keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

"Allometric scaling"

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421387/pharmacokinetics-of-monoclonal-antibodies-and-fc-fusion-proteins
#1
REVIEW
Liming Liu
There are many factors that can influence the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a mAb or Fc-fusion molecule with the primary determinant being FcRn-mediated recycling. Through Fab or Fc engineering, IgG-FcRn interaction can be used to generate a variety of therapeutic antibodies with significantly enhanced half-life or ability to remove unwanted antigen from circulation. Glycosylation of a mAb or Fc-fusion protein can have a significant impact on the PK of these molecules. mAb charge can be important and variants with pI values of 1-2 unit difference are likely to impact PK with lower pI values being favorable for a longer half-life...
April 19, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419277/prevention-of-tb-using-rifampicin-plus-isoniazid-reduces-nevirapine-concentrations-in-hiv-exposed-infants
#2
Helen McIlleron, Paolo Denti, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Jennifer D Hoffmann, Saba Shembe, Regina Msandiwa, Lubbe Wiesner, Sithembiso Velaphi, Sanjay G Lala, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson, Kelly E Dooley
Background: Newborns of HIV-infected mothers are given daily doses of nevirapine to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Infants born to mothers with TB should also receive TB preventive therapy. TB preventive regimens include isoniazid for 6 months or rifampicin plus isoniazid for 3 months (RH preventive therapy). The effect of concomitant RH preventive therapy on nevirapine concentrations in infants is unknown. Patients and methods: Tshepiso was a prospective case-control cohort study of pregnant HIV-infected women with and without TB whose newborn infants received standard doses of nevirapine for HIV prophylaxis...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417561/population-pharmacokinetics-of-morphine-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-and-healthy-adults
#3
V Pierre, C K Johnston, B C Ferslew, Klr Brouwer, D Gonzalez
Altered expression and function of transporters in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients may affect the pharmacokinetics (PK), efficacy, and safety of substrate drugs. A population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) analysis was performed to assess differences in morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) disposition in NASH and healthy subjects. A total of 315 serum and 42 urine samples from 21 subjects (14 healthy; 7 NASH) were analyzed using NONMEM. Morphine and M3G PK were described by three- and one-compartment models, respectively...
April 18, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412400/prediction-of-losartan-active-carboxylic-acid-metabolite-exposure-following-losartan-administration-using-static-and-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-models
#4
Hoa Q Nguyen, Jian Lin, Emi Kimoto, Ernesto Callegari, Susanna Tse, R Scott Obach
The aim of this study was to evaluate a strategy based on static and dynamic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling for the prediction of metabolite and parent drug area under the time-concentration curve ratio (AUCm/AUCp) and their PK profiles in humans using in vitro data when active transport processes are involved in disposition. The strategy was applied to losartan and its pharmacologically active metabolite carboxylosartan as test compounds. Hepatobiliary transport including transport-mediated uptake, canilicular and basolateral efflux, and metabolic clearance estimates were obtained from in vitro studies using human liver microsomes and sandwich cultured hepatocytes...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408153/refinement-of-the-oral-exposure-description-in-the-cyclic-siloxane-pbpk-model-for-rats-and-humans-implications-for-exposure-assessment
#5
Jerry L Campbell, Melvin E Andersen, Cynthia Van Landingham, Robinan Gentry, Elke Jensen, Jean Y Domoradzki, Harvey J Clewell
The multi-compound, and multi-dose (MC-MD) route physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for cyclic siloxanes reported by McMullin et al. (2016) brought together the series of models for octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) in rat and human into a unified code structure that would allow simulation of both compounds following the inhalation and dermal routes of exposure. The refined MC-MD PBPK model presented here expands upon this effort to include representation of rat kinetic data in plasma, tissues and exhaled breath for the parent compounds after oral bolus administration...
April 10, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399519/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-mod-4023-a-long-acting-human-growth-hormone-in-growth-hormone-deficiency-children
#6
Dennis M Fisher, Ron G Rosenfeld, Michal Jaron-Mendelson, Leanne Amitzi, Ronit Koren, Gili Hart
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MOD-4023 is a long-acting human growth hormone (hGH) in clinical trials for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). A key goal is maintenance of serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 within normal range throughout GH dosing. The study aimed to develop a pharmacokinetic model for MOD-4023 and a pharmacodynamic model for the effect of MOD-4023 on IGF-1 to allow estimation of peak and mean IGF-1 and to identify the optimal IGF-1 sampling day...
April 11, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389265/preclinical-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-tissue-distribution-and-interspecies-scaling-of-recombinant-human-coagulation-factor-xa-i16l
#7
Chuenlei Parng, Victoria Markiewicz, Jianqing Chen, Beth Leary, Nicole Duriga, Lisa Dyleski, Teresa Caiazzo, Michael Bolt, Alison Joyce, Boris Gorovits, Debra D Pittman, Robert Webster
FXa(I16L) is a recombinant human FXa variant which is currently being evaluated in the clinic for treating intracerebral hemorrhage. The aim of our studies was to investigate overall pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and distribution of FXa(I16L) in preclinical species, and to understand its potential implication in human. Pharmacokinetics of FXa(I16L) was examined using active site probes and the results showed that FXa(I16L) displayed fast clearance, low volume of distribution and a very short plasma resident time in mice, rats and monkeys...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387840/dose-optimization-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-in-critically-ill-children
#8
Pieter A J G De Cock, Sven C van Dijkman, Annick de Jaeger, Jef Willems, Mieke Carlier, Alain G Verstraete, Joris R Delanghe, Hugo Robays, Johan Vande Walle, Oscar E Della Pasqua, Peter De Paepe
Objectives: To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of piperacillin and tazobactam in critically ill infants and children, in order to develop an evidence-based dosing regimen. Patients and methods: This pharmacokinetic study enrolled patients admitted to the paediatric ICU for whom intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam (8:1 ratio) was indicated (75 mg/kg every 6 h based on piperacillin). Piperacillin/tazobactam concentrations were measured by an LC-MS/MS method...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374319/application-of-a-pk-pd-modeling-and-simulation-based-strategy-for-clinical-translation-of-antibody-drug-conjugates-a-case-study-with-trastuzumab-emtansine-t-dm1
#9
Aman P Singh, Dhaval K Shah
Successful clinical translation of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) can be challenging due to complex pharmacokinetics and differences between preclinical and clinical tumors. To facilitate this translation, we have developed a general pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling and simulation (M&S)-based strategy for ADCs. Here we present the validation of this strategy using T-DM1 as a case study. A previously developed preclinical tumor disposition model for T-DM1 (Singh and Shah, AAPSJ. 2015; 18(4):861-875) was used to develop a PK-PD model that can characterize in vivo efficacy of T-DM1 in preclinical tumor models...
April 3, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361651/interrelationships-among-jumping-power-sprinting-power-and-pubertal-status-after-controlling-for-size-in-young-male-soccer-players
#10
Giovani S Cunha, Sean P Cumming, João Valente-Dos-Santos, João P Duarte, Gustavo Silva, Antonio C Dourado, Gabriela T Leites, Adroaldo C Gaya, Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira, Manuel Coelho-E-Silva
This study examined power output on jumping and sprinting tests in young soccer players of differing pubertal status, while controlling for body size with allometric scaling exponents. A total of 46 males aged 12-18 years (14.17 years) were divided into three groups: pre-pubescent ( n = 12), pubescent ( n = 22), and post-pubescent ( n = 12). Participants performed a series of tests, including the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and 10-meter and 30-meter sprint test protocols. The Post-PUB group was older ( F = 112...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359233/in-vivo-hypoglycemic-studies-of-polyherbal-phytoceuticals-their-pharmacokinetic-studies-and-dose-extrapolation-by-allometric-scaling
#11
Baishakhi De, Koushik Bhandari, Prakash Katakam, Analava Mitra
BACKGROUND: This work reports the safety profiling, in vivo hypoglycemic and pharmacokinetic studies of three phytoceuticals viz. conventional and sustained release tablets and microspheres each containing a polyherbal product phytocomposite (PHC) as the active ingredient. PHC is prepared from the leaf extracts of Ficus benghalensis: Syzigium cumini: Ocimum sanctum mixed in the weight ratio of 1:1:2. Further no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD) in human and prediction of human pharmacokinetic parameters have been accomplished by allometric equations...
March 29, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331577/conservative-whole-organ-scaling-contrasts-with-highly-labile-suborgan-scaling-differences-among-compound-eyes-of-closely-related-formica-ants
#12
Craig D Perl, Sergio Rossoni, Jeremy E Niven
Static allometries determine how organ size scales in relation to body mass. The extent to which these allometric relationships are free to evolve, and how they differ among closely related species, has been debated extensively and remains unclear; changes in intercept appear common, but changes in slope are far rarer. Here, we compare the scaling relationships that govern the structure of compound eyes of four closely related ant species from the genus Formica. Comparison among these species revealed changes in intercept but not slope in the allometric scaling relationships governing eye area, facet number, and mean facet diameter...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330923/allometric-growth-in-reef-building-corals
#13
Maria Dornelas, Joshua S Madin, Andrew H Baird, Sean R Connolly
Predicting demographic rates is a critical part of forecasting the future of ecosystems under global change. Here, we test if growth rates can be predicted from morphological traits for a highly diverse group of colonial symbiotic organisms: scleractinian corals. We ask whether growth is isometric or allometric among corals, and whether most variation in coral growth rates occurs at the level of the species or morphological group. We estimate growth as change in planar area for 11 species, across five morphological groups and over 5 years...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323340/differential-scaling-patterns-of-vertebrae-and-the-evolution-of-neck-length-in-mammals
#14
Patrick Arnold, Eli Amson, Martin S Fischer
Almost all mammals have seven vertebrae in their cervical spines. This consistency represents one of the most prominent examples of morphological stasis in vertebrae evolution. Hence, the requirements associated with evolutionary modifications of neck length have to be met with a fixed number of vertebrae. It has not been clear whether body size influences the overall length of the cervical spine and its inner organization (i.e., if the mammalian neck is subject to allometry). Here, we provide the first large-scale analysis of the scaling patterns of the cervical spine and its constituting cervical vertebrae...
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319153/a-general-model-for-metabolic-scaling-in-self-similar-asymmetric-networks
#15
Alexander Byers Brummer, Van M Savage, Brian J Enquist
How a particular attribute of an organism changes or scales with its body size is known as an allometry. Biological allometries, such as metabolic scaling, have been hypothesized to result from selection to maximize how vascular networks fill space yet minimize internal transport distances and resistances. The West, Brown, Enquist (WBE) model argues that these two principles (space-filling and energy minimization) are (i) general principles underlying the evolution of the diversity of biological networks across plants and animals and (ii) can be used to predict how the resulting geometry of biological networks then governs their allometric scaling...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285792/new-allometric-scaling-laws-revealed-for-microorganisms
#16
Thomas L Kieft
Allometric scaling relationships based on microbial data sets are revealing novel biological principles; for example, the abundance and diversity of animal-associated microbes scale with individual animal mass. The global abundance of animal-associated microbes and biosphere species richness have also been estimated. The potential for further microbe-inclusive macroecological insights is high.
March 9, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284466/mitochondrial-function-and-cell-size-an-allometric-relationship
#17
REVIEW
Teemu P Miettinen, Mikael Björklund
Allometric scaling of metabolic rate results in lower total mitochondrial oxygen consumption with increasing organismal size. This is considered a universal law in biology. Here, we discuss how allometric laws impose size-dependent limits to mitochondrial activity at the cellular level. This cell-size-dependent mitochondrial metabolic activity results in nonlinear scaling of metabolism in proliferating cells, which can explain size homeostasis. The allometry in mitochondrial activity can be controlled through mitochondrial fusion and fission machinery, suggesting that mitochondrial connectivity can bypass transport limitations, the presumed biophysical basis for allometry...
March 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283654/a-model-based-personalized-cancer-screening-strategy-for-detecting-early-stage-tumors-using-blood-borne-biomarkers
#18
Sharon Seiko Hori, Amelie M Lutz, Ramasamy Paulmurugan, Sanjiv S Gambhir
An effective cancer blood biomarker screening strategy must distinguish aggressive from non-aggressive tumors at an early, intervenable time. However, for blood-based strategies to be useful, the quality and quantiy of the biomarker shed into the blood and its relationship to tumor growth or progression must be validated. To study how blood biomarker levels correlate with early-stage viable tumor growth in an mouse model of human cancer, we monitored early tumor growth of engineered human ovarian cancer cells (A2780) implanted orthotopically into nude mice...
March 10, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281401/a-novel-in-vitro-allometric-scaling-methodology-for-aldehyde-oxidase-substrates-to-enable-selection-of-appropriate-species-for-traditional-allometry
#19
Rachel D Crouch, J Matthew Hutzler, J Scott Daniels
1. Failure to predict human pharmacokinetics of aldehyde oxidase (AO) substrates using traditional allometry has been attributed to species differences in AO metabolism. 2. To identify appropriate species for predicting human in vivo clearance by single-species scaling (SSS) or multispecies allometry (MA), we scaled in vitro intrinsic clearance (CLint) of five AO substrates obtained from hepatic S9 of mouse, rat, guinea pig, monkey and minipig to human in vitro CLint. 3. When predicting human in vitro CLint, average absolute fold-error was ≤2...
March 10, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280887/brivaracetam-population-pharmacokinetics-in-children-with-epilepsy-aged-1%C3%A2-month-to-16%C3%A2-years
#20
Rik Schoemaker, Janet R Wade, Armel Stockis
PURPOSE: The aims of the study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of orally administered brivaracetam in paediatric patients and to provide dosing suggestions. METHODS: Analysis included 600 brivaracetam plasma concentrations from a phase 2a study (NCT00422422; N01263) in 96 paediatric patients with epilepsy aged 1 month to 16 years, taking one to three concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using non-linear mixed effects modelling, and a stepwise covariate search was used to determine factors influencing brivaracetam clearance...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
keyword
keyword
8218
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"