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Sven Ohl, Martin Rolfs
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a crucial repository of information when events unfold rapidly before our eyes, yet it maintains only a fraction of the sensory information encoded by the visual system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements provide a natural bottleneck for the transition of fragile content in sensory memory to VSTM. In 4 experiments, we show that saccades, planned and executed after the disappearance of a memory array, markedly bias visual memory performance. First, items that had appeared at the saccade target were more readily remembered than items that had appeared elsewhere, even though the saccade was irrelevant to the memory task (Experiment 1)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Yutaka Imai
It has been confirmed that clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements (HBPM) is higher than clinic BP measurements and ambulatory BP monitoring. However, several drawbacks of HBPM have also been mentioned, e.g. selection and reporting biases, difficulties of calculation of multiple measurements, difficulties of onsite judgement of numerous recordings, etc. Recent devices for HBPM incorporate memory function. This function can overcome such drawbacks of HBPM. These memorized data can transmit, storage, retrieve, be arithmetic and control, be judged based on algorithm and be got feedback...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Radia Bezzar-Bendjazia, Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Nadia Aribi
Azadirachtin, a biorational insecticide, is one of the prominent biopesticide commercialized today and represent an alternative to conventional insecticides. The current study examined the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model. Various doses ranging from 0.1 to 2μg were applied topically on early third instar larvae and the cumulative mortality of immature stage was determined. In second series of experiments, azadirachtin was applied at its LD25 (0...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Michał Parzuchowski, Konrad Bocian, Pascal Gygax
Language (e.g., structure, morphology, and wording) can direct our attention toward the specific properties of an object, in turn influencing the mental representation of that same object. In this paper, we examined this idea by focusing on a particular linguistic form of diminution used in many languages (e.g., in Polish, Spanish, and Portuguese) to refer to an object as being "smaller." Interestingly, although objects are usually considered "better" when they are bigger in size, objects described with linguistic diminution can also refer to those that are emotionally positive...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Noah W Sweat, Larry W Bates, Peter S Hendricks
Developing methods for improving creativity is of broad interest. Classic psychedelics may enhance creativity; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. This study was designed to assess whether a relationship exists between naturalistic classic psychedelic use and heightened creative problem-solving ability and if so, whether this is mediated by lifetime mystical experience. Participants (N = 68) completed a survey battery assessing lifetime mystical experience and circumstances surrounding the most memorable experience...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Annie Roy-Charland, Andréanne Plamondon, Andrew S Homeniuk, Corie Ann Flesch, Raymond M Klein, Sherry H Stewart
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that attentional biases toward alcohol stimuli are contributing factors maintaining problematic drinking behavior. OBJECTIVE: The main goal of the present set of studies was to provide an examination of dynamic attentional mechanisms associated with alcohol consumption derived from eye movement monitoring. METHOD: Undergraduate students were recruited for two studies. In Experiment 1, 80 students were exposed to complex scenes (containing alcohol-related cues or not) viewed at a self-determined presentation rate...
August 11, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Matthew S Delfiner, Luis R Martinez, Charles S Pavia
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnostic tests have an essential role in patient care, and the increasing number of medical and health professions schools focusing on teaching laboratory medicine to pre-clinical students reflects this importance. However, data validating the pedagogical methods that best influence students' comprehension and interpretation of diagnostic tests have not been well described. The Gram stain is a simple yet significant and frequently used diagnostic test in the clinical setting that helps classify bacteria into two major groups, Gram positive and negative, based on their cell wall structure...
2016: PloS One
Denise D Dell'aglio, Martin Stevens, Chris D Jiggins
1. Birds are considered to be the primary selective agents for warning colouration in butterflies, and select for aposematic mimicry by learning to avoid brightly coloured prey after unpleasant experiences. It has long been thought that bright colouration plays an important role in promoting the avoidance of distasteful prey by birds. 2. The hypothesis that warning colouration facilitates memorability and promotes predator avoidance was tested by means of a field experiment using distasteful model butterflies...
October 2016: Ecological Entomology
Eathan Janney, Hollis Taylor, Constance Scharff, David Rothenberg, Lucas C Parra, Ofer Tchernichovski
Music maintains a characteristic balance between repetition and novelty. Here, we report a similar balance in singing performances of free-living Australian pied butcherbirds. Their songs include many phrase types. The more phrase types in a bird's repertoire, the more diverse the singing performance can be. However, without sufficient temporal organization, avian listeners may find diverse singing performances difficult to perceive and memorize. We tested for a correlation between the complexity of song repertoire and the temporal regularity of singing performance...
September 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Qi Chen, Wei Yan, Enkui Duan
Once deemed heretical, emerging evidence now supports the notion that the inheritance of acquired characteristics can occur through ancestral exposures or experiences and that certain paternally acquired traits can be 'memorized' in the sperm as epigenetic information. The search for epigenetic factors in mammalian sperm that transmit acquired phenotypes has recently focused on RNAs and, more recently, RNA modifications. Here, we review insights that have been gained from studying sperm RNAs and RNA modifications, and their roles in influencing offspring phenotypes...
October 3, 2016: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Surya Gayet, Leendert van Maanen, Micha Heilbron, Chris L E Paffen, Stefan Van der Stigchel
The content of visual working memory (VWM) affects the processing of concurrent visual input. Recently, it has been demonstrated that stimuli are released from interocular suppression faster when they match rather than mismatch a color that is memorized for subsequent recall. In order to investigate the nature of the interaction between visual representations elicited by VWM and visual representations elicited by retinal input, we modeled the perceptual processes leading up to this difference in suppression durations...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Hanlin Tang, Jed Singer, Matias J Ison, Gnel Pivazyan, Melissa Romaine, Rosa Frias, Elizabeth Meller, Adrianna Boulin, James Carroll, Victoria Perron, Sarah Dowcett, Marlise Arellano, Gabriel Kreiman
Episodic memories are long lasting and full of detail, yet imperfect and malleable. We quantitatively evaluated recollection of short audiovisual segments from movies as a proxy to real-life memory formation in 161 subjects at 15 minutes up to a year after encoding. Memories were reproducible within and across individuals, showed the typical decay with time elapsed between encoding and testing, were fallible yet accurate, and were insensitive to low-level stimulus manipulations but sensitive to high-level stimulus properties...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jordan W Suchow, Daryl Fougnie, George A Alvarez
Confidence in our memories is influenced by many factors, including beliefs about the perceptibility or memorability of certain kinds of objects and events, as well as knowledge about our skill sets, habits, and experiences. Notoriously, our knowledge and beliefs about memory can lead us astray, causing us to be overly confident in eyewitness testimony or to overestimate the frequency of recent experiences. Here, using visual working memory as a case study, we stripped away all these potentially misleading cues, requiring observers to make confidence judgments by directly assessing the quality of their memory representations...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Luciana Cassimiro, Daniel Fuentes, Ricardo Nitrini, Mônica Sanches Yassuda
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the pattern of decision-making (DM) on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in a sample of Portuguese speaking healthy older women in Brazil with limited education: illiterate, 1-2 years, and 3-4 years of schooling. METHODS: Around 164 non-demented community-dwelling women participated in the study. Among them 60 were illiterate, 52 had 1-2 years of schooling and 52 had 3-4 years of schooling. Participants completed the instruments: Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB), Mini-Mental State Examination, Verbal Fluency Test (animal category), Clock Drawing Test, Geriatric Depression Scale, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and IGT...
September 27, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Jiushu Xie, Zhi Lu, Ruiming Wang, Zhenguang G Cai
Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between "hard" and "rigid" and between "soft" and "flexible" in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affects cognitive functions whose performance depends prospectively on rigidity (memory) and flexibility (creativity)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Frank Hille, Emmanuelle Charpentier
Prokaryotes have evolved several defence mechanisms to protect themselves from viral predators. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated proteins (Cas) display a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that memorizes previous infections by integrating short sequences of invading genomes-termed spacers-into the CRISPR locus. The spacers interspaced with repeats are expressed as small guide CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that are employed by Cas proteins to target invaders sequence-specifically upon a reoccurring infection...
November 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
John T Serences
The capacity to briefly memorize fleeting sensory information supports visual search and behavioral interactions with relevant stimuli in the environment. Traditionally, studies investigating the neural basis of visual short term memory (STM) have focused on the role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in exerting executive control over what information is stored and how it is adaptively used to guide behavior. However, the neural substrates that support the actual storage of content-specific information in STM are more controversial, with some attributing this function to PFC and others to the specialized areas of early visual cortex that initially encode incoming sensory stimuli...
October 4, 2016: Vision Research
Juan M Toro, Marisa Hoeschele
Prosody, a salient aspect of speech that includes rhythm and intonation, has been shown to help infants acquire some aspects of syntax. Recent studies have shown that birds of two vocal learning species are able to categorize human speech stimuli based on prosody. In the current study, we found that the non-vocal learning rat could also discriminate human speech stimuli based on prosody. Not only that, but rats were able to generalize to novel stimuli they had not been trained with, which suggests that they had not simply memorized the properties of individual stimuli, but learned a prosodic rule...
September 22, 2016: Animal Cognition
Yasushi Matsuyama, Arno M M Muijtjens, Makoto Kikukawa, Renee Stalmeijer, Reiko Murakami, Shizukiyo Ishikawa, Hitoaki Okazaki
BACKGROUND: Progress testing (PT) is used in Western countries to evaluate students' level of functional knowledge, and to enhance meaning-oriented and self-directed learning. However, the use of PT has not been investigated in East Asia, where reproduction-oriented and teacher-centered learning styles prevail. Here, we explored the applicability of PT by focusing on student perceptions. METHODS: Twenty-four students from Years 2, 3, and 5 at Jichi Medical University in Japan attended a pilot PT session preceded by a brief introduction of its concept and procedures...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Vitória Piai, Kristopher L Anderson, Jack J Lin, Callum Dewar, Josef Parvizi, Nina F Dronkers, Robert T Knight
Language is classically thought to be supported by perisylvian cortical regions. Here we provide intracranial evidence linking the hippocampal complex to linguistic processing. We used direct recordings from the hippocampal structures to investigate whether theta oscillations, pivotal in memory function, track the amount of contextual linguistic information provided in sentences. Twelve participants heard sentences that were either constrained ("She locked the door with the") or unconstrained ("She walked in here with the") before presentation of the final word ("key"), shown as a picture that participants had to name...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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