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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780606/trismus-masticatory-myositis-and-antibodies-against-type-2m-fibers-in-a-mixed-breed-cat
#1
Stanley W Blazejewski, G Diane Shelton
Case summary: A 1-year-old male neutered mixed breed cat presented with a 2 month history of inability to fully open the mouth when yawning and decreased ability to prehend food. Physical examination revealed severe bilaterally symmetrical masticatory muscle atrophy, a restricted vertical mandibular range of motion of 11-12 mm, and a normal body condition score. Skull radiography was normal. A canine ELISA system against unique masticatory muscle fibers (2M antibody titer), was positive at 1:1000 (reference interval <1:100 in dogs, and was <1:100 using serum from five archived normal cats), indicating the presence of cross-reacting antibodies...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775732/il4-10-fusion-protein-has-chondroprotective-anti-inflammatory-and-potentially-analgesic-effects-in-the-treatment-of-osteoarthritis
#2
C Steen-Louws, J Popov-Celeketic, S C Mastbergen, K Coeleveld, C E Hack, N Eijkelkamp, M Tryfonidou, S Spruijt, J A G van Roon, F P J G Lafeber
OBJECTIVE: Effective disease-modifying drugs for osteoarthritis (DMOAD) should preferably have chondroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity combined in a single molecule. We developed a fusion protein of IL4 and IL10 (IL4-10 FP), in which the biological activity of both cytokines is preserved. The present study evaluates the chondroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity of IL4-10 FP in in vitro and in vivo models of osteoarthritis. METHODS: Human osteoarthritic cartilage tissue and synovial tissue were cultured with IL4-10 FP...
May 15, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771960/the-great-indian-joint-families-of-free-ranging-dogs
#3
Manabi Paul, Anindita Bhadra
Cooperative breeding is an excellent example of cooperation in social groups. Domestic dogs have evolved from cooperatively hunting and breeding ancestors but have adapted to a facultatively social scavenging lifestyle on streets, and solitary living in human homes. Pets typically breed and reproduce under human supervision, but free-ranging dogs can provide insights into the natural breeding ecology of dogs. We conducted a five year-long field based behavioural study on parental care of free-ranging dogs in India...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769086/inflammatory-pattern-of-the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-in-dogs-with-canine-cruciate-ligament-disease
#4
Manuel R Schmidli, Bettina Fuhrer, Nadine Kurt, David Senn, Michaela Drögemüller, Ulrich Rytz, David E Spreng, Simone Forterre
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of inflammation during the pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) in dogs and despite the latest knowledge suggesting a significant role of adipose tissue in osteoarthritis, the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) was up to now mostly disregarded in veterinary investigations. In the present study, the inflammatory activity of the IFP, the main adipose structure within the stifle joint, was thoroughly investigated to evaluate its potential impact in the pathogenesis of this common disease of our canine companions...
May 16, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766508/repair-of-lumbosacral-fracture-luxation-with-bilateral-twisted-string-of-pearls-locking-plates
#5
U Segal, H Bar, J Shani
OBJECTIVES: To describe a surgical technique using bilateral twisted string-of-pearls locking plates for lumbosacral fracture-luxation in dogs and cats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twisted string-of-pearls locking plates were used to stabilise lumbosacral fracture-luxation between 2013 and 2017. Decompression of the cauda equina was achieved by dorsal laminectomy through a dorso-medial approach. Stabilisation was achieved using bilateral string-of-pearls plates attached to the lateral aspects of the vertebral body cranial to the fractured vertebra and the iliosacral joints...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766489/phenotypic-disparity-of-the-elbow-joint-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-carnivores
#6
Borja Figueirido
In this article, I use geometric morphometrics in 2D from a sample of 366 elbow joints to quantify phenotypic disparity in domestic dog breeds, in wild canids, and across the order Carnivora. The elbow joint is a well-established morphological indicator of forearm motion and, by extension, of functional adaptations towards locomotor or predatory behavior in living carnivores. The study of the elbow joint in domestic dogs allows the exploration of potential convergences between (i) pursuit predators and fast-running dogs, and (ii) ambush predators and fighting breeds...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755988/bite-forces-and-their-measurement-in-dogs-and-cats
#7
REVIEW
Se Eun Kim, Boaz Arzi, Tanya C Garcia, Frank J M Verstraete
Bite force is generated by the interaction of the masticatory muscles, the mandibles and maxillae, the temporomandibular joints (TMJs), and the teeth. Several methods to measure bite forces in dogs and cats have been described. Direct in vivo measurement of a bite in dogs has been done; however, bite forces were highly variable due to animal volition, situation, or specific measurement technique. Bite force has been measured in vivo from anesthetized dogs by electrical stimulation of jaw adductor muscles, but this may not be reflective of volitional bite force during natural activity...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755196/effect-of-a-commercially-available-fish-based-dog-food-enriched-with-nutraceuticals-on-hip-and-elbow-dysplasia-in-growing-labrador-retrievers
#8
Sabrina Manfredi, Francesco Di Ianni, Nicola Di Girolamo, Sergio Canello, Giacomo Gnudi, Gianandrea Guidetti, Francesca Miduri, Martina Fabbi, Eleonora Daga, Enrico Parmigiani, Sara Centenaro, Antonella Volta
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia in a group of growing Labrador retrievers fed a fish-based diet enriched with nutraceuticals with chondroprotective properties. The puppies ranged from 3 to 12 mo of age and were divided into 2 groups, each fed a different diet. The control diet consisted of a high quality, chicken-based dog food, while the test diet was a fish-based dog food, enriched with nutraceuticals. Hip and elbow joints were radiographed and scored at 6 and 12 mo of age...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747677/use-of-clinical-and-computed-tomography-findings-to-assess-long-term-unsatisfactory-outcome-after-femoral-head-and-neck-ostectomy-in-four-large-breed-dogs
#9
Ciprian Ober, Cosmin Pestean, Lucia Bel, Marian Taulescu, Joshua Milgram, Adrian Todor, Rodica Ungur, Mirela Leșu, Liviu Oana
Femoral head and neck ostectomy (FHNO) is a salvage surgical procedure intended to eliminate hip joint laxity associated pain in the immature dog, or pain due to secondary osteoarthritis in the mature dog. The outcome of the procedure is associated with the size of the dog but the cause of a generally poorer outcome in larger breeds has not been determined. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term results of FHNO associated with unsatisfactory functional outcome by means of clinical examination and computed tomography (CT) scanning...
May 10, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736586/large-animal-models-for-osteochondral-regeneration
#10
Isabel R Dias, Carlos A Viegas, Pedro P Carvalho
Namely, in the last two decades, large animal models - small ruminants (sheep and goats), pigs, dogs and horses - have been used to study the physiopathology and to develop new therapeutic procedures to treat human clinical osteoarthritis. For that purpose, cartilage and/or osteochondral defects are generally performed in the stifle joint of selected large animal models at the condylar and trochlear femoral areas where spontaneous regeneration should be excluded. Experimental animal care and protection legislation and guideline documents of the US Food and Drug Administration, the American Society for Testing and Materials and the International Cartilage Repair Society should be followed, and also the specificities of the animal species used for these studies must be taken into account, such as the cartilage thickness of the selected defect localization, the defined cartilage critical size defect and the joint anatomy in view of the post-operative techniques to be performed to evaluate the chondral/osteochondral repair...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733437/complex-mammary-carcinoma-with-metastases-to-lymph-nodes-subcutaneous-tissue-and-multiple-joints-in-a-dog
#11
Maggie R McCourt, Alexandra M Dieterly, Paige E Mackey, Shane D Lyon, Theresa E Rizzi, Jerry W Ritchey
An 8-year-old, intact female, mixed-breed dog presented to the Oklahoma State University Boren Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for evaluation of progressive lameness and joint effusion of multiple joints. Physical examination revealed joint effusion of the elbow, hock, and stifle joints bilaterally, enlarged left axillary and right popliteal lymph nodes, a subcutaneous mass over the left elbow, and a subcutaneous mass involving the left second and third mammary glands. Cytologic examination of the mammary mass, enlarged lymph nodes, and joint fluid from most affected joints revealed a monomorphic population of loosely cohesive neoplastic epithelial cells...
May 7, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729722/dental-and-temporomandibular-joint-pathology-of-the-grey-wolf-canis-lupus
#12
S Döring, B Arzi, J N Winer, P H Kass, F J M Verstraete
Skulls from 392 grey wolves (Canis lupus) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria. Two hundred and seven skulls were included in this study, comprised of 124 young adults (59.9%) and 83 adults (40.1%); of these, 65 (31.4%) specimens were from male wolves and 104 (50.3%) were from females, with 38 (18.4%) of unknown sex. Out of 8,694 possible teeth, 8,339 (95.9%) were present for evaluation. Fifty-five teeth (15.5%) were absent congenitally, 30 (8.5%) were lost during life and 270 (76...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727895/in-vivo-axial-humero-ulnar-rotation-in-normal-and-dysplastic-canine-elbow-joints
#13
Thomas Rohwedder, Martin Fischer, Peter Böttcher
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively compare relative axial (internal-external) humero-ulnar rotation in normal and dysplastic canine elbow joints. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six normal elbows (five dogs) and seven joints (six dogs) with coronoid disease were examined. After implantation of 0.8 mm tantalum beads into humerus and ulna, biplanar x-ray movies of the implanted elbows were taken while dogs were walking on a treadmill. Based on the 2D bead coordinates of the synchronized x-ray movies virtual 3D humero-ulnar animations were calculated...
April 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722132/a-comparison-of-food-habits-and-prey-preferences-of-amur-tiger-panthera-tigris-altaica-temminck-1844-at-the-southwest-primorskii-krai-in-russia-and-hunchun-in-china
#14
Jiayin Gu, Lan Yu, Yan Hua, Yao Ning, Bao Heng, Jinzhe Qi, Zexv Long, Mingyuan Yao, Chong Huang, Zhilin Li, Jianming Lang, Guangshun Jiang, Jianzhang Ma
A small, isolated Amur tiger population is living at the southwest Primorskii Krai in Russia and Hunchun in China region. Many of them with "dual nationality" cross the border frequently. Formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger food requirements in both Russia and China sides, while Russia side already have clear results of it. We used scat analysis combined with data on the abundance of four prey species to estimate Amur tiger diet and prey preferences in Hunchun...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695325/cruciate-ligament-degeneration-and-stifle-joint-synovitis-in-56-dogs-with-intact-cranial-cruciate-ligaments-correlation-of-histological-findings-and-numbers-and-phenotypes-of-inflammatory-cells-with-age-body-weight-and-breed
#15
Anna-Katharina Döring, Johannes Junginger, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein
The majority of dogs with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments (crCLs) have inflammatory changes of the stifle joint suggesting that synovitis is an important factor which is involved in the development of degenerative ligament changes. Detailed information is not available concerning the possible occurrence of inflammatory changes in the stifle joint synovium of dogs with macroscopically intact crCLs and its correlation with presence and severity of degenerative changes of the crCLs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine post mortem tissue samples of 56 dogs with non-ruptured crCLs histologically for the presence of inflammatory and degenerative changes of the stifle joint synovium and cruciate ligaments, respectively...
February 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695269/effect-of-a-single-intra-articular-injection-of-bupivacaine-on-synovial-fluid-prostaglandin-e-2-concentrations-in-normal-canine-stifles
#16
Jenna E Giangarra, Sabrina L Barry, Linda A Dahlgren, Otto I Lanz, Marian E Benitez, Stephen R Werre
OBJECTIVE: To identify if synovial fluid prostaglandin E2 increases in response to a single intra-articular dose of bupivacaine in the normal canine stifle. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in synovial fluid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) concentrations between treatment groups or over time within bupivacaine or saline groups. Samples requiring ≥ 3 arthrocentesis attempts had significantly higher PGE2 concentrations compared to samples requiring 1 or 2 attempts...
April 25, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692993/megavoltage-radiotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-degenerative-joint-disease-in-dogs-results-of-a-preliminary-experience-in-an-italian-radiotherapy-centre
#17
Federica Rossi, Simona Cancedda, Vito Ferdinando Leone, Carla Rohrer Bley, Paola Laganga
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a low-dose radiotherapy treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA). Inclusion criteria were dogs affected by OA of one or multiple joints, with lameness, previously treated with medical therapy and referred for radiotherapy because of chronic unresponsive pain. After suspension of medical therapy, dogs underwent external beam radiotherapy treatments delivered in three fractions of 2 Gy each. Four of these dogs had one (three dogs) to four (one dog) additional courses of radiation...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688780/hyaluronic-acid-synthase-2-gene-transfer-into-the-joints-of-beagles-by-use-of-recombinant-adeno-associated-viral-vectors
#18
Sirkka Kyostio-Moore, Patricia Berthelette, Cathleen Sookdeo Cornell, Bindu Nambiar, Monica Dias Figueiredo
OBJECTIVE To evaluate gene transfer of recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors with AAV2 or AAV5 capsid and encoding hyaluronic acid (HA) synthase-2 (HAS2) into joints of healthy dogs. ANIMALS 22 purpose-bred Beagles. PROCEDURES Plasmid expression cassettes encoding canine HAS2 (cHAS2) were assessed in vitro for concentration and molecular size of secreted HA. Thereafter, rAAV2-cHAS2 vectors at 3 concentrations and rAAV5-cHAS2 vectors at 1 concentration were each administered intra-articularly into the left stifle joint of 5 dogs; 2 dogs received PBS solution instead...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680400/an-investigation-of-mechanical-nociceptive-thresholds-in-dogs-with-hind-limb-joint-pain-compared-to-healthy-control-dogs
#19
L K Harris, H R Whay, J C Murrell
This study investigated the effects of osteoarthritis (OA) on somatosensory processing in dogs using mechanical threshold testing. A pressure algometer was used to measure mechanical thresholds in 27 dogs with presumed hind limb osteoarthritis and 28 healthy dogs. Mechanical thresholds were measured at the stifles, radii and sternum, and were correlated with scores from an owner questionnaire and a clinical checklist, a scoring system that quantified clinical signs of osteoarthritis. The effects of age and bodyweight on mechanical thresholds were also investigated...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643866/joint-genomic-prediction-of-canine-hip-dysplasia-in-uk-and-us-labrador-retrievers
#20
Stefan M Edwards, John A Woolliams, John M Hickey, Sarah C Blott, Dylan N Clements, Enrique Sánchez-Molano, Rory J Todhunter, Pamela Wiener
Canine hip dysplasia, a debilitating orthopedic disorder that leads to osteoarthritis and cartilage degeneration, is common in several large-sized dog breeds and shows moderate heritability suggesting that selection can reduce prevalence. Estimating genomic breeding values require large reference populations, which are expensive to genotype for development of genomic prediction tools. Combining datasets from different countries could be an option to help build larger reference datasets without incurring extra genotyping costs...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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