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Félix Proulx-Giraldeau, Thomas J Rademaker, Paul François
Complex mathematical models of interaction networks are routinely used for prediction in systems biology. However, it is difficult to reconcile network complexities with a formal understanding of their behavior. Here, we propose a simple procedure (called ϕ¯) to reduce biological models to functional submodules, using statistical mechanics of complex systems combined with a fitness-based approach inspired by in silico evolution. The ϕ¯ algorithm works by putting parameters or combination of parameters to some asymptotic limit, while keeping (or slightly improving) the model performance, and requires parameter symmetry breaking for more complex models...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
B A Loureiro, M Monti, R S Pedreira, A Vitta, P D G Pacheco, T C Putarov, A C Carciofi
Hairball formation may induce vomiting and intestinal obstruction in predisposed cats. Some insoluble fibres as sugarcane fibre and cellulose can prevent hairball formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of beet pulp consumption, a moderate soluble and fermentable fibre source, on faecal trichobezoars excretion in adult shorthaired cats fed kibble diets. Eighteen mixed-breed shorthaired cats and three extruded diets were used as follows: a basal diet without added fibre source (PB0-8.8% dietary fibre); BP8-8% inclusion of beet pulp (17...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Luca Cindolo, Maida Bada, Roberto Bellocci, Piergustavo De Francesco, Pietro Castellan, Francesco Berardinelli, Fabio Neri, Luigi Schips
Trichobezoar is a rare condition whereby a hairball is found in the human stomach or gastrointestinal tract, most frequently in young women, mainly in association with a psychiatric disorder. Trichobezoar cases have also been reported in the bladder and represent a rare complication of foreign bodies, called "hair nidus or hair ball," in patients with chronic catheter. Approximately 10% to 15% of patients on long-term urethral catheter or clean intermittent self-catheterization develop urinary tract stones...
2017: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
Jiu-Ling Zhao, Wei-Chuan Zhao, Yu-Shui Wang
RATIONALE: Trichophytobezoars, which are composed of hair and plant fibers, are usually located in the stomach. They are often associated with trichophagia and trichotillomania. The most commonly reported methods of trichophytobezoar treatment are open surgery and laparoscopic retrieval; there are few reports of endoscopic removal of trichophytobezoars. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: Twelve-year-old girl presented with a 3-day history of increasing upper abdominal pain, anorexia, and postprandial emesis...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zhe Wang, Feng Cao, Diangang Liu, Yu Fang, Fei Li
Trichobezoars are hairballs or hair-like fibers formed by chewing and swallowing hair or any other indigestible materials. Trichobezoars usually form in the gastric body and are thus prepyloric. However, trichobezoars may rarely pass through the pylorus into the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and even the colon, in a condition referred to as Rapunzel syndrome. Here, we present a case of a 13-year-old girl with this rare syndrome and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
November 2016: Acta Radiologica Open
Waqas Ullah, Kaiser Saleem, Ejaz Ahmad, Faiz Anwer
Rapunzel syndrome is an extremely rare condition associated with trichophagia (hair eating disorder) secondary to a psychiatric illness called trichotillomania (hair-pulling behaviour). It is most commonly seen in children and adolescents. Untreated cases can lead to a number of complications. We present a case of a middle-aged woman with sudden intractable vomiting and constipation associated with bilateral pedal oedema and significant weight loss. Laboratory investigations revealed low serum protein levels...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Lancelot Marique, Michel Wirtz, Arnaud Henkens, Emilie Delchambre, Monfred Rezaï, Christian Venet, Jean-Pierre Staudt
Trichotillomania and trichotillophagia can cause the formation of enormous intragastric hairballs. We report the case of a 13-year-old girl who was brought to the emergency service for evaluation of an acute abdomen. Abdominal CT scanner showed a giant gastric trichobezoar which had to be removed by susombilical laparotomy and transverse gastrotomy. This case illustrates the fairly uncommon perforation risk of these gastric bezoars.
June 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Koon-Kiu Yan, Daifeng Wang, Anurag Sethi, Paul Muir, Robert Kitchen, Chao Cheng, Mark Gerstein
Biological systems are complex. In particular, the interactions between molecular components often form dense networks that, more often than not, are criticized for being inscrutable 'hairballs'. We argue that one way of untangling these hairballs is through cross-disciplinary network comparison-leveraging advances in other disciplines to obtain new biological insights. In some cases, such comparisons enable the direct transfer of mathematical formalism between disciplines, precisely describing the abstract associations between entities and allowing us to apply a variety of sophisticated formalisms to biology...
March 23, 2016: Cell Systems
Arlind Nocaj, Mark Ortmann, Ulrik Brandes
Small-world networks have characteristically low pairwise shortest-path distances, causing distance-based layout methods to generate hairball drawings. Recent approaches thus aim at finding a sparser representation of the graph to amplify variations in pairwise distances. Since the effect of sparsification on the layout is difficult to describe analytically, the incorporated filtering parameters of these approaches typically have to be selected manually and individually for each input instance. We here propose the use of graph invariants to determine suitable parameters automatically...
February 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Navid Dianati
Empirical networks of weighted dyadic relations often contain "noisy" edges that alter the global characteristics of the network and obfuscate the most important structures therein. Graph pruning is the process of identifying the most significant edges according to a generative null model and extracting the subgraph consisting of those edges. Here, we focus on integer-weighted graphs commonly arising when weights count the occurrences of an "event" relating the nodes. We introduce a simple and intuitive null model related to the configuration model of network generation and derive two significance filters from it: the marginal likelihood filter (MLF) and the global likelihood filter (GLF)...
January 2016: Physical Review. E
Samuel Croset, Joachim Rupp, Martin Romacker
MOTIVATION: The increasing diversity of data available to the biomedical scientist holds promise for better understanding of diseases and discovery of new treatments for patients. In order to provide a complete picture of a biomedical question, data from many different origins needs to be combined into a unified representation. During this data integration process, inevitable errors and ambiguities present in the initial sources compromise the quality of the resulting data warehouse, and greatly diminish the scientific value of the content...
March 15, 2016: Bioinformatics
Erica Y Kao, Nicholas J Scalzitti, Gregory R Dion, Sarah N Bowe
Objectives. (1) Report the case of a 5-year-old female with trichotillomania and trichophagia that suffered airway compromise during esophagogastroduodenoscopy for removal of a trichobezoar. (2) Provide management recommendations for an unusual foreign body causing extubation and partial airway obstruction. Methods. Case report of a rare situation of airway compromise caused by a trichobezoar. Results. A 5-year-old patient underwent endoscopic retrieval of a gastric trichobezoar (hairball) by the gastroenterology service under general endotracheal anesthesia in a sedation unit...
2015: Case Reports in Medicine
Katherine E Isaacs, Peer-Timo Bremer, Ilir Jusufi, Todd Gamblin, Abhinav Bhatele, Martin Schulz, Bernd Hamann
With the continuous rise in complexity of modern supercomputers, optimizing the performance of large-scale parallel programs is becoming increasingly challenging. Simultaneously, the growth in scale magnifies the impact of even minor inefficiencies--potentially millions of compute hours and megawatts in power consumption can be wasted on avoidable mistakes or sub-optimal algorithms. This makes performance analysis and optimization critical elements in the software development process. One of the most common forms of performance analysis is to study execution traces, which record a history of per-process events and interprocess messages in a parallel application...
December 2014: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Bruna A Loureiro, Guilherme Sembenelli, Ana P J Maria, Ricardo S Vasconcellos, Fabiano C Sá, Nilva K Sakomura, Aulus C Carciofi
Hair ingested by licking during cat grooming can eventually coalesce into solid masses in cat gastrointestinal tract. It is believed that dietary fibre might reduce formation of these trichobezoars (hairballs). The effects of two insoluble fibre sources added to kibble diets were evaluated with respect to trichobezoar faecal excretion. Thirty-two cats and four diets were used in a randomised block design: a control diet without additional fibre, 10 % added sugarcane fibre, 20 % added sugarcane fibre or 10 % added cellulose...
2014: Journal of Nutritional Science
J J Ashton, S Blackburn, D Burge, R M Beattie
A 3-year-old girl with previous gastroschisis associated with jejunal and colonic atresia presented with severe oedema, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Clinically she was malnourished. Serum albumin and concentrations of micronutrients were low. A barium meal examination showed jejunal dilation. A stricture was suspected and the patient was taken to theatre where an 8 cm length of bowel was resected including a jejunal stricture at the point of previous atresia repair. Inside the proximal dilated jejunum was a large trichobezoar (hairball), thought to be acting as a ball valve inside the bowel...
2014: BMJ Case Reports
Mete Civelek, Aldons J Lusis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Jack Kottwitz, Amelia S Munsterman
An adult female Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) was presented with a 3-wk history of anorexia and lethargy. Initial examination and diagnostics did not provide a diagnosis. The lynx continued to demonstrate vague clinical signs, including anorexia and an abnormal gait. During follow-up immobilizations 2 wk later, a barium gastrointestinal study revealed a pyloric obstruction. Abdominal exploratory surgery was elected, and a gastrotomy and an enterotomy of the proximal duodenum were performed to remove the pyloric obstruction...
December 2013: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
L E Webb, E A M Bokkers, L F M Heutinck, B Engel, W G Buist, T B Rodenburg, N Stockhofe-Zurwieden, C G van Reenen
The European Union 1997 Directive, stipulating that veal calves should be fed a minimum of 50 to 250 g of fibrous feed from 8 to 20 wk of age, is vague. A fibrous feed ration maximum of 250 g has been implicated in welfare issues, namely the occurrence of abnormal oral behaviors and poor gastrointestinal health. Past research suggests that this amount is insufficient to prevent the development of abnormal oral behaviors and enabling good rumen development. Different sources and particle sizes of roughage could lead to very different welfare outcomes...
2013: Journal of Dairy Science
Linhai Xie, Senkai Li, Qiang Li
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate technical aspects and outcome of preventing urethrocutaneous fistula and calculi recurrence in surgical treatment of urethral calculi associated with hairballs after urethroplasty. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients who had urethral calculi associated with hairballs after urethroplasty underwent urethrolithotomy and trimming and epilation of the neourethra. While operating, we made a staggered incision of the skin and urethra, carefully sutured the urethral incision, and covered it by well-vascularized tissue...
2013: Urologia Internationalis
William J R Longabaugh
BACKGROUND: The analysis of large, complex networks is an important aspect of ongoing biological research. Yet there is a need for entirely new, scalable approaches for network visualization that can provide more insight into the structure and function of these complex networks. RESULTS: To address this need, we have developed a software tool named BioFabric, which uses a novel network visualization technique that depicts nodes as one-dimensional horizontal lines arranged in unique rows...
2012: BMC Bioinformatics
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