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"Theory of Mind"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926417/the-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-test-validity-and-reliability-of-the-thai-version
#1
Thammanard Charernboon, Tiraya Lerthattasilp
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Until now there has not been a validated measure of theory of mind available in the Thai language. Our goal in this study was to assess the validity and reliability of our Thai-language translation of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (the "Eyes Test"). METHODS: We gave our Thai version of the Eyes Test to 70 participants: 30 people with schizophrenia and 40 normal controls. We also gave Thai versions of the Faces Test and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination to assess convergent validity...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922520/a-review-of-joint-attention-and-social-cognitive-brain-systems-in-typical-development-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Peter Mundy
This article provides a review of the increasingly detailed literature on the neurodevelopment of joint attention. Many findings from this literature support and inform the hypothesis that the neurodevelopment of joint attention contributes to the functional development of neural systems for human social cognition. Joint attention begins to develop by 5 months of age and is tantamount to the ability to adopt a common perspective with another person. It involves a whole-brain system with nodes in the: (a) dorsal and medial frontal cortex, (b) orbital frontal/insula cortex, (c) anterior/ posterior cingulate cortex, (d) superior temporal cortex, (e) precuneus/parietal cortex, and (f) amygdala and striatum...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922467/intelligence-and-neurophysiological-markers-of-error-monitoring-relate-to-children-s-intellectual-humility
#3
Judith H Danovitch, Megan Fisher, Hans Schroder, David Z Hambrick, Jason Moser
This study explored developmental and individual differences in intellectual humility (IH) among 127 children ages 6-8. IH was operationalized as children's assessment of their knowledge and willingness to delegate scientific questions to experts. Children completed measures of IH, theory of mind, motivational framework, and intelligence, and neurophysiological measures indexing early (error-related negativity [ERN]) and later (error positivity [Pe]) error-monitoring processes related to cognitive control. Children's knowledge self-assessment correlated with question delegation, and older children showed greater IH than younger children...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920569/high-functioning-autism-patients-share-similar-but-more-severe-impairments-in-verbal-theory-of-mind-than-schizophrenia-patients
#4
L N W Tin, S S Y Lui, K K Y Ho, K S Y Hung, Y Wang, H K H Yeung, T Y Wong, S M Lam, R C K Chan, E F C Cheung
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that autism and schizophrenia share similarities in genetic, neuropsychological and behavioural aspects. Although both disorders are associated with theory of mind (ToM) impairments, a few studies have directly compared ToM between autism patients and schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to investigate to what extent high-functioning autism patients and schizophrenia patients share and differ in ToM performance. METHODS: Thirty high-functioning autism patients, 30 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy individuals were recruited...
September 18, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914977/autism-theory-of-mind-and-the-reactive-attitudes
#5
Kenneth A Richman, Raya Bidshahri
Whether to treat autism as exculpatory in any given circumstance appears to be influenced both by models of autism and by theories of moral responsibility. This article looks at one particular combination of theories: autism as theory of mind challenges and moral responsibility as requiring appropriate experience of the reactive attitudes. In pursuing this particular combination of ideas, we do not intend to endorse them. Our goal is, instead, to explore the implications of this combination of especially prominent ideas about autism and about moral responsibility...
September 15, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913387/personality-traits-and-theory-of-mind-performance-data-of-a-spanish-sample-of-university-students
#6
José M Gavilán, Juan Haro
This article allows consulting the performance data of 96 Spanish university students in two personality questionnaires and two theory of mind (ToM) tasks. Personality dimensions were evaluated through the OPERAS questionnaire (Vigil-Colet et al., 2013) [1], which evaluates global personality through 5 scales: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience, and the ESQUIZO-Q questionnaire (Fonseca-Pedrero et al., 2010) [2], which assesses schizotypy by means of 10 subscales: ideas of reference, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, odd thinking and language, paranoid ideation, physical anhedonia, social anhedonia, odd behavior, lack of close friends, and excessive social anxiety...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912675/deceptive-but-not-honest-manipulative-actions-are-associated-with-increased-interaction-between-middle-and-inferior-frontal-gyri
#7
Maxim Kireev, Alexander Korotkov, Natalia Medvedeva, Ruslan Masharipov, Svyatoslav Medvedev
The prefrontal cortex is believed to be responsible for execution of deceptive behavior and its involvement is associated with greater cognitive efforts. It is also generally assumed that deception is associated with the inhibition of default honest actions. However, the precise neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. The present study was aimed to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to reveal the underlying functional integration within the prefrontal cortex during the task which requires that subjects to deliberately mislead an opponent through the sequential execution of deceptive and honest claims...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901576/theory-of-mind-in-spina-bifida-relationship-with-intellectual-and-executive-functioning
#8
Jan Stubberud
This article investigates emotion recognition ability, a central aspect of Theory of Mind (ToM), in a group of individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) experiencing executive function deficits, and examine associations between emotion recognition, and intellectual and executive functioning. A total of 38 adult subjects with SBM were included in this study, participating in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of a cognitive rehabilitation intervention for executive dysfunction. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) was used as a measure of emotion recognition, and neuropsychological tests and questionnaires were utilized as executive function measures...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888359/patients-with-psychosis-struggle-with-scalar-implicatures
#9
Martien Wampers, Sofie Schrauwen, Marc De Hert, Leen Gielen, Walter Schaeken
Pragmatic language difficulties in people with psychosis have been demonstrated repeatedly but one of the most studied types of pragmatic language, i.e. scalar implicatures (SIs), has not yet been examined in this population. SIs are a special kind of pragmatic inferences, based on linguistic expressions like some, or, must. Such expressions are part of a scale of informativeness organized by informativity (e.g. some/many/all). Although semantically the less informative expressions imply the more informative ones, pragmatically people generally infer that the use of a less informative expression implies that the more informative option is not applicable...
September 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887491/the-aging-of-the-social-mind-differential-effects-on-components-of-social-understanding
#10
Andrea M F Reiter, Philipp Kanske, Ben Eppinger, Shu-Chen Li
Research in younger adults dissociates cognitive from affective facets of social information processing, rather than promoting a monolithic view of social intelligence. An influential theory on adult development suggests differential effects of aging on cognitive and affective functions. However, this dissociation has not been directly tested in the social domain. Employing a newly developed naturalistic paradigm that disentangles facets of the social mind within an individual, we show multi-directionality of age-related differences...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885057/plasticity-in-older-adults-theory-of-mind-performance-the-impact-of-motivation
#11
Xin Zhang, Serena Lecce, Irene Ceccato, Elena Cavallini, Linfang Zhang, Tianyong Chen
OBJECTIVE: Recently, motivation has been found to attenuate the age-related decline in Theory of Mind (ToM) performance (i.e. faux pas recognition). However, whether or not this effect could be generalized to other ToM tasks is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether and how motivation could enhance older adults' performance and reduce age differences in ToM tasks (Faux Pas vs. Animation task) that differ in familiarity. METHOD: Following a previous paradigm, 171 Chinese adults (87 younger adults and 84 older adults) were recruited, and we experimentally manipulated the level of perceived closeness between participants and the experimenter before administering the ToM tasks in order to enhance participants' motivation...
September 8, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878726/the-family-alliance-model-a-way-to-study-and-characterize-early-family-interactions
#12
Nicolas Favez, France Frascarolo, Hervé Tissot
The aim of this paper is to present the family alliance (FA) model, which is designed to conceptualize the relational dynamics in the early family. FA is defined as the coordination a family can reach when fulfilling a task, such as playing a game or having a meal. According to the model, being coordinated as a family depends on four interactive functions: participation (all members are included), organization (members assume differentiated roles), focalization (family shares a common theme of activity), affect sharing (there is empathy between members)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878717/understanding-the-self-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-asd-a-review-of-literature
#13
REVIEW
Ann X Huang, Tammy L Hughes, Lawrence R Sutton, Marissa Lawrence, Xiaohan Chen, Zhe Ji, Waganesh Zeleke
When the system of self is explored in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), it is important to measure it via both their own perceptions of the self and their understanding of others' perceptions on themselves at a multidimensional level. This paper reviews existing research in this area using a three-dimension approach. Researchers have found that impairments in the self-system are usually correlated with these individuals' social and cognitive functioning levels: high functioning individuals with ASD who have higher IQ are found to have better awareness of their limitations in social and communication domains than those with lower IQ...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877532/stereotype-knowledge-and-endorsement-in-schizophrenia
#14
Luigi Castelli, Francesca D'Alpaos, Luciana Carraro, Florencia Pavan, Giovanni Galfano, Bruno Forti
BACKGROUND: Social cognition is severely impaired in schizophrenia. Emotion processing, attributional biases, and theory of mind are often impaired, as well as the understanding of shared social knowledge. So far, little is known about stereotype knowledge and endorsement in schizophrenia. SAMPLING AND METHODS: White patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy respondents reported both their personal beliefs and the predicted beliefs of other people toward Black (study 1) and Gypsy individuals (study 2)...
September 7, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876500/on-the-integrity-of-functional-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-parkinson-s-disease-and-advanced-age-evidence-from-connectivity-based-single-subject-classification
#15
Rachel N Pläschke, Edna C Cieslik, Veronika I Müller, Felix Hoffstaedter, Anna Plachti, Deepthi P Varikuti, Mareike Goosses, Anne Latz, Svenja Caspers, Christiane Jockwitz, Susanne Moebus, Oliver Gruber, Claudia R Eickhoff, Kathrin Reetz, Julia Heller, Martin Südmeyer, Christian Mathys, Julian Caspers, Christian Grefkes, Tobias Kalenscher, Robert Langner, Simon B Eickhoff
Previous whole-brain functional connectivity studies achieved successful classifications of patients and healthy controls but only offered limited specificity as to affected brain systems. Here, we examined whether the connectivity patterns of functional systems affected in schizophrenia (SCZ), Parkinson's disease (PD), or normal aging equally translate into high classification accuracies for these conditions. We compared classification performance between pre-defined networks for each group and, for any given network, between groups...
September 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868095/a-mechanistic-account-of-wide-computationalism
#16
Luke Kersten
The assumption that psychological states and processes are computational in character pervades much of cognitive science, what many call the computational theory of mind. In addition to occupying a central place in cognitive science, the computational theory of mind has also had a second life supporting "individualism", the view that psychological states should be taxonomized so as to supervene only on the intrinsic, physical properties of individuals. One response to individualism has been to raise the prospect of "wide computational systems", in which some computational units are instantiated outside the individual...
2017: Review of Philosophy and Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858772/the-influence-of-reputational-concerns-on-children-s-prosociality
#17
REVIEW
Jan M Engelmann, Diotima J Rapp
While it is well known that reputational concerns promote prosociality in adults, their ontogenetic origins remain poorly understood. Here we review evidence suggesting that the first prosocial acts of young children are not aimed at gaining reputational credit. However, at approximately five years of age, children come to be concerned about their reputations, and their prosocial behaviors show the signature of self-promotional strategies: increased prosociality in public compared to private settings. In middle childhood, at around eight years of age, children acquire further abilities to control the image they project and start to reason explicitly about their reputation...
August 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856760/selective-social-learning-in-infancy-looking-for-mechanisms
#18
Cristina Crivello, Sara Phillips, Diane Poulin-Dubois
Although there is mounting evidence that selective social learning begins in infancy, the psychological mechanisms underlying this ability are currently a controversial issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether theory of mind abilities and statistical learning skills are related to infants' selective social learning. Seventy-seven 18-month-olds were first exposed to a reliable or an unreliable speaker and then completed a word learning task, two theory of mind tasks, and a statistical learning task...
August 30, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855125/theory-of-mind-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-neuropsychological-and-mri-study
#19
Moussa A Chalah, Paul Kauv, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Jérôme Hodel, Alain Créange, Samar S Ayache
OBJECTIVES: Social cognition stands among the most frequently affected yet the least studied cognitive domains in multiple sclerosis (MS). Theory of mind (ToM) is a social cognitive facet that implies the one's ability to predict others' mental states. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between ToM and neuropsychological and neuroimaging data. METHODS: Thirty-eight consecutive MS patients completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RMET)...
August 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845862/-the-neural-bases-of-social-cognition-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-review
#20
Filippo Turchi, Alessandro Cuomo, Giovanni Amodeo, Ettore Favaretto, Stefania Righini, Eugenia Mellina, Carmelo La Mela, Andrea Fagiolini
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a significant impairment of social and interpersonal functioning. Several neuroimaging studies have evaluated social cognition, i.e. how people with MDD process, store and analyze information about other people and social situations. METHODS: We conducted a focused review and selected manuscript published until August 2016 indexed on PubMed and PsycINFO, searching for the following keywords: "major depressive disorder", "major depression", "unipolar depression", "clinical depression", "fMRI", "emotion comprehension", "emotion perception", "affect comprehension", "affect perception", "facial expression", "prosody", "theory of mind", "mentalizing", "empathy"...
July 2017: Rivista di Psichiatria
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