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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933100/genome-and-methylome-of-the-oleaginous-diatom-cyclotella-cryptica-reveal-genetic-flexibility-toward-a-high-lipid-phenotype
#1
Jesse C Traller, Shawn J Cokus, David A Lopez, Olga Gaidarenko, Sarah R Smith, John P McCrow, Sean D Gallaher, Sheila Podell, Michael Thompson, Orna Cook, Marco Morselli, Artur Jaroszewicz, Eric E Allen, Andrew E Allen, Sabeeha S Merchant, Matteo Pellegrini, Mark Hildebrand
BACKGROUND: Improvement in the performance of eukaryotic microalgae for biofuel and bioproduct production is largely dependent on characterization of metabolic mechanisms within the cell. The marine diatom Cyclotella cryptica, which was originally identified in the Aquatic Species Program, is a promising strain of microalgae for large-scale production of biofuel and bioproducts, such as omega-3 fatty acids. RESULTS: We sequenced the nuclear genome and methylome of this oleaginous diatom to identify the genetic traits that enable substantial accumulation of triacylglycerol...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933053/waste-conversion-into-n-caprylate-and-n-caproate-resource-recovery-from-wine-lees-using-anaerobic-reactor-microbiomes-and-in-line-extraction
#2
Leo A Kucek, Jiajie Xu, Mytien Nguyen, Largus T Angenent
To convert wastes into sustainable liquid fuels and chemicals, new resource recovery technologies are required. Chain elongation is a carboxylate-platform bioprocess that converts short-chain carboxylates (SCCs) (e.g., acetate [C2] and n-butyrate [C4]) into medium-chain carboxylates (MCCs) (e.g., n-caprylate [C8] and n-caproate [C6]) with hydrogen gas as a side product. Ethanol or another electron donor (e.g., lactate, carbohydrate) is required. Competitive MCC productivities, yields (product vs. substrate fed), and specificities (product vs...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932476/high-fat-diet-induced-lysosomal-dysfunction-and-impaired-autophagic-flux-contribute-to-lipotoxicity-in-the-kidney
#3
Takeshi Yamamoto, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Atsushi Takahashi, Tomonori Kimura, Tomoko Namba, Jun Matsuda, Satoshi Minami, Jun-Ya Kaimori, Isao Matsui, Taiji Matsusaka, Fumio Niimura, Motoko Yanagita, Yoshitaka Isaka
Excessive fat intake contributes to the progression of metabolic diseases via cellular injury and inflammation, a process termed lipotoxicity. Here, we investigated the role of lysosomal dysfunction and impaired autophagic flux in the pathogenesis of lipotoxicity in the kidney. In mice, a high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in an accumulation of phospholipids in enlarged lysosomes within kidney proximal tubular cells (PTCs). In isolated PTCs treated with palmitic acid, autophagic degradation activity progressively stagnated in association with impaired lysosomal acidification and excessive lipid accumulation...
December 8, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931937/influence-of-capillary-barrier-effect-on-biogas-distribution-at-the-base-of-passive-methane-oxidation-biosystems-parametric-study
#4
Bahar Ahoughalandari, Alexandre R Cabral
The efficiency of methane oxidation in passive methane oxidation biosystems (PMOBs) is influenced by, among other things, the intensity and distribution of the CH4 loading at the base of the methane oxidation layer (MOL). Both the intensity and distribution are affected by the capillary barrier that results from the superposition of the two materials constituting the PMOB, namely the MOL and the gas distribution layer (GDL). The effect of capillary barriers on the unsaturated flow of water has been well documented in the literature...
December 5, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931165/improvement-of-municipal-wastewater-pretreatment-by-direct-membrane-filtration
#5
Thiago A Nascimento, Fanny R Mejía, Fernando Fdz-Polanco, Mar Peña Miranda
The high content of particulate matter in municipal wastewater hinders the conventional anaerobic treatments at psychrophilic temperatures. The hydrolysis of the particulate chemical oxygen demand (pCOD) could be the limiting step under these conditions. Therefore, new pretreatments or improved conventional pretreatments are needed in order to separate pCOD. In this work, direct membrane filtration of municipal wastewater, using an ultrafiltration membrane, was investigated. This intensive pretreatment, which aims to separate soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and to concentrate pCOD, together with anaerobic treatments of both streams at psychrophilic and mesophilic conditions respectively, could be an alternative to the conventional activated sludge process...
December 8, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930955/environmental-impacts-and-production-performances-of-organic-agriculture-in-china-a-monetary-valuation
#6
Fanqiao Meng, Yuhui Qiao, Wenliang Wu, Pete Smith, Steffanie Scott
Organic agriculture has developed rapidly in China since the 1990s, driven by the increasing domestic and international demand for organic products. Quantification of the environmental benefits and production performances of organic agriculture on a national scale helps to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimum impacts on the environment. Data of organic production for 2013 were obtained from a national survey organized by the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930305/artemisia-annua-mutant-impaired-in-artemisinin-synthesis-demonstrates-importance-of-nonenzymatic-conversion-in-terpenoid-metabolism
#7
Tomasz Czechowski, Tony R Larson, Theresa M Catania, David Harvey, Geoffrey D Brown, Ian A Graham
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone produced by Artemisia annua glandular secretory trichomes, is the active ingredient in the most effective treatment for malaria currently available. We identified a mutation that disrupts the amorpha-4,11-diene C-12 oxidase (CYP71AV1) enzyme, responsible for a series of oxidation reactions in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Detailed metabolic studies of cyp71av1-1 revealed that the consequence of blocking the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway is the redirection of sesquiterpene metabolism to a sesquiterpene epoxide, which we designate arteannuin X...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929705/snapin-is-critical-for-lysosomal-acidification-and-autophagosome-maturation-in-macrophages
#8
Bo Shi, Qi-Quan Huang, Robert Birkett, Renee Doyle, Andrea Dorfleutner, Christian Stehlik, Congcong He, Richard M Pope
We previously observed that SNAPIN, which is an adaptor protein in the SNARE core complex, was highly expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue macrophages, but its role in macrophages and autoimmunity is unknown. To identify SNAPIN's role in these cells, we employed siRNA to silence the expression of SNAPIN in primary human macrophages. Silencing SNAPIN resulted in swollen lysosomes with impaired CTSD (cathepsin D) activation, although total CTSD was not reduced. Neither endosome cargo delivery nor lysosomal fusion with endosomes or autophagosomes was inhibited following the forced silencing of SNAPIN...
December 8, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929488/production-and-quality-control-177lu-nca-dotmp-as-a-potential-agent-for-bone-pain-palliation
#9
Nafise Salek, Mojtaba Shamsaei, Mohammad Ghannadi Maragheh, Simindokht Shirvani Arani, Ali Bahrami Samani
Skeletal uptake of radiolabeled-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetramethylene phosphoric acid (e.g., 177Lu-DOTMP) complex, is used for bone pain palliation. The moderate energy of β-emitting 177Lu (T½ = 6.7 d, Eβmax = 497keV) has been considered as a potential radionuclide for development of the bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical. Since the specific activity of the radiolabeled carrier molecules should be high, the "no-carrier-added radionuclides" have sig-nificant roles in nuclear medicine...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929036/optimal-generation-of-spatially-coherent-soft-x-ray-isolated-attosecond-pulses-in-a-gas-filled-waveguide-using-two-color-synthesized-laser-pulses
#10
Cheng Jin, Kyung-Han Hong, C D Lin
We numerically demonstrate the generation of intense, low-divergence soft X-ray isolated attosecond pulses in a gas-filled hollow waveguide using synthesized few-cycle two-color laser waveforms. The waveform is a superposition of a fundamental and its second harmonic optimized such that highest harmonic yields are emitted from each atom. We then optimize the gas pressure and the length and radius of the waveguide such that bright coherent high-order harmonics with angular divergence smaller than 1 mrad are generated, for photon energy from the extreme ultraviolet to soft X-rays...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927213/living-on-the-edge-substrate-competition-explains-loss-of-robustness-in-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-oxidation-disorders
#11
Karen van Eunen, Catharina M L Volker-Touw, Albert Gerding, Aycha Bleeker, Justina C Wolters, Willemijn J van Rijt, Anne-Claire M F Martines, Klary E Niezen-Koning, Rebecca M Heiner, Hjalmar Permentier, Albert K Groen, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud, Terry G J Derks, Barbara M Bakker
BACKGROUND: Defects in genes involved in mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation (mFAO) reduce the ability of patients to cope with metabolic challenges. mFAO enzymes accept multiple substrates of different chain length, leading to molecular competition among the substrates. Here, we combined computational modeling with quantitative mouse and patient data to investigate whether substrate competition affects pathway robustness in mFAO disorders. RESULTS: First, we used comprehensive biochemical analyses of wild-type mice and mice deficient for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) to parameterize a detailed computational model of mFAO...
December 7, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925232/estimating-the-sensitivity-of-stomatal-conductance-to-photosynthesis-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Grace L Miner, William L Bauerle, Dennis D Baldocchi
A common approach for estimating fluxes of CO2 and water in canopy models is to couple a model of photosynthesis (An ) (e.g., Farquhar et al., 1980) to a semi-empirical model of stomatal conductance (gs ) such as the widely validated and utilized Ball-Berry (BB) model (e.g., Ball et al., 1987). This coupling provides an effective way of predicting transpiration at multiple scales. However, the designated value of the slope parameter (m) in the BB model impacts transpiration estimates. There is a lack of consensus regarding how m varies among species or plant functional types (PFTs) or in response to growth conditions...
December 6, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923948/decreased-rate-of-plasma-arginine-appearance-in-murine-malaria-may-explain-hypoargininemia-in-children-with-cerebral-malaria
#13
Matthew S Alkaitis, Honghui Wang, Allison K Ikeda, Carol A Rowley, Ian J C MacCormick, Jessica H Chertow, Oliver Billker, Anthony F Suffredini, David J Roberts, Terrie E Taylor, Karl B Seydel, Hans C Ackerman
BACKGROUND:  Plasmodium infection depletes arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, and impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Increased conversion of arginine to ornithine by parasites or host arginase is a proposed mechanism of arginine depletion. METHODS:  We used high-performance liquid chromatography to measure plasma arginine, ornithine, and citrulline levels in Malawian children with cerebral malaria and in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA with or without the arginase gene...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923919/quorum-sensing-coordinates-cooperative-expression-of-pyruvate-metabolism-genes-to-maintain-a-sustainable-environment-for-population-stability
#14
Lisa A Hawver, Jennifer M Giulietti, James D Baleja, Wai-Leung Ng
: Quorum sensing (QS) is a microbial cell-cell communication system that regulates gene expression in response to population density to coordinate collective behaviors. Yet, the role of QS in resolving the stresses caused by the accumulation of toxic metabolic by-products at high cell density is not well defined. In response to cell density, QS could be involved in reprogramming of the metabolic network to maintain population stability. Using unbiased metabolomics, we discovered that Vibrio cholerae mutants genetically locked in a low cell density (LCD) QS state are unable to alter the pyruvate flux to convert fermentable carbon sources into neutral acetoin and 2,3-butanediol molecules to offset organic acid production...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923532/physiological-adaptations-to-sugar-intake-new-paradigms-from-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
REVIEW
Wen-Bin Alfred Chng, Ville Hietakangas, Bruno Lemaitre
Sugars are important energy sources, but high sugar intake poses a metabolic challenge and leads to diseases. Drosophila melanogaster is a generalist fruit breeder that encounters high levels of dietary sugars in its natural habitat. Consequently, Drosophila displays adaptive responses to dietary sugars, including highly conserved and unique metabolic adaptations not described in mammals. Carbohydrate homeostasis is maintained by a network comprising intracellular energy sensors, transcriptional regulators, and hormonal and neuronal mechanisms that together coordinate animal behavior, gut function, and metabolic flux...
December 3, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920770/the-use-of-transposon-insertion-sequencing-to-interrogate-the-core-functional-genome-of-the-legume-symbiont-rhizobium-leguminosarum
#16
Benjamin J Perry, Mir S Akter, Christopher K Yost
The free-living legume symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum is of significant economic value because of its ability to provide fixed nitrogen to globally important leguminous food crops, such as peas and lentils. Discovery based research into the genetics and physiology of R. leguminosarum provides the foundational knowledge necessary for understanding the bacterium's complex lifestyle, necessary for augmenting its use in an agricultural setting. Transposon insertion sequencing (INSeq) facilitates high-throughput forward genetic screening at a genomic scale to identify individual genes required for growth in a specific environment...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920298/malate-synthase-and-%C3%AE-methylmalyl-coa-lyase-reactions-in-the-methylaspartate-cycle-in-haloarcula-hispanica
#17
Farshad Borjian, Jing Han, Jing Hou, Hua Xiang, Jan Zarzycki, Ivan A Berg
: Haloarchaea are extremely halophilic heterotrophic microorganisms belonging to the class Halobacteria (Euryarchaeota). Almost half of the haloarchaea possesses the genes coding for enzymes of the methylaspartate cycle, a recently discovered anaplerotic acetate assimilation pathway. In this cycle, the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle together with the dedicated enzymes of the methylaspartate cycle convert two acetyl-CoA molecules to malate. The methylaspartate cycle involves two reactions catalyzed by homologous enzymes belonging to the CitE-like enzyme superfamily, the malyl-CoA lyase/thioesterase (haloarchaeal malate synthase, hMS, Hah_2476 in Haloarcula hispanica) and the β-methylmalyl-CoA lyase (hMCL, Hah_1341)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919791/biosensor-assisted-transcriptional-regulator-engineering-for-methylobacterium-extorquens-am1-to-improve-mevalonate-synthesis-by-increasing-the-acetyl-coa-supply
#18
Wei-Fan Liang, Lan-Yu Cui, Jin-Yu Cui, Kai-Wen Yu, Song Yang, Chong Zhang, Xin-Hui Xing
Acetyl-CoA is not only an important intermediate metabolite for cells but also a significant precursor for production of industrially interesting metabolites. Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a model strain of methylotrophic cell factories using methanol as carbon source, is of interest because it produces abundant coenzyme A compounds capable of directing to synthesis of different useful compounds from methanol. However, acetyl-CoA always does not efficiently accumulate in M. extorquens AM1, as it is located in the center of three cyclic central metabolic pathways...
December 3, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916135/integrating-chemical-imaging-of-cationic-trace-metal-solutes-and-ph-into-a-single-hydrogel-layer
#19
Christoph Hoefer, Jakob Santner, Sergey M Borisov, Walter W Wenzel, Markus Puschenreiter
Gel-based, two-dimensional (2D) chemical imaging techniques are versatile methods for investigating biogeochemically active environments at high spatial resolution (sub-mm). State-of-the-art solute imaging techniques, such as diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and planar optodes (PO), employ passive solute sampling or sensing. Combining these methods will provide powerful tools for studying the biogeochemistry of biological niches in soils and sediments. In this study we aimed at developing a combined single-layer gel for direct pH imaging using PO and sampling of anionic and cationic solutes by DGT, with subsequent analysis of the bound solutes by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)...
January 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915573/solid-dispersions-enhance-solubility-dissolution-and-permeability-of-thalidomide
#20
Silvana A Barea, Cristiane B Mattos, Ariadne C C Cruz, Vitor C Chaves, Rafael N Pereira, Claudia M O Simões, Jadel M Kratz, Letícia S Koester
Thalidomide (THD) is a BCS class II drug with renewed and growing therapeutic applicability. Along with the low aqueous solubility, additional poor biopharmaceutical properties of the drug, i.e. chemical instability, high crystallinity and polymorphism, lead to a slow and variable oral absorption. In this view, we developed solid dispersions (SDs) containing THD dispersed in different self-emulsifying carriers aiming at an enhanced absorption profile for the drug. THD was dispersed in lauroyl macrogol-32 glycerides (Gelucire® 44/14) and α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (Kolliphor® TPGS),in the presence or absence of the precipitation inhibitor polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30), by means of the solvent method...
December 5, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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