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"Allometric scaling"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679234/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-dose-recommendations-for-posaconazole-in-infants-and-children
#1
Sophida Boonsathorn, Iek Cheng, Frank Kloprogge, Carlos Alonso, Charmion Lee, Bilyana Doncheva, John Booth, Robert Chiesa, Adam Irwin, Joseph F Standing
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of posaconazole in immunocompromised children, evaluate the influence of patient characteristics on posaconazole exposure and perform simulations to recommend optimal starting doses. METHODS: Posaconazole plasma concentrations from paediatric patients undergoing therapeutic drug monitoring were extracted from a tertiary paediatric hospital database. These were merged with covariates collected from electronic sources and case-note reviews...
April 20, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677389/population-pharmacokinetics-of-intramuscular-and-intravenous-ketamine-in-children
#2
Christoph P Hornik, Daniel Gonzalez, John van den Anker, Andrew M Atz, Ram Yogev, Brenda B Poindexter, Kee Chong Ng, Paula Delmore, Barrie L Harper, Chiara Melloni, Andrew Lewandowski, Casey Gelber, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Jan Hau Lee
Ketamine is an N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antagonist used off-label to facilitate dissociative anesthesia in children undergoing invasive procedures. Available for both intravenous and intramuscular administration, ketamine is commonly used when vascular access is limited. Pharmacokinetic (PK) data in children are sparse, and the bioavailability of intramuscular ketamine in children is unknown. We performed 2 prospective PK studies of ketamine in children receiving either intramuscular or intravenous ketamine and combined the data to develop a pediatric population PK model using nonlinear mixed-effects methods...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664993/scaling-relationships-and-vessel-packing-in-petioles
#3
Dustin M Ray, Cynthia S Jones
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: While tradeoffs among mechanical and conductive functions have been well investigated in woody stems, these tradeoffs are relatively unexplored in petioles, the structural link between stems and laminas. We investigated size-independent scaling relationships between cross-sectional areas of structural and vascular tissues, relationships between tissue areas of xylem and phloem, vessel packing within xylem, and scaling of vascular and structural tissues with lamina traits...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663421/population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-of-busulfan-in-japanese-pediatric-and-adult-hct-patients
#4
Atsuko Kawazoe, Tomoo Funaki, Seongryul Kim
Busulfan is the most common chemotherapy agent used in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) conditioning regimens. As narrow therapeutic index and interpatient variability exists in the effectiveness and toxicity of conditioning regimens, personalizing intravenous busulfan therapy is desirable. Population pharmacokinetic-based approaches have been applied to therapeutic drug monitoring for the purpose of personalizing therapy. A population pharmacokinetic analysis with the objective of personalizing therapy in Japanese patients was conducted by integrating pediatric patient data with adult patient data...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661865/modeling-and-simulation-of-pretomanid-pharmacokinetics-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#5
Michael A Lyons
Pretomanid is a nitroimidazole antibiotic in late phase clinical testing as a component of several novel antituberculosis (anti-TB) regimens. A population pharmacokinetic model for pretomanid was constructed using a Bayesian analysis of data from two phase 2 studies, PA-824-CL-007 and PA-824-CL-010, conducted with newly diagnosed adult (median age 27 years) pulmonary TB patients in Cape Town, South Africa. Combined, these studies included 63 males and 59 females administered once daily oral pretomanid doses of 50, 100, 150, 200, 600, 1000, or 1200 mg for 14 days...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661383/does-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-provide-adequate-plasma-concentrations-for-sedation-in-children-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#6
J W Miller, R Balyan, M Dong, M Mahmoud, J E Lam, J N Pratap, J R Paquin, B L Li, J P Spaeth, A Vinks, A W Loepke
BACKGROUND: Atomised intranasal dexmedetomidine administration is an attractive option when sedation is required for paediatric diagnostic procedures, as vascular access is not required. The risk of haemodynamic instability caused by dexmedetomidine necessitates better understanding of its pharmacokinetics in young children. To date, intranasal dexmedetomidine pharmacokinetics has only been studied in adults. METHODS: Eighteen paediatric patients received dexmedetomidine 1 or 2 μg kg-1 intranasally or 1 μg kg-1 i...
May 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658525/countermovement-depth-a-variable-which-clarifies-the-relationship-between-the-maximum-power-output-and-height-of-a-vertical-jump
#7
Jan Gajewski, Radosław Michalski, Krzysztof Buśko, Joanna Mazur-Różycka, Zbigniew Staniak
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of peak power achieved during vertical jumps in order to clarify relationship between the height of jump and the ability to exert maximum power. METHODS: One hundred young (16.8±1.8 years) sportsmen participated in the study (body height 1.861 ± 0.109 m, body weight 80.3 ± 9.2 kg). Each participant performed three jump tests: countermovement jump (CMJ), akimbo countermovement jump (ACMJ), and spike jump (SPJ)...
2018: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655466/the-educated-guess-determining-drug-doses-in-exotic-animals-using-evidence-based-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Marike Visser, Seth C Oster
Lack of species-specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data is a challenge for pharmaceutical and dose selection. If available, dose extrapolation can be accomplished via basic equations. If unavailable, several methods have been described. Linear scaling uses an established milligrams per kilograms dose based on weight. This does not allow for differences in species drug metabolism, sometimes resulting in toxicity. Allometric scaling correlates body weight and metabolic rate but fails for drugs with significant hepatic metabolism and cannot be extrapolated to avians or reptiles...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626326/development-of-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-sinogliatin-a-first-in-class-glucokinase-activator-by-integrating-allometric-scaling-in-vitro-to-in-vivo-exploration-and-steady-state-concentration-mean-residence-time-methods-mechanistic-understanding
#9
Ling Song, Yi Zhang, Ji Jiang, Shuang Ren, Li Chen, Dongyang Liu, Xijing Chen, Pei Hu
AIM: The objective of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for sinogliatin (HMS-5552, dorzagliatin) by integrating allometric scaling (AS), in vitro to in vivo exploration (IVIVE), and steady-state concentration-mean residence time (Css -MRT) methods and to provide mechanistic insight into its pharmacokinetic properties in humans. METHODS: Human major pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed using AS, IVIVE, and Css -MRT methods with available preclinical in vitro and in vivo data to understand sinogliatin drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) characteristics and underlying mechanisms...
April 6, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621114/allometric-grip-strength-norms-for-american-children
#10
Morgan H Kocher, Yukiya Oba, Iris F Kimura, Christopher D Stickley, Charles F Morgan, Ronald K Hetzler
Kocher, MH, Oba, Y, Kimura, IF, Stickley, CD, Morgan, CF, and Hetzler, RK. Allometric grip strength norms for American children. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-To develop normative data from a large cohort of American school children (ages 6-18) for unscaled and allometrically scaled handgrip strength data that are uninfluenced by body size (body mass [BM] and stature [Ht]). Data (age, handgrip strength, BM, and Ht) were collected from the 2011-2012 and 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey databases, resulting in 4,665 cases (2,384 boys and 2,281 girls)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604636/scaling-tunable-network-model-to-reproduce-the-density-driven-superlinear-relation
#11
Liang Gao, Xiaoya Shan, Yuhao Qin, Senbin Yu, Lida Xu, Zi-You Gao
Previous works have shown the universality of allometric scaling under total and density values at the city level, but our understanding of the size effects of regions on the universality of allometric scaling remains inadequate. Here, we revisit the scaling relations between the gross domestic production (GDP) and the population based on the total and density values and first reveal that the allometric scaling under density values for different regions is universal. The scaling exponent β under the density value is in the range of (1...
March 2018: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563774/preclinical-pharmacokinetics-interspecies-scaling-and-pharmacokinetics-of-a-phase-i-clinical-trial-of-ttac-0001-a-fully-human-monoclonal-antibody-against-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-2
#12
Weon Sup Lee, Sang Ryeol Shim, Seon Young Lee, Jin San Yoo, Sung Kweon Cho
Background: VEGF is a highly selective mitogen that serves as the central regulator of tumor angiogenesis by mediating endothelial proliferation, permeability, and survival. Tanibirumab (TTAC-0001) is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody derived from a fully human naïve single-chain variable fragment (ScFv) phage library that was developed to inhibit the effects of VEGF in the treatment of solid tumors, especially those of the brain. Methods: In the present study, we conducted intravenous pharmacokinetic studies of TTAC-0001 in mice, rats, and cynomolgus monkeys...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540570/adaptive-diversification-of-growth-allometry-in-the-plant-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
François Vasseur, Moises Exposito-Alonso, Oscar J Ayala-Garay, George Wang, Brian J Enquist, Denis Vile, Cyrille Violle, Detlef Weigel
Seed plants vary tremendously in size and morphology; however, variation and covariation in plant traits may be governed, at least in part, by universal biophysical laws and biological constants. Metabolic scaling theory (MST) posits that whole-organismal metabolism and growth rate are under stabilizing selection that minimizes the scaling of hydrodynamic resistance and maximizes the scaling of resource uptake. This constrains variation in physiological traits and in the rate of biomass accumulation, so that they can be expressed as mathematical functions of plant size with near-constant allometric scaling exponents across species...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538459/collision-based-energetic-comparison-of-rolling-and-hopping-over-obstacles
#14
Fabio Giardina, Fumiya Iida
Locomotion of machines and robots operating in rough terrain is strongly influenced by the mechanics of the ground-machine interactions. A rolling wheel in terrain with obstacles is subject to collisional energy losses, which is governed by mechanics comparable to hopping or walking locomotion. Here we investigate the energetic cost associated with overcoming an obstacle for rolling and hopping locomotion, using a simple mechanics model. The model considers collision-based interactions with the ground and the obstacle, without frictional losses, and we quantify, analyse, and compare the sources of energetic costs for three locomotion strategies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526799/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-pegylated-truncated-human-cystathionine-beta-synthase-as-treatment-for-homocystinuria
#15
Tomas Majtan, Erez M Bublil, Insun Park, Erland Arning, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Frank Glavin, Jan P Kraus
AIMS: PEGylated human truncated cystathionine beta-synthase, lacking the C-terminal regulatory domain (PEG-CBS), is a promising preclinical candidate for enzyme replacement therapy in homocystinuria (HCU). It was designed to function as a metabolic sink to decrease the severely elevated plasma and tissue homocysteine concentrations. Here we evaluated pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and sub-chronic toxicity of PEG-CBS in homocystinuric mice and wild type rats and monkeys to estimate the minimum human efficacious dose for clinical trials...
March 8, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521784/the-ideal-body-weight-for-pediatric-gentamicin-dosing-in-the-era-of-obesity-a-population-pharmacokinetic-analysis
#16
Brady S Moffett, Charissa Kam, Marianne Galati, Lindsay Schmees, Gideon A Stitt, Paula A Revell, Debra L Palazzi
BACKGROUND: Obese pediatric patients often require dose reductions when initiating gentamicin therapy. An appropriate method for calculating ideal body weight for dosing gentamicin in pediatric patients has not been validated. METHODS: A retrospective, population pharmacokinetic study was designed and included non-intensive care pediatric patients who received gentamicin and had serum gentamicin concentrations sampled. Actual body weight, adjusted body weight, and fat-free mass were used to describe the pharmacokinetic variables...
March 6, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503726/weighing-trees-with-lasers-advances-challenges-and-opportunities
#17
M I Disney, M Boni Vicari, A Burt, K Calders, S L Lewis, P Raumonen, P Wilkes
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is providing exciting new ways to quantify tree and forest structure, particularly above-ground biomass (AGB). We show how TLS can address some of the key uncertainties and limitations of current approaches to estimating AGB based on empirical allometric scaling equations (ASEs) that underpin all large-scale estimates of AGB. TLS provides extremely detailed non-destructive measurements of tree form independent of tree size and shape. We show examples of three-dimensional (3D) TLS measurements from various tropical and temperate forests and describe how the resulting TLS point clouds can be used to produce quantitative 3D models of branch and trunk size, shape and distribution...
April 6, 2018: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495085/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-dexmedetomidine-induced-vasoconstriction-in-healthy-volunteers
#18
Pekka Talke, Brian J Anderson
AIMS: Alpha-2 agonists are direct peripheral vasoconstrictors by activation of vascular smooth muscle alpha-2 adrenoceptors. The impact of this response during dexmedetomidine infusion remains poorly quantified. Our goal was to investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD, vasoconstriction) effects of a computer controlled dexmedetomidine infusion in healthy volunteers. METHODS: After local ethics committee approval, we studied 10 healthy volunteers...
March 1, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487313/body-size-influences-energetic-and-osmoregulatory-costs-in-frogs-infected-with-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#19
Nicholas C Wu, Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Sloughing maintains the skins integrity and critical functionality in amphibians. Given the behavioural, morphological and osmoregulatory changes that accompany sloughing, this process is likely to be physiologically costly. Chytridiomycosis, a cutaneous disease of amphibians caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), disrupts skin function and increases sloughing rates. Moreover, mortality rates from chytridiomycosis are significantly higher in juveniles and so we hypothesised that smaller individuals maybe more susceptible to chytridiomycosis because of allometric scaling effects on the energetic and osmoregulatory costs of sloughing...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470718/prediction-of-human-pharmacokinetics-of-ulixertinib-a-novel-erk1-2-inhibitor-from-mice-rats-and-dogs-pharmacokinetics
#20
Ponnayyan Sulochana Suresh, Ravi Kumar Jairam, Devaraj V Chandrasekhar, Anera Balakrishna Vinod, Rakesh A Hiremath, Anusha Raj, Mohd Zainuddin, Ravi Kanth Bhamidipati, Ramesh Mullangi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ulixertinib (BVD-523) is a novel and selective reversible inhibitor of ERK1/ERK2. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ulixertinib in mice, rats, and dogs followed by prediction of human pharmacokinetic profile by allometric equations with/without correction factors. METHODS: Oral and intravenous pharmacokinetic profiles of ulixertinib were generated in mice, rats, and dogs. The human intravenous pharmacokinetics profiles [volume of distribution (Vss ) and clearance (CL)] were predicted employing simple allometry and using correction factors [maximum life span potential (MLP) and brain weight (BW)]...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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