscle-derived-multipotent-progenitor-cells-role-of-endothelial-cells-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a
#18
Heidi R H Zupanc, Peter G Alexander, Rocky S Tuan
BACKGROUND: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to increase nerve regeneration in animal models of nerve injury. Traumatized muscle-derived multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) share important characteristics with MSCs and are isolated from severely damaged muscle tissue following surgical debridement. Previous investigations have shown that MPCs may be induced to increase production of several neurotrophic factors, suggesting the possible utility of autologous MPCs in peripheral nerve regeneration following injury...
October 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028608/establishment-of-nerve-growth-factor-gradients-on-aligned-chitosan-polylactide-alginate-fibers-for-neural-tissue-engineering-applications
#19
Hua Wu, Jiaoyan Liu, Qing Fang, Bo Xiao, Ying Wan
Nerve conduits containing aligned fibrous fillers with gradiently distributed signal molecules are essential for long-gap nerve repair. This study was to develop an approach for establishing nerve growth factor (NGF) gradients onto the aligned chitosan-polylactide (CH-PLA) fibers. CH-PLA containing 37wt% of PLA was spun into fibers using a wet-spinning technique. CH-PLA fibers showed much higher wet-state tensile strength, enhanced degradation tolerance and significantly lower swelling degree in comparison to chitosan fibers...
October 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024435/efect-of-longitudinally-oriented-collagen-conduit-combined-with-nerve-growth-factor-on-nerve-regeneration-after-dog-sciatic-nerve-injury
#20
Yao Yao, Yi Cui, Yannan Zhao, Zhifeng Xiao, Xing Li, Sufang Han, Bing Chen, Yongxiang Fang, Piao Wang, Juli Pan, Jianwu Dai
The research on artificial nerve conduits has become a focus of study in peripheral nerve reconstruction so as a possible replacement for the treatment of autologous nerve grafts in clinics. In this study, we used longitudinally oriented collagen conduit (LOCC) combined with nerve growth factor (NGF) to reconstruct long distance of sciatic nerve defects (35 mm) in adult dog model. The long term follow-up evaluation demonstrated that the LOCC/NGF conduit allowed functional and morphological nerve regeneration at the transection site of the injured sciatic nerve...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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