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"Allometric scaling"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227461/population-pharmacokinetics-of-lopinavir-in-severely-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-and-the-effect-on-treatment-outcomes
#1
Moherndran Archary, Helen Mcllleron, Raziya Bobat, Phillip La Russa, Thobekile Sibaya, Lubbe Wiesner, Stefanie Hennig
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, malnutrition remains a common clinical syndrome at antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Physiological changes due to malnutrition and during nutritional recovery could affect the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: HIV-infected children admitted with severe acute malnutrition were randomised to early or delayed initiation of lopinavir/ritonavir, abacavir and lamivudine using WHO weight-band dosage charts...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223494/dental-functional-morphology-predicts-the-scaling-of-chewing-rate-in-mammals
#2
Indrė Žliobaitė, Mikael Fortelius
How food intake and mastication scale to satisfy the metabolic needs of mammals has been the subject of considerable scientific debate. Existing theory suggests that the negative allometric scaling of metabolic rate with body mass is compensated by a matching allometric scaling of the chewing rate. Why empirical studies have found that the scaling coefficients of the chewing rate seem to be systematically smaller than expected from theory remains unknown. Here we explain this imparity by decoupling the functional surface area of teeth from overall surface area...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210189/does-mean-arterial-blood-pressure-scale-with-body-mass-in-mammals-effects-of-measurement-of-blood-pressure
#3
REVIEW
Christian Bo Poulsen, Tobias Wang, Kasper Assersen, Nina Kerting Iversen, Mads Damkjaer
For at least the last 30 years it has been discussed whether mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) is independent of body mass or whether it increases in accordance with the vertical height between the heart and the brain. The debate has centered on the most appropriate mathematical models for analysing allometric scaling and phylogenetic relationships, there has been preciously little focus on evaluating the validity of underlying physiological data. Currently, the two most comprehensive scaling analyses are based on data from 47 species of mammals, based on 114 references...
December 5, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201564/an-exceptionally-preserved-armored-dinosaur-reveals-the-morphology-and-allometry-of-osteoderms-and-their-horny-epidermal-coverings
#4
Caleb M Brown
Although the evolution and function of "exaggerated" bony projections in ornithischian dinosaurs has been subject to significant debate recently, our understanding of the structure and morphology of their epidermal keratinized coverings is greatly limited. The holotype of Borealopelta, a new nodosaurid ankylosaur, preserves osteoderms and extensive epidermal structures (dark organic residues), in anatomic position across the entire precaudal length. Contrasting previous specimens, organic epiosteodermal scales, often in the form of horn-like (keratinous) sheaths, cap and exaggerate nearly all osteoderms, allowing for morphometric and allometric analyses of both the bony osteoderms and their horny sheaths...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191073/using-an-allometric-equation-to-accurately-predict-the-energy-expenditure-of-children-and-adolescents-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
Inez Martincevic, Marialena Mouzaki
BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) require targeted nutrition therapy that relies on calculating energy needs. Common energy equations are inaccurate in predicting resting energy expenditure (REE), influencing total energy expenditure (TEE) estimates. Equations based on allometric scaling are simple, accurate, void of subjective activity and/or stress factor bias, and they estimate TEE. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive accuracy of an allometric energy equation (AEE) in predicting TEE of children and adolescents with NAFLD...
March 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190761/acute-glucoregulatory-and-vascular-outcomes-of-three-strategies-for-interrupting-prolonged-sitting-time-in-postmenopausal-women-a-pilot-laboratory-based-randomized-controlled-4-condition-4-period-crossover-trial
#6
Jacqueline Kerr, Katie Crist, Daniela G Vital, Lindsay Dillon, Sabrina A Aden, Minaxi Trivedi, Luis R Castellanos, Suneeta Godbole, Hongying Li, Matthew A Allison, Galina L Khemlina, Michelle L Takemoto, Simon Schenk, James F Sallis, Megan Grace, David W Dunstan, Loki Natarajan, Andrea Z LaCroix, Dorothy D Sears
BACKGROUND: Prolonged sitting is associated with cardiometabolic and vascular disease. Despite emerging evidence regarding the acute health benefits of interrupting prolonged sitting time, the effectiveness of different modalities in older adults (who sit the most) is unclear. METHODS: In preparation for a future randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 10 sedentary, overweight or obese, postmenopausal women (mean age 66 years ±9; mean body mass index 30.6 kg/m2 ±4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182457/a-comparison-of-the-isometric-mid-thigh-pull-and-isometric-squat-intraday-reliability-usefulness-and-the-magnitude-of-difference-between-tests
#7
Claire J Brady, Andrew J Harrison, Eamonn P Flanagan, G Gregory Haff, Thomas M Comyns
PURPOSE: This investigation examined the reliability and usefulness of the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and isometric squat (ISqT) performed at the same knee and hip angles. The scores produced in each test were compared to determine the magnitude of differences between tests. METHODS: Twenty six male and female athletes (23.6±4.3 y; 1.75±0.07 m; 68.8±9.7 kg) performed 2 maximal repetitions of the IMTP and ISqT following a specific warm up. RESULTS: Maximum force, absolute peak force (PF), relative PF, allometrically scaled PF, rate of force development (RFD) (0 - 200 and 0 - 250 ms) and impulse (0 - 300 ms) were deemed reliable (ICC ≥ 0...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162871/allometric-scaling-of-skin-thickness-elasticity-viscoelasticity-to-mass-for-micro-medical-device-translation-from-mice-rats-rabbits-pigs-to-humans
#8
Jonathan C J Wei, Grant A Edwards, Darren J Martin, Han Huang, Michael L Crichton, Mark A F Kendall
Emerging micro-scale medical devices are showing promise, whether in delivering drugs or extracting diagnostic biomarkers from skin. In progressing these devices through animal models towards clinical products, understanding the mechanical properties and skin tissue structure with which they interact will be important. Here, through measurement and analytical modelling, we advanced knowledge of these properties for commonly used laboratory animals and humans (~30 g to ~150 kg). We hypothesised that skin's stiffness is a function of the thickness of its layers through allometric scaling, which could be estimated from knowing a species' body mass...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136286/brompheniramine-and-chlorpheniramine-pharmacokinetics-following-single-dose-oral-administration-in-children-aged-2-to-17-years
#9
Sudam Pathirana, Shyamalie Jayawardena, Suzanne Meeves, Gary A Thompson
Two pediatric studies characterized brompheniramine and chlorpheniramine pharmacokinetics in a total of 72 subjects, aged 2 to 17 years. A single age-/weight-based oral dose, ranging from 1 to 4 mg, was administered with 2 to 6 oz of water at least 2 hours after a light breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 72 hours after dosing and analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods; relationships with age were assessed using linear regression...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133560/levofloxacin-population-pharmacokinetics-in-south-african-children-treated-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#10
Paolo Denti, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Heather R Draper, Lubbe Wiesner, Jana Winckler, Stephanie Thee, Kelly E Dooley, Rada M Savic, Helen M McIlleron, H Simon Schaaf, Anneke C Hesseling
Background: Levofloxacin is increasingly used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). There are limited paediatric pharmacokinetic data to inform dose selection for children.Methods: Children routinely receiving levofloxacin (250 mg adult tablets) for MDR-TB prophylaxis or disease in Cape Town, South Africa, underwent pharmacokinetic sampling following a 15 or 20 mg/kg dose, given as whole tablet(s) or crushed, orally, or by nasogastric tube. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-linear mixed effects modelling...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133558/pharmacokinetics-and-drug-drug-interactions-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-administered-with-first-and-second-line-antituberculosis-drugs-in-hiv-infected-children-treated-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#11
Louvina E van der Laan, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, H Simon Schaaf, Tjokosela Tikiso, Lubbe Wiesner, Mine de Kock, Jana Winckler, Jennifer Norman, Helen McIlleron, Paolo Denti, Anneke C Hesseling
Background Lopinavir/ritonavir forms the backbone of current first-line antiretroviral regimens in young HIV-infected children. As multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) frequently occurs in young children in high-burden TB settings, it is important to identify potential interactions between MDR-TB treatment and lopinavir/ritonavir. We describe the pharmacokinetics of and potential drug-drug interactions between lopinavir/ritonavir and routine drugs used for MDR-TB treatment in HIV-infected children.Methods A combined population pharmacokinetic model was developed to jointly describe the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir and ritonavir in 32 HIV-infected children (16 on MDR-TB treatment with combinations of high-dose isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, ethionamide, terizidone, a fluoroquinolone, and amikacin: and 16 without TB), who were established on a lopinavir/ritonavir-containing antiretroviral regimen...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077992/population-pharmacokinetics-of-exendin-9-39-and-clinical-dose-selection-in-patients-with-congenital-hyperinsulinism
#12
Chee M Ng, Fei Tang, Steven Seeholzer, Yixuan Zou, Diva D De León
AIMS: Congenital hyperinsulinism (HI) is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycaemia in infants and children. Exendin-(9-39), an inverse glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonist, is a novel therapeutic agent for HI that has demonstrated glucose-raising effect. We reported the first population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model of the exendin-(9-39) in patients with HI and proposed the optimal dosing regimen for future clinical trials in neonates with HI. METHODS: 182 pharmacokinetic (PK) observations from 26 subjects in three clinical studies were included for constructing the PopPK model using FOCE with interaction method in NONMEM...
October 27, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076211/what-is-the-best-size-predictor-for-dose-in-the-obese-child
#13
REVIEW
Brian J Anderson, Nick Hg Holford
Lean body mass is commonly proposed for anesthesia maintenance drug dosing calculations. However, total body mass used with allometric scaling has been shown to be better for propofol in obese adults and children. Fat-free mass has also been used instead of lean body mass. Fat-free mass is essentially the same as lean body mass but excludes a small percentage of mass of lipids in cell membranes, CNS, and bone marrow. Normal fat mass is a size descriptor that partitions total body mass into fat-free mass and fat mass calculated from total body mass minus fat-free mass...
December 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076148/behavioral-implications-of-ontogenetic-changes-in-intrinsic-hand-and-foot-proportions-in-olive-baboons-papio-anubis
#14
François Druelle, Jesse Young, Gilles Berillon
OBJECTIVES: Relatively long digits are considered to enhance grasping performance in primates. We tested whether growth-related changes in intrinsic hand and foot proportions may have behavioral implications for growing animals, by examining whether ontogenetic changes in digital proportions are related to variation in voluntary grasping behaviors in baboons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Longitudinal morphological and behavioral data were collected on 6 captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) as they aged from 5 to 22 months...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065406/midsagittal-brain-variation-among-non-human-primates-insights-into-evolutionary-expansion-of-the-human-precuneus
#15
Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, James K Rilling, Xu Chen, Todd M Preuss, Emiliano Bruner
The precuneus is a major element of the superior parietal lobule, positioned on the medial side of the hemisphere and reaching the dorsal surface of the brain. It is a crucial functional region for visuospatial integration, visual imagery, and body coordination. Previously, we argued that the precuneus expanded in recent human evolution, based on a combination of paleontological, comparative, and intraspecific evidence from fossil and modern human endocasts as well as from human and chimpanzee brains. The longitudinal proportions of this region are a major source of anatomical variation among adult humans and, being much larger in Homo sapiens, is the main characteristic differentiating human midsagittal brain morphology from that of our closest living primate relative, the chimpanzee...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044122/wind-loads-and-competition-for-light-sculpt-trees-into-self-similar-structures
#16
Christophe Eloy, Meriem Fournier, André Lacointe, Bruno Moulia
Trees are self-similar structures: their branch lengths and diameters vary allometrically within the tree architecture, with longer and thicker branches near the ground. These tree allometries are often attributed to optimisation of hydraulic sap transport and safety against elastic buckling. Here, we show that these allometries also emerge from a model that includes competition for light, wind biomechanics and no hydraulics. We have developed MECHATREE, a numerical model of trees growing and evolving on a virtual island...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038273/pharmacokinetic-modelling-of-voriconazole-to-develop-an-alternative-dosing-regimen-in-children
#17
Silke Gastine, Thomas Lehrnbecher, Carsten Müller, Fedja Farowski, Peter Bader, Judith Ullmann-Moskovits, Oliver A Cornely, Andreas H Groll, Georg Hempel
Background. The pharmacokinetic variability of voriconazole in immunocompromised children is high and adequate exposure, particularly in the first days of therapy, is uncertain.Methods A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to explore VCZ exposure in plasma after alternative dosing regimens. Concentration data were obtained from a pediatric phase II study. Non-linear mixed effects modelling was used to develop the model. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to test an array of three times daily (TID) intravenous dosing regimens in children 2 to 12 years of age...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030928/pharmacokinetics-of-s-ketamine-during-prolonged-sedation-at-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#18
Robert B Flint, Carole N M Brouwer, Anne S C Kränzlin, Loraine Lie-A-Huen, Albert P Bos, Ron A A Mathôt
BACKGROUND: S-ketamine is the S(+)-enantiomer of the racemic mixture ketamine, an anesthetic drug providing both sedation and analgesia. In clinical practice, significant interpatient variability in drug effect of S-ketamine is observed during long-term sedation. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic variability of S-ketamine in children aged 0-18 years during long-term sedation. Twenty-five children (median age: 0.42 years, range: 0...
November 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027834/extrapolation-of-plasma-clearance-to-understand-species-differences-in-toxicokinetics-of-bisphenol-a
#19
Torka Poet, Sean Hays
1. Understanding species differences in the toxicokinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) is central to setting acceptable exposure limits for human exposures to BPA. BPA toxicokinetics have been well studied, with controlled oral dosing studies in several species and across a wide dose range. 2. We analyzed the available toxicokinetic data for BPA following oral dosing to assess potential species differences and dose dependencies. BPA is rapidly conjugated and detoxified in all species. The toxicokinetics of BPA can be well described using non-compartmental analyses...
October 13, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026726/hand-grip-strength-and-gender-allometric-normalization-in-older-adults-and-implications-for-the-niosh-lifting-equation
#20
Trish Gail Sevene, Joseph Berning, Chad Harris, Mike Climstein, Kent Jason Adams, Mark DeBeliso
BACKGROUND: Many countries are experiencing an aging workforce with women workers making up a growing proportion. Workplaces often require employees to complete lifting tasks that require the ability of the hand to grasp an implement (coupling). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has developed an equation for manual lifting tasks hoping to minimize the potential for a workplace back-injury related to a lifting task. The NIOSH lifting equation relies upon stress variables including a coupling factor...
July 2017: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
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