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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345351/shape-memory-characteristics-of-o157-antigenic-cavities-generated-on-nanocomposites-consisting-of-copolymer-encapsulated-gold-nanoparticles
#1
Takamasa Kinoshita, Dung Quang Nguyen, Dung Quynh Le, Kengo Ishiki, Hiroshi Shiigi, Tsutomu Nagaoka
Nanometer-sized composite particles, which consisted of gold nanoparticles encapsulated by an N-isopropylacrylamide copolymer, were successfully synthesized using a one-step process. Shape complementary cavities of the O157-antigen were formed on the composite utilizing temperature-dependent affinity changes of the copolymer. The composite bound to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 at 298 K and enhanced light-scattering intensity of the cell due to the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles...
March 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337138/motor-skill-learning-in-an-insect-inspired-neuro-computational-control-system
#2
Eleonora Arena, Paolo Arena, Roland Strauss, Luca Patané
In nature, insects show impressive adaptation and learning capabilities. The proposed computational model takes inspiration from specific structures of the insect brain: after proposing key hypotheses on the direct involvement of the mushroom bodies (MBs) and on their neural organization, we developed a new architecture for motor learning to be applied in insect-like walking robots. The proposed model is a nonlinear control system based on spiking neurons. MBs are modeled as a nonlinear recurrent spiking neural network (SNN) with novel characteristics, able to memorize time evolutions of key parameters of the neural motor controller, so that existing motor primitives can be improved...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334954/the-science-and-politics-of-naming-reforming-anatomical-nomenclature-ca-1886-1955
#3
Tatjana Buklijas
Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology...
February 11, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334293/what-s-behind-a-sign-perceiving-an-arithmetic-operator-recruits-brain-circuits-for-spatial-orienting
#4
Romain Mathieu, Justine Epinat-Duclos, Monica Sigovan, Audrey Breton, Anne Cheylus, Michel Fayol, Catherine Thevenot, Jérôme Prado
Do mathematical symbols evoke spatial representations? Although behavioral studies have long demonstrated interactions between space and the processing of Arabic digits, how to interpret these results remains controversial. Here, we tested whether activity in regions supporting spatial processing contributes to the processing of symbols conveying fundamental arithmetic concepts-such as operation signs-even in the absence of associated digits. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that merely perceiving a "+" sign triggers activity in brain regions that support the orienting of spatial attention in adults...
March 14, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324703/arousal-amplifies-biased-competition-between-high-and-low-priority-memories-more-in-women-than-in-men-the-role-of-elevated-noradrenergic-activity
#5
David Clewett, Michiko Sakaki, Ringo Huang, Shawn E Nielsen, Mara Mather
Recent findings indicate that emotional arousal can enhance memory consolidation of goal-relevant stimuli while impairing it for irrelevant stimuli. According to one recent model, these goal-dependent memory tradeoffs are driven by arousal-induced release of norepinephrine (NE), which amplifies neural gain in target sensory and memory processing brain regions. Past work also shows that ovarian hormones modulate activity in the same regions thought to support NE's effects on memory, such as the amygdala, suggesting that men and women may be differentially susceptible to arousal's dual effects on episodic memory...
February 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319149/walking-and-talking-the-tree-of-life-why-and-how-to-teach-about-biodiversity
#6
Cissy J Ballen, Harry W Greene
Taxonomic details of diversity are an essential scaffolding for biology education, yet outdated methods for teaching the tree of life (TOL), as implied by textbook content and usage, are still commonly employed. Here, we show that the traditional approach only vaguely represents evolutionary relationships, fails to denote major events in the history of life, and relies heavily on memorizing near-meaningless taxonomic ranks. Conversely, a clade-based strategy-focused on common ancestry, monophyletic groups, and derived functional traits-is explicitly based on Darwin's "descent with modification," provides students with a rational system for organizing the details of biodiversity, and readily lends itself to active learning techniques...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315610/sensory-processing-in-huntington-s-disease
#7
Ana Mirallave, Merche Morales, Christopher Cabib, Esteban J Muñoz, Pilar Santacruz, Xavier Gasull, Josep Valls-Sole
OBJECTIVE: An intriguing electrophysiological feature of patients with Huntington's disease (HD) is the delayed latency and decreased amplitude of somatosensory long-latency evoked potentials (LLeps). We investigated whether such dysfunction was associated with delayed conscious perception of the sensory stimulus. METHODS: Sixteen HD patients and 16 control subjects faced a computer screen showing the Libet's clock (Libet et al., 1983). In Rest trials, subjects had to memorize the position of the clock handle at perception of either electrical or thermal stimuli (AW)...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297857/mean-field-message-passing-equations-in-the-hopfield-model-and-its-generalizations
#8
Marc Mézard
Motivated by recent progress in using restricted Boltzmann machines as preprocessing algorithms for deep neural network, we revisit the mean-field equations [belief-propagation and Thouless-Anderson Palmer (TAP) equations] in the best understood of such machines, namely the Hopfield model of neural networks, and we explicit how they can be used as iterative message-passing algorithms, providing a fast method to compute the local polarizations of neurons. In the "retrieval phase", where neurons polarize in the direction of one memorized pattern, we point out a major difference between the belief propagation and TAP equations: The set of belief propagation equations depends on the pattern which is retrieved, while one can use a unique set of TAP equations...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293444/association-of-gait-characteristics-and-depression-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-assessed-in-goal-directed-locomotion-task
#9
Péter Kincses, Norbert Kovács, Kázmér Karádi, Ádám Feldmann, Krisztina Dorn, Zsuzsanna Aschermann, Sámuel Komoly, Tibor Szolcsányi, Árpád Csathó, János Kállai
Introduction. In the genesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical phenomenology the exact nature of the association between bradykinesia and affective variables is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the gait characteristics and level of depression in PD and healthy volunteers. Methods. Patients with PD (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 52) were recruited for the present study. Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were compared between groups while participants completed a goal-directed locomotion task under visually controlled (VC) and visually noncontrolled conditions (VnC)...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292217/influence-of-social-anxiety-on-recognition-memory-for-happy-and-angry-faces-comparison-between-own-and-other-race-faces
#10
Mariko Kikutani
The reported experiment investigated memory of unfamiliar faces and how it is influenced by race, facial expression, direction of gaze, and observers' level of social anxiety. Eighty- seven Japanese participants initially memorized images of Oriental and Caucasian faces displaying either happy or angry expressions with direct or averted gaze. They then saw the previously seen faces and additional distractor faces displaying neutral expressions, and judged if they had seen them before. Their level of social anxiety was measured with a questionnaire...
March 15, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290062/understanding-negative-self-evaluations-in-borderline-personality-disorder-a-review-of-self-related-cognitions-emotions-and-motives
#11
REVIEW
Dorina Winter, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288909/oscillatory-eeg-dynamics-underlying-automatic-chunking-during-sentence-processing
#12
Corinna E Bonhage, Lars Meyer, Thomas Gruber, Angela D Friederici, Jutta L Mueller
Sentences are easier to remember than random word sequences, likely because linguistic regularities facilitate chunking of words into meaningful groups. The present electroencephalography study investigated the neural oscillations modulated by this so-called sentence superiority effect during the encoding and maintenance of sentence fragments versus word lists. We hypothesized a chunking-related modulation of neural processing during the encoding and retention of sentence fragments as compared to word lists...
March 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287758/cerebral-hemodynamics-during-scene-viewing-hemispheric-lateralization-predicts-temporal-gaze-behavior-associated-with-distinct-modes-of-visual-processing
#13
Mark Mills, Mohammed Alwatban, Benjamin Hage, Erin Barney, Edward J Truemper, Gregory R Bashford, Michael D Dodd
Systematic patterns of eye movements during scene perception suggest a functional distinction between 2 viewing modes: an ambient mode (characterized by short fixations and large saccades) thought to reflect dorsal activity involved with spatial analysis, and a focal mode (characterized by long fixations and small saccades) thought to reflect ventral activity involved with object analysis. Little neuroscientific evidence exists supporting this claim. Here, functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) was used to investigate whether these modes show hemispheric specialization...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285131/retrieval-under-stress-decreases-the-long-term-expression-of-a-human-declarative-memory-via-reconsolidation
#14
Pablo Nicolás Fernández Larrosa, Alejandro Ojea, Ignacio Ojea, Victor Alejandro Molina, María Aurelia Zorrilla-Zubilete, Alejandro Delorenzi
Acute stress impairs memory retrieval of several types of memories. An increase in glucocorticoids, several minutes after stressful events, is described as essential to the impairing retrieval-effects of stressors. Moreover, memory retrieval under stress can have long-term consequences. Through what process does the reactivated memory under stress, despite the disrupting retrieval effects, modify long-term memories? The reconsolidation hypothesis proposes that a previously consolidated memory reactivated by a reminder enters a vulnerability phase (labilization) during which it is transiently sensitive to modulation, followed by a re-stabilization phase...
March 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278311/working-memory-load-modulates-microsaccadic-rate
#15
Mario Dalmaso, Luigi Castelli, Pietro Scatturin, Giovanni Galfano
Microsaccades are tiny eye movements that individuals perform unconsciously during fixation. Despite that the nature and the functions of microsaccades are still lively debated, recent evidence has shown an association between these micro eye movements and higher order cognitive processes. Here, in two experiments, we specifically focused on working memory and addressed whether differential memory load could be reflected in a modulation of microsaccade dynamics. In Experiment 1, participants memorized a numerical sequence composed of either two (low-load condition) or five digits (high-load condition), appearing at fixation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275809/-treatments-of-second-mesiobuccal-canals-in-maxillary-permanent-molar-a-report-of-2-cases
#16
Yan-Pei Wei, Hong-Xia Fan, Liang Chen, Xue Zhang, Jing-Tao Yu
With the increasing maturation of 3D printing technology, as well as its application in various industries, investigation of 3D printing technology into clinic medical education becomes an important task of the current medical education. The teaching content of oromaxillofacial head and neck surgical oncology is complicated and diverse, making lower understanding/memorizing efficiency and insufficient skill training. To overcome the disadvantage of traditional teaching method, it is necessary to introduce 3D printing technique into teaching of oromaxillofacial head and neck surgical oncology, in order to improve the teaching quality and problem solving capabilities, and finally promote cultivation of skilled and innovative talents...
December 2016: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275808/-applications-of-3d-printing-technology-in-teaching-of-oromaxillofacial-head-and-neck-surgical-oncology
#17
Min Ruan, Tong Ji, Chen-Ping Zhang
With the increasing maturation of 3D printing technology, as well as its application in various industries, investigation of 3D printing technology into clinic medical education becomes an important task of the current medical education. The teaching content of oromaxillofacial head and neck surgical oncology is complicated and diverse, making lower understanding/memorizing efficiency and insufficient skill training. To overcome the disadvantage of traditional teaching method, it is necessary to introduce 3D printing technique into teaching of oromaxillofacial head and neck surgical oncology, in order to improve the teaching quality and problem solving capabilities, and finally promote cultivation of skilled and innovative talents...
December 2016: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275703/remembering-that-big-things-sound-big-sound-symbolism-and-associative-memory
#18
Melissa A Preziosi, Jennifer H Coane
According to sound symbolism theory, individual sounds or clusters of sounds can convey meaning. To examine the role of sound symbolic effects on processing and memory for nonwords, we developed a novel set of 100 nonwords to convey largeness (nonwords containing plosive consonants and back vowels) and smallness (nonwords containing fricative consonants and front vowels). In Experiments 1A and 1B, participants rated the size of the 100 nonwords and provided definitions to them as if they were products. Nonwords composed of fricative/front vowels were rated as smaller than those composed of plosive/back vowels...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273551/the-importance-of-spatial-orientation-and-knowledge-of-traffic-signs-for-children-s-traffic-safety
#19
Aleksandar Trifunović, Dalibor Pešić, Svetlana Čičević, Boris Antić
Pre-school children, as well as children from lower grades in primary school, who although rarely, completely independently participate in traffic, represent a vulnerable population from the standpoint of traffic safety. The greatest number of children were injured or killed in road traffic crashes on their way from home to kindergarten or school. Mostly due to lack of experience, children's behavior is confusing and often reckless and hasty. Safe behavior in the traffic environment demands certain cognitive skills...
March 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270569/neural-architecture-for-feature-binding-in-visual-working-memory
#20
Sebastian Schneegans, Paul M Bays
Binding refers to the operation that groups different features together into objects. We propose a neural architecture for feature binding in visual working memory that employs populations of neurons with conjunction responses. We tested this model using cued recall tasks, in which subjects had to memorize object arrays composed of simple visual features (color, orientation, and location). After a brief delay, one feature of one item was given as a cue, and the observer had to report, on a continuous scale, one or two other features of the cued item...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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