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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100752/differential-vulnerability-of-ca1-versus-ca3-pyramidal-neurons-after-ischemia-possible-relationship-to-sources-of-zn2-accumulation-and-its-entry-into-and-prolonged-effects-on-mitochondria
#1
Yuliya V Medvedeva, Sung G Ji, Hong Z Yin, John H Weiss
: Excitotoxic mechanisms contribute to the degeneration of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after recurrent seizures and brain ischemia. However, susceptibility differs, with CA1 neurons degenerating preferentially after global ischemia and CA3 neurons after limbic seizures. Whereas most studies address contributions of excitotoxic Ca(2+) entry, it is apparent that Zn(2+) also contributes, reflecting accumulation in neurons either after synaptic release and entry through postsynaptic channels or upon mobilization from intracellular Zn(2+)-binding proteins such as metallothionein-III (MT-III)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091567/quantifying-the-relative-contributions-of-different-solute-carriers-to-aggregate-substrate-transport
#2
Mehdi Taslimifar, Lalita Oparija, Francois Verrey, Vartan Kurtcuoglu, Ufuk Olgac, Victoria Makrides
Determining the contributions of different transporter species to overall cellular transport is fundamental for understanding the physiological regulation of solutes. We calculated the relative activities of Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters using the Michaelis-Menten equation and global fitting to estimate the normalized maximum transport rate for each transporter (Vmax). Data input were the normalized measured uptake of the essential neutral amino acid (AA) L-leucine (Leu) from concentration-dependence assays performed using Xenopus laevis oocytes...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062679/posterior-uniportal-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-for-resection-of-the-apical-segment-of-the-right-lower-lobe-followed-by-completion-lobectomy
#3
Davor Stamenovic, Antje Messerschmidt
Uniportal thoracoscopic resections offer less pain and better cosmetic results. They are usually performed through an antero-lateral incision. Posterior uniportal approach has not been described yet. A 65-year-old female was admitted to our clinic for the treatment of an adenocarcinoma, located in the apical segment of the right lower lobe. Owing to the ideal location and size, anatomical segment resection and radical lymphadenectomy was planned. Fissureless video-assisted thoracoscopic resection of the apical segment of the right lower lobe, using a uniportal posterior approach was performed, followed by mediastinal lymphadenectomy...
January 6, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057556/brain-mitochondrial-calcium-transport-origins-of-the-set-point-concept-and-its-application-to-physiology-and-pathology
#4
David G Nicholls
The transport of calcium across the inner mitochondrial membrane plays a key role in neuronal physiology and pathology. The kinetic responses of the uniporter and efflux pathways are such that a cytosolic free calcium 'set-point' can be established - above which there is net calcium accumulation into the matrix that is reversed when plasma membrane transport lowers cytosolic calcium. Pathological activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor mediated sodium and calcium entry into the neuron, as occurs in stroke and spreading depression, places severe demands on both the ATP-generating and calcium loading capacities of the neuronal mitochondria as the set-point is exceeded...
January 2, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045016/the-three-herb-formula-shuang-huang-lian-stabilizes-mast-cells-through-activation-of-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter
#5
Yuan Gao, Rui Hou, Qiaoling Fei, Lei Fang, Yixin Han, Runlan Cai, Cheng Peng, Yun Qi
Mast cells (MCs) are key effector cells of IgE-FcεRI- or MrgprX2-mediated signaling event. Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL), a herbal formula from Chinese Pharmacopoeia, has been clinically used in type I hypersensitivity. Our previous study demonstrated that SHL exerted a non-negligible effect on MC stabilization. Herein, we sought to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the prominent anti-allergic ability of SHL. MrgprX2- and IgE-FcεRI-mediated MC activation in vitro and in vivo models were developed by using compound 48/80 (C48/80) and shrimp tropomyosin (ST), respectively...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039397/physical-exercise-in-aging-human-skeletal-muscle-increases-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-expression-levels-and-affects-mitochondria-dynamics
#6
Sandra Zampieri, Cristina Mammucari, Vanina Romanello, Laura Barberi, Laura Pietrangelo, Aurora Fusella, Simone Mosole, Gaia Gherardi, Christian Höfer, Stefan Löfler, Nejc Sarabon, Jan Cvecka, Matthias Krenn, Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Feliciano Protasi, Antonio Musarò, Marco Sandri, Rosario Rizzuto
Age-related sarcopenia is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass with decline in specific force, having dramatic consequences on mobility and quality of life in seniors. The etiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial and underlying mechanisms are currently not fully elucidated. Physical exercise is known to have beneficial effects on muscle trophism and force production. Alterations of mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis regulated by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) have been recently shown to affect muscle trophism in vivo in mice...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031475/physiological-characterization-of-a-plant-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Enrico Teardo, Luca Carraretto, Stephan Wagner, Elide Formentin, Smrutisanjita Behera, Sara De Bortoli, Veronique Larosa, Philippe Fuchs, Fiorella Lo Lo Schiavo, Anna Raffaello, Rosario Rizzuto, Alex Costa, Markus Schwarzländer, Ildiko Szabo
Over the recent years, several proteins that make up the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex (MCUC) mediating Ca2+uptake into the mitochondrial matrix have been identified in mammals, including the channel-forming protein MCU. Although six MCU gene homologs are conserved in the model plant Arabidopsis in which mitochondria can accumulate Ca2+, a functional characterization of plant MCU homologs has been lacking. Using electrophysiology we show that one isoform, AtMCU1, gives rise to a Ca2+-permeable channel activity that can be observed even in the absence of accessory proteins implicated in the formation of the active mammalian channel...
December 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018963/uniporter-substrate-binding-and-transport-reformulating-mechanistic-questions
#8
Xuejun C Zhang, Lei Han
Transporters are involved in material transport, signaling, and energy input in all living cells. One of the fundamental questions about transporters is concerned with the precise role of their substrate in driving the transport process. This is particularly important for uniporters, which must utilize the chemical potential of substrate as the only energy source driving the transport. Thus, uniporters present an excellent model for the understanding of how the difference in substrate concentration across the membrane is used as a driving force...
2016: Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007874/new-tubeless-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-for-small-pulmonary-nodules
#9
Shuben Li, Long Jiang, Keng-Leong Ang, Hanzhang Chen, Qinglong Dong, Hanyu Yang, Jingpei Li, Jianxing He
OBJECTIVE: Problems associated with intubation, chest drainage and urinary catheterization can have a negative impact on patient's recovery after thoracic surgery. We therefore evaluated the feasibility of a new tubeless (spontaneous ventilation without tracheal intubation, urinary catheterization, and no post-operative chest drain placement) approach to perform video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for small pulmonary nodules (SPN) less than 2cm in diameter. METHODS: From 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2014, 34 patients with SPNs were treated using tubeless VATS in our centre...
December 22, 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999784/a-patient-with-situs-inversus-totalis-and-lung-cancer-a-rare-combination
#10
Konstantinos Grapatsas, Anastasios Piyis, Konstantinos Neofotistos, Zoi Tsilogianni, Paul Zarogoulidis, Dimitrios Paliouras, Apostolos Gogakos, Nikolaos Barbetakis, John Organtzis, Ioannis Kioumis, Konstantinos Porpodis, Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt, Ilias Karapantzos, Chrysa Karapantzou, Kosmas Tsakiridis, Aggeliki Rapti, Charalampos Charalampidis, Konstantinos Kaselouris
Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare clinical entity which is characterized by a complete reverse anatomy of the thoracic cage and abdomen. There are a few reports of patients with SIT and lung cancer. The number of the cases that have been treated surgically is also very small. We report a case of an 80 years old patient who underwent left lower lobectomy after staging with uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and mediastinoscopy.
November 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995386/the-roles-of-mitochondrial-cation-channels-under-physiological-conditions-and-in-cancer
#11
Ildikò Szabò, Luigi Leanza
Bioenergetics has become central to our understanding of pathological mechanisms as well as the development of new therapeutic strategies and as a tool for gauging disease progression in neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. The view is emerging that inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) cation channels have a profound effect on mitochondrial function and, consequently, on the metabolic state and survival of the whole cell. Since disruption of the sustained integrity of mitochondria is strongly linked to human disease, pharmacological intervention offers a new perspective concerning neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer...
December 20, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991671/the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-the-heart-energetics-and-beyond
#12
Jennifer Q Kwong
Ca(2+) and mitochondria are inextricably linked to cardiac function and dysfunction. Ca(2+) is central cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and stimulates mitochondrial energy production to fuel contraction. Under pathological conditions of dysregulated Ca(2+) cycling, mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload activates cellular death pathways. Thus, in the cardiomyocyte, the mitochondrial Ca(2+) microdomain is where contraction, energy and death collide. A key component of mitochondrial Ca(2+) signalling is the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) complex (uniplex), an inner membrane Ca(2+) transporter and major pathway of mitochondrial Ca(2+) entry...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986867/sucrose-transporter-localization-and-function-in-phloem-loading-and-unloading
#13
Ricky J Milne, Jai M Perroux, Anne L Rae, Anke Reinders, John M Ward, Christina E Offler, John William Patrick, Christopher P L Grof
How sucrose transporters (SUTs) regulate phloem unloading in monocot stems is poorly understood and particularly so for species storing high sucrose concentrations. To this end Sorghum bicolor SUTs, SbSUT1 and SbSUT5 were characterized, by determining their transport properties heterologously expressed in yeast or Xenopus oocytes, and their in planta cellular- and sub-cellular localization. The plasma membrane-localized SbSUT1 and SbSUT5 exhibited a strong selectivity for sucrose and high sucrose affinities in Xenopus oocytes at pH 5...
December 16, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984203/ucp1-a-transporter-for-h-and-fatty-acid-anions
#14
REVIEW
Ambre M Bertholet, Yuriy Kirichok
Adaptive thermogenesis regulates core body temperature, controls fat deposition, and contributes strongly to the overall energy balance. This process occurs in brown fat and requires uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), an integral protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Classic biochemical studies revealed the general principle of adaptive thermogenesis: in the presence of long-chain fatty acids (FA), UCP1 increases the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane for H(+), which makes brown fat mitochondria produce heat rather than ATP...
October 27, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943495/the-mitochondrial-complexome-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Jennifer Senkler, Michael Senkler, Holger Eubel, Tatjana Hildebrandt, Christian Lengwenus, Peter Schertl, Markus Schwarzländer, Stephan Wagner, Ilka Wittig, Hans-Peter Braun
Mitochondria are central to cellular metabolism and energy conversion. In plants they also enable photosynthesis through additional components and functional flexibility. A majority of those processes rely on the assembly of individual proteins to larger protein complexes, some of which operate as large molecular machines. There has been a strong interest in the makeup and function of mitochondrial protein complexes and protein-protein interactions in plants, but the experimental approaches used typically suffer from selectivity or bias...
December 10, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940989/differential-vulnerability-of-ca1-vs-ca3-pyramidal-neurons-after-ischemia-possible-relationship-to-sources-of-zn2-accumulation-and-its-entry-into-and-prolonged-effects-on-mitochondria
#16
Yuliya V Medvedeva, Sunggoan Ji, Hong Z Yin, John H Weiss
: Excitotoxic mechanisms contribute to the degeneration of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after recurrent seizures and brain ischemia. However, susceptibility differs, with CA1 neurons preferentially degenerating after global ischemia, and CA3 neurons after limbic seizures. Whereas most studies address contributions of excitotoxic Ca(2+) entry, it is apparent that Zn(2+) also contributes, reflecting accumulation in neurons either after synaptic release and entry through post-synaptic channels or upon mobilization from intracellular Zn(2+) binding proteins like metallothionein-III (MT-III)...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924224/micu1-may-be-a-promising-intervention-target-for-gut-derived-sepsis-induced-by-intra-abdominal-hypertension
#17
Yuxin Leng, Qinggang Ge, Zhiling Zhao, Kun Wang, Gaiqi Yao
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is a common and serious complication in critically ill patients, for which there is no targeted therapy. IAH-induced dysfunction of intestinal barriers is closely associated with oxidative imbalances, which are considered to provide a pathophysiological basis for subsequent gut-derived sepsis. However, the upstream mechanism that produces oxidative damage during IAH remains unknown. It is not clear whether 'mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake 1' (MICU1, the key protein regulating the oxidative process) is involved in preventing Ca(2+)m (mitochondrial Ca(2+)) overload...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924223/mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore-induction-is-linked-to-formation-of-the-complex-of-atpase-c-subunit-polyhydroxybutyrate-and-inorganic-polyphosphate
#18
P A Elustondo, M Nichols, A Negoda, A Thirumaran, E Zakharian, G S Robertson, E V Pavlov
Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening allows free movement of ions and small molecules leading to mitochondrial membrane depolarization and ATP depletion that triggers cell death. A multi-protein complex of the mitochondrial ATP synthase has an essential role in mPTP. However, the molecular identity of the central 'pore' part of mPTP complex is not known. A highly purified fraction of mammalian mitochondria containing C-subunit of ATPase (C-subunit), calcium, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) forms ion channels with properties that resemble the native mPTP...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923677/intact-mitochondrial-ca-2-uniport-is-essential-for-agonist-induced-activation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-enos
#19
Suphachai Charoensin, Emrah Eroglu, Marissa Opelt, Helmut Bischof, Corina T Madreiter-Sokolowski, Andrijana Kirsch, Maria R Depaoli, Saša Frank, Astrid Schrammel, Bernd Mayer, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Wolfgang F Graier, Roland Malli
Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake regulates diverse endothelial cell functions and has also been related to nitric oxide (NO(•)) production. However, it is not entirely clear if the organelles support or counteract NO(•) biosynthesis by taking up Ca(2+). The objective of this study was to verify whether or not mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake influences Ca(2+)-triggered NO(•) generation by endothelial NO(•) synthase (eNOS) in an immortalized endothelial cell line (EA.hy926), respective primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and eNOS-RFP (red fluorescent protein) expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells...
January 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917343/a-new-bioinformatic-insight-into-the-associated-proteins-in-psychiatric-disorders
#20
Wenlong Zhao, Wenjing Yang, Shuanglin Zheng, Qiong Hu, Ping Qiu, Xinghua Huang, Xiaoqian Hong, Fenghua Lan
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric diseases severely affect the quality of patients' lives and bring huge economic pressure to their families. Also, the great phenotypic variability among these patients makes it difficult to investigate the pathogenesis. Nowadays, bioinformatics is hopeful to be used as an effective tool for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, which can identify sensitive biomarkers and explore associated signaling pathways. METHODS: In this study, we performed an integrated bioinformatic analysis on 1945 mental-associated proteins including 91 secreted proteins and 593 membrane proteins, which were screened from the Universal Protein Resource (Uniport) database...
2016: SpringerPlus
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