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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241199/change-in-hemoglobin-trajectory-and-darbepoetin-dose-approaching-end-stage-renal-disease-data-from-the-trial-to-reduce-cardiovascular-events-with-aranesp-therapy-trial
#1
Finnian R Mc Causland, Brian Claggett, Marc A Pfeffer, Emmanuel A Burdmann, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Andrew S Levey, John J V McMurray, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Ajay K Singh, Scott D Solomon, Robert D Toto, Patrick Parfrey
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease associated anemia is multifactorial and includes decreased production of erythropoietin (EPO), iron deficiency, inflammation, and EPO resistance. To better understand the trajectory of these parameters, we described temporal trends in hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, transferrin saturation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and darbepoetin dosing in the Trial to Reduce cardiovascular Events with Aranesp Therapy (TREAT). METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of 4,038 participants in TREAT...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241174/surgery-of-insular-gliomas
#2
Hugues Duffau
For a long time, surgery within the insular lobe, especially in cases of intrinsic tumors, was considered as too dangerous. Even though such interventions are still challenging, resection of insular glioma became more popular during the past decade. First of all, this has happened due to better understanding of the functional anatomy of this complex brain region, combined with an improved knowledge of its connectivity. Furthermore, development of advanced intraoperative techniques, especially functional brain mapping with direct electrical stimulation, resulted in increased safety of procedures...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241173/surgical-management-of-gliomas-in-eloquent-cortex
#3
Sherise D Ferguson, Ian E McCutcheon
Gliomas located in eloquent cortex impose a unique surgical obstacle. The oncological benefit of aggressive resection must be balanced with preservation of functional tissue and optimization of surgical outcome. Technical advances in preoperative functional imaging, refinement of intraoperative mapping, and conceptual understanding of cerebral plasticity have significantly improved the outcome of this patient population.
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241144/the-diverse-reasons-for-using-novel-psychoactive-substances-a-qualitative-study-of-the-users-own-perspectives
#4
Christophe Soussan, Martin Andersson, Anette Kjellgren
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of legally ambiguous and precarious Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitutes a challenge for policy makers and public health. Scientific and more in-depth knowledge about the motivations for using NPS is scarce and often consist of predetermined, non-systematic, or poorly described reasons deduced from top-down approaches. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore and characterize the users' self-reported reasons for NPS use inductively and more comprehensively...
December 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241142/unmet-needs-burden-of-treatment-and-patient-engagement-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-combined-perspective-from-the-ms-in-the-21st-century-steering-group
#5
Peter Rieckmann, Diego Centonze, Irina Elovaara, Gavin Giovannoni, Eva Havrdová, Jurg Kesselring, Gisela Kobelt, Dawn Langdon, Sarah A Morrow, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Sven Schippling, Christoph Thalheim, Heidi Thompson, Patrick Vermersch, Karen Aston, Birgit Bauer, Christy Demory, Maria Paz Giambastiani, Jana Hlavacova, Jocelyne Nouvet-Gire, George Pepper, Maija Pontaga, Emma Rogan, Chrystal Rogalski, Pieter van Galen, Ali-Frédéric Ben-Amor
BACKGROUND: Patient engagement is vital in multiple sclerosis (MS) in order to optimise outcomes for patients, society and healthcare systems. It is essential to involve all stakeholders in potential solutions, working in a multidisciplinary way to ensure that people with MS (PwMS) are included in shared decision-making and disease management. To start this process, a collaborative, open environment between PwMS and healthcare professionals (HCPs) is required so that similarities and disparities in the perception of key areas in patient care and unmet needs can be identified...
November 21, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241136/submillimeter-scale-heterogeneity-of-labile-phosphorus-in-sediments-characterized-by-diffusive-gradients-in-thin-films-and-spatial-analysis
#6
Yuting Meng, Shiming Ding, Mengdan Gong, Musong Chen, Yan Wang, Xianfang Fan, Lei Shi, Chaosheng Zhang
Sediments have a heterogeneous distribution of labile redox-sensitive elements due to a drastic downward transition from oxic to anoxic condition as a result of organic matter degradation. Characterization of the heterogeneous nature of sediments is vital for understanding of small-scale biogeochemical processes. However, there are limited reports on the related specialized methodology. In this study, the monthly distributions of labile phosphorus (P), a redox-sensitive limiting nutrient, were measured in the eutrophic Lake Taihu by Zr-oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) on a two-dimensional (2D) submillimeter level...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241135/characterization-of-uranium-redox-state-in-organic-rich-eocene-sediments
#7
Susan A Cumberland, Barbara Etschmann, Joël Brugger, Grant Douglas, Katy Evans, Louise Fisher, Peter Kappen, John W Moreau
The presence of organic matter (OM) has a profound impact on uranium (U) redox cycling, either limiting or promoting the mobility of U via binding, reduction, or complexation. To understand the interactions between OM and U, we characterised U oxidation state and speciation in nine OM-rich sediment cores (18 samples), plus a lignite sample from the Mulga Rock polymetallic deposit in Western Australia. Uranium was unevenly dispersed within the analysed samples with 84% of the total U occurring in samples containing >21 wt % OM...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241133/oxidation-of-%C3%AE-blockers-by-birnessite-kinetics-mechanism-and-effect-of-metal-ions
#8
Yong Chen, Xiye Lu, Lu Liu, Dong Wan, Huabin Chen, Danna Zhou, Virender K Sharma
Manganese dioxides are ubiquitous in natural waters, soils, and sediments and play an important role in oxidative transformation of organic pollutants. This work presents the kinetics of the oxidation of selected β-blockers, betaxolol, metoprolol, and atenolol by birnessite (δ-MnO2) as a function of concentration of the β-blocker, dosage of δ-MnO2, and solution pH. The values of pseudo-first-order rate constants (kobs) of β-blockers decreased in the order betaxolol > atenolol > metoprolol, which was positively correlated with their acid dissociation constants (Ka)...
December 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241123/effects-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-inoculation-and-biochar-amendment-on-maize-growth-cadmium-uptake-and-soil-cadmium-speciation-in-cd-contaminated-soil
#9
Ling Liu, Jiwei Li, Feixue Yue, Xinwei Yan, Fayuan Wang, Sean Bloszies, Yanfang Wang
Experiments conducted to understand how arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculation or biochar application affect plant growth and heavy metal uptake have thus far looked at single applications of either soil amendment. There is little evidence of their synergistic effects, in particular for plants grown in cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to investigate the effect of AM inoculation (Glomus intraradices BEG 141) and/or wheat-straw biochar amendment on maize (Zea mays L. cv. Hongdan No...
December 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241114/understanding-the-impact-of-cationic-polyacrylamide-on-anaerobic-digestion-of-waste-activated-sludge
#10
Dongbo Wang, Xuran Liu, Guangming Zeng, Jianwei Zhao, Yiwen Liu, Qilin Wang, Fei Chen, Xiaoming Li, Qi Yang
Previous investigations showed that cationic polyacrylamide (cPAM), a flocculant widely used in wastewater pretreatment and waste activated sludge dewatering, deteriorated methane production during anaerobic digestion of sludge. However, details of how cPAM affects methane production are poorly understood, hindering deep control of sludge anaerobic digestion systems. In this study, the mechanisms of cPAM affecting sludge anaerobic digestion were investigated in batch and long-term tests using either real sludge or synthetic wastewaters as the digestion substrates...
December 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241099/perceptual-motor-regulation-in-locomotor-pointing-while-approaching-a-curb
#11
Steven van Andel, Michael H Cole, Gert-Jan Pepping
Locomotor pointing is a task that has been the focus of research in the context of sport (e.g. long jumping and cricket) as well as normal walking. Collectively, these studies have produced a broad understanding of locomotor pointing, but generalizability has been limited to laboratory type tasks and/or tasks with high spatial demands. The current study aimed to generalize previous findings in locomotor pointing to the common daily task of approaching and stepping on to a curb. Sixteen people completed 33 repetitions of a task that required them to walk up to and step onto a curb...
December 9, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241095/mathematical-modeling-approaches-to-describe-the-dynamics-of-protein-adsorption-at-solid-interfaces
#12
REVIEW
Jinku Kim
Protein adsorption on solid surfaces play a crucial role in many biological applications. While extensive experimental studies have revealed the dynamics of protein adsorption in detail using newly developed experimental techniques, mathematical modeling approaches provide illustrative insight of such complex processes, which are often difficult to describe experimentally. To advance our understanding of dynamic protein behaviors at interfaces between proteins and solid surfaces, there are needs for additional information about such complex phenomena, especially conformational changes in protein mixture system...
December 7, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241050/cytokine-alterations-in-panic-disorder-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Laiana Azevedo Quagliato, Antonio E Nardi
BACKGROUND: Panic disorder (PD) occurs in 3.4-4.7% of the general population. Although accumulating evidence suggests that some inflammatory processes play a role in the pathophysiology of mental disorders, very few studies have evaluated cytokine levels in patients with PD. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the characteristic cytokine profile of PD patients and discuss some possibilities for future trials on this common and disabling disorder. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was carried out in PubMed and Web of Science databases (search terms: "panic disorder" or "panic attacks" and IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, TNF-alpha and INF-gamma)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241045/overhauser-effects-in-non-conducting-solids-at-1-2%C3%A2-k
#14
X Ji, T V Can, F Mentink-Vigier, A Bornet, J Milani, B Vuichoud, M A Caporini, R G Griffin, S Jannin, M Goldman, G Bodenhausen
Recently, it was observed that protons in non-conducting solids doped with 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA) or its sulfonated derivative (SA-BDPA) can be polarized through Overhauser effects via resonant microwave irradiation. These effects were present under magic angle spinning conditions in magnetic fields between 5 and 18.8 T and at temperatures near 100 K. This communication reports similar effects in static samples at 6.7 T and, more importantly, at temperatures as low as 1.2 K, in a different dynamic regime than in the previous study...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241040/a-large-polysaccharide-produced-by-helicobacter-hepaticus-induces-an-anti-inflammatory-gene-signature-in-macrophages
#15
Camille Danne, Grigory Ryzhakov, Maria Martínez-López, Nicholas Edward Ilott, Fanny Franchini, Fiona Cuskin, Elisabeth C Lowe, Samuel J Bullers, J Simon C Arthur, Fiona Powrie
Interactions between the host and its microbiota are of mutual benefit and promote health. Complex molecular pathways underlie this dialog, but the identity of microbe-derived molecules that mediate the mutualistic state remains elusive. Helicobacter hepaticus is a member of the mouse intestinal microbiota that is tolerated by the host. In the absence of an intact IL-10 signaling, H. hepaticus induces an IL-23-driven inflammatory response in the intestine. Here we investigate the interactions between H. hepaticus and host immune cells that may promote mutualism, and the microbe-derived molecule(s) involved...
December 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241024/age-and-gender-associated-liver-physiological-t1rho-dynamics-demonstrated-with-a-clinically-applicable-single-breathhold-acquisition
#16
Yì Xiáng J Wáng, Min Deng, Jiang Lin, Anthony W L Kwok, Eric K W Liu, Weitian Chen
To understand women's and men's physiological ranges of liver T1rho relaxation time measured with a single breathhold black blood sequence, this healthy volunteer study was conducted in 62 women (mean age, 38.9 y; range, 18-75 y) and 34 men (mean age, 44.7 y; range, 24-80 y). Approval from the institutional ethics committee was obtained. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed with a 3.0T scanner with six spin-lock times of 0, 10, 20, 25, 35, and 50 ms and a single breathhold of 12 s per slice acquisition...
December 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241022/evolution-as-an-ecosystem-process-insights-from-genomics
#17
Blake Matthews, Rebecca J Best, Philine G D Feulner, Anita Narwani, Romana Limberger
Evolution is a fundamental ecosystem process. The study of genomic variation of organisms can not only improve our understanding of evolutionary processes, but also of contemporary and future ecosystem dynamics. We argue that integrative research between the fields of genomics and ecosystem ecology could generate new insights. Specifically, studies of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, evolutionary rescue, and eco-evolutionary dynamics could all benefit from information about variation in genome structure and the genetic architecture of traits, whereas genomic studies could benefit from information about the ecological context of evolutionary dynamics...
December 14, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241017/older-adult-multitasking-performance-using-a-gaze-contingent-useful-field-of-view
#18
Nathan Ward, John G Gaspar, Mark B Neider, James Crowell, Ronald Carbonari, Hank Kaczmarski, Ryan V Ringer, Aaron P Johnson, Lester C Loschky, Arthur F Kramer
Objective We implemented a gaze-contingent useful field of view paradigm to examine older adult multitasking performance in a simulated driving environment. Background Multitasking refers to the ability to manage multiple simultaneous streams of information. Recent work suggests that multitasking declines with age, yet the mechanisms supporting these declines are still debated. One possible framework to better understand this phenomenon is the useful field of view, or the area in the visual field where information can be attended and processed...
December 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241012/investigation-of-the-electronic-excited-states-equilibrium-geometries-of-three-molecules-undergoing-esipt-a-ri-cc2-and-tddft-study
#19
Orian Louant, Benoît Champagne, Vincent Liégeois
Energy minima on the potential energy surfaces of the ground and excited states have been characterized for three photoactive molecules that undergo excited state intramolecular proton transfer: 3-hydroxychromone, N-salicylideneaniline, 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole. Both the CC2 method and the TDDFT methodology with different exchange-correlation (XC) functionals differing by the amount of Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange have been employed. Besides the analysis of the structures along the reaction paths, this study has compared the TDDFT and CC2 results in order to provide guidelines for selecting the "best" XC functionals...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241005/spatiotemporal-control-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-with-light
#20
Yuchao Li, Minji Lee, Nury Kim, Guoyu Wu, Difan Deng, Xuedong Liu, Won Do Heo, Zhike Zi
Cells employ signaling pathways to make decisions in response to changes in their immediate environment. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is an important growth factor that regulates many cellular functions in development and disease. Although the molecular mechanisms of TGF-β signaling have been well studied, our understanding of this pathway is limited by the lack of tools that allow the control of TGF-β signaling with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we developed an optogenetic system (optoTGFBRs) that enables the precise control of TGF-β signaling in time and space...
December 14, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
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