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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226859/effects-of-prefrontal-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory-and-reaction-time
#1
Ines S Verissimo, Isabel M Barradas, Tiago T Santos, Pedro C Miranda, Hugo A Ferreira, Ines S Verissimo, Isabel M Barradas, Tiago T Santos, Pedro C Miranda, Hugo A Ferreira, Pedro C Miranda, Ines S Verissimo, Tiago T Santos, Isabel M Barradas, Hugo A Ferreira
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has proven to be a useful tool in the scientific research community, particularly for clinical investigation purposes. Neuroimaging studies indicate that there is a connection between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and working memory (WM), as well as between the primary motor cortex and reaction time (RT). Thus, our goal was to evaluate the effect of anodal stimulation of the PFC, with respect to WM and RT. We tested 20 healthy subjects randomized into two groups - half received active stimulation and the other half sham stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225010/beta-phase-synchronization-in-the-frontal-temporal-cerebellar-network-during-auditory-to-motor-rhythm-learning
#2
Kouki Edagawa, Masahiro Kawasaki
Rhythm is an essential element of dancing and music. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying how rhythm is learned, we recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) data during a rhythm-reproducing task that asked participants to memorize an auditory stimulus and reproduce it via tapping. Based on the behavioral results, we divided the participants into Learning and No-learning groups. EEG analysis showed that error-related negativity (ERN) in the Learning group was larger than in the No-learning group. Time-frequency analysis of the EEG data showed that the beta power in right and left temporal area at the late learning stage was smaller than at the early learning stage in the Learning group...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223442/periodic-lateral-root-priming-what-makes-it-tick
#3
Kirsten Hendrika Ten Tusscher, Marta Laskowski
Conditioning small groups of root pericycle cells for future lateral root formation has a major impact on overall plant root architecture. This priming of lateral roots occurs rhythmically, involving temporal oscillations in auxin response in the root tip. During growth, this process generates a spatial pattern of prebranch sites, an early stage in lateral root formation characterized by a stably maintained high auxin response. Thusfar, the molecular mechanism behind this rhythmicity has remained elusive. Some data implicate a cell-autonomous oscillation in gene expression, while others strongly support the importance of tissue-level modulations in auxin fluxes...
February 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221748/fe3-ph-thermo-responsive-supramolecular-hydrogel-with-multi-shape-memory-effect
#4
Xiaoxia Le, Wei Lu, He Xiao, Li Wang, Chunxin Ma, Jiawei Zhang, Youju Huang, Tao Chen
Poor, non-tunable mechanical properties as well as finite shape memory performance pose a barrier to shape memory hydrogels to realize practical applications. Here, a new shape memory hydrogel with tunable mechanical properties and multi-shape memory effect was presented. Three programmable reversible systems including PBA-diol ester bonds, AAc-Fe3+ and coil-helix transition of agar were applied to memorize temporary shapes and endow the hydrogel with outstanding multi-shape memory functionalities. Moreover, through changing the crosslinking densities, the mechanical properties of the as-prepared hydrogel can be adjusted...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219257/gestalt-effects-in-visual-working-memory
#5
Patrycja Kałamała, Aleksandra Sadowska, Wawrzyniec Ordziniak, Adam Chuderski
Four experiments investigated whether conforming to Gestalt principles, well known to drive visual perception, also facilitates the active maintenance of information in visual working memory (VWM). We used the change detection task, which required the memorization of visual patterns composed of several shapes. We observed no effects of symmetry of visual patterns on VWM performance. However, there was a moderate positive effect when a particular shape that was probed matched the shape of the whole pattern (the whole-part similarity effect)...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215214/the-distancing-embracing-model-of-the-enjoyment-of-negative-emotions-in-art-reception
#6
Winfried Menninghaus, Valentin Wagner, Julian Hanich, Eugen Wassiliwizky, Thomas Jacobsen, Stefan Koelsch
Why are negative emotions so central in art reception far beyond tragedy? Revisiting classical aesthetics in light of recent psychological research, we present a novel model to explain this much-discussed (apparent) paradox. We argue that negative emotions are an important resource for the arts in general rather than a special license for exceptional art forms only. The underlying rationale is that negative emotions have been shown to be particularly powerful in securing attention, intense emotional involvement, and high memorability-and hence precisely in what artworks strive for...
February 20, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208341/effect-of-similarity-between-patterns-in-associative-memory
#7
Sheng-Jun Wang, Zhou Yang
We study the stability of patterns in Hopfield networks in which a part of memorized patterns are similar. The similarity between patterns impacts the stability of these patterns, but the stability of other independent patterns is only changed slightly. We show that the stability of patterns is affected in different ways by similarity. For networks storing a number of patterns, the similarity between patterns enhances the pattern stability. However, the stability of patterns can be weakened by the similarity when networks store fewer patterns, and the relation between the stability of patterns and similarity is nonmonotonic...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198413/pre-encoding-gamma-band-activity-during-auditory-working-memory
#8
Jochen Kaiser, Maria Rieder, Cornelius Abel, Benjamin Peters, Christoph Bledowski
Previous magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies have revealed gamma-band activity at sensors over parietal and fronto-temporal cortex during the delay phase of auditory spatial and non-spatial match-to-sample tasks, respectively. While this activity was interpreted as reflecting the memory maintenance of sound features, we noted that task-related activation differences might have been present already prior to the onset of the sample stimulus. The present study focused on the interval between a visual cue indicating which sound feature was to be memorized (lateralization or pitch) and sample sound presentation to test for task-related activation differences preceding stimulus encoding...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191647/flexible-conceptual-combination-electrophysiological-correlates-and-consequences-for-associative-memory
#9
Heather D Lucas, Ryan J Hubbard, Kara D Federmeier
When meaningful stimuli such as words are encountered in groups or pairs (e.g., "elephant-ferry"), they can be processed either separately or as an integrated concept ("an elephant ferry"). Prior research suggests that memory for integrated associations is supported by different mechanisms than is memory for nonintegrated associations. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms that support the integration of novel stimulus pairs. We recorded ERPs while participants memorized sequentially presented, unrelated noun pairs using a strategy that either did or did not involve attempting to construct coherent definitions...
February 13, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163007/vestibular-contributions-to-high-level-sensorimotor-functions
#10
W Pieter Medendorp, Luc J P Selen
The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied, the role of the vestibular system in higher level sensorimotor functions is less clear. This review covers new research on the vestibular influence on perceptual judgments, motor decisions, and the ability to learn multiple motor actions...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161524/john-saunders-zpa-sonic-hedgehog-and-digit-identity-how-does-it-really-all-work
#11
REVIEW
Jianjian Zhu, Susan Mackem
Among John Saunders' many seminal contributions to developmental biology, his discovery of the limb 'zone of polarizing activity' (ZPA) is arguably one of the most memorable and ground-breaking. This discovery introduced the limb as a premier model for understanding developmental patterning and promoted the concept of patterning by a morphogen gradient. In the 50 years since the discovery of the ZPA, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been identified as the ZPA factor and the basic components of the signaling pathway and many aspects of its regulation have been elucidated...
February 2, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160753/lateralization-of-language-function-in-epilepsy-patients-a-high-density-scalp-derived-event-related-potentials-erp-study
#12
Karin Trimmel, Jens Sachsenweger, Gerald Lindinger, Eduard Auff, Fritz Zimprich, Ekaterina Pataraia
OBJECTIVES: Language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) represents the clinical standard for language lateralization assessment in presurgical epilepsy evaluation, but still many patients experience postoperative language deficits. Event-related potentials (ERPs), especially the negative component around and after 400ms, are related to language processing and could therefore represent a complementary method of language lateralization assessment. METHODS: Scalp EEG was recorded from 64 locations in 36 epilepsy patients and 37 controls during three visually presented language tasks: A short-term language memory task (differentiation memorized vs...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154190/investigating-viruses-during-the-transformation-of-molecular-biology
#13
Bernard Moss
This Reflections article describes my early work on viral enzymes and the discovery of mRNA capping, how my training in medicine and biochemistry merged as I evolved into a virologist, the development of viruses as vaccine vectors, and how scientific and technological developments during the 1970's and beyond set the stage for the interrogation of nearly every step in the reproductive cycle of vaccinia virus (VACV), a large DNA virus with about 200 genes. The reader may view this article as a work in progress, since I remain actively engaged in research at the NIH notwithstanding 50 memorable years there...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151008/deeply-rooted-in-memories-toward-a-comprehensive-overview-of-30%C3%A2-years-of-memorable-message-literature
#14
Angela Cooke-Jackson, Valerie Rubinsky
Knapp, Stohl, and Reardon's (1981) seminal work reported that some messages may be "remembered for a long time and have a profound influence on a person's life" (p. 27). While the foundational concepts of this framework have offered a meaningful contribution to memorable messages research, this article seeks to unpack the past three decades of the literature specific to the field of communication. The authors will highlight the trajectory and changes while considering its present use, episodes, and situations that transpire in individual lived experiences...
February 2, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140793/quantification-of-baseline-pupillary-response-and-task-evoked-pupillary-response-during-constant-and-incremental-task-load
#15
Prithima R Mosaly, Lukasz M Mazur, Lawrence Marks
The methods employed to quantify the baseline pupil size and task evoked pupillary response (TEPR) may affect the overall study results. To test this hypothesis, the objective of this study was to assess variability in baseline pupil size and TEPR during two basic working memory tasks: constant load of 3-letters memorization-recall (10 trials), and incremental load memorization-recall (two trials of each load level), using two commonly used methods (1) change from trail/load specific baseline, (2) change from constant baseline...
January 31, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140661/fabrication-and-characterization-of-shape-memory-polymers-based-bioabsorbable-biomedical-drug-eluting-stent
#16
Vratika C Sonawane, Mahesh P More, Abhijeet P Pandey, Pravin O Patil, Prashant K Deshmukh
Present investigation deals with, tacrolimus eluting, self-expandable, biodegradable stent fabricated by solvent casting method. The design was based on shape memory polymers, which possess the ability to memorize temporary shape that can substantially differ from their initial permanent shape. A set of biodegradable polymers blend was used such as poly-lactic acid (PLA) and poly-l-glycolic acid (PLGA) to study the shape memory effect of polymer. The prepared stent was assessed for various parameters like Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), In-vitro and Ex vivo expansion, Drug content, In-vitro drug release, Haemocompatibility, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Textural Characterization...
January 31, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138426/alterations-in-visual-cortical-activation-and-connectivity-with-prefrontal-cortex-during-working-memory-updating-in-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Thang M Le, John A Borghi, Autumn J Kujawa, Daniel N Klein, Hoi-Chung Leung
The present study examined the impacts of major depressive disorder (MDD) on visual and prefrontal cortical activity as well as their connectivity during visual working memory updating and related them to the core clinical features of the disorder. Impairment in working memory updating is typically associated with the retention of irrelevant negative information which can lead to persistent depressive mood and abnormal affect. However, performance deficits have been observed in MDD on tasks involving little or no demand on emotion processing, suggesting dysfunctions may also occur at the more basic level of information processing...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132932/memorability-a-stimulus-driven-perceptual-neural-signature-distinctive-from-memory
#18
Wilma A Bainbridge, Daniel D Dilks, Aude Oliva
A long-standing question in neuroscience is how perceptual processes select stimuli for encoding and later retrieval by memory processes. Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging study with human participants, we report the discovery of a global, stimulus-driven processing stream that we call memorability. Memorability automatically tags the statistical distinctiveness of stimuli for later encoding, and shows separate neural signatures from both low-level perception (memorability shows no signal in early visual cortex) and classical subsequent memory based on individual memory...
January 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127116/evidence-against-observational-spatial-memory-for-cache-locations-of-conspecifics-in-marsh-tits-poecile-palustris
#19
A Utku Urhan, Ellen Emilsson, Anders Brodin
ABSTRACT: Many species in the family Paridae, such as marsh tits Poecile palustris, are large-scale scatter hoarders of food that make cryptic caches and disperse these in large year-round territories. The perhaps most well-known species in the family, the great tit Parus major, does not store food itself but is skilled in stealing caches from the other species. We have previously demonstrated that great tits are able to memorise positions of caches they have observed marsh tits make and later return and steal the food...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120632/learning-methods-and-strategies-of-anatomy-among-medical-students-in-two-different-institutions-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#20
Omar A Al-Mohrej, Noura K Al-Ayedh, Emad M Masuadi, Nader S Al-Kenani
BACKGROUND: Anatomy instructors adopt individual teaching methods and strategies to convey anatomical information to medical students for learning. Students also exhibit their own individual learning preferences. Instructional methods preferences vary between both instructors and students across different institutions. AIMS: In attempt to bridge the gap between teaching methods and the students' learning preferences, this study aimed to identify students' learning methods and different strategies of studying anatomy in two different Saudi medical schools in Riyadh...
January 25, 2017: Medical Teacher
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