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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821058/exploration-of-permeability-and-antifouling-performance-on-modified-cellulose-acetate-ultrafiltration-membrane-with-cellulose-nanocrystals
#1
Jinling Lv, Guoquan Zhang, Hanmin Zhang, Fenglin Yang
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were introduced into cellulose diacetate (CDA) matrix via immerged phase-inversion process, aiming to improve the filtration and antifouling performance of CNCs/CDA blending membrane. The effects of CNCs on membrane morphologies, hydrophilicity, permeability and antifouling property were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of CNCs into CDA membrane could effectively enhance the permeability and antifouling property of CNCs/CDA blending membrane by optimizing membrane microstructure and improving membrane hydrophilicity...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819410/characterization-of-the-role-of-the-malate-dehydrogenases-to-lung-tumor-cell-survival
#2
Boxi Zhang, Johan Tornmalm, Jerker Widengren, Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Erik Norberg
Cellular compartmentalization of biochemical processes in eukaryotic cells is critical for many functions including shuttling of reducing equivalents across membranes. Although coordination of metabolic flux between different organelles is vital for cell physiology, its impact on tumor cell survival is not well understood. By using an integrative approach, we have dissected the role of the key metabolic enzymes Malate dehydrogenases (MDH1 and MDH2) to the survival of Non-small Cell Lung Carcinomas. Here, we report that while both the MDH1 (cytosolic) and the MDH2 (mitochondrial) enzymes display elevated levels in patients compared to normal counterparts, only high expression of MDH1 is associated with poor prognosis...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819271/a-magnetoelectric-flux-gate-new-approach-for-weak-dc-magnetic-field-detection
#3
Zhaoqiang Chu, Huaduo Shi, Mohammad Javad PourhosseiniAsl, Jingen Wu, Weiliang Shi, Xiangyu Gao, Xiaoting Yuan, Shuxiang Dong
The magnetic flux gate sensors based on Faraday's Law of Induction are widely used for DC or extremely low frequency magnetic field detection. Recently, as the fast development of multiferroics and magnetoelectric (ME) composite materials, a new technology based on ME coupling effect is emerging for potential devices application. Here, we report a magnetoelectric flux gate sensor (MEFGS) for weak DC magnetic field detection for the first time, which works on a similar magnetic flux gate principle, but based on ME coupling effect...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819147/nitrogen-starvation-impacts-the-photosynthetic-performance-of-porphyridium-cruentum-as-revealed-by-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence
#4
Long-Sheng Zhao, Kang Li, Qian-Min Wang, Xiao-Yan Song, Hai-Nan Su, Bin-Bin Xie, Xi-Ying Zhang, Feng Huang, Xiu-Lan Chen, Bai-Cheng Zhou, Yu-Zhong Zhang
Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients needed for plants and algae to survive, and the photosynthetic ability of algae is related to nitrogen abundance. Red algae are unique photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms in the evolution of algae, as they contain phycobilisomes (PBSs) on their thylakoid membranes. In this report, the in vivo chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence kinetics of nitrogen-starved Porphyridium cruentum were analyzed to determine the effects of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthetic performance using a multi-color pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorometer...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819145/remote-sensing-of-seasonal-light-use-efficiency-in-temperate-bog-ecosystems
#5
R Tortini, N C Coops, Z Nesic, A Christen, S C Lee, T Hilker
Despite storing approximately half of the atmosphere's carbon, estimates of fluxes between wetlands and atmosphere under current and future climates are associated with large uncertainties, and it remains a challenge to determine human impacts on the net greenhouse gas balance of wetlands at the global scale. In this study we demonstrate that the relationship between photochemical reflectance index, derived from high spectral and temporal multi-angular observations, and vegetation light use efficiency was strong (r(2) = 0...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819112/tracing-nitrate-sources-with-dual-isotopes-and-long-term-monitoring-of-nitrogen-species-in-the-yellow-river-china
#6
Fu-Jun Yue, Si-Liang Li, Cong-Qiang Liu, Zhi-Qi Zhao, Hu Ding
A heavy load of nitrogenous compounds reflects nutrient loss and influences water quality in large rivers. Nitrogenous concentrations and dual isotopes of nitrate were measured to ascertain the spatial and temporal distributions of nitrate transformation in the Yellow River, the second-longest river in China. Assessment of the long-term record indicates that [NO3(-)-N] has increased by two-fold over the past three decades. Weekly observation of ammonium over a twelve-year period revealed high concentrations and suggests impairment of water quality, particularly since 2011...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818591/mobile-phosphorus-stratification-in-sediments-by-aluminum-immobilization
#7
Juan Lin, Qin Sun, Shiming Ding, Dan Wang, Yan Wang, Musong Chen, Lei Shi, Xianfang Fan, Daniel C W Tsang
There is a great heterogeneity in the distribution of mobile phosphorus (P) in natural sediments, while the assessment of P immobilization by amendment agents has mostly neglected this feature. In this study, the effects of aluminum sulfate (ALS) on P immobilization were investigated via a 60-day microcosm experiment using sampled sediment cores. The high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) techniques were first employed to establish the profiles of soluble reactive P (SRP) and DGT-labile P in aluminum-amended sediments at 2 and 1 mm resolutions, respectively...
August 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818368/review-metabolic-engineering-of-unusual-lipids-in-the-synthetic-biology-era
#8
REVIEW
Jose A Aznar-Moreno, Timothy P Durrett
The plant kingdom produces a variety of fatty acid structures, many of which possess functional groups useful for industrial applications. The species that produce these unusual fatty acids are often not suitable for large scale commercial production. The ability to create genetically modified plants, together with emerging synthetic biology approaches, offers the potential to develop alternative oil seed crops capable of producing high levels of modified lipids. In some cases, by combining genes from different species, non-natural lipids with a targeted structure can be conceived...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813485/magnetic-lenz-lenses-improve-the-limit-of-detection-in-nuclear-magnetic-resonance
#9
Nils Spengler, Peter T While, Markus V Meissner, Ulrike Wallrabe, Jan G Korvink
A high NMR detection sensitivity is indispensable when dealing with mass and volume-limited samples, or whenever a high spatial resolution is required. The use of miniaturised RF coils is a proven way to increase sensitivity, but situations may arise where space restrictions could prevent the use of a small resonant coil, e.g., in the interior of the smallest practicable micro-coils. We present the use of magnetic lenses, denoted as Lenz lenses due to their working principle, to focus the magnetic flux of an RF coil into a smaller volume and thereby locally enhance the sensitivity of the NMR experiment-at the expense of the total sensitive volume...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812547/lung-epithelial-cells-therapeutically-inducible-effectors-of-antimicrobial-defense
#10
REVIEW
M M Leiva-Juárez, J K Kolls, S E Evans
Lung epithelial cells are increasingly recognized to be active effectors of microbial defense, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune function in the lower respiratory tract. As immune sentinels, lung epithelial cells detect diverse pathogens through an ample repertoire of membrane-bound, endosomal, and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The highly plastic epithelial barrier responds to detected threats via modulation of paracellular flux, intercellular communications, mucin production, and periciliary fluid composition...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811533/plasma-metabolomics-profiling-of-maintenance-hemodialysis-based-on-capillary-electrophoresis-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#11
Shuxin Liu, Lichao Wang, Chunxiu Hu, Xin Huang, Hong Liu, Qiuhui Xuan, Xiaohui Lin, Xiaojun Peng, Xin Lu, Ming Chang, Guowang Xu
Uremia has been a rapidly increasing health problem in China. Hemodialysis (HD) is the main renal replacement therapy for uremia. The results of large-scale clinical trials have shown that the HD pattern is crucial for long-term prognosis of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) in uremic patients. Plasma metabolism is very important for revealing the biological insights linked to the therapeutic effects of the HD pattern on uremia. Alteration of plasma metabolites in uremic patients in response to HD therapy has been reported...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811364/mechanosensing-drives-acuity-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-recognition
#12
Yinnian Feng, Kristine N Brazin, Eiji Kobayashi, Robert J Mallis, Ellis L Reinherz, Matthew J Lang
T lymphocytes use surface [Formula: see text] T-cell receptors (TCRs) to recognize peptides bound to MHC molecules (pMHCs) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). How the exquisite specificity of high-avidity T cells is achieved is unknown but essential, given the paucity of foreign pMHC ligands relative to the ubiquitous self-pMHC array on an APC. Using optical traps, we determine physicochemical triggering thresholds based on load and force direction. Strikingly, chemical thresholds in the absence of external load require orders of magnitude higher pMHC numbers than observed physiologically...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811302/effects-of-temperature-and-uvr-on-organic-matter-fluxes-and-the-metabolic-activity-of-acropora-muricata
#13
Lucile Courtial, Christine Ferrier-Pagès, Stéphan Jacquet, Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa, Stéphanie Reynaud, Cécile Rottier, Fanny Houlbrèque
Coral bleaching events are predicted to occur more frequently in the coming decades with global warming. The susceptibility of corals to bleaching during thermal stress episodes depends on many factors, including the magnitude of thermal stress and irradiance. The interactions among these two factors, and in particular with ultra-violet radiation (UVR), the most harmful component of light, are more complex than assumed, and are not yet well understood. This paper explores the individual and combined effects of temperature and UVR on the metabolism of Acropora muricata, one of the most abundant coral species worldwide...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810056/crosstalk-between-transcription-and-metabolism-how-much-enzyme-is-enough-for-a-cell
#14
REVIEW
Stefano Donati, Timur Sander, Hannes Link
Cells employ various mechanisms for dynamic control of enzyme expression. An important mechanism is mutual feedback-or crosstalk-between transcription and metabolism. As recently suggested, enzyme levels are often much higher than absolutely needed to maintain metabolic flux. However, given the potential burden of high enzyme levels it seems likely that cells control enzyme expression to meet other cellular objectives. In this review, we discuss whether crosstalk between metabolism and transcription could inform cells about how much enzyme is optimal for various fitness aspects...
August 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808710/interface-nanoparticle-control-of-a-nanometer-water-pump
#15
Jiaye Su, Yunzhen Zhao, Chang Fang, Syed Bilal Ahmed, Yue Shi
Nanoparticles are highly versatile and exhibit broad applications in tuning material properties. Herein, we show through molecular dynamics simulations the possibility of a nanometer water pump, driven by the motion of nanoparticles (NPs) on a membrane surface. Surprisingly, considerable net water flux can be induced through a carbon nanotube (CNT) that is perpendicular to the NP motion. The water transport can occur in a highly controllable fashion, not only by using a single NP with different forces, but also by varying the CNT length or the NP number...
August 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808436/ewald-an-extended-wide-angle-laue-diffractometer-for-the-second-target-station-of-the-spallation-neutron-source
#16
Leighton Coates, Lee Robertson
Visualizing hydrogen atoms in biological materials is one of the biggest remaining challenges in biophysical analysis. While X-ray techniques have unrivaled capacity for high-throughput structure determination, neutron diffraction is uniquely sensitive to hydrogen atom positions in crystals of biological materials and can provide a more complete picture of the atomic and electronic structures of biological macromolecules. This information can be essential in providing predictive understanding and engineering control of key biological processes, for example, in catalysis, ligand binding and light harvesting, and to guide bioengineering of enzymes and drug design...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Crystallography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808333/noise-of-a-superconducting-magnetic-flux-sensor-based-on-a-proximity-josephson-junction
#17
R N Jabdaraghi, D S Golubev, J P Pekola, J T Peltonen
We demonstrate simultaneous measurements of DC transport properties and flux noise of a hybrid superconducting magnetometer based on the proximity effect (superconducting quantum interference proximity transistor, SQUIPT). The noise is probed by a cryogenic amplifier operating in the frequency range of a few MHz. In our non-optimized device, we achieve minimum flux noise ~4 μΦ0/Hz(1/2), set by the shot noise of the probe tunnel junction. The flux noise performance can be improved by further optimization of the SQUIPT parameters, primarily minimization of the proximity junction length and cross section...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808191/shunts-channels-and-lipoprotein-endosomal-traffic-a-new-model-of-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-the-hepatocyte
#18
Robert Scott Kiss, Allan Sniderman
The liver directs cholesterol metabolism in the organism. All the major fluxes of cholesterol within the body involve the liver: dietary cholesterol is directed to the liver; cholesterol from peripheral cells goes to the liver; the liver is a major site of cholesterol synthesis for the organism; cholesterol is secreted from the liver within the bile, within apoB lipoproteins and translocated to nascent HDL. The conventional model of cholesterol homeostasis posits that cholesterol from any source enters a common, rapidly exchangeable pool within the cell, which is in equilibrium with a regulatory pool...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807146/trp-channel-pores-and-local-calcium-signals
#19
REVIEW
Marie Mulier, Joris Vriens, Thomas Voets
Calcium signals control a plethora of essential cellular functions ranging from secretion and contraction to gene expression and sensory signaling cascades. An essential part of intracellular calcium signals originates from the transmembrane flux of calcium ions, which is mainly mediated through different calcium-permeable cation channels with variable calcium selectivity. Opening of individual calcium permeable channels induces a local cytosolic calcium rise that can be highly restricted in time and space...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806958/responses-of-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-to-heterologous-biosynthetic-pathways
#20
Konstantinos Vavitsas, Emil Østergaard Rue, Lára Kristín Stefánsdóttir, Thiyagarajan Gnanasekaran, Andreas Blennow, Christoph Crocoll, Steinn Gudmundsson, Poul Erik Jensen
BACKGROUND: There are an increasing number of studies regarding genetic manipulation of cyanobacteria to produce commercially interesting compounds. The majority of these works study the expression and optimization of a selected heterologous pathway, largely ignoring the wholeness and complexity of cellular metabolism. Regulation and response mechanisms are largely unknown, and even the metabolic pathways themselves are not fully elucidated. This poses a clear limitation in exploiting the rich biosynthetic potential of cyanobacteria...
August 15, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
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