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Valentina Proietti, Sarah Laurence, Claire M Matthew, Xiaomei Zhou, Catherine J Mondloch
Adults' ability to recognize individual faces is shaped by experience. Young adults recognize own-age and own-race faces more accurately than other-age and other-race faces. The own-age and own-race biases have been attributed to differential perceptual experience and to differences in how in-group vs. out-group faces are processed, with in-group faces being processed at the individual level and out-group faces being processed at the categorical level. To examine this social categorization hypothesis, young adults studied young and older faces in Experiment 1 and own- and other-race faces in Experiment 2...
February 15, 2018: Vision Research
Aline Frey, Benoît Lemaire, Laurent Vercueil, Anne Guérin-Dugué
We investigated how two different reading tasks, namely reading to memorize [Read & Memorize (RM)] and reading to decide whether a text was relevant to a given topic [Read & Decide (RD)], modulated both eye movements (EM) and brain activity. To this end, we set up an ecological paradigm using the eye fixation-related potentials (EFRP) technique, in which participants freely moved their eyes to process short paragraphs, while their electroencephalography (EEG) activity was recorded in synchronization with their EM...
February 15, 2018: Brain Topography
Muhammad A J Qadri, Kevin Leonard, Robert G Cook, Debbie M Kelly
Clark's nutcrackers exhibit remarkable cache recovery behavior, remembering thousands of seed locations over the winter. No direct laboratory test of their visual memory capacity, however, has yet been performed. Here, two nutcrackers were tested in an operant procedure used to measure different species' visual memory capacities. The nutcrackers were incrementally tested with an ever-expanding pool of pictorial stimuli in a two-alternative discrimination task. Each picture was randomly assigned to either a right or a left choice response, forcing the nutcrackers to memorize each picture-response association...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Alice De Visscher, Stephan E Vogel, Gernot Reishofer, Eva Hassler, Karl Koschutnig, Bert De Smedt, Roland H Grabner
In the development of math ability, a large variability of performance in solving simple arithmetic problems is observed and has not found a compelling explanation yet. One robust effect in simple multiplication facts is the problem size effect, indicating better performance for small problems compared to large ones. Recently, behavioral studies brought to light another effect in multiplication facts, the interference effect. That is, high interfering problems (receiving more proactive interference from previously learned problems) are more difficult to retrieve than low interfering problems (in terms of physical feature overlap, namely the digits, De Visscher and Noël, 2014)...
February 11, 2018: NeuroImage
S Claiborne Johnston
Artificial intelligence and other forms of information technology are only just beginning to change the practice of medicine. The pace of change is expected to accelerate as tools improve and as demands for analyzing a rapidly growing body of knowledge and array of data increase. The medical students of today will practice in a world where information technology is sophisticated and omnipresent. In this world, the tasks of memorization and analysis will be less important to them as practicing physicians. On the other hand, the non-analytical, humanistic aspects of medicine-most importantly, the art of caring-will remain a critical function of the physician, and facility with improving systems of care will be required...
February 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Gaën Plancher, Valérie Gyselinck, Pascale Piolino
Memory is one of the most important cognitive functions in a person's life as it is essential for recalling personal memories and performing many everyday tasks. Although a huge number of studies have been conducted in the field, only a few of them investigated memory in realistic situations, due to methodological issues. The various tools that have been developed using virtual environments (VEs) have gained popularity in cognitive psychology and neuropsychology because they enable to create naturalistic and controlled situations, and are thus particularly adapted to the study of episodic memory (EM), for which an ecological evaluation is of prime importance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Merel A Burgering, Carel Ten Cate, Jean Vroomen
Speech sound categorization in birds seems in many ways comparable to that by humans, but it is unclear what mechanisms underlie such categorization. To examine this, we trained zebra finches and humans to discriminate two pairs of edited speech sounds that varied either along one dimension (vowel or speaker sex) or along two dimensions (vowel and speaker sex). Sounds could be memorized individually or categorized based on one dimension or by integrating or combining both dimensions. Once training was completed, we tested generalization to new speech sounds that were either more extreme, more ambiguous (i...
February 12, 2018: Animal Cognition
De-Zhi Kang, Ping Chen, Qing-Song Lin, Yuan-Xiang Lin, Xi-Yue Wu, Pei-Sen Yao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of 3D printed models with pathological entities in enhancing the learning curve of surgery of tuberculum sellae meningioma. METHODS: We printed four 3D printed models of tuberculum sellae meningiomas based on radiological data using a 3D printer. Participants were allocated to 3D group and atlas group. In the 3D group, participants learned surgery with the assistance of 3D models. In the atlas group, participants used only two-dimensional materials to assist their learning...
February 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Igor S Utochkin, Jeremy M Wolfe
Humans are very good at remembering large numbers of scenes over substantial periods of time. But how good are they at remembering changes to scenes? In this study, we tested scene memory and change detection two weeks after initial scene learning. In Experiments 1-3, scenes were learned incidentally during visual search for change. In Experiment 4, observers explicitly memorized scenes. At test, after two weeks observers were asked to discriminate old from new scenes, to recall a change that they had detected in the study phase, or to detect a newly introduced change in the memorization experiment...
February 9, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Cedric Annweiler, Lise Doineau, Lucie Gerigne, Anais Provendier, Spyridon N Karras, Olivier Beauchet, Bruno Fantino, Guillaume T Duval
BACKGROUND: Older adults with hypovitaminosis D report more often subjective cognitive complaints, especially with regards to memory. This raises prospects that vitamin D may improve older adults' subjective experience of memory disorders. OBJECTIVE: To determine among older community-dwellers whether higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were associated with fewer memory complaints, while considering the different subtypes of memory complaints...
February 1, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Shlomit Shnitzer-Meirovich, Hefziba Lifshitz, Nira Mashal
This study is the first to investigate the effectiveness of deep and shallow intervention programs in the acquisition of visual metaphor comprehension in individuals with non-specific intellectual disability (NSID; aged 15-59, N = 53) or Down syndrome (DS; aged 15-52, N = 50). The deep intervention program was based on dynamic assessment model for enhancing analogical thinking. The shallow intervention program involves memorizing a metaphorical relationship between pairs of pictures. Visual metaphor comprehension was measured by the construction of a metaphorical connection between pairs of pictures...
February 2, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Jeffrey Loewenstein
Surprising people can provide an opening for influencing them. Surprises garner attention, are arousing, are memorable, and can prompt shifts in understanding. Less noted is that, as a result, surprises can serve to persuade others by leading them to shifts in attitudes. Furthermore, because stories, pictures, and music can generate surprises and those can be widely shared, surprise can have broad social influence. People also tend to share surprising items with others, as anyone on social media has discovered...
February 7, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Neda Ratanawongsa, George Y Matta, Fuad B Bohsali, Margaret S Chisolm
BACKGROUND: Clinicians' use of electronic health record (EHR) systems while multitasking may increase the risk of making errors, but silent EHR system use may lower patient satisfaction. Delaying EHR system use until after patient visits may increase clinicians' EHR workload, stress, and burnout. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the perspectives of clinicians, educators, administrators, and researchers about misses and near misses that they felt were related to clinician multitasking while using EHR systems...
February 6, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
Janne Kauttonen, Yevhen Hlushchuk, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Pia Tikka
How does the human brain recall and connect relevant memories with unfolding events? To study this, we presented 25 healthy subjects, during functional magnetic resonance imaging, the movie 'Memento' (director C. Nolan). In this movie, scenes are presented in chronologically reverse order with certain scenes briefly overlapping previously presented scenes. Such overlapping "key-frames" serve as effective memory cues for the viewers, prompting recall of relevant memories of the previously seen scene and connecting them with the concurrent scene...
January 31, 2018: NeuroImage
Furong Huang, Shuang Tang, Pei Sun, Jing Luo
Novelty and appropriateness are considered the two fundamental features of creative thinking, including insight problem solving, which can be performed through chunk decomposition and constraint relaxation. Based on a previous study that separated the neural bases of novelty and appropriateness in chunk decomposition, in this study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to further dissociate these mechanisms in constraint relaxation. Participants were guided to mentally represent the method of problem solving according to the externally provided solutions that were elaborately prepared in advance and systematically varied in their novelty and appropriateness for the given problem situation...
January 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Andreas Ihle, Rafal Albiński, Kamila Gurynowicz, Matthias Kliegel
BACKGROUND: So far, training of prospective memory (PM) focused on very short instances (single sessions) and targeted the intention-formation phase only. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the effectiveness of 2 different 4-week strategy-based PM training types, namely imagery training (targeting the encoding of the PM intention in the intention-formation phase) versus rehearsal training (targeting the maintenance of the PM intention in the intention-retention phase) in older adults...
January 19, 2018: Gerontology
Ren-Feng Liu, Fang-Ying Wang, Hsi Yen, Pei-Lun Sun, Chih-Hsun Yang
INTRODUCTION: Medical students and residents will encounter many cutaneous fungal infections in medical practice. However, the training for identification of medical fungi has been insufficient due to limited lecture-based courses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of using smartphone-based wallpapers in learning the microscopic morphology and colony characteristics of medical fungi for medical students and residents. METHODS: A smartphone-based wallpaper learning module using a wallpaper-changing software application (app) was introduced in this 3-week training course...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Mackenzie R Greenwell
This study investigates memorable messages about mental health that young adults (YAs) recall receiving from family members. A memorable messages conceptual framework is adopted to explore message types and their associations with relevant individual and relational outcomes. Findings from a study of 193 memorable messages about mental health revealed three types of messages about mental health transmitted by family members: strategizing, normalizing, and minimizing messages. Statistical analyses indicated that memorable message types were significantly related to YA satisfaction with the message, perceptions of relational closeness between the message source and the YA message recipient, and YA attitudes about mental-health help seeking...
February 2, 2018: Health Communication
Svea C Y Schroeder, Felix Ball, Niko A Busch
Only small amounts of visual information, as determined by the capacity of working memory, can be held in an active and accessible state. Thus, it is important to select and maintain information that is relevant while ignoring irrelevant information. However, the underlying neural mechanism of these processes has yet to be identified. One potential candidate are alpha oscillations (8-14 Hz), which have been shown to inhibit stimulus processing in perceptual tasks. During memory maintenance, alpha power increases with set size suggesting that alpha oscillations are involved either in memory maintenance or in the inhibition of task-irrelevant information in order to protect relevant information from interference...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Tobias Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Edward K Vogel
In order to efficiently process incoming visual information, selective attention acts as a filter that enhances relevant and suppresses irrelevant information. In this study, we used an event-related potential (ERP) approach with systematic lateralization to investigate enhancement and suppression during encoding of information into visual working memory (WM) separately. We used a change detection task in which observers had to memorize some items while ignoring other items. We found that the to-be-ignored items elicited a PD component in the ERP, suggesting that irrelevant information is actively suppressed from WM...
January 20, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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