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Izumi Matsuda, Izumi Matsudaaa
Recent studies have shown that a memorized item in the Concealed Information Test elicits a frontal negative slow wave (500-1000 ms) of the event-related potential, the cortical source of which involves the right prefrontal cortex. To examine whether this negative slow wave reflects a process that is specific to concealment rather than a more general cognitive control process, we compared the event-related potentials of 24 participants in four conditions involving the presence or absence of memory and the intention to conceal...
April 17, 2018: Biological Psychology
F Ruotolo, M H G Claessen, I J M van der Ham
The aim of this study was to assess how people memorize spatial information of emotionally laden landmarks along a route and if the emotional value of the landmarks affects the way metric and configurational properties of the route itself are represented. Three groups of participants were asked to watch a movie of a virtual walk along a route. The route could contain positive, negative, or neutral landmarks. Afterwards, participants were asked to: (a) recognize the landmarks; (b) imagine to walk distances between landmarks; (c) indicate the position of the landmarks along the route; (d) judge the length of the route; (e) draw the route...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Research
Tomoko Sakiyama, Yukio-Pegio Gunji
Lévy walks are known to be efficient movements because Lévy walkers search wide areas while restricting returns to previously visited sites. A self-avoiding walk (SAW) is a series of moves on a lattice that visit the same place only once. As such, SAWs can also be effective search algorithms. However, it is not realistic that foragers memorize many visited positions for a long time. In this work, we investigated whether foragers performed optimal searches when having limited memory. The agent in our model followed SAWs to some extent by memorizing and avoiding visited places...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Alice Butzlaff, Debrayh Gaylle, Colleen O'Leary Kelley
Examination wrappers are a self-evaluation tool that uses metacognition to help students reflect on test performance. After examinations, rather than focus on points earned, students learn to self-identify study strategies and recognize methods of test preparation. The purpose of the study was to determine if the use of an examination wrapper after each test would encourage students to self-evaluate performance and adjust study strategies. A total of 120 undergraduate nursing students completed self-evaluations after each examination, which were analyzed using content analysis...
April 13, 2018: Nurse Educator
I Y Galyaev
BACKGROUND: the patients presenting with severe post-stroke in the acute period of this condition are characterized by the high risk of venous thromboembolic complications (VTEC), with the most dangerous of them being pulmonary embolism that makes an appreciable contribution to the mortality rate of such patients at the hospital stage of their treatment. Among the physical methods for the prevention of VTE, such as wearing graduated compression stockings (GCS), myoelectrostimulation (MES), pneumatic intermittent compression (PIC), only the latter technique has been shown to be efficient when applied for the treatment of surgical patients during the post-stroke period with the level of evidence 2B and the very uncertain parameters of the impact...
April 9, 2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Florian Kattner, Wolfgang Ellermeier
Task-irrelevant speech and other temporally changing sounds are known to interfere with the short-term memorization of ordered verbal materials, as compared to silence or stationary sounds. It has been argued that this disruption of short-term memory (STM) may be due to (a) interference of automatically encoded acoustical fluctuations with the process of serial rehearsal or (b) attentional capture by salient task-irrelevant information. To disentangle the contributions of these 2 processes, the authors investigated whether the disruption of serial recall is due to the semantic or acoustical properties of task-irrelevant speech (Experiment 1)...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Keisuke Yanagisawa, Shunta Komine, Rikuto Kubota, Masahito Ohue, Yutaka Akiyama
The need to accelerate large-scale protein-ligand docking in virtual screening against a huge compound database led researchers to propose a strategy that entails memorizing the evaluation result of the partial structure of a compound and reusing it to evaluate other compounds. However, the previous method required frequent disk accesses, resulting in insufficient acceleration. Thus, more efficient memory usage can be expected to lead to further acceleration, and optimal memory usage could be achieved by solving the minimum cost flow problem...
March 16, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Louise Carton, Nicolas Cabé, Olivier Ménard, Sylvie Deheul, Anne-Sylvie Caous, David Devos, Olivier Cottencin, Régis Bordet
For students, the pressing demands for memorization, top-level performance, and peer competition create an environment favorable for pharmaceutical cognitive doping behavior. We aimed to describe recent practices and the benefit/risk ratio of such behavior and to discuss the issues at stake. The prevalence of pharmaceutical cognitive doping among students has been reported from 1.3% to 33% across studies, with variations depending on country and definition of pharmaceutical cognitive doping. The therapeutic classes most frequently cited as being diverted for doping purposes are psychostimulants and nootropics (methylphenidate, modafinil, piracetam), corticosteroids, sedative drugs and beta-blockers...
March 6, 2018: Thérapie
Kenta Yamamoto, Kouhei Masumoto
The decline in self-related memory in ASD was investigated by using encoding, forgetting, and source monitoring. Participants memorized action sentences verbally, observationally, or by enacted encoding. Then, they underwent recall, recognition, and source monitoring memory tests immediately and 1 week later. If the information were properly encoded, memory performance in the enacted encoding would be the highest (enactment effect). The result of memory tests in ASD and TD people showed that enacted encoding was superior...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
(no author information available yet)
In the nineteenth century, when poetry was more widely read and memorized, Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-1833) was hugely popular, and no poem of his was more popular and better known than "Ulysses." Even today many know the rousing call to action, which closes the poem: "To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield." Ulysses, the Roman name for Odysseus, has returned home an old man after 20 years of fighting in Troy and wandering, and he faces an existential crisis: the tension between his obligation to his wife Penelope, son Telemachus, and his kingdom and his need to continue a personal journey of discovery...
January 2018: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
Valerie S VanRyn, James M Poteracki, Micaela Balzer, Erica A Wehrwein
For the past 6 yr, the Department of Physiology at Michigan State University (MSU) has partnered with Impression 5 Science Center in Lansing, MI. Together, we host a day-long community engagement event on a Saturday each year in early November coinciding with the American Physiological Society's Physiology Understanding Week. The purpose was to provide a fun and memorable hands-on experience for children and families. This paper describes the detailed planning and logistics. The event takes place in the main exhibit space at the science center, generally has 15-17 physiology activities stations set up as booths run by volunteers, and the event runs as an open-house format...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Lucas Richard Ettinger, Ami Boucher, Elisabeth Simonovich
AIM: To investigate proprioceptive discrepancies in the lower extremity in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 46 older persons were divided into a T2DM group ( n = 23) and a control group who did not have T2DM ( n = 23). Participants were given a brief warm up with stretching exercises. Diabetic neuropathy scores were collected prior to proprioceptive testing. For proprioceptive testing, participants performed leg extensions to randomized target positions of 15°, 30°, 45, 60° degrees of elevation in the sagittal plane, each target was repeated a total of four times...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
Delyse Leadbeatter, Jinlong Gao
Learning basic science forms an essential foundation for oral health therapy and dentistry, but frequently students perceive it as difficult, dry, and disconnected from clinical practice. This perception is encouraged by assessment methods that reward fact memorization, such as objective examinations. This study evaluated use of a learner-centered assessment portfolio designed to increase student engagement with basic science in an oral health therapy program at the University of Sydney, Australia. The aim of this qualitative study based on focus groups was to investigate students' engagement with basic science courses following introduction of the portfolio...
April 2018: Journal of Dental Education
Yvana Bocage-Barthélémy, Armand Chatard, Nematollah Jaafari, Nina Tello, Joël Billieux, Emmanuel Daveau, Leila Selimbegović
Women are routinely exposed to images of extremely slim female bodies (the thin ideal) in advertisements, even if they do not necessarily pay much attention to these images. We hypothesized that paradoxically, it is precisely in such conditions of low attention that the impact of the social comparison with the thin ideal might be the most pronounced. To test this prediction, one hundred and seventy-three young female participants were exposed to images of the thin ideal or of women's fashion accessories. They were allocated to either a condition of high (memorizing 10 digits) or low cognitive load (memorizing 4 digits)...
2018: PloS One
Susan M Wieczorek
With Alzheimer disease, the challenge of death can be unique to each who experience it: the caretaker, the family, the health-care professional, and the victim himself. Death of personality, of memory, and of physical skills wears away the fabric of relationships, leaving little hope of any return to normalcy. To some, this reflection exhibits how faith sustains hope and comforts those afflicted, despite the odds of inevitable loss. To others it reflects upon the poignant complexities associated with palliative care and the demand for individualized attention to the beliefs, norms, and values of each situation, no matter the culture, religion, age, or race...
March 2018: Journal of Patient Experience
Caroline M Taylor, Pauline M Emmett, Alan M Emond, Jean Golding
OBJECTIVE: Public health messages to reduce Hg exposure for pregnant women have focused exclusively on advice on fish consumption to limit Hg exposure, with little account being taken of the positive contribution of fish to nutritional quality. The aim of the present review was to compare and contrast the content and presentation of national guidelines on fish consumption in pregnancy, and comment on their evidence base and impact on consumption. DESIGN: We searched for national and international guidelines on fish consumption in pregnancy using Internet search strategies...
March 26, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Camille Favier-Archinard, Géraldine Leguelinel-Blache, Florent Dubois, Tanguy Le Gall, Pascal Bourquard, Nadège Passemard, Sandrine Tora, Aurélie Rey, Marie Rossi, Thierry Chevallier, Christelle Cousin, Mireille Favier
The safety of the community treatment with oral anticancer therapies is a strong theme of the cancer plan 2014-2019. The objective of this study was to develop a Pharmaceutical Counseling Guide to improve medication adherence in patients treated for multiple myeloma with oral anticancer therapies. A multidisciplinary professional working group selected a list of relevant medication adherence-related items that served as the framework for the design of the pharmaceutical counseling support materials in patient-accessible language...
March 21, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Leonardo Lopes Costa, Danilo Freitas Rangel, Ilana Rosental Zalmon
Sandy beaches are sites of marine debris stranding, but the interaction of beach biota with waste is poorly studied. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata selects marine debris by types using a non-destructive method on sandy beaches of Southeastern Brazil. We found marine debris in 7% of 1696 surveyed burrows, and the ghost crabs selectivity was mainly by soft plastic (30%), straw (11%), rope (6%) and foam (4%). Burrows with marine debris showed higher occupation rate (~68%) compared to burrows without debris (~28%), indicating that these materials may increase the capacity of ghost crabs to memorize their burrows placement (homing)...
March 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Peter C-H Cheng, Erlijn van Genuchten
Individual differences in the strategies that control sequential behavior were investigated in an experiment in which participants memorized sentences and then wrote them by hand, in a non-cursive style. Thirty-two participants each wrote eight sentences, which had hierarchical structures with five levels. The dataset included over 31,000 letters. Despite the deliberately constrained nature of the task and stimuli, 23 patterns of behavior were identified from the durations of pauses that occurred before the inscription of letters at four chunk levels, spanning letters, words, phrases, and sentences...
March 23, 2018: Cognitive Science
Julie L Demuth
People's past experiences with a hazard theoretically influence how they approach future risks. Yet, past hazard experience has been conceptualized and measured in wide-ranging, often simplistic, ways, resulting in mixed findings about its relationship with risk perception. This study develops a scale of past hazard experiences, in the context of tornadoes, that is content and construct valid. A conceptual definition was developed, a set of items were created to measure one's most memorable and multiple tornado experiences, and the measures were evaluated through two surveys of the public who reside in tornado-prone areas...
March 23, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
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