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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211496/the-use-of-bright-and-dark-types-of-humour-is-rooted-in-the-brain
#1
Ilona Papousek, Willibald Ruch, Christian Rominger, Elisabeth Kindermann, Katharina Scheidl, Günter Schulter, Andreas Fink, Elisabeth M Weiss
The ways in which humour can be used are related to the manifold interpersonal functions humour can serve, some of which are positive, and some negative. In the present study, phasic changes in the functional coupling of prefrontal and posterior cortex (EEG coherence) during other people's auditory displays of happy and sad mood were recorded to predict people's typical use of humour in social interactions. Greater use of benevolent humour, the intentions of which are in keeping with the characteristics of "laughing-with" humour, was associated with greater decreases of prefrontal-posterior coupling during the processing of happy laughter...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209737/gaba-cells-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-promote-cataplexy
#2
Matthew B Snow, Jimmy J Fraigne, Gabrielle Thibault-Messier, Victoria L Chuen, Aren Thomasian, Richard L Horner, John Peever
Cataplexy is a hallmark of narcolepsy characterized by the sudden uncontrollable onset of muscle weakness or paralysis during wakefulness. It can occur spontaneously, but is typically triggered by positive emotions such as laughter. Although cataplexy was identified over 130 years ago, its neural mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that a newly identified GABA circuit within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) promotes cataplexy. We used behavioral, electrophysiological, immunohistochemical, and chemogenetic strategies to selectively target and manipulate CeA activity in narcoleptic (orexin(-/-) ) mice to determine its functional role in controlling cataplexy...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203263/perception-of-emotional-valence-in-horse-whinnies
#3
Elodie F Briefer, Roi Mandel, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann
BACKGROUND: Non-human animals often produce different types of vocalisations in negative and positive contexts (i.e. different valence), similar to humans, in which crying is associated with negative emotions and laughter is associated with positive ones. However, some types of vocalisations (e.g. contact calls, human speech) can be produced in both negative and positive contexts, and changes in valence are only accompanied by slight structural differences. Although such acoustically graded signals associated with opposite valence have been highlighted in some species, it is not known if conspecifics discriminate them, and if contagion of emotional valence occurs as a result...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178759/association-between-poor-psychosocial-conditions-and-diabetic-nephropathy-in-japanese-type-2-diabetes-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Hiroyo Ninomiya, Naoto Katakami, Taka-Aki Matsuoka, Mitsuyoshi Takahara, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Norikazu Maeda, Michio Ohtsuki, Akihisa Imagawa, Hiroyasu Iso, Tetsuya Ohira, Iichiro Shimomura
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: It is suggested that positive psychosocial condition has a good effect on health and glycemic control. However, there has been no research to evaluate the association between positive psychosocial factors and diabetic nephropathy (DN). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between psychosocial factors and DN in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To assess psychosocial condition, 6 indicators (Happiness score, LOT-R score as an indicator of dispositional optimism, Laughter frequency, Self-awareness of stress, Social network, and Social support) were assessed by self-administered questionnaire, and associations between these psychosocial indicators and the presence of DN were examined...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141710/the-curse-of-the-dolphins-cognitive-decline-and-psychosis
#5
Randall Phelps, Anne Tsai, Arlene Hagen, Joseph Pinter, Raegan Smith, Martin T Stein
Isela is an 11-year-old Mexican-American girl with mild intellectual disability. During a vacation with her family, she went swimming with dolphins. A few days later, Isela awoke at night with laughing spells; during the day, she was pacing, aggressive, and had a decline in self-care and communication skills. Her parents attributed the symptoms to the dolphins. She was evaluated by a pediatric neurologist. The sleep-deprived electroencephalogram, brain magnetic resonance imaging, lumbar puncture, and thyroid function tests were normal...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105643/peer-groups-as-a-context-for-school-misconduct-the-moderating-role-of-group-interactional-style
#6
Wendy Ellis, Lynne Zarbatany, Xinyin Chen, Megan Kinal, Lisa Boyko
Peer group interactional style was examined as a moderator of the relation between peer group school misconduct and group members' school misconduct. Participants were 705 students (Mage  = 11.59 years, SD = 1.37) in 148 peer groups. Children reported on their school misconduct in fall and spring. In the winter, group members were observed in a limited-resource task and a group conversation task, and negative and positive group interactional styles were assessed. Multilevel modeling indicated that membership in groups that were higher on school misconduct predicted greater school misconduct only when the groups were high on negative or low on positive interactional style...
January 20, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095313/prefrontal-mediation-of-emotion-regulation-in-social-anxiety-disorder-during-laughter-perception
#7
Benjamin Kreifelts, Carolin Brück, Thomas Ethofer, Jan Ritter, Lena Weigel, Michael Erb, Dirk Wildgruber
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negatively biased perception of social cues and deficits in emotion regulation. While negatively biased perception is thought to maintain social anxiety, emotion regulation represents an ability necessary to overcome both biased perception and social anxiety. Here, we used laughter as a social threat in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify cerebral mediators linking SAD with attention and interpretation biases and their modification through cognitive emotion regulation in the form of reappraisal...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990716/quantitative-measurement-of-communication-ability-in-children-with-angelman-syndrome
#8
Joseph C Grieco, Ruth H Bahr, Mike R Schoenberg, Laura Conover, Lauren N Mackie, Edwin J Weeber
BACKGROUND: Angelman syndrome is a rare disorder in which most individuals do not develop speech. Testing of communication ability using traditional neuropsychological measures reveals a performance level at or near the floor of the instrument resulting in an inability to detect change when experimental therapeutics are applied. METHODS: Nine individuals, with molecularly confirmed AS, ranging in age from 34 to 126 months, and a single healthy control child (age 16 months) were audio and video-recorded while interacting with a licensed speech-language pathologist in an attempt to elicit vocalization and non-verbal communication...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987363/escitalopram-in-disorder-of-laughter-and-crying-with-predominant-laughter-incontinence
#9
Debadatta Mohapatra, Biswa Ranjan Mishra, Rituparna Maiti, Sudipta Das
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982486/the-effect-of-laughter-therapy-on-the-quality-of-life-of-nursing-home-residents
#10
Nilgun Kuru, Gulumser Kublay
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of Laughter therapy on the quality of life of nursing home residents. BACKGROUND: By improving the quality of life of residents living in nursing homes and allowing them to have a healthier existence, their lives can be extended. Therefore, interventions impacting the quality of life of older adults are of critical importance. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental design. METHOD: The study was conducted between 2 March - 25 May 2015...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974522/automatic-facial-mimicry-in-response-to-dynamic-emotional-stimuli-in-five-month-old-infants
#11
Tomoko Isomura, Tamami Nakano
Human adults automatically mimic others' emotional expressions, which is believed to contribute to sharing emotions with others. Although this behaviour appears fundamental to social reciprocity, little is known about its developmental process. Therefore, we examined whether infants show automatic facial mimicry in response to others' emotional expressions. Facial electromyographic activity over the corrugator supercilii (brow) and zygomaticus major (cheek) of four- to five-month-old infants was measured while they viewed dynamic clips presenting audiovisual, visual and auditory emotions...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966411/-the-effect-of-christmas-joy-on-the-mood-among-medical-doctors-a-randomized-blinded-intervention-study
#12
Christine Ilkjær, Marianne B Møller, Mette H Lauridsen, Susanne Ilkjær, Vibeke E Hjortdal
INTRODUCTION: Each December Santa's elves spread Christmas joy (JN). Laughter and humour may influence health and stress level. No other study has investigated the effect of JN on the good spirit (DGH) among healthcare professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a single-centre blinded intervention study with crossover at three hospital departments. JN intervention of three days was randomized. Median ± standard deviation was given. The level of significance was p < 0...
December 12, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940151/neural-correlates-of-the-affective-properties-of-spontaneous-and-volitional-laughter-types
#13
Nadine Lavan, Georgia Rankin, Nicole Lorking, Sophie Scott, Carolyn McGettigan
Previous investigations of vocal expressions of emotion have identified acoustic and perceptual distinctions between expressions of different emotion categories, and between spontaneous and volitional (or acted) variants of a given category. Recent work on laughter has identified relationships between acoustic properties of laughs and their perceived affective properties (arousal and valence) that are similar across spontaneous and volitional types (Bryant & Aktipis, 2014; Lavan et al., 2016). In the current study, we explored the neural correlates of such relationships by measuring modulations of the BOLD response in the presence of itemwise variability in the subjective affective properties of spontaneous and volitional laughter...
December 9, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863598/the-effects-of-a-simulated-laughter-programme-on-mood-cortisol-levels-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-haemodialysis-patients
#14
Eun Hwa Heo, Sehyun Kim, Hye-Ja Park, Suk Yong Kil
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a simulated laughter programme on mood, cortisol levels, and health-related quality of life among haemodialysis patients. METHODS: Forty participants were randomly assigned to a laughter group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). Eleven participants completed the laughter programme after haemodialysis sessions and 18 control participants remained. The 4-week simulated laughter programme included weekly 60 min group sessions of simulated laughter, breathing, stretching exercises, and meditation, as well as daily 15 s individual laughter sessions administered via telephone...
November 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836715/laughter-is-the-best-medicine-the-second-city-%C3%A2-improvisation-as-an-intervention-for-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Danny Bega, Pamela Palmentera, Abby Wagner, Matt Hovde, Becca Barish, Mary J Kwasny, Tanya Simuni
BACKGROUND: Expressive therapies are increasingly incorporated into the management of Parkinson's disease (PD), although there are little objective data assessing their benefits. OBJECTIVE: Develop and study a novel community Improvisation Theater (IT) program for PD in order to improve quality of life. METHODS: A prospective, rater-blinded, modified cross-over design study of IT for PD. 22 subjects were randomized 1:1 to active-start (AS) or control-start (CS) groups, controlling for age and Hoehn and Yahr stage...
January 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833572/white-matter-structural-connectivity-underlying-human-laughter-related-traits-processing
#16
Ching-Lin Wu, Suyu Zhong, Yu-Chen Chan, Hsueh-Chih Chen, Gaolang Gong, Yong He, Ping Li
Most research into the neural mechanisms of humor has not explicitly focused on the association between emotion and humor on the brain white matter networks mediating this connection. However, this connection is especially salient in gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at), which is regarded as the presentation of humorlessness, and two related traits, gelotophilia (the enjoyment of being laughed at) and katagelasticism (the enjoyment of laughing at others). Here, we explored whether the topological properties of white matter networks can account for the individual differences in the laughter-related traits of 31 healthy adults...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797564/genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-the-development-of-positive-affect-in-infancy
#17
Elizabeth M Planalp, Carol Van Hulle, Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant, H Hill Goldsmith
We studied developmental changes in infant positive affect from 6 to 12 months of age, a time marked by increasing use of positive vocalizations, laughter, and social smiles. We estimated the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on observed and parent reported infant positive affect across development. Participants were drawn from a longitudinal twin study of infancy and toddlerhood (N = 536 twin pairs). Mothers and fathers reported on infant temperament and infants were videotaped during 2 observational tasks assessing positive affect...
October 31, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771696/angelman-syndrome-caused-by-chromosomal-rearrangements-a-case-report-of-46-xx-der-13-t-13-15-q14-1-q12-mat-15-with-an-atypical-phenotype-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Yo Niida, Hitoshi Sato, Mamoru Ozaki, Masatsune Itoh, Kanju Ikeno, Etsuko Takase
Less than 1% of the cases with Angelman syndrome (AS) are caused by chromosomal rearrangements. This category of AS is not well defined and may manifest atypical phenotypes. Here, we report a girl with AS due to der(13)t(13;15)(q14.1;q12)mat. SNP array detected the precise deletion/duplication points and the parental origin of the 15q deletion. Multicolor FISH confirmed a balanced translocation t(13;15)(q14.1;q12) in her mother. Her facial appearance showed some features of dup(13)(pter→q14). Also, she lacked the most characteristic and unique behavioral symptoms of AS, i...
2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746737/%C3%AE-9-thc-intoxication-by-cannabidiol-enriched-cannabis-extract-in-two-children-with-refractory-epilepsy-full-remission-after-switching-to-purified-cannabidiol
#19
José A S Crippa, Ana C S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Rocio Martín-Santos, Antonio W Zuardi
Animal studies and preliminary clinical trials have shown that cannabidiol (CBD)-enriched extracts may have beneficial effects for children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. However, these compounds are not yet registered as medicines by regulatory agencies. We describe the cases of two children with treatment-resistant epilepsy (Case A with left frontal dysplasia and Case B with Dravet Syndrome) with initial symptom improvement after the introduction of CBD extracts followed by seizure worsening after a short time...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725686/impaired-socio-emotional-processing-in-a-developmental-music-disorder
#20
César F Lima, Olivia Brancatisano, Amy Fancourt, Daniel Müllensiefen, Sophie K Scott, Jason D Warren, Lauren Stewart
Some individuals show a congenital deficit for music processing despite normal peripheral auditory processing, cognitive functioning, and music exposure. This condition, termed congenital amusia, is typically approached regarding its profile of musical and pitch difficulties. Here, we examine whether amusia also affects socio-emotional processing, probing auditory and visual domains. Thirteen adults with amusia and 11 controls completed two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants judged emotions in emotional speech prosody, nonverbal vocalizations (e...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
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