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high flux

Wanzhu Zhang, Bingzhi Dong
Natural organic matter (NOM) in micro-polluted water purification using membranes is a critical issue to handle. Understanding the fouling mechanism in the forward osmosis (FO) process, particularly identifying the predominant factor that controls membrane fouling, could have significant effects on exerting the advantages of FO technique. Cellulose triacetate no-woven (CTA-NW) membrane is applied to experiments with a high removal efficiency (> 99%) for the model foulant. Tannic acid (TA) is used as a surrogate foulant for NOM in the membrane fouling process, thus enabling the analysis of the effects of physical and chemical aspects of water flux, retention, and adsorption...
May 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S A Kiehas, A Runov, V Angelopolos, H Hietala, D Korovinksiy
As a direct result of magnetic reconnection, plasma sheet fast flows act as primary transporter of mass, flux, and energy in the Earth's magnetotail. During the last decades, these flows were mainly studied within X GSM >-60 R E , as observations near or beyond lunar orbit were limited. By using 5 years (2011-2015) of ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moons Interaction with the Sun) data, we statistically investigate earthward and tailward flows at around 60  R E downtail...
March 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
C Möstl, T Amerstorfer, E Palmerio, A Isavnin, C J Farrugia, C Lowder, R M Winslow, J M Donnerer, E K J Kilpua, P D Boakes
Forecasting the geomagnetic effects of solar storms, known as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), is currently severely limited by our inability to predict the magnetic field configuration in the CME magnetic core and by observational effects of a single spacecraft trajectory through its 3-D structure. CME magnetic flux ropes can lead to continuous forcing of the energy input to the Earth's magnetosphere by strong and steady southward-pointing magnetic fields. Here we demonstrate in a proof-of-concept way a new approach to predict the southward field B z in a CME flux rope...
March 2018: Space Weather: the International Journal of Research & Applications
Aryadne Larissa de Almeida, Regiane Bertin de Lima Scodro, Hayalla Corrêa de Carvalho, Giovana Ferreira Costacurta, Vanessa Pietrowski Baldin, Nathally Claudiane Souza Santos, Luciana Dias Ghiraldi-Lopes, Paula Aline Zanetti Campanerut-Sá, Vera Lucia Dias Siqueira, Katiany Rizzieri Caleffi-Ferracioli, Flávia Kazumi Shibata, Andressa Sprada, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso
The high tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates, the closeness of the cities and the high migration flux on the Brazil/Paraguay/Argentina border deserves an in-depth study, using Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit (MIRU) and Spoligotyping genetic markers to explore the impact of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis RDRio lineage on disease transmission and resistance to anti-TB drugs in this setting. Although without the totality of M. tuberculosis isolates causing TB in this studied setting, a number of 97 isolates obtained from sputa samples culture of patients with confirmed TB, from 2013 to 2015, were submitted to 24 loci MIRU, Spoligotyping, detection of RDRio lineage and detection of mutation related to isoniazid and rifampicin resistance by MTBDRplus/DNA STRIP...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
Fengyi Jin, Mohamed A Hammoud, Lisa Maher, Louisa Degenhardt, Adam Bourne, Toby Lea, Stefanie Vaccher, Jeffrey Grierson, Bridget Haire, Garrett P Prestage
BACKGROUND: We report prevalence and incidence of drug use initiation in Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM) participating in an online cohort study. METHODS: Between September 2014 and June 2015, 1,710 GBM were enrolled in the Following Lives Undergoing Change Study and followed-up six monthly. Participants were asked about measures of lifetime use at baseline and recent use (last six months) at all visits. Drug use initiation was defined as men who reported having never used a specific drug prior to baseline and reported recent use at follow-up...
May 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Marc Sauchelli, Giuseppe Pellegrino, Arnout D'Haese, Ignasi Rodríguez-Roda, Wolfgang Gernjak
Forward osmosis (FO) offers to be a very promising technology for the removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) from contaminated wastewater, and with the recent developments in FO membranes, the effect of both a higher water flux and reverse salt flux on the rejection of TrOCs needs to be explored. In this study two novel thin-film composite (TFC) membranes with greater water permeability and selectivity than the benchmark cellulose tri-acetate (CTA) membrane were compared at bench-scale in terms of TrOCs permeability...
May 5, 2018: Water Research
Yan Li, Shenglu Zhou, Qing Zhu, Baojie Li, Junxiao Wang, Chunhui Wang, Lian Chen, Shaohua Wu
Long-term trends of sediment compositions are important for assessing the impact of human activities on the sediment and protecting the sediment environment. In this study, based on the contents of heavy metals and the Pb isotope ratios in lake sediments, atmospheric dustfall and soil in Yixing, China, the representative heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd) in lake sediments from western Taihu Lake were studied. The evolution history of heavy metals in the local environment was constructed for the past 100 years...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xiaoxiao Zhu, Chunyan Li, Jianfa Li, Bin Xie, Jinhong Lü, Yimin Li
For the purpose of producing carbons with developed mesoporosity, a wood biochar was thermally treated at 600-800 °C in the air/nitrogen atmosphere. The mesopore development was observed when the air flux increased to 50-90 mL/min, and the carbon product having high mesopore surface area (316 m2 /g) and mesopore pore volume (0.284 cm3 /g) was produced at the treatment temperature of 700 °C. The mesopores were developed mainly in the temperature holding stage of thermal treatment, with size mainly ranged from 20 to 60 Å...
May 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Thomas Drapier, Pierre Geubelle, Charlotte Bouckaert, Lise Nielsen, Saara Laulumaa, Eric Goffin, Sébastien Dilly, Pierre Francotte, Julien Hanson, Lionel Pochet, Jette Sandholm Kastrup, Bernard Pirotte
The present study describes the identification of highly potent dimeric 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (BTD)-type positive allosteric modulators of the AMPA receptors (AMPApams) obtained by linking two monomeric BTD scaffolds through their respective 6-positions. Using previous X-ray data from monomeric BTDs co-crystallized with the GluA2o ligand-binding domain (LBD), a molecular modeling approach was performed to predict the preferred dimeric combinations. Two 6,6-ethylene-linked dimeric BTD compounds (16 and 22) were prepared and evaluated as AMPApams on HEK293 cells expressing GluA2o(Q) (calcium flux experiment)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Tae Ryung Kim, Mahsa Hadidi, Seyed Pouria Motevalian, Takashi Sunohara, Andrew L Zydney
Blood-membrane interactions can have a large impact on the performance of hemodialysis membranes, particularly for high flux membranes in which the membrane itself provides very low resistance to solute transport. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to serum on the solute clearance and convective sieving characteristics of high flux polysulfone (Optiflux F250NR), polyethersulfone (ELISIO-25H), and asymmetric cellulose triacetate (SOLACEA-25H) hemodialyzers using both vitamin B12 and a range of polydisperse dextrans...
May 17, 2018: Artificial Organs
Rhokyun Kwak, Jongyoon Han
On ion selective membranes, cation/anion selective transport under electric field initiates ion concentration polarization (ICP); ion concentration increases at one side of the membrane (ion enrichment), while it decreases at the other side (ion depletion). This polarization always occurs as the pair of ion enrichment and ion depletion. Here, departing from such pair generation, we demonstrate that only half of ICP (either ion enrichment or ion depletion) can be solitary on a Nafion-coated electrode. Current-voltage-time responses and conductance measurement capture this half-cell ICP with qualitative in situ pH / ion concentration visualization...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Homa Naseri, Kieran Trickett, Nicholas Mitroglou, Ioannis Karathanassis, Phoevos Koukouvinis, Manolis Gavaises, Robert Barbour, Dale Diamond, Sarah E Rogers, Maurizio Santini, Jin Wang
We identify the physical mechanism through which newly developed quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) deposit control additives (DCAs) affect the rheological properties of cavitating turbulent flows, resulting in an increase in the volumetric efficiency of clean injectors fuelled with diesel or biodiesel fuels. Quaternary ammonium surfactants with appropriate counterions can be very effective in reducing the turbulent drag in aqueous solutions, however, less is known about the effect of such surfactants in oil-based solvents or in cavitating flow conditions...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
G M Kubiak, A R Tomasik, K Bartus, R Olszanecki, P Ceranowicz
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an essential substrate metabolite in human beings. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation provides > 95% of ATP with the remainder derived from glycolysis or tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). In normal hearts, acetyl-CoA is synthesized from the β-oxidation of free fatty acids (FFA) and the oxidation of pyruvate. Pyruvate is synthesized from glycolysis and can be submitted either for decarboxylation to acetyl-CoA or for dehydrogenation to lactate. Moreover, pyruvate, as well as lactate, plays a key role in aerobic glucose metabolism which is highly dependent on ubiquitous regulatory mechanisms...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Germain Chevignon, Georges Periquet, Gabor Gyapay, Nathalie Vega-Czarny, Karine Musset, Jean-Michel Drezen, Elisabeth Huguet
Polydnaviruses (PDVs) are essential for the parasitism success of tens of thousands of species of parasitoid wasps. PDVs are present in wasp genomes as proviruses, which serve as template for the production of double stranded circular viral DNA carrying virulence genes that are injected into lepidopteran hosts. PDV circles do not contain genes coding for particle production hence impeding viral replication in caterpillar hosts during parasitism. Here we investigated the fate of PDV circles of Cotesia congregata bracovirus during parasitism of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta , by the wasp Cotesia congregata Sequences sharing similarities with Host integration Motifs (HIM) involved in integration into DNA of Microplitis demolitor bracovirus (MdBV) circles, could be identified in 12 CcBV circles, which encode PTP and VANK gene families involved in host immune disruption...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
Rishiram Ramanan, Quynh-Giao Tran, Dae-Hyun Cho, Jae-Eun Jeong, Byung-Hyuk Kim, Sang-Yoon Shin, Sae-Hae Choi, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Dae-Soo Kim, Seon-Jin Lee, Jose L Crespo, Hee-Gu Lee, Hee-Mock Oh, Hee-Sik Kim
Algae undergo a complete metabolic transformation under stress by arresting cell growth, inducing autophagy, and hyper-accumulating biofuel precursors such as triacylglycerols and starch. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind this stress-induced transformation are still unclear. Here, we use biochemical, mutational, and 'omics' approaches to demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling mediates the homeostasis of energy molecules and influences carbon metabolism in algae. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the inhibition and knockdown (KD) of algal class III PI3K led to significantly decreased cell growth, altered cell morphology, and higher lipid and starch contents...
May 16, 2018: Plant Physiology
Alshaimaa A Elgarf, David C B Siebert, Friederike Steudle, Angelika Draxler, Guanguan Li, Shengming Huang, James M Cook, Margot Ernst, Petra Scholze
Benzodiazepines are clinically relevant drugs, which bind to GABAA neurotransmitter receptors at the α+/γ2- interfaces and thereby enhance GABA induced chloride ion flux leading to neuronal hyperpolarization. However, the structural basis of benzodiazepine interactions with their high affinity site at GABAA receptors is controversially debated in the literature and in silico studies led to discrepant binding mode hypotheses. In the current study computational docking of diazepam into α+/γ2- homology models suggested that a chiral methyl group, which is known to promote preferred binding to α5-containing GABAA receptors (position 3 of the 7-membered diazepine ring), could possibly provide experimental evidence in favor of or against the so far proposed binding modes...
May 16, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Haijian Li, Philip Kegler, Vladislav V Klepov, Martina Klinkenberg, Dirk Bosbach, Evgeny V Alekseev
Two uranium and two thorium silicates were obtained using high temperature mixed fluxes methods. K14 (UO2 )3 Si10 O30 crystallizes in the P21 / c space group and contains open-branched sechser (six) single silicate chains, whereas K2 (UO2 )Si2 O6 crystallizes in the C2/ c space group and is built of unbranched achter (eight) silicate chains. The crystals of K14 (UO2 )3 Si10 O30 and K2 (UO2 )Si2 O6 are related by increasing U/Si molar ratios, and both structures contain the same secondary building units (SBUs), [USi6 ] heptamers...
May 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Lei Zheng, William E Price, Long D Nghiem
In this study, forward osmosis (FO) membranes and fouling solutions were systematically characterized to elucidate the effects of organic fouling on the rejection of two pharmaceutically active compounds, namely, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine. Municipal wastewater resulted in a more severe flux decline compared to humic acid and sodium alginate fouling solutions. This result is consistent with the molecular weight distribution of these foulant solutions. Liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection analysis shows that municipal wastewater consists of mostly low molecular weight acids and neutrals, which produce a more compact cake layer on the membrane surface...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Min Xu, Shuzheng Chen, Weibin Yang, Xue Cheng, Yani Ye, Jianting Mao, Xulu Wu, Li Huang, Jiansong Ji
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Poor response to chemotherapy leads to the relapse and metastatic progression of tumors. Reprogrammed glucose metabolism is one of the important hallmarks of cancer that facilitates cancer cell survival, proliferation and chemoresistance. However, the precise fate of glucose metabolism and its role in therapy responsiveness in cancers remains largely unexplored. METHODS: The glycolytic phenotype of doxorubicin (ADR)-resistant breast cancer cells and their parental cells was assessed by measuring glucose uptake, lactate release, and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR)...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hao Zhou, Chuanlong Zhou, Philip K Hopke, Thomas M Holsen
Measurements of ambient speciated mercury (Hg) concentrations and Hg wet deposition were made at two urban sites (Bronx, NY and Rochester, NY) and one rural site (Potsdam, NY) in New York State in 2013 and 2014 to: 1) determine the factors influencing Hg wet deposition concentrations, 2) identify the contribution of gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) and particulate bound Hg (PBM) scavenging to Hg wet deposition concentrations, and 3) identify potential source areas associated with high concentration events. The Bronx had the highest mean gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) and GOM concentrations, Rochester had the highest mean PBM and the lowest GOM concentrations, and Potsdam had the lowest mean GEM and PBM concentrations...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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