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"Theory of Mind"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766459/cognitive-functioning-in-chiari-malformation-type-i-without-posterior-fossa-surgery
#1
Maitane García, Esther Lázaro, Juan Francisco López-Paz, Oscar Martínez, Manuel Pérez, Sarah Berrocoso, Mohammad Al-Rashaida, Imanol Amayra
Chiari Malformation type I (CM-I) is a neurological disorder characterized by a displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the spinal canal. Most research has focused on physical symptomatology but few studies include neuropsychological examinations. Moreover, although current research highlights the involvement of the cerebellum on higher cognitive functions, little is known about cognitive consequences associated with CM-I. The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive functioning between 39 CM-I patients and 39 healthy controls, matched by gender, age and years of education...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755383/seeing-more-than-human-autism-and-anthropomorphic-theory-of-mind
#2
REVIEW
Gray Atherton, Liam Cross
Theory of mind (ToM) is defined as the process of taking another's perspective. Anthropomorphism can be seen as the extension of ToM to non-human entities. This review examines the literature concerning ToM and anthropomorphism in relation to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), specifically addressing the questions of how and why those on the spectrum both show an increased interest for anthropomorphism and may even show improved ToM abilities when judging the mental states of anthropomorphic characters...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751984/age-related-trajectories-of-social-cognition-in-youth-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-an-exploratory-study
#3
Charlie A Davidson, Danijela Piskulic, Jean Addington, Kristen S Cadenhead, Tyrone D Cannon, Barbara A Cornblatt, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Larry J Seidman, Ming T Tsuang, Elaine F Walker, Carrie E Bearden, Daniel H Mathalon, Scott W Woods, Jason K Johannesen
BACKGROUND: Clinical high risk (CHR) status is characterized by impairments in social cognition, but questions remain concerning their stability over development. In cross-sectional analysis of a large naturalistic sample, the current study examined whether those at CHR status show deviant trajectories for age-related change in social cognitive ability, and whether these trajectories are influenced by treatment history. METHOD: Emotion perception (EP) and theory of mind (ToM) were assessed in 675 CHR and 263 healthy comparison (HC) participants aged 12-35...
May 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749634/from-automata-to-animate-beings-the-scope-and-limits-of-attributing-socialness-to-artificial-agents
#4
REVIEW
Ruud Hortensius, Emily S Cross
Understanding the mechanisms and consequences of attributing socialness to artificial agents has important implications for how we can use technology to lead more productive and fulfilling lives. Here, we integrate recent findings on the factors that shape behavioral and brain mechanisms that support social interactions between humans and artificial agents. We review how visual features of an agent, as well as knowledge factors within the human observer, shape attributions across dimensions of socialness. We explore how anthropomorphism and dehumanization further influence how we perceive and interact with artificial agents...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744972/are-socio-emotional-and-neurocognitive-functioning-predictors-of-therapeutic-outcomes-for-adults-with-anorexia-nervosa
#5
Anna Oldershaw, Tony Lavender, Ulrike Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Emotional, social, and neurocognitive factors are theorised to maintain anorexia nervosa (AN). Yet whether they predict outcomes or relate to clinical change remains unclear. METHODS: Seventy-one consecutive adult outpatient eating disorder service referrals presenting with AN, who participated in a randomised controlled trial comparing 2 psychotherapies, were assessed for emotional processing, social cognition, and neurocognition pretherapy and posttherapy...
May 10, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742460/low-grade-inflammation-decreases-emotion-recognition-evidence-from-the-vaccination-model-of-inflammation
#6
Leonie Jt Balter, Sasha Hulsken, Sarah Aldred, Mark T Drayson, Suzanne Higgs, Jet Jcs Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jane E Raymond, Jos A Bosch
The ability to adequately interpret the mental state of another person is key to complex human social interaction. Recent evidence suggests that this ability, considered a hallmark of 'theory of mind' (ToM), becomes impaired by inflammation. However, extant supportive empirical evidence is based on experiments that induce not only inflammation but also induce discomfort and sickness, factors that could also account for temporary social impairment. Hence, an experimental inflammation manipulation was applied that avoided this confound, isolating effects of inflammation and social interaction...
May 6, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740360/the-importance-of-social-cognition-in-improving-functional-outcomes-in-schizophrenia
#7
REVIEW
Afzal Javed, Asha Charles
Social cognition has become recognized as an important driver of functional outcomes and overall recovery in patients with schizophrenia, mediating the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning. Since antipsychotic therapy targeting remission of clinical symptoms has been shown to have a limited impact on social cognition, there has been an increasing drive to develop therapeutic strategies to specifically improve social cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to review current evidence relating to social cognition in schizophrenia and its clinical implications, including interventions designed to target the core domains of social cognition (emotion processing, theory of mind, attributional bias, and social perception) as a means of improving functional outcomes and thereby increasing the likelihood of recovery...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739523/psychodynamic-psychiatry-the-biopsychosocial-model-and-the-difficult-patient
#8
REVIEW
Eric M Plakun
This article defines psychodynamic psychiatry as the intersection between general psychiatry and psychoanalysis as a theory of mind. Psychodynamic psychiatry is built on a biopsychosocial model for understanding and treating mental disorders. Currently, a narrower biomedical model is in ascendancy, but it has not lived up to its promise and is not supported by emerging science as robustly as is the biopsychosocial model. The "difficult patient" emerges in part from the limits of our treatment models and treatment methods...
June 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718384/neural-substrates-for-moral-judgments-of-psychological-versus-physical-harm
#9
Lily Tsoi, James A Dungan, Aleksandr Chakroff, Liane L Young
While we may think about harm as primarily being about physical injury, harm can also take the form of negative psychological impact. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the extent to which moral judgments of physical and psychological harms are processed similarly, focusing on brain regions implicated in mental state reasoning or theory of mind, a key cognitive process for moral judgment. First, univariate analyses reveal item-specific features that lead to greater recruitment of theory of mind regions for psychological harm versus physical harm...
April 28, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704083/does-affective-theory-of-mind-contribute-to-proactive-aggression-in-boys-with-conduct-problems-and-psychopathic-tendencies
#10
Steven M Gillespie, Mickey T Kongerslev, Carla Sharp, Sune Bo, Ahmad M Abu-Akel
Adolescent psychopathic tendencies are associated with phenotypic increases in proactive aggression. However, the extent to which an understanding of others' affective mental states, or affective theory of mind (ToM), contributes to proactive aggression remains unknown. We examined how performance on a well-known test of affective ToM, based on cropped images of the eye region, contributes to reactive and proactive types of aggression in a mixed ethnicity sample of 80 incarcerated adolescent boys. A hierarchical regression model showed that affective ToM predicted proactive aggression over and above the influence of clinically rated psychopathic tendencies...
April 27, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694916/perception-as-a-route-for-motor-skill-learning-perspectives-from-neuroscience
#11
REVIEW
Ori Ossmy, Roy Mukamel
Learning a motor skill requires physical practice that engages neural networks involved in movement. These networks have also been found to be engaged during perception of sensory signals associated with actions. Nonetheless, despite extensive evidence for the existence of such sensory-evoked neural activity in motor pathways, much less is known about their contribution to learning and actual changes in behavior. Primate studies usually involve an overlearned task while studies in humans have largely focused on characterizing activity of the action observation network (AON) in the context of action understanding, theory of mind, and social interactions...
April 22, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692285/metacognitive-reflection-and-insight-therapy-merit-for-patients-with-schizophrenia
#12
S de Jong, R J M van Donkersgoed, M E Timmerman, M Aan Het Rot, L Wunderink, J Arends, M van Der Gaag, A Aleman, P H Lysaker, G H M Pijnenborg
BACKGROUND: Impaired metacognition is associated with difficulties in the daily functioning of people with psychosis. Metacognition can be divided into four domains: Self-Reflection, Understanding the Other's Mind, Decentration, and Mastery. This study investigated whether Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT) can be used to improve metacognition. METHODS: This study is a randomized controlled trial. Patients in the active condition (n = 35) received forty MERIT sessions, the control group (n = 35) received treatment as usual...
April 25, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684403/white-matter-pathways-and-social-cognition
#13
REVIEW
Yin Wang, Athanasia Metoki, Kylie H Alm, Ingrid R Olson
There is a growing consensus that social cognition and behavior emerge from interactions across distributed regions of the "social brain". Researchers have traditionally focused their attention on functional response properties of these gray matter networks and neglected the vital role of white matter connections in establishing such networks and their functions. In this article, we conduct a comprehensive review of prior research on structural connectivity in social neuroscience and highlight the importance of this literature in clarifying brain mechanisms of social cognition...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683406/influence-of-anxiety-and-alexithymia-on-brain-activations-associated-with-the-perception-of-others-pain-in-autism
#14
Amandine Lassalle, Nicole R Zürcher, Carlo A Porro, Francesca Benuzzi, Loyse Hippolyte, Eric Lemonnier, Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Nouchine Hadjikhani
The circumstances under which empathy is altered in ASD remain unclear, as previous studies did not systematically find differences in brain activation between ASD and controls in empathy-eliciting paradigms, and did not always monitor whether differences were primarily due to ASD "per se", or to conditions overlapping with ASD, such as alexithymia and anxiety. Here, we collected fMRI data from 47 participants (22 ASD) viewing pictures depicting hands and feet of unknown others in painful, disgusting, or neutral situations...
April 23, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682095/brain-responses-underlying-anthropomorphism-agency-and-social-attribution-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Carla J Ammons, Constance F Doss, David Bala, Rajesh K Kana
Background: Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others, is frequently impaired in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and may result from altered activation of social brain regions. Conversely, Typically Developing (TD) individuals overextend ToM and show a strong tendency to anthropomorphize and interpret biological motion in the environment. Less is known about how the degree of anthropomorphism influences intentional attribution and engagement of the social brain in ASD...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674170/theory-of-mind-as-a-link-between-oxytocin-and-maternal-behavior
#16
Anna L MacKinnon, C Sue Carter, Nancy Feeley, Ian Gold, Barbara Hayton, Sangeetha Santhakumaran, Phyllis Zelkowitz
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is a neuropeptide associated with maternal behavior. However the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. In a previous study we observed an indirect effect of increased plasma oxytocin during late pregnancy on early postpartum maternal interactive behavior via theory of mind, as assessed by the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). The current study aimed to extend these findings by testing whether this indirect effect would hold longitudinally for maternal behavior at 2-3 years postpartum, as well as for an additional observational measure of maternal mind-mindedness...
March 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671641/theory-of-mind-in-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-associations-with-the-sibling-constellation
#17
Nicole L Matthews, Wendy A Goldberg
The two prior studies that have examined associations between the sibling constellation and theory of mind in autism spectrum disorder yielded discrepant findings. Thus, efforts to better understand the sibling-theory of mind link in autism spectrum disorder are necessary. This study examined a sample of prekindergarten- and kindergarten-aged (i.e. 4-6 years) typically developing children ( n = 39) and verbal children with autism spectrum disorder ( n = 61). Sibling presence, number of siblings, and having younger and older siblings were positively associated with theory of mind in typically developing children, but not in the full sample of children with autism spectrum disorder...
April 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664917/the-edinburgh-social-cognition-test-escot-examining-the-effects-of-age-on-a-new-measure-of-theory-of-mind-and-social-norm-understanding
#18
R Asaad Baksh, Sharon Abrahams, Bonnie Auyeung, Sarah E MacPherson
Current measures of social cognition have shown inconsistent findings regarding the effects of healthy aging. Moreover, no tests are currently available that allow clinicians and researchers to examine cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM) and understanding of social norms within the same test. To address these limitations, we present the Edinburgh Social Cognition Test (ESCoT) which assesses cognitive and affective ToM and inter- and intrapersonal understanding of social norms. We examined the effects of age, measures of intelligence and the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) on the ESCoT and established tests of social cognition...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663132/spontaneous-theory-of-mind-is-reduced-for-nonhuman-like-agents-as-compared-to-human-like-agents
#19
Lara Bardi, Charlotte Desmet, Marcel Brass
Theory of Mind research has shown that we spontaneously take into account other's beliefs. In the current study, we investigate, with a spontaneous Theory of Mind (ToM) task, if this belief representation also applies to nonhuman-like agents. In a series of three experiments, we show here that we do not spontaneously take into account beliefs of nonhuman-like others, or at least we do it to a lesser extent than for human and human-like agents. Further, the experience we have with the other agent, in our case a dog, does not modulate spontaneous ToM: the same pattern of results was obtained when dog owners and no owners were compared...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660808/longitudinal-theory-of-mind-tom-development-from-preschool-to-adolescence-with-and-without-tom-delay
#20
Candida C Peterson, Henry M Wellman
Longitudinal tracking of 107 three- to-thirteen-year-olds in a cross-sequential design showed a 6-step theory of mind (ToM) sequence identified by a few past cross-sectional studies validly depicted longitudinal ToM development from early to middle childhood for typically developing (TD) children and those with ToM delays owing to deafness or autism. Substantively, all groups showed ToM progress throughout middle childhood. Atypical development was more extended and began and ended at lower levels than for TD children...
April 16, 2018: Child Development
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