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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912753/radiographic-evaluation-of-early-periprosthetic-acetabular-bone-contrast-and-prosthetic-head-acetabular-coverage-after-uncemented-and-cemented-total-hip-prosthesis-in-dogs
#1
Ayman A Mostafa, Karin Lucas, Ingo Nolte, Patrick Wefstaedt
BACKGROUND: Coxofemoral osteoarthritis is a chronic, disabling condition affecting people and dogs, with THA providing an excellent return to function in severely affected joints. The principal role of THA is to restore an adequate range of motion to the hip joint while transferring load from the acetabulum in order to improve the survival of the implant and enhance the limb function in the short and long terms. The objectives of the study reported here were, therefore, to radiographically evaluate periprosthetic acetabular bone GV and to assess prosthetic head acetabular coverage after 4 months of uncemented and cemented THA in dogs...
December 3, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912242/deciphering-the-origin-of-dogs-from-fossils-to-genomes
#2
Adam H Freedman, Robert K Wayne
Understanding the timing and geographic context of dog origins is a crucial component for understanding human history, as well as the evolutionary context in which the morphological and behavioral divergence of dogs from wolves occurred. A substantial challenge to understanding domestication is that dogs have experienced a complicated demographic history. An initial severe bottleneck was associated with domestication followed by postdivergence gene flow between dogs and wolves, as well as population expansions, contractions, and replacements...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906065/dystrophin-deficient-dogs-with-reduced-myostatin-have-unequal-muscle-growth-and-greater-joint-contractures
#3
Joe N Kornegay, Daniel J Bogan, Janet R Bogan, Jennifer L Dow, Jiahui Wang, Zheng Fan, Naili Liu, Leigh C Warsing, Robert W Grange, Mihye Ahn, Cynthia J Balog-Alvarez, Steven W Cotten, Monte S Willis, Candice Brinkmeyer-Langford, Hongtu Zhu, Joe Palandra, Carl A Morris, Martin A Styner, Kathryn R Wagner
BACKGROUND: Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of muscle growth whose inhibition promotes muscle growth and regeneration. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice in which myostatin is knocked out or inhibited postnatally have a less severe phenotype with greater total mass and strength and less fibrosis and fatty replacement of muscles than mdx mice with wild-type myostatin expression. Dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) have previously been noted to have increased muscle mass and reduced fibrosis after systemic postnatal myostatin inhibition...
April 4, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901393/comparison-of-desired-radiographic-advancement-distance-and-true-advancement-distance-required-for-patellar-tendon-tibial-plateau-angle-reduction-to-the-ideal-90%C3%A2-in-dogs-by-use-of-the-modified-maquet-technique
#4
Paul Pillard, Veronique Livet, Quentin Cabon, Camille Bismuth, Juliette Sonet, Denise Remy, Didier Fau, Claude Carozzo, Eric Viguier, Thibaut Cachon
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the validity of 2 radiographic methods for measurement of the tibial tuberosity advancement distance required to achieve a reduction in patellar tendon-tibial plateau angle (PTA) to the ideal 90° in dogs by use of the modified Maquet technique (MMT). SAMPLE 24 stifle joints harvested from 12 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES Radiographs of stifle joints placed at 135° in the true lateral position were used to measure the required tibial tuberosity advancement distance with the conventional (A(M)) and correction (A(E)) methods...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900398/-dyspnea-and-skin-rash-in-a-49-year-old-male-patient
#5
I El-Battrawy, U Ansari, M Behnes, W Kirschstein, S Britsch, C Jabbour, C Fastner, V Bill, M Borggrefe, I Akin
We report on the case of a 49-year-old man who presented with increasing dyspnea and a skin rash. The community-acquired pneumonia was initially treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. The patient's respiratory condition rapidly worsened and the clinical picture of Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome developed with disseminated intravasal coagulopathy and necrosis of the toes. An infection with Capnocytophaga canimorsus, which had been caused by an initially unmentioned dog bite was confirmed. In view of the fulminant course and the high risk of operative treatment of the ubiquitous necroses in all limbs, a joint decision for deescalation of therapy was made together with relatives...
November 29, 2016: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896194/osteomyelitis-following-domestic-animal-bites-to-the-hand-two-case-reports-and-practical-guidelines
#6
Jung Soo Lim, Jin Hwan Byun, Kyung Hee Min, Hye Kyung Lee, Yun Sun Choi
Recently, the number of cases of animal bite wounds has increased significantly in concordance with an increase in the pet population around the world. The authors report two rare cases of osteomyelitis of the phalanx following cat and dog bites. On initial physical examination, signs of a severe infection were observed. Radiographs of both patients showed the presence of osteomyelitis, and in one of the patients, the diagnosis was confirmed with a bone biopsy. After use of empirical antibiotics, intravenous antibiotic therapy that matched the identified bacterium's sensitivity was initiated, and at the same time, secure dressing including debridement was performed to induce secondary healing...
November 2016: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893158/articular-cartilage-scores-in-cranial-cruciate-ligament-deficient-dogs-with-or-without-bucket-handle-tears-of-the-medial-meniscus
#7
Kathryn Kaufman, Brian S Beale, Howard D Thames, W Brian Saunders
OBJECTIVE: To compare articular cartilage scores in cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient dogs with or without concurrent bucket handle tears (BHT) of the medial meniscus. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs treated with arthroscopy and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy or extracapsular repair for complete CCL rupture (290 stifles from 264 dogs). METHODS: Medical records and arthroscopic images were reviewed...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884141/normal-patellofemoral-kinematic-patterns-during-daily-activities-in-dogs
#8
Erica J Moore, Stanley E Kim, Scott A Banks, Antonio Pozzi, Jason D Coggeshall, Stephen C Jones
BACKGROUND: Patellar abnormalities are a common cause of pain and lameness in dogs; however, in vivo the relative motion between the femur and patella in dogs is not well described. The objective of this study was to define normal in vivo sagittal plane patellofemoral kinematics in three axes of motion using non-invasive methods. We hypothesized patellofemoral alignment in the sagittal plane would tightly correlate with the femorotibial flexion angle. Six healthy dogs without orthopedic disease underwent computed tomography (CT) of their hind limbs to create 3-D models of the patella and femur...
November 25, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875090/clinical-computed-tomographic-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-histologic-findings-associated-with-myxomatous-neoplasia-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-in-two-dogs
#9
Arana Parslow, David P Taylor, David J Simpson
CASE DESCRIPTION A 15-year-old neutered female mixed-breed dog (dog 1) and an 11-year-old neutered female Labrador Retriever (dog 2) were examined because of unilateral exophthalmus, third eyelid protrusion, and periorbital swelling that failed to respond to antimicrobial treatment. CLINICAL FINDINGS Both dogs underwent ultrasonographic, CT, and MRI examination of the head. In both dogs, advanced imaging revealed a poorly defined, peripherally contrast-enhancing, mucous-filled cystic mass that radiated from the temporomandibular joint and infiltrated the periorbital tissues and retrobulbar space...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872726/reconstruction-of-long-digital-extensor-tendon-by-cranial-tibial-muscle-fascia-graft-in-a-dog
#10
Behrokh Marzban Abbasabadi, Aliakbar Ahmadzadeh, Shahab Ramezanpour, Amir Reza Hajati Ziabari
Tendon rupture in dogs is generally the result of a direct trauma. This report described the use of adjacent muscle autogenic fascial graft for reconstruction of distal rupture of long digital extensor tendon in a dog. A two-year-old male mix breed dog, was presented with a non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb and a deep rupture of lateral side of right tarsus. History taking revealed that this rupture appeared without any apparent cause, when walking around the farm, three days before. Radiography was done and no fracture was observed...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864846/monochorial-diamniotic-dizygotic-twins-in-a-german-shepherd-dog-a-case-report
#11
C Urhausen, K Wolf, A Beineke, C Dierks, M Schmicke, A Einspanier, A R Günzel-Apel
A 6.5-year-old clinically healthy German Shepherd Dog with regular oestrous cycles of 6 months was presented for pregnancy diagnosis on day 38 after ovulation (p.ov.). Ultrasonography revealed three individual placental sites in progressed resorption and two vital adequately developed foetuses sharing a joint placenta. On days 41 and 48 p.ov., sonographic signs indicated normal development of both foetuses, but on day 52 p.ov., both foetuses were found to be dead. A caesarean section was performed the same day...
November 18, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863550/cc-chemokine-ligand-2-and-cxc-chemokine-ligand-8-as-neutrophil-chemoattractant-factors-in-canine-idiopathic-polyarthritis
#12
Kohei Murakami, Shingo Maeda, Tomohiro Yonezawa, Naoaki Matsuki
Canine idiopathic polyarthritis (IPA) is characterized by increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the synovial fluid (SF). In humans, CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8) recruit monocytes and neutrophils, respectively, and are involved in various inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the roles of these chemokines in driving PMNs infiltration into the joints of dogs with IPA. SF samples were collected from dogs with IPA (n=19) and healthy controls (n=8), and the concentrations of SF CCL2 and CXCL8 were determined by ELISA...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849106/computed-tomography-and-radio-graphic-assessment-of-congruity-between-the-ulnar-trochlear-notch-and-humeral-trochlea-in-large-breed-dogs
#13
Sofia Alves-Pimenta, Mário M Ginja, Armando M Fernandes, António J Ferreira, Pedro Melo-Pinto, Bruno Colaço
OBJECTIVE: Assess the fit between the ulnar trochlear notch (UTN) and humeral trochlea (HT) in elbow radiographs and computed tomography (CT) images by measuring the curvature radii in normal joints. METHODS: Mediolateral extended view (MLE) and CT were performed on 16 elbows from cadaveric dogs weighing over 20 kg. Curves were traced at the subchondral level from the UTN central ridge and the HT sagittal groove related to the UTN on ~132° joint extension. Curvature radii were achieved using appropriate computer software...
November 16, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824893/an-age-associated-decline-in-thymic-output-differs-in-dog-breeds-according-to-their-longevity
#14
Angela Holder, Stephanie Mella, Donald B Palmer, Richard Aspinall, Brian Catchpole
The age associated decline in immune function is preceded in mammals by a reduction in thymic output. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence of a link between immune competence and lifespan. One approach to determining thymic output is to quantify signal joint T cell receptor excision circles (sj-TRECs), a method which has been developed and used in several mammalian species. Life expectancy and the rate of aging vary in dogs depending upon their breed. In this study, we quantified sj-TRECs in blood samples from dogs of selected breeds to determine whether there was a relationship between longevity and thymic output...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823373/clinical-features-and-pathological-joint-changes-in-dogs-with-erosive-immune-mediated-polyarthritis-13-cases-2004-2012
#15
Magen L Shaughnessy, Susannah J Sample, Carter Abicht, Caitlin Heaton, Peter Muir
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical features and pathological joint changes in dogs with erosive immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA). DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 13 dogs with erosive IMPA and 66 dogs with nonerosive IMPA. PROCEDURES The medical record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was reviewed to identify dogs with IMPA that were examined between October 2004 and December 2012. For each IMPA-affected dog, information extracted from the medical record included signalment, diagnostic test results, radiographic findings, and treatments administered...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821378/prevalence-of-humeral-head-osteochondrosis-in-the-greater-swiss-mountain-dog-and-the-border-collie-in-switzerland
#16
S Ohlerth, S Senn, U Geissbühler, P Kircher, M Flückiger
Osteochondrosis (OC) is common in large-breed dogs. According to the breeding guidelines of the Swiss kennel clubs, the shoulder joints are included in the radiographic screening for joint diseases in the Greater Swiss Mountain dog (GSMD) and the Border Collie (BC) since 1993 and 2003, respectively. The aim of this study was to estimate the overall prevalence of humeral head OC in these 2 breeds in Switzerland based on the data of the Swiss National Dysplasia Committees. All radiographs were re-evaluated to assess single radiographic changes...
November 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805725/laboratory-tests-for-diagnosing-and-monitoring-canine-leishmaniasis
#17
REVIEW
Saverio Paltrinieri, Luigi Gradoni, Xavier Roura, Andrea Zatelli, Eric Zini
Although several reviews on canine leishmaniasis have been published, none thoroughly described clinicopathologic abnormalities and their clinical usefulness. The aim of this review was to provide information concerning current diagnostic tests relevant for clinical pathologists and from a practical perspective. Specifically, in canine leishmaniasis, nonregenerative normocytic normochromic anemia, thrombocytopenia, or leukogram changes may be present. Clinical chemistry and urinalysis may indicate renal dysfunction (azotemia, decreased urine specific gravity, proteinuria) and an inflammatory/immune response (increased acute phase proteins [APP] or α2 - and/or γ-globulins)...
November 2, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805445/effects-of-denervation-of-the-hip-joint-on-results-of-clinical-observations-and-instrumented-gait-analysis-in-dogs-with-sodium-urate-crystal-induced-synovitis
#18
Elham A Hassan, Nicolaas E Lambrechts, Hsin-Yi Weng, Paul W Snyder, Gert J Breur
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of selective hip joint denervation on gait abnormalities and signs of hip joint pain in dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult hound-type dogs. PROCEDURES Minimally invasive denervation was performed on the right hip joint of each dog. Two weeks later, sodium urate was injected into the right hip joint to induce synovitis. Dogs were evaluated clinically and by use of instrumented gait analysis before and 2 weeks after minimally invasive denervation and 4, 8, and 24 hours after induction of synovitis...
November 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803843/canine-models-of-human-rare-disorders
#19
Marjo K Hytönen, Hannes Lohi
Millions of children worldwide are born with rare and debilitating developmental disorders each year. Although an increasing number of these conditions are being recognized at the molecular level, the characterization of the underlying pathophysiology remains a grand challenge. This is often due to the lack of appropriate patient material or relevant animal models. Dogs are coming to the rescue as physiologically relevant large animal models. Hundreds of spontaneous genetic conditions have been described in dogs, most with close counterparts to human rare disorders...
2016: Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793205/measurement-of-serum-c-reactive-protein-concentration-for-discriminating-between-suppurative-arthritis-and-osteoarthritis-in-dogs
#20
Anna Hillström, Jonas Bylin, Ragnvi Hagman, Karin Björhall, Harold Tvedten, Kristian Königsson, Tove Fall, Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen
BACKGROUND: In a dog with joint pain, it is important to determine whether it has suppurative joint disease, characterized by exudation of neutrophils in the synovial fluid, or not, as this affects choice of diagnostic tests and treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration could be used to discriminate between dogs with suppurative arthritis and osteoarthritis (OA). Furthermore, the concentrations of serum and synovial fluid interleukin (IL) 6 concentrations were measured in dogs with joint disease and in healthy dogs, and were correlated to serum CRP concentrations...
October 28, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
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