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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102338/strengthening-of-ceramic-based-artificial-nacre-via-synergistic-interactions-of-1d-vanadium-pentoxide-and-2d-graphene-oxide-building-blocks
#1
Andrea Knöller, Christian P Lampa, Felix von Cube, Tingying Helen Zeng, David C Bell, Mildred S Dresselhaus, Zaklina Burghard, Joachim Bill
Nature has evolved hierarchical structures of hybrid materials with excellent mechanical properties. Inspired by nacre's architecture, a ternary nanostructured composite has been developed, wherein stacked lamellas of 1D vanadium pentoxide nanofibres, intercalated with water molecules, are complemented by 2D graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. The components self-assemble at low temperature into hierarchically arranged, highly flexible ceramic-based papers. The papers' mechanical properties are found to be strongly influenced by the amount of the integrated GO phase...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098521/semantic-and-syntactic-associations-during-word-search-modulate-the-relationship-between-attention-and-subsequent-memory
#2
Wei Zhou, Fei Mo, Yunhong Zhang, Jinhong Ding
Two experiments were conducted to investigate how linguistic information influences attention allocation in visual search and memory for words. In Experiment 1, participants searched for the synonym of a cue word among five words. The distractors included one antonym and three unrelated words. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to judge whether the five words presented on the screen comprise a valid sentence. The relationships among words were sentential, semantically related or unrelated. A memory recognition task followed...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095997/abnormal-prefrontal-and-parietal-activity-linked-to-deficient-active-binding-in-working-memory-in-schizophrenia
#3
Stéphanie Grot, Virginie Petel Légaré, Olivier Lipp, Isabelle Soulières, Florin Dolcos, David Luck
Working memory deficits have been widely reported in schizophrenia, and may result from inefficient binding processes. These processes, and their neural correlates, remain understudied in schizophrenia. Thus, we designed an FMRI study aimed at investigating the neural correlates of both passive and active binding in working memory in schizophrenia. Nineteen patients with schizophrenia and 23 matched controls were recruited to perform a working memory binding task, in which they were instructed to memorize three letters and three spatial locations...
January 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093833/cracking-the-code-residents-interpretations-of-written-assessment-comments
#4
Shiphra Ginsburg, Cees Pm van der Vleuten, Kevin W Eva, Lorelei Lingard
CONTEXT: Interest is growing in the use of qualitative data for assessment. Written comments on residents' in-training evaluation reports (ITERs) can be reliably rank-ordered by faculty attendings, who are adept at interpreting these narratives. However, if residents do not interpret assessment comments in the same way, a valuable educational opportunity may be lost. OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to explore residents' interpretations of written assessment comments using mixed methods...
January 16, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081509/in-silico-prediction-of-toxicity-of-phenols-to-tetrahymena-pyriformis-by-using-genetic-algorithm-and-decision-tree-based-modeling-approach
#5
Fatemeh Abbasitabar, Vahid Zare-Shahabadi
Risk assessment of chemicals is an important issue in environmental protection; however, there is a huge lack of experimental data for a large number of end-points. The experimental determination of toxicity of chemicals involves high costs and time-consuming process. In silico tools such as quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models, which are constructed on the basis of computational molecular descriptors, can predict missing data for toxic end-points for existing or even not yet synthesized chemicals...
January 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078977/emotion-cognition-interaction-in-nonhuman-primatescognitive-avoidance-of-negative-stimuli-in-baboons-papio-papio
#6
Isabelle Blanchette, Yousri Marzouki, Nicolas Claidière, Julie Gullstrand, Joël Fagot
It is well established that emotion and cognition interact in humans, but such an interaction has not been extensively studied in nonhuman primates. We investigated whether emotional value can affect nonhuman primates' processing of stimuli that are only mentally represented, not visually available. In a short-term memory task, baboons memorized the location of two target squares of the same color, which were presented with a distractor of a different color. Through prior long-term conditioning, one of the two colors had acquired a negative valence...
January 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075186/performance-on-tasks-of-visuospatial-memory-and-ability-a-cross-sectional-study-in-330-adolescents-aged-11-to-20
#7
Rudolf Burggraaf, Maarten A Frens, Ignace T C Hooge, Jos N van der Geest
Cognitive functions mature at different points in time between birth and adulthood. Of these functions, visuospatial skills, such as spatial memory and part-to-whole organization, have often been tested in children and adults but have been less frequently evaluated during adolescence. We studied visuospatial memory and ability during this critical developmental period, as well as the correlation between these abilities, in a large group of 330 participants (aged 11 to 20 years, 55% male). To assess visuospatial memory, the participants were asked to memorize and reproduce sequences of random locations within a grid using a computer...
January 11, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074450/forget-me-if-you-can-attentional-capture-by-to-be-remembered-and-to-be-forgotten-visual-stimuli
#8
Edyta Sasin, Candice C Morey, Mark Nieuwenstein
Previous studies on directed forgetting in visual working memory (VWM) have shown that, if people are cued to remember only a subset of the items currently held in VWM, they will completely forget the uncued, no longer relevant items. While this finding is indicative of selective remembering, it remains unclear whether directed forgetting can also occur in the absence of any concurrent to-be-remembered information. In the current study, we addressed this matter by asking participants to memorize a single object that could be followed by a cue to forget or remember this object...
January 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073328/what-constitutes-strong-psychological-science-the-neglected-role-of-diagnosticity-and-a-priori-theorizing
#9
Klaus Fiedler
A Bayesian perspective on Ioannidis's (2005) memorable statement that "Most Published Research Findings Are False" suggests a seemingly inescapable trade-off: It appears as if research hypotheses are based either on safe ground (high prior odds), yielding valid but unsurprising results, or on unexpected and novel ideas (low prior odds), inspiring risky and surprising findings that are inevitably often wrong. Indeed, research of two prominent types, sexy hypothesis testing and model testing, is often characterized by low priors (due to astounding hypotheses and conjunctive models) as well as low-likelihood ratios (due to nondiagnostic predictions of the yin-or-yang type)...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067463/enhanced-education-for-bowel-preparation-before-colonoscopy-a-state-of-the-art-review
#10
Zhu Liu, Ming Ming Zhang, Yue Yue Li, Li Xiang Li, Yan Qing Li
Colonoscopy remains the mainstay in the diagnosis and monitoring for colorectal cancer and other colorectal lesions. The diagnostic efficiency of colonoscopy highly depends on the quality of bowel preparation, which is closely associated with patient's compliance to preparation instructions. In addition, the procedural requirements of bowel preparation are often complex and difficult to be comprehended and memorized by patients, especially those with lower health literacy and motivation. Therefore, in recent years, many educational methods have been constantly developed, such as educational booklets, cartoon visual aids, educational videos, the short message service, the telephone, social media applications and smart phone applications...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056386/h2o2-seed-priming-improves-tolerance-to-salinity-drought-and-their-combined-effect-more-than-mannitol-in-cakile-maritima-when-compared-to-eutrema-salsugineum
#11
Hasna Ellouzi, Souhir Sghayar, Chedly Abdelly
The effect of H2O2 and mannitol seed priming was investigated on plant growth, oxidative stress biomarkers and activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of Cakile maritima and Eutrema salsugineum, when exposed to drought and salt stress, either separately applied or combined. Under unprimed conditions, drought severely restricted growth (40% as compared to the control) and redox balance of C. maritima seedlings, whereas E. salsugineum showed these drastic effects under individual salinity (33% as compared to the control)...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051893/shame-in-medical-education-a-randomized-study-of-the-acquisition-of-intimate-examination-skills-and-its-effect-on-subsequent-performance
#12
Wolf E Hautz, Therese Schröder, Katja A Dannenberg, Maren März, Henrike Hölzer, Olaf Ahlers, Anke Thomas
THEORY: Although medical students are exposed to a variety of emotions, the impact of emotions on learning has received little attention so far. Shame-provoking intimate examinations are among the most memorable events for students. Their emotions, however, are rarely addressed during training, potentially leading to withdrawal and avoidance and, consequently, performance deficits. However, emotions of negative valance such as shame may be particularly valuable for learning, as they might prompt mental rehearsal...
January 4, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050617/-history-of-the-german-japanese-society-of-dermatology
#13
Kiyoshi Nishioka
The relationships between German and Japanese dermatology are traditionally very strong. This fact led Professor Hornstein and Professor Nishiyama to organize joint meetings of dermatologists from both countries. The first meeting of the German-Japanese Society of Dermatology was held in Erlangen, Germany, following the 16th World Congress of Dermatology in 1967. Since then, meetings have been held alternating between Germany and Japan. These meetings were successfully organized by professors from both countries...
January 3, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041786/statistical-evidence-that-a-child-can-create-a-combinatorial-linguistic-system-without-external-linguistic-input-implications-for-language-evolution
#14
REVIEW
Susan Goldin-Meadow, Charles Yang
Can a child who is not exposed to a model for language nevertheless construct a communication system characterized by combinatorial structure? We know that deaf children whose hearing losses prevent them from acquiring spoken language, and whose hearing parents have not exposed them to sign language, use gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. In this study, we call upon a new formal analysis that characterizes the statistical profile of grammatical rules and, when applied to child language data, finds that young children's language is consistent with a productive grammar rather than rote memorization of specific word combinations in caregiver speech...
December 29, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033738/the-production-effect-in-adults-with-dysarthria-improving-long-term-verbal-memory-by-vocal-production
#15
Michal Icht, Orly Bergerzon-Biton, Yaniv Mama
People show better memory for words read aloud relative to words read silently, the Production Effect (PE). Vocalisation at study makes the produced (aloud) words more distinct than the non-produced (silent) words, hence more memorable. Such encoding distinctiveness is related to the additional processing of aloud words that is later used during retrieval. This study investigated the PE in dysarthric adults, characterised by speech production difficulties. Their memory performance (recognition) was compared to a group of healthy adults...
December 29, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019687/improving-with-practice-a-neural-model-of-mathematical-development
#16
Sean Aubin, Aaron R Voelker, Chris Eliasmith
The ability to improve in speed and accuracy as a result of repeating some task is an important hallmark of intelligent biological systems. Although gradual behavioral improvements from practice have been modeled in spiking neural networks, few such models have attempted to explain cognitive development of a task as complex as addition. In this work, we model the progression from a counting-based strategy for addition to a recall-based strategy. The model consists of two networks working in parallel: a slower basal ganglia loop and a faster cortical network...
December 26, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995379/yeast-for-mathematicians-a-ferment-of-discovery-and-model-competition-to-describe-data
#17
Matthew Lewis, James Powell
In addition to the memorization, algorithmic skills and vocabulary which are the default focus in many mathematics classrooms, professional mathematicians are expected to creatively apply known techniques, construct new mathematical approaches and communicate with and about mathematics. We propose that students can learn these professional, higher-level skills through Laboratory Experiences in Mathematical Biology which put students in the role of mathematics researcher creating mathematics to describe and understand biological data...
December 19, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990132/judgments-of-learning-for-words-in-vertical-space
#18
Karlos Luna, Beatriz Martín-Luengo, Yury Shtyrov, Andriy Myachykov
Close relationship between physical space and internal knowledge representations has received ample support in the literature. For example, location of visually perceived information in vertical space has been shown to affect different numerical judgments. In addition, physical dimensions, such as weight or font size, were shown to affect judgments of learning (JOLs, an estimation of the likelihood that an item will be remembered later, or its perceived memorability). In two experiments we tested the hypothesis that differences in positioning words in vertical space may affect their perceived memorability, i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984133/perinatal-exposure-to-lead-pb-induces-ultrastructural-and-molecular-alterations-in-synapses-of-rat-offspring
#19
Magdalena Gąssowska, Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Joanna Moczydłowska, Małgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz, Magdalena Gewartowska, Lidia Strużyńska, Izabela Gutowska, Dariusz Chlubek, Agata Adamczyk
Lead (Pb), environmentally abundant heavy-metal pollutant, is a strong toxicant for the developing central nervous system. Pb intoxication in children, even at low doses, is found to affect learning and memorizing, with devastating effects on cognitive function and intellectual development. However, the precise mechanism by which Pb impairs synaptic plasticity is not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pre- and neonatal exposure to low dose of Pb (with Pb concentrations in whole blood below 10μg/dL) on the synaptic structure and the pre- and postsynaptic proteins expression in the developing rat brain...
October 29, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981024/memorizing-fruit-the-effect-of-a-fruit-memory-game-on-children-s-fruit-intake
#20
Frans Folkvord, Dimitra Tatiana Anastasiadou, Doeschka Anschütz
: Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of this experimental study is to examine whether playing a memory game with fruit affects fruit intake among young children. We used a randomized between-subject design with 127 children (age: 7-12 y) who played a memory-game, containing either fruit (n = 64) or non-food products (n = 63)...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
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