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"Theory of Mind"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332047/sally-anne-test-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#1
Shintaro Takenoshita, Seishi Terada, Osamu Yokota, Yumiko Kutoku, Yosuke Wakutani, Makoto Nakashima, Yohko Maki, Hideyuki Hattori, Norihito Yamada
Social cognition has recently been recognized as one of the essential cognitive domains. Some reports suggested that patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) presented significant theory of mind deficits even in the mild condition. However, most previous studies included only small numbers of patients with ADD. The present study administered the first-order false belief (Sally-Anne) test to 116 consecutive patients with ADD from the outpatient units of the Memory Clinic and compared the characteristics of the two groups with correct and incorrect answers on the test...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331664/children-exhibit-different-performance-patterns-in-explicit-and-implicit-theory-of-mind-tasks
#2
Nese Oktay-Gür, Alexandra Schulz, Hannes Rakoczy
Three studies tested scope and limits of children's implicit and explicit theory of mind. In Studies 1 and 2, three- to six-year-olds (N = 84) were presented with closely matched explicit false belief tasks that differed in whether or not they required an understanding of aspectuality. Results revealed that children performed equally well in the different tasks, and performance was strongly correlated. Study 3 tested two-year-olds (N = 81) in implicit interactive versions of these tasks and found evidence for dis-unity: children performed competently only in those tasks that did not require an understanding of aspectuality...
January 11, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324244/how-social-status-influences-our-understanding-of-others-mental-states
#3
Michael T Rizzo, Melanie Killen
The current study investigated whether children's relative social status within a context influences their ability to identify others' mental states. Across two experiments, 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 103) were randomly assigned to hold either an advantaged or disadvantaged social status and were assessed on their ability to accurately identify others' mental states (via false-belief and belief-emotion "theory of mind" assessments). When participants' status was manipulated by a structural factor (gender; Experiment 1), participants with disadvantaged status were more likely than participants with advantaged status to pass the false-belief and belief-emotion assessments...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306056/subclinical-maternal-depressive-symptoms-modulate-right-inferior-frontal-response-to-inferring-affective-mental-states-of-adults-but-not-of-infants
#4
Koji Shimada, Ryoko Kasaba, Takashi X Fujisawa, Nobuko Sakakibara, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Akemi Tomoda
BACKGROUND: Being a mother of young children increases the risk of depression characterised by deficits in inferring what a person is feeling, i.e., affective theory of mind (aToM). Despite the adverse consequences for mothers, children, families, and society as a whole, little is known of how the brain functions underlying aToM ability are affected by subclinical maternal depressive symptoms, and act as a risk indicator for major depressive disorders (MDD). METHODS: Thirty healthy mothers with varying levels of depressive symptoms underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing mind-reading tasks based on the emotional expressions of adult eyes and infant faces...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277240/-a-mentalization-based-perspective-on-childhood-autism-treatment
#5
M Thevenet, C Dondé, R Machabert, L Ancona, C Jost, N Georgieff
Mentalization is a process by which a subject makes sense of both his own mental representations and of those around him. Disturbances in the mentalization process are found in several psychiatric disorders, notably borderline personality disorders for which mentalization-based treatments (MBT) have been developed and evaluated. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) display a theory of mind impairments, which corresponds to disturbances in the mentalization process. Although no MBT protocol for patients with ASD has been described in the literature, such treatment appears promising to improve theory of mind and functional outcome of these children...
December 22, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275839/the-multifaceted-role-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-emotion-decision-making-social-cognition-and-psychopathology
#6
REVIEW
Jaryd Hiser, Michael Koenigs
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a variety of social, cognitive, and affective functions that are commonly disrupted in mental illness. In this review, we summarize data from a diverse array of human and animal studies demonstrating that the vmPFC is a key node of cortical and subcortical networks that subserve at least three broad domains of psychological function linked to psychopathology. One track of research indicates that the vmPFC is critical for the representation of reward- and value-based decision making, through interactions with the ventral striatum and amygdala...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261654/correction-reading-wild-minds-a-computational-assay-of-theory-of-mind-sophistication-across-seven-primate-species
#7
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005833.].
December 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235616/-social-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-and-behavioral-variant-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#8
M E Tabernero, F Musich, F C Cossini, D G Politis
AIM: To study the presence of alterations in social cognition in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), to compare the levels of involvement, and to analyze their relevance as a tool to distinguish between both demential profile. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: For this purpose, 34 patients diagnosed with PDD, 21 men and 13 women, with an average age of 70 years and 8 years of education, and 26 patients diagnosed with bvFTD, 9 men and 17 women, with an average age of 68 years and 6 years of education, were assessed...
December 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221830/distinguishable-memory-retrieval-networks-for-collaboratively-and-non-collaboratively-learned-information
#9
Flora Vanlangendonck, Atsuko Takashima, Roel M Willems, Peter Hagoort
Learning often occurs in communicative and collaborative settings, yet almost all research into the neural basis of memory relies on participants encoding and retrieving information on their own. We investigated whether learning linguistic labels in a collaborative context at least partly relies on cognitively and neurally distinct representations, as compared to learning in an individual context. Healthy human participants learned labels for sets of abstract shapes in three different tasks. They came up with labels with another person in a collaborative communication task (collaborative condition), by themselves (individual condition), or were given pre-determined unrelated labels to learn by themselves (arbitrary condition)...
December 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219104/adherence-to-24-hour-movement-guidelines-for-the-early-years-and-associations-with-social-cognitive-development-among-australian-preschool-children
#10
Dylan P Cliff, Jade McNeill, Stewart A Vella, Steven J Howard, Rute Santos, Marijka Batterham, Edward Melhuish, Anthony D Okely, Marc de Rosnay
BACKGROUND: The new Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years recommend that, for preschoolers, a healthy 24-h includes: i) ≥180 min of physical activity, including ≥60 min of energetic play, ii) ≤1 h of sedentary screen time, and iii) 10-13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of preschool children meeting these guidelines and investigates associations with social-cognitive development. METHODS: Data from 248 preschool children (mean age = 4...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216439/gender-differences-in-social-cognition-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study-of-recently-diagnosed-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-subjects
#11
Guillem Navarra-Ventura, Sol Fernandez-Gonzalo, Marc Turon, Esther Pousa, Diego Palao, Narcis Cardoner, Merce Jodar
OBJECTIVES: This study had 2 objectives: First, to explore the gender-related differences in emotional processing (EP) and theory of mind-both cognitive (CToM) and affective (AToM)-in patients with schizophrenia and in a control group of healthy subjects; and, second, to examine, from a gender perspective, the possible association between EP and CToM in the AToM performance. METHODS: Forty patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder were recruited and matched by gender, age and years of education with 40 healthy subjects...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209876/mentalization-deficit-in-bipolar-patients-during-an-acute-depressive-and-manic-episode-association-with-cognitive-functions
#12
Anna Bodnar, Janusz K Rybakowski
BACKGROUND: A number of studies in bipolar patients have shown a deficit in mentalization (theory of mind), one of the main aspects of social cognition. The aim of current study was to assess both cognitive and affective mentalization in well-defined groups of depressed and manic bipolar patients, compared to healthy control subjects, using a battery of tests measuring mentalization processes. The second aim was to investigate a possible relationship between cognitive and affective mentalization and cognitive functions in bipolar patients during a depressive and manic episode...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209258/syntactic-and-story-structure-complexity-in-the-narratives-of-high-and-low-language-ability-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Eleni Peristeri, Maria Andreou, Ianthi M Tsimpli
Although language impairment is commonly associated with the autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the Diagnostic Statistical Manual no longer includes language impairment as a necessary component of an ASD diagnosis (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, children with ASD and no comorbid intellectual disability struggle with some aspects of language whose precise nature is still outstanding. Narratives have been extensively used as a tool to examine lexical and syntactic abilities, as well as pragmatic skills in children with ASD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208492/resting-state-connectivity-mediates-the-relationship-between-collectivism-and-social-cognition
#14
Gennady G Knyazev, Alexander N Savostyanov, Andrey V Bocharov, Ekaterina A Merkulova
Humans are intrinsically social beings and it is natural that self-processing is associated with social cognition. The degree to which the self is perceived as a part of social environment is modulated by cultural stereotypes, such as collectivism and individualism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that individuals who endorse collectivist values would spontaneously think more about their relationships with other people and this association would be mediated by connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the rest of the brain...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195166/cognitive-abilities-and-theory-of-mind-in-explaining-communicative-pragmatic-disorders-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Alberto Parola, Laura Berardinelli, Francesca M Bosco
Patients with schizophrenia usually show an impairment in their communicative-pragmatic performance; they also have difficulties in cognitive functioning and Theory of Mind (ToM). In the literature it has been proposed that ToM and cognitive deficits have a role in explaining the communicative-pragmatic difficulties of patients with schizophrenia. However, the exact interplay of these functions is still not completely clear. The present research investigates the relationship between communicative-pragmatic, ToM and cognitive impairments (i...
November 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193986/a-study-on-the-theory-of-mind-deficits-and-delusions-in-schizophrenic-patients
#16
Sungwon Park
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to find differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy control group in ToM and to examine relationships among intelligence, ToM, and delusion in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Data was collected from 50 patients of schizophrenia and 32 healthy subjects. Participants were given the psychological test form with structured questionnaire. The SPSS 22.0 program was used for t-test, ANCOVA, and, Pearson's Correlation...
December 1, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188228/implicit-theory-of-mind-an-overview-of-current-replications-and-non-replications
#17
Louisa Kulke, Hannes Rakoczy
The current dataset contains a qualitative summary of (non-)replication studies of implicit Theory of Mind paradigms. It summarizes for each paradigm, how many replications, partial replications and non-replications were identified and how many of them were published or unpublished. Furthermore, descriptive data and sample sizes are reported. The dataset provides a qualitative overview of the published and unpublished findings in implicit Theory of Mind research.
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178984/moral-imagination-facilitating-prosocial-decision-making-through-scene-imagery-and-theory-of-mind
#18
Brendan Gaesser, Kerri Keeler, Liane Young
How we imagine and subjectively experience the future can inform how we make decisions in the present. Here, we examined a prosocial effect of imagining future episodes in motivating moral decisions about helping others in need, as well as the underlying cognitive mechanisms. Across three experiments we found that people are more willing to help others in specific situations after imagining helping them in those situations. Manipulating the spatial representation of imagined future episodes in particular was effective at increasing intentions to help others, suggesting that scene imagery plays an important role in the prosocial effect of episodic simulation...
November 24, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175724/a-right-amygdalohippocampectomy-a-diagnostic-challenge
#19
Frank Jonker, Cees Jonker, Laura Bronzwaer, Erik Scherder
OBJECTIVE: Amygdalohippocampectomy (AHE) is the resective surgery for medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To date no study has investigated a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms in right AHE outpatients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three patients with right AHE participated in this study. The control group are patients with cognitive complaints with no history of epilepsy or neurological impairment and no structural abnormalities on the MRI/CT. We expected no difference in verbal memory compared to the controls...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175518/social-cognitive-dysfunction-as-a-clinical-marker-a-systematic-review-of-meta-analyses-across-30-clinical-conditions
#20
REVIEW
Jack Cotter, Kiri Granger, Rosa Backx, Matthew Hobbs, Chung Yen Looi, Jennifer H Barnett
Social cognition includes a range of cognitive processes that help individuals to understand how others think and feel. There is emerging evidence that social cognitive deficits may represent a transdiagnostic issue, potentially serving as a marker of neurological abnormality. We performed an electronic database search in order to identify published, peer-reviewed meta-analyses that compared facial emotion recognition or theory of mind task performance between individuals meeting clinical criteria for a psychiatric, neurological or developmental condition against healthy controls...
January 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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