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"Theory of Mind"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317506/theory-of-mind-impairments-in-women-with-cocaine-addiction
#1
Breno Sanvicente-Vieira, Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon, Rhiannon Corcoran, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the Theory of Mind performance of female cocaine-dependent users (CDUs) and possible associations between theory of mind performance and features of cocaine use. METHOD: Sixty women controlled for age, education, individual income, and IQ participated in this study: 30 in the CDU group and 30 in the healthy control group. Participants were assessed for theory of mind with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a test of understanding of first-order and second-order false beliefs, and the Hinting task...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317384/exploring-possible-predictors-and-moderators-of-an-executive-function-training-for-children-with-an-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Marieke de Vries, Mathilde Ge Verdam, Pier Jm Prins, Ben A Schmand, Hilde M Geurts
Previously, a total of 121 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) performed an adaptive working memory (WM)-training, an adaptive flexibility-training, or a non-adaptive control (mock)-training. Despite overall improvement, there were minor differences between the adaptive and mock-training conditions. Moreover, dropout was relatively high (26%). In the current study we explored potential predicting and moderating factors to clarify these findings. The effects of intelligence, autism traits, WM, flexibility, reward sensitivity and Theory of Mind on dropout, improvement during training, and improvement in everyday executive functioning (EF), ASD-like behavior, and Quality of Life (QoL) were studied...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306483/preschool-fantasy-reality-discrimination-influences-of-trait-and-primed-fearfulness
#3
Aleksandra V Petkova, Kathleen M Cain
Distinguishing between fantasy and reality is an important developmental milestone, achieved in the preschool years, that has been linked to children's cognitive capabilities and emotional knowledge. The authors examined the influence of both trait and prime fearfulness on preschoolers' ability to differentiate between fantastic and real situations. Forty 3-5-year-old preschoolers were administered a fearfulness assessment, a standard theory-of-mind task, and a fantasy-reality discrimination task (with or without a fear prime)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303423/theory-of-mind-predominantly-associated-with-the-quality-not-quantity-of-pretend-play-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Shu-Kai Lin, Ching-Hong Tsai, Hsing-Jung Li, Chien-Yu Huang, Kuan-Lin Chen
This study aimed to clarify the relationships between theory of mind and pretend play in children with autism spectrum disorder, using refined assessments of theory of mind and pretend play while controlling for autistic behaviors and verbal comprehension. A total of 92 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 4-10 years were enrolled. In two visits, the children were assessed with the Theory of Mind Task Battery, the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and the Verbal Comprehension Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, respectively, for their theory of mind, pretend play performance, autistic behaviors, and verbal comprehension...
March 16, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302393/relationship-between-insight-and-theory-of-mind-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Emre Bora
Poor insight in schizophrenia has been associated with executive dysfunction and deficits in general cognitive ability. The overall outcome of available neurocognitive studies suggests that there is a significant but modest relationship between cognitive deficits and poor insight in schizophrenia. However, social cognitive abilities, particularly, theory of mind (ToM), might also play a role in poor insight in schizophrenia. A novel meta-analysis of the relationship between ToM and insight in schizophrenia was conducted...
March 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302161/cognitive-profile-in-prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#6
Jennifer Kemp, Nathalie Philippi, Clélie Phillipps, Catherine Demuynck, Timothée Albasser, Catherine Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine Schmidt-Mutter, Benjamin Cretin, Frédéric Blanc
BACKGROUND: Cortical and subcortical cognitive impairments have been found in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Roughly, they comprise visuoconstructive and executive dysfunction, whereas memory would remain relatively spared. However, the cognitive profile of patients with prodromal DLB remains poorly illustrated to date. METHODS: We included 37 patients with prodromal DLB (age 67.2 ± 8.6 years, 18 men, Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] score 27.4 ± 2) and 29 healthy control subjects (HCs; age 68...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296527/pragmatics-of-language-and-theory-of-mind-in-children-with-dyslexia-with-associated-language-difficulties-or-nonverbal-learning-disabilities
#7
Ramona Cardillo, Ricardo Basso Garcia, Irene C Mammarella, Cesare Cornoldi
The present study aims to find empirical evidence of deficits in linguistic pragmatic skills and theory of mind (ToM) in children with dyslexia with associated language difficulties or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), when compared with a group of typically developing (TD) children matched for age and gender. Our results indicate that children with dyslexia perform less well than TD children in most of the tasks measuring pragmatics of language, and in one of the tasks measuring ToM. In contrast, children with NLD generally performed better than the dyslexia group, and performed significantly worse than the TD children only in a metaphors task based on visual stimuli...
March 15, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296216/a-new-test-of-advanced-theory-of-mind-the-strange-stories-film-task-captures-social-processing-differences-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#8
Kim Murray, Kate Johnston, Helen Cunane, Charlotte Kerr, Debbie Spain, Nicola Gillan, Neil Hammond, Declan Murphy, Francesca Happé
Real-life social processing abilities of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be hard to capture in lab-based experimental tasks. A novel measure of social cognition, the "Strange Stories Film task' (SSFt), was designed to overcome limitations of available measures in the field. Brief films were made based on the scenarios from the Strange Stories task (Happé) and designed to capture the subtle social-cognitive difficulties observed in ASD adults. Twenty neurotypical adults were recruited to pilot the new measure...
March 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293209/toward-a-glossary-of-self-related-terms
#9
REVIEW
Alain Morin
Some scholars have noted that an impressive number of self-related terms have been gradually introduced in the scientific literature. Several of these terms are either ill-defined or synonymous, creating confusion, and redundancy. In an effort to minimize this problem, I present a novel and systematic way of looking at possible relations between several key self-terms. I also propose a tentative classification scheme of self-terms as follows: (1) basic terms related to the overall process of self-perception (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293206/five-year-olds-systematic-errors-in-second-order-false-belief-tasks-are-due-to-first-order-theory-of-mind-strategy-selection-a-computational-modeling-study
#10
Burcu Arslan, Niels A Taatgen, Rineke Verbrugge
The focus of studies on second-order false belief reasoning generally was on investigating the roles of executive functions and language with correlational studies. Different from those studies, we focus on the question how 5-year-olds select and revise reasoning strategies in second-order false belief tasks by constructing two computational cognitive models of this process: an instance-based learning model and a reinforcement learning model. Unlike the reinforcement learning model, the instance-based learning model predicted that children who fail second-order false belief tasks would give answers based on first-order theory of mind (ToM) reasoning as opposed to zero-order reasoning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290269/trajectories-of-child-externalizing-problems-between-ages-3-and-10-years-contributions-of-children-s-early-effortful-control-theory-of-mind-and-parenting-experiences
#11
Sheryl L Olson, Daniel Ewon Choe, Arnold J Sameroff
Preventing problem behavior requires an understanding of earlier factors that are amenable to intervention. The main goals of our prospective longitudinal study were to trace trajectories of child externalizing behavior between ages 3 and 10 years, and to identify patterns of developmentally significant child and parenting risk factors that differentiated pathways of problem behavior. Participants were 218 3-year-old boys and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (age 5-6 years) and during the late school-age years (age 10)...
March 14, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288549/the-psychometric-properties-of-the-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-test-an-item-response-theory-irt-analysis
#12
Antonio Preti, Marcello Vellante, Donatella R Petretto
INTRODUCTION: The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test (hereafter: Eyes Test) is considered an advanced task of the Theory of Mind aimed at assessing the performance of the participant in perspective-takingthat is, the ability to sense or understand other people's cognitive and emotional states. In this study, the item response theory analysis was applied to the adult version of the Eyes Test. METHODS: The Italian version of the Eyes Test was administered to 200 undergraduate students of both genders (males = 46%)...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284777/social-cognition-in-first-degree-relatives-of-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Emre Bora, Ayşegül Özerdem
Cognitive impairment is evident euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BP) and in their first-degree relatives (BP-Rel). Increasing evidence suggests that BP is also associated with social cognitive impairment. It is important to establish whether social cognitive impairment is also evident in BP-Rel. A novel meta-analysis of theory of mind (ToM) and facial emotion recognition in BP-Rel including 16 studies (728 first-degree relatives of patients with BP and 865 healthy controls) was conducted. ToM (d=0.34, CI=0...
March 8, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275927/measuring-theory-of-mind-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Neil Brewer, Robyn L Young, Emily Barnett
Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM)-the ability to interpret others' beliefs, intentions and emotions-undermine the ability of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to interact in socially normative ways. This study provides psychometric data for the Adult-Theory of Mind (A-ToM) measure using video-scenarios based in part on Happé's (Instructions for theory of mind story task, 1999) Strange Stories test. The final items discriminated IQ-matched adults with ASD from controls on the social but not the physical items...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273767/impairment-of-social-cognition-in-multiple-sclerosis-amygdala-atrophy-is-the-main-predictor
#15
Sonia Batista, Otília C d'Almeida, Ana Afonso, Sandra Freitas, Carmo Macário, Lívia Sousa, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Isabel Santana, Luís Cunha
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently reveal social behavior disturbance. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the impact of MS on social cognition, particularly theory of mind (ToM), and its neural basis. OBJECTIVES: To explore how ToM is affected in MS and its neural correlates. METHODS: Enrolled 60 consecutive MS patients and 60 healthy controls (HC) matched on age, sex, and education. Participants underwent ToM testing (Eyes Test, Videos Test) and 3 T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
December 1, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271499/inferring-beliefs-and-desires-from-emotional-reactions-to-anticipated-and-observed-events
#16
Yang Wu, Laura E Schulz
Researchers have long been interested in the relation between emotion understanding and theory of mind. This study investigates a cue to mental states that has rarely been investigated: the dynamics of valenced emotional expressions. When the valence of a character's facial expression was stable between an expected and observed outcome, children (N = 122; M = 5.0 years) recovered the character's desires but did not consistently recover her beliefs. When the valence changed, older but not younger children recovered both the characters' beliefs and desires...
March 8, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266717/theory-of-mind-and-wisdom-the-development-of-different-forms-of-perspective-taking-in-late-adulthood
#17
Hannes Rakoczy, Raphaela Wandt, Stefanie Thomas, Jana Nowak, Ute Kunzmann
How does perspective-taking develop over the lifespan? This question has been investigated in two separate research traditions, dealing with theory of mind (ToM) and wisdom, respectively. Operating in almost complete isolation from each other, and using rather different conceptual approaches, these two traditions have produced seemingly contradictory results: While perspective-taking has been consistently found to decline in old age in ToM research, studies on wisdom have mostly found that perspective-taking remains constant or sometimes even increases in later adulthood...
March 7, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266002/voxel-based-mapping-of-grey-matter-volume-and-glucose-metabolism-profiles-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
M-S Buhour, F Doidy, A Mondou, A Pélerin, L Carluer, F Eustache, F Viader, B Desgranges
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive disease of the nervous system involving both upper and lower motor neurons. The patterns of structural and metabolic brain alterations are still unclear. Several studies using anatomical MRI yielded a number of discrepancies in their results, and a few PET studies investigated the effect of ALS on cerebral glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was threefold: to highlight the patterns of grey matter (GM) atrophy, hypometabolism and hypermetabolism in patients with ALS, then to understand the neurobehavioral significance of hypermetabolism and, finally, to investigate the regional differences between the morphologic and functional changes in ALS patients, using a specially designed voxel-based method...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262934/children-s-sharing-behavior-in-mini-dictator-games-the-role-of-in-group-favoritism-and-theory-of-mind
#19
Jing Yu, Liqi Zhu, Alan M Leslie
This study investigated the motivational and social-cognitive foundations (i.e., inequality aversion, in-group bias, and theory of mind) that underlie the development of sharing behavior among 3- to 9-year-old Chinese children (N = 122). Each child played two mini-dictator games against an in-group member (friend) and an out-group member (stranger) to divide four stickers. Results indicated that there was a small to moderate age-related increase in children's egalitarian sharing with strangers, whereas the age effect was moderate to large in interactions with friends...
November 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260812/expanding-the-developmental-models-of-writing-a-direct-and-indirect-effects-model-of-developmental-writing-diew
#20
Young-Suk Grace Kim, Christopher Schatschneider
We investigated direct and indirect effects of component skills on writing (DIEW) using data from 193 children in Grade 1. In this model, working memory was hypothesized to be a foundational cognitive ability for language and cognitive skills as well as transcription skills, which, in turn, contribute to writing. Foundational oral language skills (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge) and higher-order cognitive skills (inference and theory of mind) were hypothesized to be component skills of text generation (i...
2017: Journal of Educational Psychology
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