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"Theory of Mind"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211586/social-cognition-and-emotional-functioning-in-patients-with-binge-eating-disorder
#1
Matteo Aloi, Marianna Rania, Mariarita Caroleo, Pasquale De Fazio, Cristina Segura-García
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the theory of mind ability in a sample of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and to explore the correlations between emotional and clinical assessments. METHODS: Overall, 20 non-BED, 16 under-threshold BED and 22 BED obese patients completed a battery of tests assessing social cognition and eating disorder psychopathology. RESULTS: Binge eating disorder, non-BED and under-threshold-BED obese patients showed similar ability to recognise others' emotions, but BED obese patients exhibited a deficit in recognising their own emotions as demonstrated by more impaired levels of alexithymia and interoceptive awareness and were more depressed...
February 17, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205609/association-of-fronto-temporal-function-with-cognitive-ability-in-schizophrenia
#2
Shenghong Pu, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Masashi Itakura, Masaaki Iwata, Izumi Nagata, Koichi Kaneko
Deficits in neuropsychological performance are common in schizophrenia, but their relationship with the fronto-temporal functional abnormalities associated with this condition remains unclear. We explored the relationship between neuropsychological performance as measured using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire theory of mind (ToM) subscale and fronto-temporal function in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs), using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199713/neural-mechanisms-underlying-affective-theory-of-mind-in-violent-antisocial-personality-disorder-and-or-schizophrenia
#3
Boris Schiffer, Christina Pawliczek, Bernhard W Müller, Jens Wiltfang, Martin Brüne, Michael Forsting, Elke R Gizewski, Norbert Leygraf, Sheilagh Hodgins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194120/sincere-deceitful-and-ironic-communicative-acts-and-the-role-of-the-theory-of-mind-in-childhood
#4
Francesca M Bosco, Ilaria Gabbatore
The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship among age, first- and second-order Theory of Mind and the increasing ability of children to understand and produce different kinds of communicative acts - sincere, ironic, and deceitful communicative acts - expressed through linguistic and extralinguistic expressive means. To communicate means to modify an interlocutor's mental states (Grice, 1989), and pragmatics studies the inferential processes that are necessary to fill the gap, which often exists in human communication, between the literal meaning of a speaker's utterance and what the speaker intends to communicate to the interlocutor...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189035/current-evidence-for-automatic-theory-of-mind-processing-in-adults
#5
Dana Schneider, Virginia P Slaughter, Paul E Dux
Theory of Mind (ToM) is thought to play a key role in social information processing as it refers to the ability of individuals to represent the mental states of others (e.g., intentions, desires, beliefs). A provocative hypothesis has been put forward which espouses the existence of two ToM systems: one that is implicit and involves the automatic analysis of the belief states of others and another that is not automatic and is involved in explicitly reasoning about others' mental states. Recently, Phillips et al...
February 8, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185043/exploring-the-cognitive-foundations-of-the-shared-attention-mechanism-evidence-for-a-relationship-between-self-categorization-and-shared-attention-across-the-autism-spectrum
#6
Daniel P Skorich, Tahlia B Gash, Katie L Stalker, Lidan Zheng, S Alexander Haslam
The social difficulties of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are typically explained as a disruption in the Shared Attention Mechanism (SAM) sub-component of the theory of mind (ToM) system. In the current paper, we explore the hypothesis that SAM's capacity to construct the self-other-object relations necessary for shared-attention arises from a self-categorization process, which is weaker among those with more autistic-like traits. We present participants with self-categorization and shared-attention tasks, and measure their autism-spectrum quotient (AQ)...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184209/theory-of-mind-is-impaired-in-mild-to-moderate-huntington-s-disease-independently-from-global-cognitive-functioning
#7
Giovanna Lagravinese, Laura Avanzino, Alessia Raffo De Ferrari, Roberta Marchese, Carlo Serrati, Paola Mandich, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Elisa Pelosin
Affective "Theory of Mind" (ToM) is the specific ability to represent own and others' emotional states and feelings. Previous studies examined affective ToM ability in patients with Huntington's disease (HD), using the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes test" (RMET). Results were consistent in showing difficulties in inferring complex mental states from photographs of people even in the early stage of HD. However, there has been no agreement as to whether or not cognitive impairments in HD population might have contributed to poor performance on the RMET test...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181256/psychological-processes-in-young-bullies-versus-bully-victims
#8
Anouk van Dijk, Astrid M G Poorthuis, Tina Malti
Some children who bully others are also victimized themselves ("bully-victims") whereas others are not victimized themselves ("bullies"). These subgroups have been shown to differ in their social functioning as early as in kindergarten. What is less clear are the motives that underlie the bullying behavior of young bullies and bully-victims. The present study examined whether bullies have proactive motives for aggression and anticipate to feel happy after victimizing others, whereas bully-victims have reactive motives for aggression, poor theory of mind skills, and attribute hostile intent to others...
February 8, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166848/randomized-control-trial-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-metacognitive-training-compared-with-a-psycho-educational-group-in-people-with-a-recent-onset-psychosis
#9
S Ochoa, R López-Carrilero, M L Barrigón, E Pousa, A Barajas, E Lorente-Rovira, F González-Higueras, E Grasa, I Ruiz-Delgado, J Cid, I Birulés, I Esteban-Pinos, R Casañas, A Luengo, P Torres-Hernández, I Corripio, M Montes-Gámez, M Beltran, A De Apraiz, L Domínguez-Sánchez, E Sánchez, B Llacer, T Pélaez, J L Bogas, S Moritz
BACKGROUND: Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome. METHOD: A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain...
February 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165861/-i-feel-your-disgust-and-relief-can-the-action-understanding-system-mirror-neuron-system-be-recruited-to-induce-disgust-and-relief-from-contamination-vicariously-in-individuals-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-symptoms
#10
Baland Jalal, Vilayanur S Ramachandran
Research has shown that brain regions mediating disgust (e.g., the insula) become activated when viewing others' disgust, a response mediated, perhaps by the mirror neuron system or the Theory of Mind module. In a novel behavioral experiment, we explore vicarious disgust and relief, in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Participants (N = 10) provided disgust ratings to self-contamination or watching the contamination of an experimenter; and to the experimenter washing his own hands after the subjects had been contaminated...
February 6, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161678/communicative-pragmatic-disorders-in-traumatic-brain-injury-the-role-of-theory-of-mind-and-executive-functions
#11
Francesca M Bosco, Alberto Parola, Katiuscia Sacco, Marina Zettin, Romina Angeleri
Previous research has shown that communicative-pragmatic ability, as well as executive functions (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM), may be impaired in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the role of such cognitive deficits in explaining communicative-pragmatic difficulty in TBI has still not been fully investigated. The study examined the relationship between EF (working memory, planning and flexibility) and ToM and communicative-pragmatic impairment in patients with TBI. 30 individuals with TBI and 30 healthy controls were assessed using the Assessment Battery of Communication (ABaCo), and a set of cognitive, EF and ToM, tasks...
February 2, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160284/does-parental-mind-mindedness-account-for-cross-cultural-differences-in-preschoolers-theory-of-mind
#12
Claire Hughes, Rory T Devine, Zhenlin Wang
This study of 241 parent-child dyads from the United Kingdom (N = 120, Mage  = 3.92, SD = 0.53) and Hong Kong (N = 121, Mage  = 3.99, SD = 0.50) breaks new ground by adopting a cross-cultural approach to investigate children's theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. Relative to the Hong Kong sample, U.K. children showed superior theory-of-mind performance and U.K. parents showed greater levels of mind-mindedness. Within both cultures parental mind-mindedness was correlated with theory of mind...
February 3, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152399/the-positive-link-between-executive-function-and-lifetime-cannabis-use-in-schizophrenia-is-not-explained-by-current-levels-of-superior-social-cognition
#13
Siri Helle, Else-Marie Løberg, Rolf Gjestad, Ashley M Schnakenberg Martin, Paul H Lysaker
There has been a growing link between a history of cannabis use and neurocognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia. Fewer neurocognitive deficits may be a marker of the superior social cognition needed to obtain illicit substances, or cannabis use may indicate a distinct path to schizophrenia with less neurocognitive vulnerability. This study sought to determine whether the relationship of cannabis use and executive function exists independently of social cognition. Eighty-seven patients with schizophrenia were administered measures of social cognition and executive function...
January 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146562/hip-hop-dance-experience-linked-to-sociocognitive-ability
#14
Justin W Bonny, Jenna C Lindberg, Marc C Pacampara
Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games) and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance) activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM) disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143627/neurocognitive-functions-in-3-to-15-year-old-children-an-international-comparison
#15
Johanna Rosenqvist, Pekka Lahti-Nuuttila, Cosimo Urgesi, James Holdnack, Sally L Kemp, Marja Laasonen
OBJECTIVES: Performance on neurocognitive tasks develops with age, but it is still unknown whether this performance differs between children from different cultures. We compared cross-sectionally the development of neurocognitive functions in 3- to 15-year-old children from three countries: Finland, Italy, and the United States (N=2745). METHODS: Language, face memory, emotion recognition, theory of mind, and visuospatial processing subtests from the NEPSY-II standardizations in Finland, Italy, and the United States were used to evaluate if children and adolescents from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds differ in performance on these measures...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124452/an-uncontrolled-trial-of-multi-component-care-for-first-episode-psychosis-effects-on-social-cognition
#16
Nicholas J K Breitborde, Aubrey M Moe, Cindy Woolverton, Patricia Harrison-Monroe, Emily K Bell
Growing evidence suggests that specialized, multi-component treatment programmes produce improvements in numerous outcomes among individuals with first-episode psychosis. However, these programmes often lack interventions specifically designed to address deficits in social cognition. This raises questions about the effectiveness of such programmes in addressing deficits in social cognition that accompany psychotic disorders. We investigated the effect of participation in a multi-component treatment programme on social cognition among 71 individuals with first-episode psychosis...
January 25, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120263/investigation-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-autistic-traits-in-an-adolescent-sample-with-anorexia-nervosa
#17
Valentina Postorino, Lawrence Scahill, Lavinia De Peppo, Laura Maria Fatta, Valeria Zanna, Maria Chiara Castiglioni, Scott Gillespie, Stefano Vicari, Luigi Mazzone
This study aimed to examine the presence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a sample of female adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) during the acute phase of illness. We also compare the level of autistic traits, social perception skills and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in four groups: AN, ASD, and two gender- and age-matched control groups. Of the 30 AN participants, only three scored above the conventional ADOS-2 threshold for ASD. The AN participants were similar to their controls on autistic trait measures, and to the ASD group on obsessive-compulsive measures, and on theory of mind ability and affect recognition measures...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119508/hierarchical-prediction-errors-in-midbrain-and-septum-during-social-learning
#18
Andreea O Diaconescu, Christoph Mathys, Lilian A E Weber, Lars Kasper, Jan Mauer, Klaas E Stephan
Social learning is fundamental to human interactions, yet its computational and physiological mechanisms are not well understood. One prominent open question concerns the role of neuromodulatory transmitters. We combined fMRI, computational modelling, and genetics to address this question in two separate samples (N=35, N=47). Participants played a game requiring inference on an advisor's intentions whose motivation to help or mislead changed over time. Our analyses suggest that hierarchically structured belief updates about current advice validity and the adviser's trustworthiness, respectively, depend on different neuromodulatory systems...
January 24, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118301/cognition-in-epilepsy-current-clinical-issues-of-interest
#19
Juri-Alexander Witt, Christoph Helmstaedter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update and summary of recent neuropsychological findings in epilepsy focusing on three major clinical topics among the many developments in the field. We will critically outline the current state with regard to cognition in new-onset epilepsies, social cognition in epilepsy, and the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery and the cognitive outcomes of superselective surgical procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: Current studies indicate that neuropsychological impairments are prevalent already at the onset of epilepsy and even before, social cognition (i...
January 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117378/gender-differences-in-cognitive-theory-of-mind-revealed-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#20
Mauro Adenzato, Michela Brambilla, Rosa Manenti, Lucia De Lucia, Luigi Trojano, Sara Garofalo, Ivan Enrici, Maria Cotelli
Gender differences in social cognition are a long discussed issue, in particular those concerning Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e., the ability to explain and predict other people's mental states. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to test the hypothesis that anodal tDCS over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) selectively enhances cognitive ToM performance in females. In the first experiment we administered to sixteen females and sixteen males a cognitive ToM task during anodal or placebo tDCS over the mPFC...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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