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"Theory of Mind"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717229/investigation-of-autistic-traits-through-strategic-decision-making-in-games-with-adaptive-agents
#1
Alexis B Craig, Emily Grossman, Jeffrey L Krichmar
Autism Spectrum Disorders are characterized by difficulties in communicating and cooperating with other people. Impairment in Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to infer what another person is thinking, may contribute to these social deficits. The present study assesses the relationship between autistic traits and decision-making in a socioeconomic game environment that measures ToM and cooperation. We quantified participant strategy during game play with computer agents that simulated aspects of ToM or fixed strategy agents with static behaviors or heuristics...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708033/neuropsychological-profile-and-social-cognition-in-congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-cchs-correlation-with-neuroimaging-in-a-clinical-case
#2
Borja Esteso Orduña, Raquel Seijas Gómez, Elena García Esparza, Emily M Briceño, Javier Melero Llorente, María de la Concepción Fournier Del Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare genetic disorder due to paired-like homeobox gene (PHOX2B) mutations. CCHS patients suffer from dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system characterized by the absence of or extremely reduced response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with neuropsychological deficits. The aim of this exploratory study is to describe the longitudinal neuropsychological profile and its correlations with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a child with CCHS with a PHOX2B mutation...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707061/the-evolutionary-significance-of-pretend-play-two-year-olds-interpretation-of-behavioral-cues
#3
Lili Ma, Angeline S Lillard
Pretend play begins very early in human life. A key question is why, when figuring out reality is young children's major developmental task, they engage in its deliberate falsification. A second key question is how children know that pretend events are not real. Here we report three experiments addressing the latter question and providing indirect evidence for speculation on the first question. Children (N = 96) were shown actors eating or pretending to eat from covered bowls, and they had to indicate, on the basis of the actors' behavioral signs, which actor was pretending to eat or had the real food...
July 13, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705691/functional-connectivity-within-and-between-intrinsic-networks-correlates-with-trait-mind-wandering
#4
Christine A Godwin, Michael A Hunter, Matthew A Bezdek, Gregory Lieberman, Seth Elkin-Frankston, Victoria L Romero, Katie Witkiewitz, Vincent P Clark, Eric H Schumacher
Individual differences across a variety of cognitive processes are functionally associated with individual differences in intrinsic networks such as the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, the extent to which these networks correlate or anticorrelate has been associated with performance in a variety of circumstances. Despite the established role of the DMN in mind wandering processes, little research has investigated how large-scale brain networks at rest relate to mind wandering tendencies outside the laboratory...
July 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699661/very-early-hallucinatory-experiences-a-school-based-study
#5
Baptiste Pignon, Pierre A Geoffroy, Axelle Gharib, Pierre Thomas, Dan Moutot, William Brabant, Brigitte Weens, Marie-Pierre Dupond, Annick Caron, Bruno Falissard, François Medjkane, Renaud Jardri
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and clinical significance of hallucinatory experiences among children below 7 years of age remain unknown. We aimed to determine the independent influences of sensory deficits, the presence of an imaginary companion and metacognition on hallucinatory experiences. We assumed that hallucinatory experiences were associated with (a) sensory deficits, (b) the presence of an imaginary companion (IC) and (c) metacognition defaults (i.e. first- and second-order theory of mind default)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690570/social-cognition-in-children-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-associations-with-executive-functions
#6
Ana Miranda, Carmen Berenguer, Belén Roselló, Inmaculada Baixauli, Carla Colomer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social impairments. The first objective of this study was to analyze social cognition deficits of children with ADHD, high-functioning ASD (HFASD), and typical development (TD) in their performance on explicit and applied measures of theory of mind (ToM). The second objective was to investigate the relationships between executive functions and social cognition in HFASD and ADHD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689508/social-inappropriateness-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#7
Philippe Desmarais, Krista L Lanctôt, Mario Masellis, Sandra E Black, Nathan Herrmann
BACKGROUND: New onset of mood and behavioral changes in middle-aged patients are frequently the first manifestations of an unrecognized neurocognitive disorder. Impairment of social cognition, the cognitive ability to process social information coming from others, such as emotions, to attribute mental states to others, and to respond appropriately to them, is often at the origin of behavioral manifestations in neurodegenerative disorders. METHODS: This paper reviews the current literature on social cognition impairment in neurocognitive disorders, particularly in prodromal stages of behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), and Lewy body dementia (LBD)...
July 10, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688282/social-cognition-interventions-for-people-with-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-focussing-on-methodological-quality-and-intervention-modality
#8
REVIEW
Nina Grant, Megan Lawrence, Antonio Preti, Til Wykes, Matteo Cella
BACKGROUND: People with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have significant social and functional difficulties. Social cognition was found to influences these outcomes and in recent years interventions targeting this domain were developed. This paper reviews the existing literature on social cognition interventions for people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia focussing on: i) comparing focussed (i.e. targeting only one social cognitive domain) and global interventions and ii) studies methodological quality...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685621/white-matter-hyperintensities-associated-with-small-vessel-disease-impair-social-cognition-beside-attention-and-memory
#9
Jana Kynast, Leonie Lampe, Tobias Luck, Stefan Frisch, Katrin Arelin, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Markus Loeffler, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Arno Villringer, Matthias L Schroeter
Age-related white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a manifestation of white matter damage seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They are related to vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment. This study investigated the cognitive profile at different stages of WMH in a large community-dwelling sample; 849 subjects aged 21 to 79 years were classified on the 4-stage Fazekas scale according to hyperintense lesions seen on individual T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI scans. The evaluation of cognitive functioning included seven domains of cognitive performance and five domains of subjective impairment, as proposed by the DSM-5...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682188/do-feelings-of-loneliness-mediate-the-relationship-between-sociocognitive-understanding-and-depressive-symptoms-during-late-childhood-and-early-adolescence
#10
Marcella Caputi, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Simona Scaini
An interesting association between sociocognitive understanding and depression has been documented in clinical populations, with high levels of depression apparently related to theory-of-mind deficits. Yet no research has so far investigated this relationship among typically developing preadolescents. Therefore, the authors' main aim was to extend previous findings to the general population and to a younger age group. A secondary aim was to explore the role of feelings of loneliness referring to the previous link...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680315/theory-of-mind-and-selective-attention-response-inhibition-cognitive-flexibility-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#11
Altan Eşsizoğlu, Ferdi Köşger, Ferdane Özlem Akarsu, Özer Özaydin, Gülcan Güleç
INTRODUCTION: The aims of the current study are to investigate the relationship between selective attention, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility that are among executive functions and sociocognitive and socioperceptual theory of mind (ToM) functions and also to investigate whether selective attention, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility are predictive factors for ToM functions in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Forty-seven patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and a control group consisting of 42 individuals were administered demographic information form, Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), Stroop test, Eye test, Hinting test...
June 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680161/a-new-look-at-domain-specificity-insights-from-social-neuroscience
#12
REVIEW
Robert P Spunt, Ralph Adolphs
The concept of domain specificity - which suggests that some aspects of neural processing are specialized for particular types of stimuli - has been invoked to explain a range of cognitive phenomena, including language, face perception and theory of mind, and has been a hallmark of theories of cognitive architecture. More recent usage of this concept draws on neuroscientific data and, in particular, on work in social neuroscience. A critical examination of the part that the concept of domain specificity has played in theories of human brain function leads us to suggest a new view according to which domain specificity pertains to centrally generated constraints on information processing that can be both dynamic and context sensitive...
July 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675859/indirect-task-instructions-better-reveal-theory-of-mind-impairment-independent-of-executive-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#13
Robyn Langdon, Michael Connors, Emily Connaughton
Theory of mind (TOM) impairments associate significantly with executive deficits in schizophrenia, consistent with the proposal that executive abilities can limit TOM task performance, and confounding identification of those patients who would benefit most from targeted mentalising interventions. 50 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy controls completed an executive battery and four TOM tasks that were alike with regards generating overt measures of causal false-belief reasoning, but differed with regards using indirect (vs...
June 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673921/two-social-brains-neural-mechanisms-of-intersubjectivity
#14
REVIEW
Kai Vogeley
It is the aim of this article to present an empirically justified hypothesis about the functional roles of the two social neural systems, namely the so-called 'mirror neuron system' (MNS) and the 'mentalizing system' (MENT, also 'theory of mind network' or 'social neural network'). Both systems are recruited during cognitive processes that are either related to interaction or communication with other conspecifics, thereby constituting intersubjectivity. The hypothesis is developed in the following steps: first, the fundamental distinction that we make between persons and things is introduced; second, communication is presented as the key process that allows us to interact with others; third, the capacity to 'mentalize' or to understand the inner experience of others is emphasized as the fundamental cognitive capacity required to establish successful communication...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673832/neural-functional-correlates-of-empathic-face-processing
#15
Antonio Del Casale, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Chiara Rapinesi, Delfina Janiri, Massimiliano Aragona, Antonella Puzella, Edoardo Spinazzola, Matteo Maggiora, Giulia Giuseppin, Stefano Maria Tamorri, Alessandro Emiliano Vento, Stefano Ferracuti, Gabriele Sani, Maurizio Pompili, Paolo Girardi
OBJECTIVES: Empathy is a human trait related to the ability to share someone else's feelings, and emotional face processing is one of its measures. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies showed significant neural correlates of empathic face processing. We aimed to identify those brain areas most consistently involved in empathy for emotional faces. METHODS: We carried ALE meta-analysis of whole-brain data from fMRI studies during empathic face-processing tasks...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667928/affective-and-cognitive-theory-of-mind-abilities-in-youth-with-borderline-personality-disorder-or-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Sarah-Ann Tay, Carol A Hulbert, Henry J Jackson, Andrew M Chanen
BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM) is an important social cognitive ability that has been investigated in BPD, with inconsistent findings indicating impaired, comparable, and enhanced ToM in BPD. This study aimed to clarify and extend previous findings by investigating affective and cognitive ToM abilities in youth early in the course of BPD, by including a clinical comparison group of youth with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Female participants aged 15-24 years diagnosed with BPD (n = 41) or MDD (n = 37) completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and Happé's Cartoon Task, measures of affective and cognitive dimensions of ToM, respectively...
June 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666645/electrophysiological-markers-of-prejudice-related-to-sexual-gender
#17
Alice Mado Proverbio, Andrea Orlandi, Evelina Bianchi
Previous studies have shown that Event-related potentials (ERPs) are sensitive to violations of gender-based stereotypes. In the present investigation, we used ERPs to measure the detection of a discrepancy between gender-based occupational stereotypes and written material presented to fifteen Italian viewers in a completely implicit task. No awareness or judgment about stereotypes was required, no decision had to be made on sentence acceptability or congruence, and no prime words related to gender were presented (which might reveal the matter of the investigation)...
June 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663734/the-contribution-of-grammar-vocabulary-and-theory-of-mind-in-pragmatic-language-competence-in-children-with-autistic-spectrum-disorders
#18
Clara Andrés-Roqueta, Napoleon Katsos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662478/disassociation-of-cognitive-and-affective-aspects-of-theory-of-mind-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#19
Wanting Liu, Jie Fan, Jun Gan, Hui Lei, Chaoyang Niu, Raymond C K Chan, Xiongzhao Zhu
Impairment in social functioning has been widely described in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, several aspects of social cognition, such as theory of mind (ToM), have not been substantially investigated in this context. This study examined cognitive and affective ToM in 40 OCD patients and 38 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) with the computerized Yoni task and a battery of neurocognitive tests. OCD symptom severity was assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS)...
June 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662418/assessing-the-social-brain-in-dementia-applying-tasit-s
#20
Fiona Kumfor, Cynthia Honan, Skye McDonald, Jessica L Hazelton, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet
The ability to recognise how other people are feeling and make judgements based on their inferred thoughts is essential for successful social interactions, and is thought to depend on a complex network of brain regions, commonly referred to as the "social brain". These abilities, together referred to as social cognition, are increasingly recognised as being compromised in some dementia syndromes, particularly in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), which is characterised by changes in personality and social conduct...
June 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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