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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018342/negative-facial-expressions-but-not-visual-scenes-enhance-human-working-memory-in-younger-and-older-participants
#1
Flávia Schechtman Belham, Maria Clotilde H Tavares, Corina Satler, Ana Garcia, Rosângela C Rodrigues, Soraya L de Sá Canabarro, Carlos Tomaz
Many studies have investigated the influence of emotion on memory processes across the human lifespan. Some results have shown older adults (OA) performing better with positive stimuli, some with negative items, whereas some found no impact of emotional valence. Here we tested, in two independent studies, how younger adults (YA) and OA would perform in a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task with positive, negative, and neutral images. The task consisted of identifying the new location of a stimulus in a crescent set of identical stimuli presented in different locations in a touch-screen monitor...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016543/finer-needles-reduce-pain-associated-with-injection-of-local-anesthetic-using-a-minimal-insertion-injection-technique
#2
Blake R Zelickson, Leonard H Goldberg, Marc K Rubenzik, Wesley J Wu
BACKGROUND: The injection of local anesthetic into the skin is often the only memorable event described by the patient after dermatologic procedures. OBJECTIVE: The authors compared the pain felt during injection of local anesthetic using a minimal needle insertion technique with a 30- or 33-gauge needle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred eighteen patients with tumors on the head and neck were injected with lidocaine using a previously described technique with either a 30- or 33-gauge needle...
October 6, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983570/updating-of-visual-orientation-in-a-gravity-based-reference-frame
#3
Nynke Niehof, Julian J Tramper, Christian F Doeller, W Pieter Medendorp
The brain can use multiple reference frames to code line orientation, including head-, object-, and gravity-centered references. If these frames change orientation, their representations must be updated to keep register with actual line orientation. We tested this internal updating during head rotation in roll, exploiting the rod-and-frame effect: The illusory tilt of a vertical line surrounded by a tilted visual frame. If line orientation is stored relative to gravity, these distortions should also affect the updating process...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974153/image-memorability-across-longer-time-intervals
#4
Lore Goetschalckx, Pieter Moors, Johan Wagemans
You may find some images easier to remember than others. Recent studies of visual memory have found remarkable levels of consistency for this inter-item variability across observers, suggesting that memorability can be considered an intrinsic image property. The current study replicated and extended previous results, while adopting a more traditional visual long-term memory task with retention intervals of 20 min, one day, and one week, as opposed to the previously used repeat-detection task, which typically relied on short retention intervals (5 min)...
October 3, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970128/gender-differences-in-performance-for-young-adults-in-cognitive-tasks-under-emotional-conflict
#5
Kangling Wang, Wen Wu, Haili Zhong, Jian Cheng
Previous studies have shown that men and women behave differently on diverse cognitive tasks. However, gender differences in recognizing and memorizing faces when in emotional conflict situations are unknown. Therefore, a face-word Stroop task (emotional conflict) and subsequent memory task were used in the present study to examine gender differences among young adults in an emotional conflict situation. Behavioural data showed that men were better able to recognize faces while in emotional conflict, whereas women performed better at the memorization task...
September 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967787/more-than-a-filter-feature-based-attention-regulates-the-distribution-of-visual-working-memory-resources
#6
Blaire Dube, Stephen M Emrich, Naseem Al-Aidroos
Across 2 experiments we revisited the filter account of how feature-based attention regulates visual working memory (VWM). Originally drawing from discrete-capacity ("slot") models, the filter account proposes that attention operates like the "bouncer in the brain," preventing distracting information from being encoded so that VWM resources are reserved for relevant information. Given recent challenges to the assumptions of discrete-capacity models, we investigated whether feature-based attention plays a broader role in regulating memory...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965970/a-test-of-the-reward-contrast-hypothesis
#7
Stefan J Dalecki, Danielle E Panoz-Brown, Jonathon D Crystal
Source memory, a facet of episodic memory, is the memory of the origin of information. Whereas source memory in rats is sustained for at least a week, spatial memory degraded after approximately a day. Different forgetting functions may suggest that two memory systems (source memory and spatial memory) are dissociated. However, in previous work, the two tasks used baiting conditions consisting of chocolate and chow flavors; notably, the source memory task used the relatively better flavor. Thus, according to the reward-contrast hypothesis, when chocolate and chow were presented within the same context (i...
September 28, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958909/selection-within-working-memory-based-on-a-color-retro-cue-modulates-alpha-oscillations
#8
Claudia Poch, Almudena Capilla, José Antonio Hinojosa, Pablo Campo
Working Memory (WM) maintains flexible representations. Retrospective cueing studies indicate that selective attention can be directed to memory representations in WM improving performance. While most of the work has explored the neural substrates of orienting attention based on a spatial retro-cue, behavioral studies show that a feature other than location can also improve WM performance. In the present work we explored the oscillatory underpinnings of orienting attention to a relevant representation held in WM guided by a feature value...
September 27, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948067/cervical-sensorimotor-control-in-idiopathic-cervical-dystonia-a%C3%A2-cross-sectional-study
#9
Joke De Pauw, Rudy Mercelis, Ann Hallemans, Sarah Michiels, Steven Truijen, Patrick Cras, Willem De Hertogh
OBJECTIVES: Patients with idiopathic adult-onset cervical dystonia (CD) experience an abnormal head posture and involuntary muscle contractions. Although the exact areas affected in the central nervous system remain uncertain, impaired functions in systems stabilizing the head and neck are apparent such as the somatosensory and sensorimotor integration systems. The aim of the study is to investigate cervical sensorimotor control dysfunction in patients with CD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cervical sensorimotor control was assessed by a head repositioning task in 24 patients with CD and 70 asymptomatic controls...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941215/analysis-of-testing-with-multiple-choice-versus-open-ended-questions-outcome-based-observations-in-an-anatomy-course
#10
Cheryl A Melovitz Vasan, David O DeFouw, Bart K Holland, Nagaswami S Vasan
The pedagogical approach for both didactic and laboratory teaching of anatomy has changed in the last 25 years and continues to evolve; however, assessment of student anatomical knowledge has not changed despite the awareness of Bloom's taxonomy. For economic reasons most schools rely on multiple choice questions (MCQ) that test knowledge mastered while competences such as critical thinking and skill development are not typically assessed. In contrast, open-ended question (OEQ) examinations demand knowledge construction and a higher order of thinking, but more time is required from the faculty to score the constructed responses...
September 22, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937617/comparison-of-patterns-of-use-of-unrecorded-and-recorded-spirits-survey-of-adult-drinkers-in-rural-central-china
#11
Shiqing Wei, Ping Yin, Ian M Newman, Ling Qian, Duane F Shell, Lok-Wa Yuen
About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually) is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu), either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural residents in Central China...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935227/physiotherapy-education-and-training-prior-to-upper-abdominal-surgery-is-memorable-and-has-high-treatment-fidelity-a-nested-mixed-methods-randomised-controlled-study
#12
Ianthe Boden, Doa El-Ansary, Nadia Zalucki, Iain K Robertson, Laura Browning, Elizabeth H Skinner, Linda Denehy
OBJECTIVES: To (1) assess memorability and treatment fidelity of pre-operative physiotherapy education prior to elective upper abdominal surgery and, (2) to explore patient opinions on pre-operative education. DESIGN: Mixed-methods analysis of a convenience sample within a larger parallel-group, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. SETTING: Tertiary Australian hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-nine patients having upper abdominal surgery attending pre-admission clinic within six-weeks of surgery...
September 1, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929999/effects-of-cognitive-training-on-cognitive-performance-of-healthy-older-adults
#13
Mariana Teles Santos Golino, Carmen Flores Mendoza, Hudson Fernandes Golino
The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of cognitive training on healthy older adults and verify the transfer effects of targeted and non-targeted abilities. The design consisted of a semi-randomized clinical controlled trial. The final sample was composed of 80 volunteers recruited from a Brazilian community (mean age = 69.69; SD = 7.44), which were separated into an intervention group (N = 47; mean age = 69.66, SD = 7.51) and a control group (N = 33; mean age = 69.73, SD = 7.45). Intervention was characterized by adaptive cognitive training with 12 individual training sessions of 60 to 90 minutes (once a week)...
September 20, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929305/auditory-display-for-fluorescence-guided-open-brain-tumor-surgery
#14
David Black, Horst K Hahn, Ron Kikinis, Karin Wårdell, Neda Haj-Hosseini
PURPOSE: Protoporphyrin (PpIX) fluorescence allows discrimination of tumor and normal brain tissue during neurosurgery. A handheld fluorescence (HHF) probe can be used for spectroscopic measurement of 5-ALA-induced PpIX to enable objective detection compared to visual evaluation of fluorescence. However, current technology requires that the surgeon either views the measured values on a screen or employs an assistant to verbally relay the values. An auditory feedback system was developed and evaluated for communicating measured fluorescence intensity values directly to the surgeon...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929242/impaired-working-memory-updating-affects-memory-for-emotional-and-non-emotional-materials-the-same-way-evidence-from-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd
#15
Vahid Nejati, Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Azam Sabayee
Due to the limited capacity of working memory (WM), efficient suppression of no longer relevant memory contents (inhibition) and revising the current contents of the memory (updating) are crucial factors in memorizing. However, not every individual is able to do so; among them are post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients who seem to have trouble forgetting trauma-related materials, making their memory overloaded with irrelevant information. The present study assumes that the inability to forget in PTSD patients is due to the impaired updating function of WM and, therefore, suggests that these individuals have inferior WM function for both emotional and unemotional materials...
September 19, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926076/electronic-imitation-of-behavioral-and-psychological-synaptic-activities-using-tiox-al2o3-based-memristor-devices
#16
Writam Banerjee, Qi Liu, Hangbing Lv, Shibing Long, Ming Liu
Seeking an effective electronic synapse to emulate biological synaptic behavior is fundamental for building brain-inspired computers. An emerging two-terminal memristor, in which the conductance can be gradually modulated by external electrical stimuli, is widely considered as the strongest competitor of the electronic synapse. Here, we show the capability of TiOx/Al2O3-based memristor devices to imitate synaptic behaviors. Along with analog resistive switching performances, the devices replicate the bio-synapse behaviors of potentiation/depression, short-term-plasticity, and long-term-potentiation, which show that TiOx/Al2O3-based memristors may be useful as electronic synapses...
October 5, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917001/a-neural-network-model-for-familiarity-and-context-learning-during-honeybee-foraging-flights
#17
Jurek Müller, Martin Nawrot, Randolf Menzel, Tim Landgraf
How complex is the memory structure that honeybees use to navigate? Recently, an insect-inspired parsimonious spiking neural network model was proposed that enabled simulated ground-moving agents to follow learned routes. We adapted this model to flying insects and evaluate the route following performance in three different worlds with gradually decreasing object density. In addition, we propose an extension to the model to enable the model to associate sensory input with a behavioral context, such as foraging or homing...
September 15, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915366/structural-encoding-processes-contribute-to-individual-differences-in-face-and-object-cognition-inferences-from-psychometric-test-performance-and-event-related-brain-potentials
#18
Hadiseh Nowparast Rostami, Werner Sommer, Changsong Zhou, Oliver Wilhelm, Andrea Hildebrandt
The enhanced N1 component in event-related potentials (ERP) to face stimuli, termed N170, is considered to indicate the structural encoding of faces. Previously, individual differences in the latency of the N170 have been related to face and object cognition abilities. By orthogonally manipulating content domain (faces vs objects) and task demands (easy/speed vs difficult/accuracy) in both psychometric and EEG tasks, we investigated the uniqueness of the processes underlying face cognition as compared with object cognition and the extent to which the N1/N170 component can explain individual differences in face and object cognition abilities...
August 19, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911293/a-survey-of-the-sequelae-of-memorable-anaesthetic-drug-errors-from-the-anaesthetist-s-perspective
#19
D McCawley, A M Cyna, S Prineas, Sgm Tan
Drug errors amongst anaesthetists are common. Although there has been previous work on the system factors involved with drug error, there has been little research on the sequelae of a drug error from the anaesthetist's perspective. To clarify this issue, we surveyed anaesthetists regarding their most memorable drug error to identify associated factors and personal sequelae regarding their professional practice after the event. An online survey was sent anonymously to 989 Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) Fellows in March 2016 and the results were collected over the following two months...
September 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902439/promoting-mastery-of-complex-biological-mechanisms
#20
William S Bradshaw, Kathryn J Groneman, Jennifer Nelson, John D Bell
This article describes efforts aimed at improving comprehension and retention of complex molecular mechanisms commonly studied in undergraduate biology and biochemistry courses. The focus is on the design of appropriate assessments, an active classroom emphasizing formative practice, and more effective out-of-class study habits. Assessments that require students to articulate their understanding through writing are the most effective. Frequent formative practice improves performance on problems that require intellectual transfer, the ability to apply conceptual principles in novel settings...
September 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
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