Read by QxMD icon Read


Matthew J Harper, Edward J Emmett, John F Bower, Christopher A Russell
Under the conditions of oxidative gold catalysis, exposure of ethylene to aryl silanes and alcohols generates products of 1,2-oxyarylation. This provides a rare example of a process that allows catalytic differential 1,2-difunctionalization of this feedstock chemical.
August 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jens G Hjörleifsson, Bjarni Ásgeirsson
The effect of ionic strength on enzyme activity and stability varies considerably between enzymes. Ionic strength is known to affect the catalytic activity of some alkaline phosphatases (AP), such as the E. coli AP, but how ions affect APs is debated. Here, we studied the effect of various ions on a cold-adapted AP from Vibrio splendidus (VAP). Previously, we have found that the active form of VAP is extremely unstable at low ionic strength. Here we showed that NaCl increased both activity and stability of VAP, and that the effect was pH dependent in the range of 7-10...
August 22, 2017: Biochemistry
Martin Hangaard Hansen, Anders Nilsson, Jan Rossmeisl
We present atomic-scale structures of the Pt(111)/water interface, by calculating distributions of atomic distances as functions of pH. The structure of the Pt(111)/water interface is a particularly interesting model system in electro-catalysis for proton exchange reactions, especially the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Further insight into such reactions requires accurate simulations of the electrolyte structure in the interface. The study displays many interesting details in the behaviour of the electrolyte structure, e...
August 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Alberto Monteiro Dos Santos, Anderson Henrique Lima, Claudio Nahum Alves, Jeronimo Lameira
Enolpyruvyl transfer from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to the hydroxyl group of shikimate-5-OH-3-phosphate (S3P) is catalyzed by 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase in a reaction that involves breaking the C-O bond of PEP. Catalysis involves an addition-elimination mechanism with the formation of a tetrahedral intermediate (THI). Experiments have elucidated the mechanism of THI formation and breakdown. However, the catalytic action of EPSP synthase and the individual roles of catalytic residues Asp313 and Glu341 remains unclear...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Elizabeth A Gibson
The arguments for converting sunlight and H2O to H2 to provide cleaner fuels and chemicals are very powerful. However, there is still no efficient means of direct solar energy conversion to H2 on a large scale despite a large research effort worldwide. This review describes strategies to develop robust devices which exploit the selectivity of a molecular catalyst but avoids the use of sacrificial electron donors by adsorbing them onto an electrode surface. By assembling the photocathodes with photoanodes, the electrons provided by water oxidation are used to reduce H(+) to H2...
August 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Ayan Maity, Jonas C Kölsch, Hanah Na, Thomas S Teets
Transmetallation reactions involving organoboron reagents and transition metals are legion in synthetic organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis. Triarylboranes (BAr3) have been observed to participate in transmetallation reactions with many transition metals, typically following abstraction of an alkyl (R(-)) or hydride ligand by the Lewis acidic borane. Here, an unusual transmetallation strategy is described where an aryl group from a borane replaces a weakly coordinated PF6(-) ligand. The precursors Ir(C^N)2(CNAr)(FPF5) (C^N = cyclometallating ligand, CNAr = aryl isocyanide) react smoothly with B(C6F5)3 to give complexes of the type Ir(C^N)2(CNAr)(C6F5), a previously unobserved structure type featuring an unchelated aryl ligand...
August 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Charles W Carter
The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and their cognate transfer RNAs translate the universal genetic code. The twenty canonical amino acids are sufficiently diverse to create a selective advantage for dividing amino acid activation between two distinct, apparently unrelated superfamilies of synthetases, Class I amino acids being generally larger and less polar, Class II amino acids smaller and more polar. Biochemical, bioinformatic, and protein engineering experiments support the hypothesis that the two Classes descended from opposite strands of the same ancestral gene...
August 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xu Wang, Yong-Mo Ahn, Adam G Lentscher, Julia S Lister, Robert C Brothers, Malea M Kneen, Barbara Gerratana, Helena I Boshoff, Cynthia S Dowd
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) synthetase catalyzes the last step in NAD(+) biosynthesis. Depletion of NAD(+) is bactericidal for both active and dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). By inhibiting NAD(+) synthetase (NadE) from Mtb, we expect to eliminate NAD(+) production which will result in cell death in both growing and nonreplicating Mtb. NadE inhibitors have been investigated against various pathogens, but few have been tested against Mtb. Here, we report on the expansion of a series of urea-sulfonamides, previously reported by Brouillette et al...
August 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Caterina Barzan, Alessandro Piovano, Luca Braglia, Giorgia A Martino, Carlo Lamberti, Silvia Bordiga, Elena Groppo
Operando sensitive spectroscopic techniques were employed for investigating the changes in the molecular structure of the Cr sites in the CrVI/SiO2 Phillips catalyst during ethylene polymerization. Practically, the most arduous barrier to be overcome was the separation of the chromates reduction carried by ethylene from the subsequent polymerization. By carefully tuning the experimental parameters, we suc-ceeded in observing these two events separately. We found that the sites involved in ethylene polymerization are mainly divalent Cr ions in a 6-fold coordination, in interaction with the oxygenated by-product (mostly methylformate, generated from the disproportionation of two formaldehyde molecules)...
August 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Manoj Kumar, Joseph S Francisco
High-level theoretical calculations suggest that a Criegee intermediate preferably interacts with carbon dioxide compared to two other greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide and methane. The results also suggest that the interaction between Criegee intermediates and carbon dioxide involves a cycloaddition reaction, which results in the formation of a cyclic carbonate-type adduct with a barrier of 6.0-14.0 kcal/mol. These results are in contrast to a previous assumption that the reaction occurs barrierlessly. The subsequent decomposition of the cyclic adduct into formic acid and carbon dioxide follows both concerted and stepwise mechanisms...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Hagar Tigger-Zaborov, Galia Maayan
Assemblies of metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been broadly used for the construction of materials with distinct spectroscopic properties towards sensing applications. On the other hand, well-dispersed NPs are exploit for applications in catalysis and medicine. Biopolymers or biomimetic oligomers can serve both as efficient stabilizers of NPs and as useful aggregation mediators that can lead to assemblies with unique properties. Controlling aggregation processes, however, is still challenging and often relies on trial and error rather than on defined thumb rules...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Gabriel S Freund, Terrence E O'Brien, Logan Vinson, Dylan Alexander Carlin, Andrew Yao, Wai Shun Mak, Ilias Tagkopoulos, Marc T Facciotti, Dean J Tantillo, Justin B Siegel
The rapidly growing appreciation of enzymes' catalytic and substrate promiscuity may lead to their expanded use in the fields of chemical synthesis and industrial biotechnology. Here we explore the substrate promiscuity of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductases (commonly known as FabI), and how that promiscuity is a function of inherent reactivity and the geometric demands of the enzyme's active site. We demonstrate that these enzymes catalyze the reduction of a wide range of substrates, particularly α,β-unsaturated aldehydes...
August 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Biswa Nath Bhadra, Ji Yoon Song, Nazmul Abedin Khan, Sung Hwa Jhung
A new metal-organic framework (MOF) composite consisting of Ti- and Zn-based MOFs (ZIF-8(x)@H2N-MIL-125; in brief, ZIF(x)@MOF) was designed and synthesized. The pristine MOF [H2N-MIL-125 (MOF)]- and an MOF-composite [ZIF(30)@MOF]-derived mesoporous carbons consisting of TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by pyrolysis (named MDC-P and MDC-C, respectively). MDC-C showed a higher surface area, larger pore sizes, and larger mesopore volumes than MDC-P. In addition, the TiO2 nanoparticles on MDC-C have more uniform shapes and sizes, and are smaller than those of MDC-P...
August 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S Gerboth, E Frittoli, A Palamidessi, F C Baltanas, S Mogjiborahman, J Rappsilber, C Giuliani, F Troglio, Y Rolland, G Pruneri, S Kreutmair, I Pallavicini, M Zobel, M Cinquanta, S Minucci, C Gomez, E Santos, A L Illert, G Scita
Son of Sevenless 1 (SOS1) is a dual guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates the small GTPases RAC and RAS. While the molecular mechanisms of RAS GEF catalysis have been unveiled, how SOS1 acquires RAC GEF activity and what is the physio-pathological relevance of this activity is much less understood. Here, we show that SOS1 is tyrosine phosphorylated on Y1196 by ABL. Phosphorylation of Y1196 controls SOS1 inter-molecular interaction, is required to promote the exchange of nucleotides on RAC in vitro, and for PDGF activation of RAC and RAC-dependent actin remodeling and cell migration...
August 18, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Vinod Kumar Paidi, Louisa Savereide, David J Childers, Justin M Notestein, Charles Alexander Roberts, Johan van Lierop
Our work introduces a novel technique based on the magnetic response of Ce(3+) and molecular oxygen adsorbed on the surface of nanoceria and ceria-based catalysts that quantifies the number and type of defects, and demonstrates that this information is the missing link that finally enables predictive design of NOx catalysis in ceria-based systems. The new insights into ceria catalysis are enabled by quantifying the above for different ceria nanoparticle shapes (i.e. surface terminations) and O2 partial pressure...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Davide Migliorini, Helen Chadwick, Francesco Nattino, Ana Gutiérrez-González, Eric Dombrowski, Eric A High, Han Guo, Arthur L Utz, Bret Jackson, Rainer D Beck, Geert-Jan Kroes
Accurately simulating heterogeneously catalyzed reactions requires reliable barriers for molecules reacting at defects on metal surfaces, such as steps. However, first-principles methods capable of computing these barriers to chemical accuracy have yet to be demonstrated. We show that state-resolved molecular beam experiments combined with ab initio molecular dynamics using specific reaction parameter density functional theory (SRP-DFT) can determine the molecule-metal surface interaction with the required reliability...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Gustav Nyström, Wye-Khay Fong, Raffaele Mezzenga
Amyloid fibrils prepared from β-lactoglobulin were used to form freeze-dried and cross-linked aerogels. By varying the fibril concentration and freezing gradient, it was possible to control the pore structure and elastic modulus of the aerogels over one order of magnitude from ~2 to ~200 kPa. Using butane tetracarboxylic acid as cross-linker these aerogels maintained their monolithic shape in aqueous conditions displaying elastic behavior and a modulus in the range of 4-40 kPa. When explored as scaffolds for cell growth, the amyloid fibril aerogels demonstrated biocompatibility and led to the successful penetration and permeation of two epithelial cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) throughout the scaffold...
August 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Ashwani Kumar, Abhishek Kumar Gupta, Manisha Devi, Kenneth E Gonsalves, Chullikkattil P Pradeep
Engineering multifunctionality in hybrid polyoxometalates (hybrid POMs) is an interesting but scarcely explored topic. Herein, we set about engineering two important materials properties, viz., photochromism and self-separating catalysis, in a hybrid POM by modulating the counterion motif. A series of six aromatic sulfonium counterions have been developed on the basis of an aromatic sulfonium counterion motif that allows structural and electronic fine-tuning by changing substituents at multiple locations. Using the aromatic sulfonium counterions and sodium molybdate, six new aromatic sulfonium octamolybdate hybrids (1-6) having formulas (HPDS)4[Mo8O26] (1), (HMPDS)4[Mo8O26] (2), (MPDS)4[Mo8O26] (3), (APDS)4[Mo8O26] (4), (AMPDS)4[Mo8O26] (5), and (MAPDS)4[Mo8O26] (6) (where HPDS = (4-hydroxyphenyl)dimethylsulfonium, HMPDS = (4-hydroxy-2-methylphenyl)dimethylsulfonium, MPDS = (4-methoxyphenyl)dimethylsulfonium, APDS = (4-(allyloxy)phenyl)dimethylsulfonium, AMPDS = (4-(allyloxy)-2-methylphenyl)dimethylsulfonium and MAPDS = (4(methacryloyloxy)phenyl)dimethylsulfonium) have been synthesized, and their structures were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction and ESI-MS analyses...
August 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Samuel L Bartlett, Jeffrey S Johnson
The unique role that stereochemistry plays in molecular recognition events continues to provide a driving force for synthesizing organic compounds in enantioenriched form. The tendency of enantioenriched organic compounds to revert to an entropically favored racemic state in the presence of viable racemization pathways (e.g., the enolization of stereogenic carbonyl derivatives) can sometimes interfere with this objective; however, beginning with Noyori's foundational disclosure of a dynamic kinetic transfer hydrogenation, the ability to channel racemic, configurationally labile starting materials through stereoconvergent reaction pathways has been recognized as a powerful strategy in asymmetric synthesis...
August 17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Gaoxing Su, Huaqiao Jiang, Hongyan Zhu, Jing-Jing Lv, Guohai Yang, Bing Yan, Jun-Jie Zhu
Plasmonic Au-Pd nanostructures have drawn significant attention for use in heterogeneous catalysis. In this study, palladium nanodendrite-tipped gold nanorods (PdND-T-AuNRs) were subjected to a facile fabrication under mild reaction conditions. The palladium amounts on the two tips were tunable. In the preparation of PdND-T-AuNRs, dense capped AuNRs, a low reaction temperature, and suitable stabilizing agents were identified as critical reaction parameters for controlling palladium nanodendrites deposited on both ends of AuNRs...
August 17, 2017: Nanoscale
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"