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"Theory of Mind"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427031/executive-function-depletion-in-children-and-its-impact-on-theory-of-mind
#1
Lindsey J Powell, Susan Carey
The current studies provide an experimental, rather than correlational, method for testing hypotheses about the role of executive function (EF) in conceptual development. Previous research has established that adults' tendency to deploy EF can be temporarily diminished by use. Exercising self-control in one context decreases adults' performance on other EF demanding tasks immediately thereafter. Using two different depletion methods, Experiments 1 and 3 extend this finding to preschool-aged children. Experiments 2 and 4 make use of these EF depletion methods to elucidate the role of EF in children's theory of mind reasoning...
April 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425022/social-motor-synchronization-insights-for-understanding-social-behavior-in-autism
#2
Paula Fitzpatrick, Veronica Romero, Joseph L Amaral, Amie Duncan, Holly Barnard, Michael J Richardson, R C Schmidt
Impairments in social interaction and communication are critical features of ASD but the underlying processes are poorly understood. An under-explored area is the social motor synchronization that happens when we coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we explored the relationships between dynamical measures of social motor synchronization and assessments of ASD traits. We found (a) spontaneous social motor synchronization was associated with responding to joint attention, cooperation, and theory of mind while intentional social motor synchronization was associated with initiating joint attention and theory of mind; and (b) social motor synchronization was associated with ASD severity but not fully explained by motor problems...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424389/-brodmann-areas-8-and-9-including-the-frontal-eye-field
#3
Masataka Watanabe
Based on cytoarchitectonic analyses, Brodmann assigned numbers 8 and 9 to certain areas of the dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans and monkeys. Petrides and Pandya re-analyzed the cytoarchitectures of the human and monkey PFCs, and proposed slightly different brain maps for both species. They assigned numbers 8, 9 and 9/46 to the areas that were originally named areas 8 and 9. Areas 8 and 9 have both lateral and medial regions respectively. The lateral area 8 is important for conditional discrimination learning...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421871/exploring-predictors-of-work-competence-in-schizophrenia-the-role-of-theory-of-mind
#4
Margherita Bechi, Marco Spangaro, Alessandro Pigoni, Elena Ripamonti, Mariachiara Buonocore, Federica Cocchi, Laura Bianchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Antonella Rita Mastromatteo, Roberto Cavallaro, Marta Bosia
In schizophrenia employment rate is dramatically low, also among patients receiving job support interventions. Recent studies showed a direct relationship between neurocognitive deficits and work functioning, as well as proving the benefits of combined neurocognitive and work interventions. Current evidence also supports a role of Theory of Mind (ToM), on work functioning. However, the effect of integrated rehabilitation programmes including a social cognitive training on job outcome is still less explored...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412510/empathy-networks-in-the-parental-brain-and-their-long-term-effects-on-children-s-stress-reactivity-and-behavior-adaptation
#5
Eyal Abraham, Gal Raz, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
Parental empathy is a key component of sensitive parenting that supports children's social adaptation throughout life. Consistent with a two dissociable network perspective on empathy, we measured within- and between-network integrity of two empathy-related networks in the parental brain as predictors of children's social outcomes across the first six years of life. We focused on two empathy networks; embodied simulation, which supports parents' capacity to resonate with infant state and emotions and implicates cingulo-insulary structures, and mentalizing, which underpins parents' theory-of-mind and mental attributions via prefrontal-temporo-parietal circuit...
April 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407556/functional-network-based-statistics-in-depression-theory-of-mind-subnetwork-and-importance-of-parietal-region
#6
Chien-Han Lai, Yu-Te Wu, Yuh-Ming Hou
OBJECTIVE: The functional network analysis of whole brain is an emerging field for research in depression. We initiated this study to investigate which subnetwork is significantly altered within the functional connectome in major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: The study enrolled 52 first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD and 40 controls for functional network analysis. All participants received the resting-state functional imaging using a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance scanner...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407202/altered-white-matter-integrity-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-an-iq-100-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#7
K Nickel, L Tebartz van Elst, E Perlov, D Endres, G T Müller, A Riedel, T Fangmeier, S Maier
OBJECTIVE: White matter (WM) alterations have been reported in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, impaired connectivity of limbic structures may be related to social deficits. Heterogeneous findings could be explained in terms of differences in sample characteristics and methodology. In this context, non-syndromic forms might differ substantially in WM structure from secondary ASD forms. METHOD: In an attempt to recruit a homogeneous study sample, we included adults with high-functioning ASD and an IQ > 100 to decrease the influence of syndromic forms being often associated with cognitive deficits...
April 13, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406663/neuropsychological-correlates-of-theory-of-mind-deficits-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Simona Raimo, Luigi Trojano, Simona Pappacena, Raffaella Alaia, Daniele Spitaleri, Dario Grossi, Gabriella Santangelo
BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand and interpret another person's beliefs, intentions (cognitive ToM) and emotions (affective ToM). OBJECTIVE: To explore affective and cognitive ToM and their neuropsychological correlates in patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forty MS patients and 40 matched control individuals underwent tasks assessing cognitive (the ToM Pictures Sequencing Task and the Advanced Test of ToM) and affective ToM (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task and the Emotion Attribution Task), in both verbal and nonverbal modality, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and questionnaires for behavioral disorders...
April 13, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402046/social-cognition-and-the-course-of-social-functioning-in-first-episode-psychosis
#9
Cindy B Woolverton, Emily K Bell, Aubrey M Moe, Patricia Harrison-Monroe, Nicholas J K Breitborde
BACKGROUND: Social functioning deficits greatly affect individuals with psychotic disorders resulting in decreased ability to maintain relationships, jobs and pursuit of educational goals. Deficits in social cognition have been hypothesized to be an important contributor to these deficits in social functioning. In particular, 5 domains of social cognition have been suggested to be relevant in the study of psychotic disorders: (1) attributional style, (2) emotion recognition, (3) social knowledge, (4) social perception and (5) theory of mind...
April 12, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398578/social-anxiety-disorder-exhibit-impaired-networks-involved-in-self-and-theory-of-mind-processing
#10
Qian Cui, Eric J Vanman, Zhiliang Long, Yajing Pang, Yuyan Chen, Yifeng Wang, Qiyong Gong, Wei Zhang, Heng Chen, Xujun Duan, Huafu Chen
Most previous studies regarding social anxiety disorder (SAD) have focused on the role of emotional dysfunction, while impairments in self- and theory of mind (ToM)-processing have been relatively neglected. The present study utilised functional connectivity density (FCD), resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), and discriminant analyses to investigate impairments in self- and ToM-related networks in patients with SAD. Patients with SAD exhibited decreased long-range FCD in the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and decreased short-range FCD in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG)-key nodes involved in self- and ToM-processing, respectively...
April 7, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393745/correlation-of-reduced-social-communicational-and-interactional-skills-with-regional-grey-matter-volumes-in-schizophrenia-patients
#11
Miho Ota, Junko Matsuo, Noriko Sato, Toshiya Teraishi, Hiroaki Hori, Kotaro Hattori, Yoko Kamio, Hiroshi Kunugi
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have detected similarities between autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. We investigated structural abnormalities associated with autistic-like traits in patients with schizophrenia by voxel-based morphometry. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects were evaluated by the adult version of the social responsiveness scale (SRS-A), which is sensitive to autistic traits and symptoms even under subthreshold conditions, and magnetic resonance imaging...
April 10, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392697/comparing-the-ability-of-cognitive-and-affective-theory-of-mind-in-adolescent-onset-schizophrenia
#12
Dandan Li, Xiaosi Li, Fengqiong Yu, Xingui Chen, Long Zhang, Dan Li, Qiang Wei, Qing Zhang, Chunyan Zhu, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: Evidence in the literature suggests that there is an impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as one's ability to understand others' wishes, beliefs, intentions, and other psychological states and thereby to judge others' behavior, as an essential component of social cognition. However, there have been limited studies on social cognition, especially ToM in adolescent onset schizophrenia (AOS). The current study aims to investigate ToM abilities in adolescent schizophrenia according to various ToM subcomponents (cognitive ToM and affective ToM) and various ToM orders (first order and second order)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391453/moderating-effects-of-parental-characteristics-on-the-effectiveness-of-a-theory-of-mind-training-for-children-with-autism-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Danielle M J de Veld, Patricia Howlin, Elske Hoddenbach, Fleur Mulder, Imke Wolf, Hans M Koot, Ramón Lindauer, Sander Begeer
This RCT investigated whether the effect of a Theory of Mind (ToM) intervention for children with ASD was moderated by parental education level and employment, family structure, and parental ASD. Children with autism aged 8-13 years (n = 136) were randomized over a waitlist control or treatment condition. At posttest, children in the treatment condition had more ToM knowledge, showed fewer autistic features, and more ToM-related behavior than children in the control condition. Children who had one or two parents with at least a college degree, and children with parents not diagnosed with/suspected of having ASD themselves benefitted from the training...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390619/theory-of-mind-and-language-development-in-japanese-children-with-hearing-loss
#14
Hiroshi Fujino, Kunihiro Fukushima, Akie Fujiyoshi
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the development of theory of mind (ToM) in Japanese children with hearing loss (HL) and its relationship with language abilities using the data of a large sample size. METHODS: Participants were 369 children with HL, ranging from 4 to 12 years of age. The mean hearing level of the better ear was 100.7 dB. A "change in location"-type false belief task similar to the "Sally-Anne test" was given to the participants. RESULTS: The pass rates for the false belief task were in the 20% range for 4 to 6-year-olds, 35...
May 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386118/social-cognition-in-aggressive-offenders-impaired-empathy-but-intact-theory-of-mind
#15
Korina Winter, Stephanie Spengler, Felix Bermpohl, Tania Singer, Philipp Kanske
Aggressive, violent behaviour is a major burden and challenge for society. It has been linked to deficits in social understanding, but the evidence is inconsistent and the specifics of such deficits are unclear. Here, we investigated affective (empathy) and cognitive (Theory of Mind) routes to understanding other people in aggressive individuals. Twenty-nine men with a history of legally relevant aggressive behaviour (i.e. serious assault) and 32 control participants were tested using a social video task (EmpaToM) that differentiates empathy and Theory of Mind and completed questionnaires on aggression and alexithymia...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385110/theory-of-mind-plasticity-in-aging-the-role-of-baseline-verbal-knowledge-and-executive-functions
#16
Serena Lecce, Irene Ceccato, Alessia Rosi, Federica Bianco, Sara Bottiroli, Elena Cavallini
Theory of Mind (ToM) refers to the ability to attribute mental states to the self and others in order to explain and predict social behaviour. Meta-analytic results have shown a decline in ToM abilities in healthy older adults. Recent research has also highlighted the possibility of enhancing older adults' ToM performance through group conversations focused on mental states. Our aim was to determine whether the extent to which older people benefited from a ToM training was predicted by performance on a battery of executive functioning tasks, on baselines in ToM tasks, on verbal knowledge...
April 7, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384152/social-cognition-in-wilson-s-disease-a-new-phenotype
#17
Elodie Peyroux, Nelly Santaella, Emmanuel Broussolle, Caroline Rigard, Emilie Favre, Anne-Sophie Brunet, Muriel Bost, Alain Lachaux, Caroline Demily
Studies focusing on neuropsychological impairments in Wilson's disease (WD) have highlighted that patients showing neurological signs present significant deficits in a wide range of cognitive domains. Attentional and executive impairments have also been described in people with hepatic WD. However, social cognition abilities, i.e. cognitive processes required to perceive the emotions, intentions and dispositions of other people, have not been clearly investigated in WD. In this study we examined the social cognitive functioning in 19 patients with WD depending on their clinical status-Neurological versus Non-Neurological ("hepatic") forms-compared to 20 healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382935/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-forgiving-unintentional-harms
#18
Indrajeet Patil, Marta Calò, Federico Fornasier, Liane Young, Giorgia Silani
Mature moral judgments rely on the consideration of a perpetrator's mental state as well as harmfulness of the outcomes produced. Prior work has focused primarily on the functional correlates of how intent information is neurally represented for moral judgments, but few studies have investigated whether individual differences in neuroanatomy can also explain variation in moral judgments. In the current study, we conducted voxel-based morphometry analyses to address this question. We found that local grey matter volume in the left anterior superior temporal sulcus, a region in the functionally defined theory of mind or mentalizing network, was associated with the degree to which participants relied on information about innocent intentions to forgive accidental harms...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376910/the-preschool-activity-technology-health-adiposity-behaviour-and-cognition-path-abc-cohort-study-rationale-and-design
#19
Dylan P Cliff, Jade McNeill, Stewart Vella, Steven J Howard, Megan A Kelly, Douglas J Angus, Ian M Wright, Rute Santos, Marijka Batterham, Edward Melhuish, Anthony D Okely, Marc de Rosnay
BACKGROUND: Prevalence estimates internationally suggest that many preschool-aged children (3-5 years) are insufficiently physically active and engage in high levels of screen-based entertainment. Early childhood is the developmental period for which we know the least about the effects of physical activity on development and health. Likewise, rapid technological advancements in mobile electronic media have made screen-based forms of entertainment for young children ubiquitous, and research demonstrating the impacts on cognition, psychosocial well-being, and health has lagged behind the rate of adoption of these technologies...
April 4, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373714/strategic-motives-drive-proposers-to-offer-fairly-in-ultimatum-games-an-fmri-study
#20
Yin-Hua Chen, Ying-Chun Chen, Wen-Jui Kuo, Kamhon Kan, C C Yang, Nai-Shing Yen
The hypothesis of strategic motives postulates that offering fairly in the Ultimatum Game (UG) is to avoid rejection and receive money. In this fMRI study, we used a modified UG to elucidate how proposers reached decisions of offering fairly and to what extent they considered offering selfishly with different stakes. We had proposers choose between a fair and a selfish offer with different degrees of selfishness and stake sizes. Proposers were less likely and spent more time choosing the fair offer over a slightly-selfish offer than a very selfish offer independent of stakes...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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