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"Theory of Mind"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527316/effects-of-contextual-relevance-on-pragmatic-inference-during-conversation-an-fmri-study
#1
Wangshu Feng, Yue Wu, Catherine Jan, Hongbo Yu, Xiaoming Jiang, Xiaolin Zhou
Contextual relevance, which is vital for understanding conversational implicatures (CI), engages both the frontal-temporal language and theory-of-mind networks. Here we investigate how contextual relevance affects CI processing and regulates the connectivity between CI-processing-related brain regions. Participants listened to dialogues in which the level of contextual relevance to dialogue-final utterance (reply) was manipulated. This utterance was either direct, indirect but relevant, irrelevant with contextual hint, or irrelevant with no contextual hint...
May 17, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525960/the-behavioral-and-neural-signatures-of-distinct-conceptions-of-fairness
#2
Laura Niemi, Emily Wasserman, Liane Young
Adhering to standard procedures (impartiality), returning favors (reciprocity), or giving based on individuals' needs (charity) may all be considered moral and/or fair ways to allocate resources. However, these allocation behaviors may be perceived as differently motivated, and their moral evaluation may make different demands on theory of mind (ToM)-the capacity to process information about mental states, including motives. In Studies 1-2, we examined participants' moral judgments of allocations based on (a) impartiality, (b) reciprocity, (c) charity, and (d) unspecified criteria as depicted in vignettes, as well as participants' perceptions of allocators' motivations...
May 19, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521557/metacognitive-verb-production-in-adolescents-the-link-to-complex-syntax
#3
Marilyn A Nippold, Laura M Vigeland, Megan W Frantz-Kaspar
Metacognitive verbs (MCVs) such as believe, know and think allow a speaker to describe the thoughts, feelings and perspectives of the self and others. As such, these words reflect the speaker's awareness of differing mental events and activities, or Theory of Mind (ToM). This study investigated the use of MCVs in adolescents with typical language development in relation to the production of complex sentences. It was of interest to determine the frequency with which adolescents used MCVs and to explore the links between MCVs and different types of subordinate clauses...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516959/adaptive-psychological-structure-in-childhood-hearing-impairment-audiological-correlations
#4
A Serra, G Spinato, S Cocuzza, L Licciardello, P Pavone, L Maiolino
The present research deals with the clinical and social problems present during linguistic and cognitive development of deaf children. Currently, the development of Theory of Mind represents an important research field in deafness studies. These international studies highlighted a significant alteration in the development of Theory of Mind in deaf children compared to normal hearing children, especially in cases of congenital or preverbal hearing loss. In particular, the research focuses on the skills of deaf children in recognising emotions and desires, through both perceptive and cognitive methods, by evaluation of psycho-cognitive skills of children with severe hearing loss using a set of questions to be administered to hearing loss patients...
June 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516423/exploring-the-components-of-advanced-theory-of-mind-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
C Pedreño, E Pousa, J B Navarro, M Pàmias, J E Obiols
Performance of a group of 35 youth and adults with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) was compared with a typical developing (TD) group on three Advanced Theory of Mind tests. The distinction between the social-cognitive and social-perceptual components of Theory of Mind was also explored. The HFA group had more difficulties in all tasks. Performance on the two social-cognitive tests was highly correlated in the HFA group, but these were not related with the social-perceptual component. These results suggest that the youth with HFA have difficulties on all the components of social knowledge but may be using different underlying cognitive abilities depending on the nature of the task...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505355/uncovering-the-neuroanatomical-correlates-of-cognitive-affective-and-conative-theory-of-mind-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-neural-systems-perspective
#6
Nicholas P Ryan, Cathy Catroppa, Richard Beare, Timothy J Silk, Stephen J Hearps, Miriam H Beauchamp, Keith Owen Yeates, Vicki A Anderson
Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) are common after neurological insult acquired in the first and second decade of life, however the contribution of large-scale neural networks to ToM deficits in children with brain injury is unclear. Using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated the sub-acute effect of brain injury on gray-matter volume of three large-scale, domain-general brain networks (the Default Mode Network, DMN; the Central Executive Network, CEN; and the Salience Network, SN), as well as two domain-specific neural networks implicated in social-affective processes (the Cerebro-Cerebellar Mentalizing Network, CCMN, and the Mirror Neuron/Empathy Network, MNEN)...
May 15, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500472/impaired-interpretation-of-others-behavior-is-associated-with-difficulties-in-recognizing-pragmatic-language-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#7
Keita Fukuhara, Yasuhiro Ogawa, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Yuma Nagata, Saiji Nishida, Daisuke Haga, Takashi Nishikawa
Much attention has been paid to the pragmatic language function in schizophrenia. This study of Japanese patients with schizophrenia examined the relationship between impaired interpretation of the behaviors of other people in social contexts and the ability to recognize metaphor and irony. We assessed 34 patients with schizophrenia and 34 normal subjects using first- and second-order theory of mind tasks, the Metaphor and Sarcasm Scenario Test, and the Dewey Story Test (which tests the ability to judge others' social behaviors)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495332/the-neural-correlates-of-theory-of-mind-and-their-role-during-empathy-and-the-game-of-chess-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#8
Joanne L Powell, Davide Grossi, Rhiannon Corcoran, Fernand Gobet, Marta García-Fiñana
Chess involves the capacity to reason iteratively about potential intentional choices of an opponent and therefore involves high levels of explicit theory of mind [ToM] (i.e. ability to infer mental states of others) alongside clear, strategic rule-based decision-making. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used on 12 healthy male novice chess players to identify cortical regions associated with chess, ToM and empathizing. The blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response for chess and empathizing tasks was extracted from each ToM region...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491043/a-comparison-of-children-s-ability-to-read-children-s-and-adults-mental-states-in-an-adaptation-of-the-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-task
#9
Anna van der Meulen, Simone Roerig, Doret de Ruyter, Pol van Lier, Lydia Krabbendam
The ability to read mental states from subtle facial cues is an important part of Theory of Mind, which can contribute to children's daily life social functioning. Mental state reading performance is influenced by the specific interactions in which it is applied; familiarity with characteristics of these interactions (such as the person) can enhance performance. The aim of this research is to gain insight in this context effect for mental state reading in children, assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) task that originally consists of pictures of adults' eyes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488076/erratum-to-measuring-theory-of-mind-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Neil Brewer, Robyn L Young, Emily Barnett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479973/social-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#11
Thammanard Charernboon, Jayanton Patumanond
Impairments in social cognitions in schizophrenia are increasingly reported in the last decade but only a few studies have come from Asia. The objective of the study was to evaluated emotion perception, theory of mind and social knowledge in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Participants were 36 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 36 normal controls with comparable age and level of education. We administered general neurocognition test (the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination), emotion perception (the Faces Test), theory of mind (the Eyes Test) and social knowledge (the Situational Features Recognition Test; SFRT)...
March 22, 2017: Mental Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476141/theory-of-mind-deficits-partly-mediate-impaired-social-decision-making-in-schizophrenia
#12
Liuqing Yang, Peifu Li, Haiying Mao, Huiling Wang, Chang Shu, Vibeke Bliksted, Yuan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Using paradigms from game theory, researchers have reported abnormal decision-making in social context in patients with schizophrenia. However, less is known about the underpinnings of the impairment. This study aimed to test whether theory of mind (ToM) deficits and/or neurocognitive dysfunctions mediate impaired social decision-making in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: We compared thirty-five patients with schizophrenia to thirty-eight matched healthy controls with regard to social decision-making using the mini Ultimatum Game (mini UG), a paradigm from game theory...
May 5, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476072/mental-state-language-development-the-longitudinal-roles-of-attachment-and-maternal-language
#13
Erin Becker Razuri, Amanda R Hiles Howard, Karyn B Purvis, David R Cross
Maternal mental state language is thought to influence children's mental state language and sociocognitive understanding (e.g., theory of mind), but the mechanism is unclear. The current study examined the longitudinal development of mental state language in mother-child interactions. The methodology included assessments of the child and/or mother-child dyad at six time points between 12 to 52 months of the child's age. Measures determined child's attachment style and language abilities, and mental state language used by mother and child during a block-building task...
May 5, 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470886/theory-of-mind-in-sli-revisited-links-with-syntax-comparisons-with-asd
#14
Stephanie Durrleman, Morgane Burnel, Anne Reboul
BACKGROUND: According to the linguistic determinism approach, knowledge of sentential complements such as: John says that the earth is flat plays a crucial role in theory of mind (ToM) development by providing a means to represent explicitly people's mental attitudes and beliefs. This approach predicts that mastery of complements determines successful belief reasoning across explicit ToM tasks, even low-verbal ones, and across populations. AIMS: (1) To investigate the link between a low-verbal ToM-task and complements in Specific Language Impairment (SLI), (2) To determine whether this population shows similar ToM performance to that of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or those with Typical Development (TD) once these groups are matched on competency for complements, (3) To explore whether complements conveying a falsehood without jeopardizing the veracity of the entire sentence, such as complements of verbs of communication, are more crucial for belief attribution than complements which do not have this property, namely complements of verbs of perception, (?John sees that the earth is flat)...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467893/meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-interpretation-and-expression-of-emotions
#15
REVIEW
Jenni Leppanen, Kah Wee Ng, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
Accurate interpretation and appropriate expression of emotions are key aspects of social-cognition. Several mental disorders are characterised by transdiagnostic difficulties in these areas and, recently, there has been increasing interest in exploring the effects of oxytocin on social-emotional functioning. This review consists of 33 studies. Fifteen of the studies included people with autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, frontotemporal dementia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and opioid and alcohol dependence...
April 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464376/reliability-and-validity-of-advanced-theory-of-mind-measures-in-middle-childhood-and-adolescence
#16
Elizabeth O Hayward, Bruce D Homer
Although theory-of-mind (ToM) development is well documented for early childhood, there is increasing research investigating changes in ToM reasoning in middle childhood and adolescence. However, the psychometric properties of most advanced ToM measures for use with older children and adolescents have not been firmly established. We report on the reliability and validity of widely used, conventional measures of advanced ToM with this age group. Notable issues with both reliability and validity of several of the measures were evident in the findings...
May 2, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461057/age-related-functional-brain-changes-in-young-children
#17
Xiangyu Long, Alina Benischek, Deborah Dewey, Catherine Lebel
Brain function and structure change significantly during the toddler and preschool years. However, most studies focus on older or younger children, so the specific nature of these changes is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed 77 functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets from 44 children aged 2-6 years. We extracted measures of both local (amplitude of low frequency fluctuation and regional homogeneity) and global (eigenvector centrality mapping) activity and connectivity, and examined their relationships with age using robust linear correlation analysis and strict control for head motion...
April 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459255/the-nature-of-the-relationship-between-neurocognition-and-theory-of-mind-impairments-in-stroke-patients
#18
Agnieszka Pluta, Natalia Gawron, Marta Sobańska, Adrian Dominik Wójcik, Emilia Łojek
OBJECTIVE: Theory of mind (ToM) is a complex, high-level cognitive function that allows people to infer the cognitive and affective mental states of others. Previous studies have produced limited and frequently contradictory findings on the neuropsychological underpinnings of ToM performance in patients with stroke. The aim of the present study is to investigate neuropsychological mechanisms of cognitive and affective theory of mind dysfunctions in patients with stroke. METHOD: Fifty-eight patients with stroke and 22 healthy controls matched in age, gender, and education level underwent robust neuropsychological examination of their pragmatic abilities, executive functions, attention, memory, psychomotor speed, and visuospatial abilities as well as a cognitive and affective ToM assessment...
May 1, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453602/theory-of-mind-and-executive-functioning-following-stroke
#19
Jackie Hamilton, Bogna Radlak, Paul G Morris, Louise H Phillips
Objective: Cognitive deficits following stroke are well documented, but less is known about problems with social skills such as understanding others' thoughts and feelings. This study investigated the effect of stroke on a visual-affective measure of social understanding: the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RMET). The aims were to investigate whether right hemisphere stroke was particularly detrimental to this aspect of Theory of Mind (ToM), and investigate the relationship between ToM ability and executive function following stroke...
April 27, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449613/emotion-recognition-and-theory-of-mind-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-neuroimaging-studies
#20
Martin Jáni, Tomáš Kašpárek
INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia have difficulties processing the emotional and cognitive states of others. Neuroimaging studies show inconsistent findings. METHOD: We used a seed-based d mapping meta-analytic method to explore brain activation during facial emotion recognition and theory of mind tasks in schizophrenia patients. RESULTS: The patients showed lesser recruitment of the facial emotion processing network; behavioural performance was associated with the activation of the precentral gyrus...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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