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Min Wang, Ping Yang, Chaoyang Wan, Zhenlan Jin, Junjun Zhang, Ling Li
The contents of working memory (WM) can affect the subsequent visual search performance, resulting in either beneficial or cost effects, when the visual search target is included in or spatially dissociated from the memorized contents, respectively. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) and the right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) have been suggested to be associated with the congruence/incongruence effects of the WM content and the visual search target. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the PPC in controlling the interaction between WM and attention during a visual search, using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Caroline Clouard, Cindy Le Bourgot, Frédérique Respondek, J Elizabeth Bolhuis, Walter J J Gerrits
In recent years, lactose-free and low-lactose infant formulas have been increasingly used. The impact of using different carbohydrates than lactose on later cognition of formula-fed infants remains, however, unknown. We examined the effects of providing formulas containing either digestible maltodextrin or lactose as main carbohydrate source (28% of total nutrient composition) on cognitive performance of piglets. Piglets received the formulas from 1 to 9 weeks of age and, starting at 12 weeks, were individually tested in a spatial holeboard task (n = 8 pens/formula), in which they had to learn and memorize a configuration of baited buckets...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Danying Wang, Andrew Clouter, Qiaoyu Chen, Kimron L Shapiro, Simon Hanslmayr
Episodic memories are rich in sensory information and often contain integrated information from different sensory modalities. For instance, we can store memories of a recent concert with visual and auditory impressions being integrated in one episode. Theta oscillations have recently been implicated in playing a causal role synchronizing and effectively binding the different modalities together in memory. However, an open question is whether momentary fluctuations in theta synchronization predict the likelihood of associative memory formation for multisensory events...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Curt Tribble Md
To paraphrase the lyrics of a song by Matchbox Twenty ("It's 3AM, I must be lonely"), it's 3 AM, I must be on a Lear jet. We're heading out to get a pair of lungs for a transplant. It's pitch black out tonight, and there's small rain falling. At least it's not ice or snow, which we've heard is falling to the north of us. I am glad that we'll be heading south on this run. These organ procurement runs tend to violate one of the basic safety rules of flying, which is to avoid, whenever possible, being required to fly...
June 8, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
Gediminas Drabavicius, Tomas Sinkunas, Arunas Silanskas, Giedrius Gasiunas, Česlovas Venclovas, Virginijus Siksnys
CRISPR-Cas systems constitute an adaptive immune system that provides acquired resistance against phages and plasmids in prokaryotes. Upon invasion of foreign nucleic acids, some cells integrate short fragments of foreign DNA as spacers into the CRISPR locus to memorize the invaders and acquire resistance in the subsequent round of infection. This immunization step called adaptation is the least understood part of the CRISPR-Cas immunity. We have focused here on the adaptation stage of Streptococcus thermophilus DGCC7710 type I-E CRISPR4-Cas (St4) system...
June 11, 2018: EMBO Reports
Z Hatipoglu, E Gulec, D Lafli, D Ozcengiz
Background: : Preoperative anxiety is a critical issue in children, and associated with postoperative behavioral changes. Aims: : The purpose of the current study is to evaluate how audiovisual and auditory presentations about the perioperative period impact preoperative anxiety and postoperative behavioral disturbances of children undergoing elective ambulatory surgery. Materials and Methods: : A total of 99 patients between the ages of 5-12, scheduled to undergo outpatient surgery, participated in this study...
June 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Tahir Turk, Fiona Newton, Sohel Choudhury, Md Shafiqul Islam
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use contributes to an estimated 14.6% of male and 5.7% of female deaths in Bangladesh. AIMS: We examine the determinants of tobacco-related quit attempts among Bangladeshis with and without awareness of the synergized "People Behind the Packs" (PBTP) communication campaign used to support the introduction of pack-based graphic warning labels (GWLs) in 2016. METHOD: Data from 1,796 adults were collected using multistage sampling and a cross-sectional face-to-face survey...
June 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Chihiro Mori, Wan-Chun Liu, Kazuhiro Wada
Complex learned behaviors, like bird song and human speech, develop under the influence of both genetic and environmental factors. Accordingly, learned behaviors comprise species specificity and individual variability. Auditory information plays a critical role in vocal learning by songbirds, both to memorize tutor songs and to monitor own vocalizations. Nevertheless, audition-deprived songbirds develop structured, species-specific song patterns. It remains to be elucidated how the auditory input contributes to the development of individual variability of song characteristics...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jaqueline Fagard, Rana Esseily, Lisa Jacquey, Kevin O'Regan, Eszter Somogyi
The aim of this article is to track the fetal origin of infants' sensorimotor behavior. We consider development as the self-organizing emergence of complex forms from spontaneously generated activity, governed by the innate capacity to detect and memorize the consequences of spontaneous activity (contingencies), and constrained by the sensory and motor maturation of the body. In support of this view, we show how observations on fetuses and also several fetal experiments suggest that the fetus's first motor activity allows it to feel the space around it and to feel its body and the consequences of its movements on its body...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Thomas Hainmueller, Marlene Bartos
During our daily life, we depend on memories of past experiences to plan future behaviour. These memories are represented by the activity of specific neuronal groups or 'engrams'1,2 . Neuronal engrams are assembled during learning by synaptic modification, and engram reactivation represents the memorized experience 1 . Engrams of conscious memories are initially stored in the hippocampus for several days and then transferred to cortical areas 2 . In the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, granule cells transform rich inputs from the entorhinal cortex into a sparse output, which is forwarded to the highly interconnected pyramidal cell network in hippocampal area CA3 3 ...
June 6, 2018: Nature
Wilma A Bainbridge, Jesse Rissman
While much of memory research takes an observer-centric focus looking at participant performance, recent work has pinpointed important item-centric effects on memory, or how intrinsically memorable a given stimulus is. However, little is known about the neural correlates of memorability during memory retrieval, or how such correlates relate to subjective memory behavior. Here, stimuli and blood-oxygen-level dependent data from a prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study were reanalyzed using a memorability-based framework...
June 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nickolay Hristov, Carol Strohecker, Louise Allen, Martha Merson
With the acceleration and increasing complexity of macro-scale problems such as climate change, the need for scientists to ensure that their work is understood has become urgent. As citizens and recipients of public funds for research, scientists have an obligation to communicate their findings in ways many people can understand. However, developing translations that are broadly accessible without being "dumbed down" can be challenging. Fortunately, tenets of visual literacy, combined with narrative methods, can help to convey scientific knowledge with fidelity, while sustaining viewers' interest...
June 4, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Catherine Thevenot, Jasinta Dewi, Pamela B Lavenex, Jeanne Bagnoud
Little is known about how spatial-numerical associations (SNAs) affect the way individuals process their environment, especially in terms of learning and memory. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of SNAs in a digit memory task in order to determine whether spatially organized mental representations of numbers can influence the short-term encoding of digits positioned on an external display. To this aim, we designed a memory game in which participants had to match pairs of identical digits in a 9 × 2 matrix of cards...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Thibault Gateau, Hasan Ayaz, Frédéric Dehais
There is growing interest for implementing tools to monitor cognitive performance in naturalistic work and everyday life settings. The emerging field of research, known as neuroergonomics, promotes the use of wearable and portable brain monitoring sensors such as functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate cortical activity in a variety of human tasks out of the laboratory. The objective of this study was to implement an on-line passive fNIRS-based brain computer interface to discriminate two levels of working memory load during highly ecological aircraft piloting tasks...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Robert Needlman, Zaeem Lone, Ryan Chae, Neelab Abdullah
Literacy promotion (LP) is an essential component of primary care. This study explored different LP strategies in 2 cohorts of children aged 6 months to 6 years coming for routine care. In cohort 1 (N = 24), LP consisted mainly of advice. In cohort 2 (C2, N = 21), LP prioritized observing parent-child dyads reading aloud and giving feedback. Parents were interviewed 1 to 2 weeks later. LP took longer in C2 (138 ± 66 seconds vs 73 ± 50, P < .001), and parents were more likely to recall having learned about reading aloud (48% vs 8%, P < ...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
Fleur Lejeune, Cristina Borradori Tolsa, Edouard Gentaz, Koviljka Barisnikov
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have established that newborns can memorize tactile information about the specific features of an object with their hands and detect differences with another object. However, the robustness of haptic memory abilities has already been examined in preterm newborns and in full-term infants, but not yet in full-term newborns. This research is aimed to better understand the robustness of haptic memory abilities at birth by examining the effects of a change in the objects' temperature and haptic interference...
May 31, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Timo Torsten Schmidt, Felix Blankenburg
Working memory (WM) studies have been essential for ascertaining how the brain flexibly handles mentally represented information in the absence of sensory stimulation. Most studies on the memory of sensory stimulus features have focused, however, on the visual domain. Here, we report a human WM study in the tactile modality where participants had to memorize the spatial layout of patterned Braille-like stimuli presented to the index finger. We used a whole-brain searchlight approach in combination with multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate tactile WM representations without a priori assumptions about which brain regions code tactospatial information...
May 31, 2018: NeuroImage
S Louryan, N Vanmuylder
Some authors propose a global approach, including imaging, to describe cranial nerves from a clinical point of view. If we can agree to a certain extent with this proposal, we consider that the use of a medical point of view can neglect histological and embryological features which contribute to a better understanding of nerve function. For example, it is false to consider totally "nerves" I and II as "sensory cranial nerves". They are not true nerves, but derive manly from direct expansions of the central nervous system...
May 29, 2018: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
Rosario Iodice, Juan José García Meilán, Juan Carro Ramos, Jeff A Small
Introduction: The aim of this study was to employ the word-picture paradigm to examine the effectiveness of combined pictorial illustrations and sentences as strong contextual cues. The experiment details the performance of word recall in healthy older adults (HOA) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). The researchers enhanced the words' recall with word-picture condition and when the pair was associated with a sentence contextualizing the two items. Method: The sample was composed of 18 HOA and 18 people with mild AD...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
J Rouse, K Watkinson, A Bretman
Males of many species use social cues to predict sperm competition (SC) and tailor their reproductive strategies, such as ejaculate or behavioural investment, accordingly. While these plastic strategies are widespread, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Plastic behaviour requires individuals to learn and memorize cues associated with environmental change before using this experience to modify behaviour. Drosophila melanogaster respond to an increase in SC threat by extending mating duration after exposure to a rival male...
May 30, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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