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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447783/real-time-detection-reveals-responsive-co-transcriptional-formation-of-persistent-intramolecular-dna-and-intermolecular-dna-rna-hybrid-g-quadruplexes-stabilized-by-r-loop
#1
Yang Zhao, Jia-Yu Zhang, Zong-Yu Zhang, Tan-Jun Tong, Yu-Hua Hao, Zheng Tan
G-quadruplex (GQ) structures are implicated in important physiological and pathological processes. Millions of GQ-forming motifs are enriched near transcription start sites (TSSs) of animal genes. Transcription can induce formation of GQs which in turn regulates transcription. The kinetics of the formation and persistence of GQs in transcription is crucial for the role they play, but has not yet been explored. We established a method based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique to monitor in real-time the co-transcriptional formation and post-transcriptional persistence of GQs in DNA...
April 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444522/the-movement-induced-self-reference-effect-enhancing-memorability-through-movement-toward-the-self
#2
Mark A Oakes, Serge V Onyper
Much evidence suggests that bodily actions affect cognitive states. In particular, pulling owned objects toward the self improves memory for those objects compared to memory for objects pushed away from the self. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of incidental joystick movement on static stimuli, hypothesizing that using the physical self (rather than a computer monitor) as a reference point would enhance memory for items categorized via a toward-the-self action but not toward-the-computer-monitor action...
April 25, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430043/tuning-neural-phase-entrainment-to-speech
#3
Simone Falk, Cosima Lanzilotti, Daniele Schön
Musical rhythm positively impacts on subsequent speech processing. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are so far unclear. We investigated whether carryover effects from a preceding musical cue to a speech stimulus result from a continuation of neural phase entrainment to periodicities that are present in both music and speech. Participants listened and memorized French metrical sentences that contained (quasi-)periodic recurrences of accents and syllables. Speech stimuli were preceded by a rhythmically regular or an irregular musical cue...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424602/assessing-the-driver-s-current-level-of-working-memory-load-with-high-density-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-realistic-driving-simulator-study
#4
Anirudh Unni, Klas Ihme, Meike Jipp, Jochem W Rieger
Cognitive overload or underload results in a decrease in human performance which may result in fatal incidents while driving. We envision that driver assistive systems which adapt their functionality to the driver's cognitive state could be a promising approach to reduce road accidents due to human errors. This research attempts to predict variations of cognitive working memory load levels in a natural driving scenario with multiple parallel tasks and to reveal predictive brain areas. We used a modified version of the n-back task to induce five different working memory load levels (from 0-back up to 4-back) forcing the participants to continuously update, memorize, and recall the previous 'n' speed sequences and adjust their speed accordingly while they drove for approximately 60 min on a highway with concurrent traffic in a virtual reality driving simulator...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424387/-cortical-areas-for-controlling-voluntary-movements
#5
Yoshihisa Nakayama, Eiji Hoshi
The primary motor cortex is located in Brodmann area 4 at the most posterior part of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex corresponds to an output stage of motor signals, sending motor commands to the brain stem and spinal cord. Brodmann area 6 is rostral to Brodmann area 4, where multiple higher-order motor areas are located. The premotor area, which is located in the lateral part, is involved in planning and executing action based on sensory signals. The premotor area contributes to the reaching for and grasping of an object to achieve a behavioral goal...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420786/memory-n-strategies-of-direct-reciprocity
#6
Christian Hilbe, Luis A Martinez-Vaquero, Krishnendu Chatterjee, Martin A Nowak
Humans routinely use conditionally cooperative strategies when interacting in repeated social dilemmas. They are more likely to cooperate if others cooperated before, and are ready to retaliate if others defected. To capture the emergence of reciprocity, most previous models consider subjects who can only choose from a restricted set of representative strategies, or who react to the outcome of the very last round only. As players memorize more rounds, the dimension of the strategy space increases exponentially...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418057/geometry-dependent-compressive-responses-in-nanoimprinted-submicron-structured-shape-memory-polyurethane
#7
Wei Li Lee, Hong Yee Low, Christine Ortiz
High resolution surface textures, when rationally designed, provide an attractive surface engineering approach to enhance surface functionalities. Designing smart surfaces by coupling surface texture with shape memory polymers has garnered attention in achieving tunable mechanical properties. We investigate the structure-mechanical property relationships for programmable, shape-memorizing submicron-scale pillar arrays subjected to flat-punch compression. The geometrically-dependent deformation of structured surfaces with two different aspect ratios (250 nm-pillars 1 : 1 and 550 nm-pillars 2...
April 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416117/rapid-spatial-learning-controls-instinctive-defensive-behavior-in-mice
#8
Ruben Vale, Dominic A Evans, Tiago Branco
Instinctive defensive behaviors are essential for animal survival. Across the animal kingdom, there are sensory stimuli that innately represent threat and trigger stereotyped behaviors such as escape or freezing [1-4]. While innate behaviors are considered to be hard-wired stimulus-responses [5], they act within dynamic environments, and factors such as the properties of the threat [6-9] and its perceived intensity [1, 10, 11], access to food sources [12-14], and expectations from past experience [15, 16] have been shown to influence defensive behaviors, suggesting that their expression can be modulated...
April 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414617/theorizing-the-impact-of-targeted-narratives-model-admiration-and-narrative-memorability
#9
Katheryn R Christy, Jakob D Jensen, Susan H Sarapin, Robert N Yale, Jeremy Weaver, Manusheela Pokharel
Communication campaigns often include components that have been designed for a specific population, a strategy referred to as targeting. Targeted narratives are story-based components of a campaign that feature a character or situation relevant to the intended audience. Though commonplace, few studies have explicated the underlying mechanisms by which targeted narratives exert influence. In a message evaluation study, 316 women aged 40-75 (Mage = 51.19, SD = 8.11) were exposed to one of two targeted narratives and asked to complete measures of model admiration, narrative memorability, and intentions to receive a mammography...
May 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414490/interference-and-memory-capacity-limitations
#10
Ansgar D Endress, Szilárd Szabó
Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference...
April 17, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409401/effect-of-chunk-strength-on-the-performance-of-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-on-artificial-grammar-learning-task-may-be-related-to-complexity
#11
Rachel Schiff, Pesia Katan, Ayelet Sasson, Shani Kahta
There's a long held view that chunks play a crucial role in artificial grammar learning performance. We compared chunk strength influences on performance, in high and low topological entropy (a measure of complexity) grammar systems, with dyslexic children, age-matched and reading-level-matched control participants. Findings show that age-matched control participants' performance reflected equivalent influence of chunk strength in the two topological entropy conditions, as typically found in artificial grammar learning experiments...
April 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409198/-safe-treatment-of-acute-hyperkalemia-the-1-4-and-other-principles
#12
REVIEW
P Groene, G Hoffmann
Acute hyperkalemia is a dangerous electrolyte disorder, which must be treated immediately. It can lead to cardiac arrhythmia and death due to alterations in cell membrane potentials. The resulting alterations in the electrocardiogram (ECG) are multifarious and need to be rapidly recognized. Treatment consists of various stages. In addition to membrane stabilization, which is always necessary, potassium must be displaced into the intracellular space and then eliminated from the body. A commonly applied method for displacement of potassium into the intracellular space involves the administration of insulin-glucose mixtures, which is associated with many complications...
April 13, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403881/glucocorticoid-receptor-represses-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expression-in-neuron-like-cells
#13
Hui Chen, Marc Lombès, Damien Le Menuet
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in many functions such as neuronal growth, survival, synaptic plasticity and memorization. Altered expression levels are associated with many pathological situations such as depression, epilepsy, Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is also crucial for neuron functions, via binding of glucocorticoid hormones (GCs). GR actions largely overlap those of BDNF. It has been proposed that GR could be a regulator of BDNF expression, however the molecular mechanisms involved have not been clearly defined yet...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397309/ultrasensitive-memristive-synapses-based-on-lightly-oxidized-sulfide-films
#14
Lingxiang Hu, Sheng Fu, Youhu Chen, Hongtao Cao, Lingyan Liang, Hongliang Zhang, Junhua Gao, Jingrui Wang, Fei Zhuge
For biological synapses, high sensitivity is crucial for transmitting information quickly and accurately. Compared to biological synapses, memristive ones show a much lower sensitivity to electrical stimuli since much higher voltages are needed to induce synaptic plasticity. Yet, little attention has been paid to enhancing the sensitivity of synaptic devices. Here, electrochemical metallization memory cells based on lightly oxidized ZnS films are found to show highly controllable memristive switching with an ultralow SET voltage of several millivolts, which likely originates from a two-layer structure of ZnS films, i...
April 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396399/context-dependent-spatially-periodic-activity-in-the-human-entorhinal-cortex
#15
Zoltan Nadasdy, T Peter Nguyen, Ágoston Török, Jason Y Shen, Deborah E Briggs, Pradeep N Modur, Robert J Buchanan
The spatially periodic activity of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of the rodent, primate, and human provides a coordinate system that, together with the hippocampus, informs an individual of its location relative to the environment and encodes the memory of that location. Among the most defining features of grid-cell activity are the 60° rotational symmetry of grids and preservation of grid scale across environments. Grid cells, however, do display a limited degree of adaptation to environments. It remains unclear if this level of environment invariance generalizes to human grid-cell analogs, where the relative contribution of visual input to the multimodal sensory input of the EC is significantly larger than in rodents...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394536/-memorable-dates-and-anniversaries-in-the-history-of-urology-and-related-specialities-in-2017
#16
V N Tkachuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390400/a-comparative-study-do-clickers-increase-student-engagement-in-multidisciplinary-clinical-microbiology-teaching
#17
Niall T Stevens, Hélène McDermott, Fiona Boland, Teresa Pawlikowska, Hilary Humphreys
BACKGROUND: Audience response devices, or "clickers", have been used in the education of future healthcare professionals for several years with varying success. They have been reported to improve the learning experience by promoting engagement and knowledge retention. In 2014, our department evaluated the use of "clickers" in a newly introduced multidisciplinary approach to teaching large groups of third year medical students clinical cases developed around a microbiology theme. METHODS: Six multidisciplinary teaching sessions covering community-acquired pneumonia, tuberculosis, infective endocarditis, peritonitis, bloodstream infection with pyelonephritis and bacterial meningitis were included in the study...
April 8, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383962/digit-color-synaesthesia-only-enhances-memory-for-colors-in-a-specific-context-a-new-method-of-duration-thresholds-to-measure-serial-recall
#18
A Lina Teichmann, Mark R Nieuwenstein, Anina N Rich
For digit-color synaesthetes, digits elicit vivid experiences of color that are highly consistent for each individual. The conscious experience of synaesthesia is typically unidirectional: Digits evoke colors but not vice versa. There is an ongoing debate about whether synaesthetes have a memory advantage over non-synaesthetes. One key question in this debate is whether synaesthetes have a general superiority or whether any benefit is specific to a certain type of material. Here, we focus on immediate serial recall and ask digit-color synaesthetes and controls to memorize digit and color sequences...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383645/incidental-and-intentional-memory-their-relation-with-attention-and-executive-functions
#19
Dionysia Kontaxopoulou, Ion N Beratis, Stella Fragkiadaki, Dimosthenis Pavlou, George Yannis, Alexandra Economou, Andrew C Papanicolaou, Sokratis G Papageorgiou
Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of gender and age on incidental and intentional memory in healthy participants and to explore the strength of the association of incidental and intentional memory with attentional and executive functioning. Method: A total number of 47 participants underwent a driving simulation experiment and went through detailed neuropsychological testing. Incidental memory was assessed with a questionnaire that evaluated the memorization of information related to the driving simulator task while intentional memory was assessed using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised...
April 5, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379481/the-spacer-size-of-i-b-crispr-is-modulated-by-the-terminal-sequence-of-the-protospacer
#20
Ming Li, Luyao Gong, Dahe Zhao, Jian Zhou, Hua Xiang
Prokaryotes memorize invader information by incorporating alien DNA as spacers into CRISPR arrays. Although the spacer size has been suggested to be predefined by the architecture of the acquisition complex, there is usually an unexpected heterogeneity. Here, we explored the causes of this heterogeneity in Haloarcula hispanica I-B CRISPR. High-throughput sequencing following adaptation assays demonstrated significant size variation among 37 957 new spacers, which appeared to be sequence-dependent. Consistently, the third nucleotide at the spacer 3΄-end (PAM-distal end) showed an evident bias for cytosine and mutating this cytosine in the protospacer sequence could change the final spacer size...
April 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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