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Skin and coat dogs

Sheila Torres, Jonathan B Clayton, Jessica L Danzeisen, Tonya Ward, Hu Huang, Dan Knights, Timothy J Johnson
It has previously been shown that domestic dogs and their household owners share bacterial populations, and that sharing of bacteria between humans is facilitated through the presence of dogs in the household. However, less is known regarding the bacterial communities of dogs, how these communities vary by location and over time, and how cohabitation of dogs themselves influences their bacterial community. Furthermore, the effects of factors such as breed, hair coat length, sex, shedding, and age on the canine skin microbiome is unknown...
2017: PeerJ
Zhanyu Du, Kai Huang, Jiaping Zhao, Xingchao Song, Xiumei Xing, Qiong Wu, Linbo Zhang, Chao Xu
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an important canid fur-bearing animal species worldwide. Chinese raccoon dogs that present a white mutation, especially those with a white coat. Exploring melanin biosynthesis in the hair and skin of raccoon dogs is important for understanding the survival and evolutionary mechanisms of them. In this study, we measured the content of melanin in the hair of two types of raccoon dog and generated stained slices of skin tissue. The results indicated that melanin biosynthesis occurs in the wild-type (W) and white-type (B) raccoon dog skin, although less melanin is produced in B skin...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Scott S Graves, Andrew Rezvani, George Sale, Diane Stone, Maura Parker, Steven Rosinski, Michele Spector, Bruce Swearingen, Leslie Kean, Rainer Storb
In long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality and a major determinant of quality of life. Chronic GVHD responds poorly to current immunosuppressive drugs, and while T cell depletion may be preventive, this gain is offset by increased relapse rates. A significant impediment to progress in treating chronic GVHD has been the limitations of existing animal models. The goal of this study was to develop a reproducible comprehensive model of chronic GVHD in the dog...
March 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
R Bond, K Varjonen, A Hendricks, Y M Chang, H Brooks Brownlie
OBJECTIVES: To gain information on hair loss amongst curly coated retrievers by questionnaire and to define the clinical and pathological features of hair coat abnormalities in affected dogs in the United Kingdom and Sweden. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Questionnaires were completed by members of the Curly Coated Retriever Clubs. Fourteen dogs (six in the United Kingdom, eight in Sweden) were clinically examined and skin/hair samples collected for microscopy and histopathology...
December 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
R B P Torrecilha, Y T Utsunomiya, A M Bosco, B F Almeida, P P Pereira, L G Narciso, D C M Pereira, L Baptistiolli, L Calvo-Bado, O Courtenay, C M Nunes, P C Ciarlini
Intensity of peripheral parasite infection has an important role in the transmission of Leishmania spp. from one host to another. As parasite load quantification is still an expensive procedure to be used routinely in epidemiological surveillance, the use of surrogate predictors may be an important asset in the identification of dogs with high transmitting ability. The present study examined whether common clinical and laboratory alterations can serve as predictors of peripheral parasitism in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania spp...
September 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Katharina Fleck, Georg Erhardt, Gesine Lühken
Leucism is characterized by a complete or partial white skin and hair in combination with pigmented irides, which can be vivid blue or heterochromatic. This is due to a complete or partial lack of melanocytes. The underlying pathogenesis is a disturbed emigration or differentiation of neural crest-derived cells. Therefore, leucistic phenotypes can be associated with defects, which mainly impair sensory organs and nerves. In humans, a well-known example is the Waardenburg syndrome. Leucism-associated disorders were also described in mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, mink, cat, dog, pig, sheep, llama, alpaca, cattle and horse...
July 2016: Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift
Giordana Zanna, Paola Roccabianca, Eric Zini, Sara Legnani, Fabia Scarampella, Silvana Arrighi, Antonella Tosti
BACKGROUND: Dermoscopic studies evaluating noninflammatory, nonpruritic progressive alopecia attributable to pattern alopecia are currently unavailable. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the dermoscopic features observed in healthy skin of short coated dogs and compare these findings with those observed in dogs affected by pattern alopecia diagnosed by clinical and dermatopathological examination. ANIMALS: Thirty male and female, healthy, breed matched, young adult, short coated dogs (controls) and 30 male and female, young adult, short coated dogs affected by pattern alopecia...
July 18, 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
Koji Wakame, Hiroshi Okawa, Ken-Ich Komatsu, Akifumi Nakata, Keisuke Sato, Hiroyuki Ingawa, Chie Kohchi, Takashi Nishizawa, Gen-Ichiro Soma
BACKGROUND/AIM: The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like compound derived from Pantoea agglomerans (immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)) has been used not only as dietary supplement or cosmetic for humans, but also by Japanese veterinarians as an anti-tumor, anti-allergy, "keep a fine coat of fur" and hair growth-promoting functional food for dogs and cats. In the present study, we focused on the hair growth-promoting effects of IP-PA1 on a hair-shaved animal model and its mechanism of action...
July 2016: Anticancer Research
Gustavo A Ramírez, Francisco Rodríguez, Óscar Quesada, Pedro Herráez, Antonio Fernández, Antonio Espinosa-de-Los-Monteros
Merkel cells (MCs) are specialized cutaneous receptor cells involved with tactile sense. Although the distribution of MCs has been extensively studied in humans and rodents, their precise distribution and density throughout skin in the dog has not previously been determined. Knowledge of their distribution could facilitate understanding of their functions. By using of immunohistochemistry, density, and anatomical mapping of the MCs population in the dog skin was determined. Assessment of the MCs innervation was also achieved...
September 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Julia P Sumner, Cherie M Pucheu-Haston, Natalie Fowlkes, Sandra Merchant
A 5-year-old neutered male brown dachshund dog was presented for a large dorsal cutaneous burn that occurred following direct sunlight exposure outdoors in high ambient temperatures. Although burns are quite common in dogs, full-thickness solar-induced radiation burns are less common and have not been previously reported in animals without a black hair coat.
March 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Johanna Roine, Liisa Uusitalo, Anna Hielm-Björkman
BACKGROUND: The DOGRISK questionnaire is an internet-based ongoing study of canine nutrition, living environment, and disease. Here we aim to assess the performance of the questionnaire using data from the first three years in relation to some descriptive and disease variables. We used associated questions, official register records, test-retest repeatability, and email/mail contact with questionnaire respondents. RESULTS: Reliability against an official register of gender, season of birth, breed, and results of hip radiography was tested and Cohen's Kappa was between 0...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Wanbo Li, Arnaud Sartelet, Nico Tamma, Wouter Coppieters, Michel Georges, Carole Charlier
In the course of a reverse genetic screen in the Belgian Blue cattle breed, we uncovered a 10-bp deletion (c.87_96del) in the first coding exon of the melanophilin gene (MLPH), which introduces a premature stop codon (p.Glu32Aspfs*1) in the same exon, truncating 94% of the protein. Recessive damaging mutations in the MLPH gene are well known to cause skin, hair, coat or plumage color dilution phenotypes in numerous species, including human, mice, dog, cat, mink, rabbit, chicken and quail. Large-scale array genotyping undertaken to identify p...
February 2016: Animal Genetics
Thierry Olivry, Douglas J DeBoer, Claude Favrot, Hilary A Jackson, Ralf S Mueller, Tim Nuttall, Pascal Prélaud
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the International Task Force on Canine Atopic Dermatitis (now International Committee on Allergic Diseases of Animals, ICADA) published the first consensus guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) in dogs. This is the first 5-year minor update of this document. RESULTS: The treatment of acute flares of AD should involve the search for, and then elimination of, the cause of the flares, bathing with mild shampoos, and controlling pruritus and skin lesions with interventions that include topical and/or oral glucocorticoids or oclacitinib...
2015: BMC Veterinary Research
Steve Stoll, Christian Dietlin, Claudia S Nett-Mettler
BACKGROUND: Alopecia X (hair cycle arrest) is a relatively frequent hair growth disorder in Pomeranians and several other breeds, characterized by symmetrical, noninflammatory alopecia without systemic signs. The cause and pathogenesis remain unknown. Previously reported treatments with various topical and systemic drugs have been variably successful. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that superficial mechanical skin trauma applied with a microneedling device would induce long-term hair regrowth at treated sites...
October 2015: Veterinary Dermatology
Eleonora Malerba, Maria Morini, Federico Fracassi
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is presumed to be an autoimmune disorder in the dog; primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) is associated with immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal cortex. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: In this case report we describe a dog with primary hypoadrenocorticism that developed generalized vitiligo. CASE REPORT: A 4-year-old spayed female cross-bred dog developed signs of Addison's disease and this was confirmed by biochemical testing; the dog was treated with fludrocortisone acetate and then desoxycorticosterone pivalate...
October 2015: Veterinary Dermatology
Lily N Johnson, Cailin R Heinze, Deborah E Linder, Lisa M Freeman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate marketing claims, ingredients, and nutrient profiles of over-the-counter diets marketed for skin and coat health of dogs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE: 24 over-the-counter dry and canned diets marketed for skin and coat health of dogs. PROCEDURES: Data on marketing claims and ingredients were collected from diet packaging and manufacturer websites. Concentrations of selected nutrients were obtained by contacting the manufacturers and were compared against minimum values for Association of American Feed Control Officials Dog Food Nutrient Profiles for adult dog maintenance based on calorie content...
June 15, 2015: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Josephus J Fourie, Julian E Liebenberg, Ivan G Horak, Janina Taenzler, Anja R Heckeroth, Regis Frénais
BACKGROUND: This laboratory study compared the efficacy of Bravecto™ (fluralaner), formulated as a chewable tablet, with the efficacy of Advocate® (imidacloprid/moxidectin), formulated for topical administration, against naturally acquired generalized demodicosis in dogs. METHODS: Sixteen dogs, all diagnosed with generalized demodectic mange, were randomly allocated to two equal groups. Bravecto™ chewable tablets were administered once orally at a minimum dose of 25 mg fluralaner/kg body weight to one group of dogs, while the second group was treated topically on three occasions at 28-day intervals with Advocate® at a minimum dose of 10 mg imidacloprid/kg body weight and 2...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Dominique J Wiener, Marcus G Doherr, Eliane J Müller, Maja M Suter, Monika M Welle
BACKGROUND: Follicular stem cells and their progeny are responsible for the cyclical renewal of hair follicles and maintenance of the hair coat. The understanding of pathways involved in this process is essential to elucidate the pathogenetic mechanisms of primary alopecia. Stem cells and their direct descendants are located in the bulge region of the isthmus of hair follicles. Although these cells have been studied extensively in mice and humans, data for canine isthmic keratinocyte activation and proliferation are not available...
June 2015: Veterinary Dermatology
Tomio Yabe, Ritsuko Hosoda-Yabe, Hiroki Sakai, Yoshihiro Kanamaru, Makoto Kiso
We previously identified a peptide heparin-associated peptide Y (HappY) that binds specifically to heparin. In this article, we report a novel heparin detection system using chemically modified HappY as a probe. The photoreactive HappY probe was serially diluted and dispensed into a 96-well plate coated with biotinylated heparin. After ultraviolet irradiation, the HappY probe crosslinked to the heparin on the plate was detected with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated streptavidin. Furthermore, the photoreactive HappY probe was used to stain cutaneous tissue sections obtained from dermatitis-affected or mastocytoma-affected cats and dogs...
March 1, 2015: Analytical Biochemistry
Lara Olivieri, Damiano Cavina, Giada Radicchi, Vincenzo Miragliotta, Francesca Abramo
BACKGROUND: Canine noninflammatory alopecia (CNA) is a heterogeneous group of skin diseases with different underlying pathogenesis. The therapeutic approach is challenging, and new options for treatment are desirable. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To test the clinical efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on hair regrowth in CNA. ANIMALS: Seven dogs of different ages, breeds and genders with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of noninflammatory alopecia...
February 2015: Veterinary Dermatology
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