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Jason J Braithwaite, Anthony S David
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Laura Aymerich-Franch, Damien Petit, Gowrishankar Ganesh, Abderrahmane Kheddar
Whole-body embodiment studies have shown that synchronized multi-sensory cues can trick a healthy human mind to perceive self-location outside the bodily borders, producing an illusion that resembles an out-of-body experience (OBE). But can a healthy mind also perceive the sense of self in more than one body at the same time? To answer this question, we created a novel artificial reduplication of one's body using a humanoid robot embodiment system. We first enabled individuals to embody the humanoid robot by providing them with audio-visual feedback and control of the robot head movements and walk, and then explored the self-location and self-identification perceived by them when they observed themselves through the embodied robot...
September 27, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Klaus Kessler, Jason J Braithwaite
INTRODUCTION: Hallucinations that involve shifts in the subjectively experienced location of the self, have been termed "out-of-body experiences" (OBEs). Early psychiatric accounts cast OBEs as a specific instance of depersonalisation and derealisation disorder (DPD-DR). However, during feelings of alienation and lack of body realism in DPD-DR the self is experienced within the physical body. Deliberate forms of "disembodiment" enable humans to imagine another's visuo-spatial perspective taking (VPT), thus, if a strong relationship between deliberate and spontaneous forms of disembodiment could be revealed, then uncontrolled OBEs could be "the other side of the coin" of a uniquely human capacity...
August 10, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
J Pamment, J E Aspell
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a growing societal concern that warrants scientific investigation, especially given the ineffectiveness of many treatments. Given evidence that pain experience relies on multisensory integration, there is interest in using body ownership illusions for reducing acute pain. AIM: In the present study, we investigate whether patients' experience of chronic pain could be reduced by full body illusions (FBIs) that cause participants to dissociate from their own body...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
M Arias
All human experiences, including mystical and religious ones, are the result of brain functional activity. Thanks to the study of cases of ecstatic epilepsy with structural (MRI) and functional neuroimaging (fMRI, PET, SPECT) and neurophysiological technologies (recording and stimulation with intracranial electrodes), we now have a better knowledge of certain mental states which involve pleasant and affective symptoms and clarity of mind. These ecstatic experiences are thought to be caused by the activation of the anterior insular cortex and some neuronal networks (basically related to mirror neurons and salience) participating in introspection, social cognition, memory, and emotional processes...
June 20, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Christopher Thomas Scott, Laura DeFrancesco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
Jerome Daltrozzo, Boris Kotchoubey, Fatma Gueler, Ahmed A Karim
Previous data suggest that the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) may have a specific role in abnormal body perception (ABP), including out-of-body experience. We tested this hypothesis with inhibitory (1 Hz) and excitatory (15 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the rTPJ and a control site (CS, 5 cm posterior to the rTPJ along the lateral sulcus direction in Brodmann area 19R) in 35 healthy adults. ABP frequency was higher with 1 Hz than with 15 Hz rTMS but unaffected by the rTMS site (rTPJ/CS)...
September 2016: Brain Topography
Eelke M Bos, Jochem K H Spoor, Marion Smits, Joost W Schouten, Arnaud J P E Vincent
BACKGROUND: The out-of-body experience (OBE), during which a person feels as if he or she is spatially removed from the physical body, is a mystical phenomenon because of its association with near-death experiences. Literature implicates the cortex at the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) as the possible anatomic substrate for OBE. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a patient who had an out-of-body experience during an awake craniotomy for resection of low-grade glioma. During surgery, stimulation of subcortical white matter in the left TPJ repetitively induced OBEs, in which the patient felt as if she was floating above the operating table looking down on herself...
August 2016: World Neurosurgery
Madelaine Lawrence
The purpose of this article is to describe examples of near-death and other transpersonal experiences occurring during catastrophic events like floods, wars, bombings, and death camps. To date, researchers have limited their investigations of these transpersonal events to those occurring to seriously ill patients in hospitals, those dying from terminal illnesses, or to individuals experiencing a period of grief after the death of a loved one. Missing is awareness by first responders and emergency healthcare professionals about these transpersonal experiences and what to say to the individuals who have them...
March 2, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Amit Prasad, Ali Ghodsizad, Walter Pae, Kai Singbartl, Jacqueline Boone, M Zeriouh, Arjang Ruhparwar, M Loebe, G Sadat Hoesseini Khorrami, Michael M Koerner, Christoph Brehm
The Syncardia™ total artificial heart (TAH) is an option for patients as a bridge to transplant in those who are not candidates for left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) due to right ventricular failure. Postoperative course is highly dependent on volume status and aggressive diuresis is often necessary. One complication from aggressive diuresis is hypokalemia; however, in these patients we tolerate a lower potassium level because cardiac arrhythmias are not a concern.  However, in two separate instances non-cardiac symptoms related to severe hypokalemia occurred...
2016: Heart Surgery Forum
Nicoleta Stoicea, Gregory Versteeg, Diana Florescu, Nicholas Joseph, Juan Fiorda-Diaz, Víctor Navarrete, Sergio D Bergese
Since its discovery, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist related to phencyclidine, has been linked to multiple adverse reactions sometimes described as "out of body" and "near death experiences," including emergence phenomena, delusions, hallucinations, delirium, and confusion. Due to these effects, ketamine has been withdrawn from mainstream anesthetic use in adult patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) are utilized to monitor neural pathways during surgery, detect intraoperative stress or damage, detect and define the level of neural lesions, and define abnormalities...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Soghra Fallahi, Minoo Rajaei, Kianoosh Malekzadeh, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar
INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress is a key factor involved in male infertility, which is due to an unnatural increase in environmental free radicals. In the majority of cases, this has a negative effect on a male's ability to impregnate a female. Currently, it is believed that spermatozoa can be protected against the damages induced by oxidative stress by saturating sperm with antioxidants. The antioxidant role of phoenix dactylifera pollen is capable of collecting the reactive oxygen and neutralizing it in and out of body cells...
December 2015: Electronic Physician
Mariia Kaliuzhna, Dominique Vibert, Petr Grivaz, Olaf Blanke
Out-of-body experiences (OBEs) are illusory perceptions of one's body from an elevated disembodied perspective. Recent theories postulate a double disintegration process in the personal (visual, proprioceptive and tactile disintegration) and extrapersonal (visual and vestibular disintegration) space as the basis of OBEs. Here we describe a case which corroborates and extends this hypothesis. The patient suffered from peripheral vestibular damage and presented with OBEs and lucid dreams. Analysis of the patient's behaviour revealed a failure of visuo-vestibular integration and abnormal sensitivity to visuo-tactile conflicts that have previously been shown to experimentally induce out-of-body illusions (in healthy subjects)...
2015: Multisensory Research
Silvia Serino, Antonios Dakanalis, Santino Gaudio, Giuseppe Carrà, Pietro Cipresso, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Riva
A distorted body representation is a core symptom in eating disorders (EDs), though its mechanism is unclear. Allocentric lock theory, emphasising the role of reference frame processing in body image, suggests that ED patients may be (b)locked to an (allocentric) representation of their own body stored in long-term memory (e.g., my body is fat) that is not updated (modified) by the (real-time egocentric) perception-driven experience of the physical body. Employing a well-validated virtual reality-based procedure, relative to healthy controls, ED patients showed deficits in the ability to refer to and update a long-term stored (allocentric) representation with (egocentric) perceptual-driven inputs...
December 15, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Nicole Stachel, Andrea Jacobsen-Bauer, Gisela Skopp
Methoxydiphenidine (MXP) was first reported in 1989 as a dissociative anesthetic but did not enter the market for pharmaceuticals. The substance re-appeared in 2013 as a new psychoactive substance. A case of driving under the influence of MXP is reported. The concentration of MXP has been determined from a serum sample (57 ng/mL) by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry following liquid-liquid extraction. In addition, amphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and its major metabolite were present in concentrations of 111, 28, and 3 ng/mL, respectively...
March 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Jaedong Lee, Youngsun Kim, Gerard Kim
Vibrotactile feedback is an effective and economical approach for enriching interactive feedback. However, its effects are mostly limited to providing supplementary alarms or conveying the sense of simple object presence or contact. In this paper, we propose a novel tactile feedback method, called Rich Pinch, based on the "out of body" tactile illusion for selecting and manipulating a virtual object using a two-finger pinch gesture. Rich Pinch uses vibration motors attached only to the two fingertips, but can induce illusory feedback, such as tactile touch/contact and directional movement, as felt from the space between the fingers...
September 1, 2015: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Arvid Guterstam, Malin Björnsdotter, Loretxu Bergouignan, Giovanni Gentile, Tie-Qiang Li, H Henrik Ehrsson
Decades of research have demonstrated a role for the hippocampus in spatial navigation and episodic and spatial memory. However, empirical evidence linking hippocampal activity to the perceptual experience of being physically located at a particular place in the environment is lacking. In this study, we used a multisensory out-of-body illusion to perceptually 'teleport' six healthy participants between two different locations in the scanner room during high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
L-T Liu, Y Li, L-Q Fan, Q Zhao, D Wang, S-J Cheng, A-M Zhang, Y Qin, B Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vascular bradykinin on pancreatic microcirculation and hemorheology in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a blank control group, an SAP group and a vascular bradykinin treatment group. The SAP model was induced by the retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate in the pancreaticobiliary duct. The vascular bradykinin treatment group underwent gastrostomy, with a fine plastic tube placed in the stomach that led out of body through the abdominal wall...
2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Qilei Li, Ming Yang, Wenchu Ou, Fan Meng, Zihao Xu, Liang Xu
The purpose of this paper is to achieve a measurement of temperature prediction for artificial heart without sensor, for which the research briefly describes the application of back propagation neural network as well as the optimized, by genetic algorithm, BP network. Owing to the limit of environment after the artificial heart implanted, detectable parameters out of body are taken advantage of to predict the working temperature of the pump. Lastly, contrast is made to demonstrate the prediction result between BP neural network and genetically optimized BP network, by which indicates that the probability is 1...
March 2015: Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation
Arvid Guterstam, Malin Björnsdotter, Giovanni Gentile, H Henrik Ehrsson
The senses of owning a body and being localized somewhere in space are two key components of human self-consciousness. Despite a wealth of neurophysiological and neuroimaging research on the representations of the spatial environment in the parietal and medial temporal cortices, the relationship between body ownership and self-location remains unexplored. To investigate this relationship, we used a multisensory out-of-body illusion to manipulate healthy participants' perceived self-location, head direction, and sense of body ownership during high-resolution fMRI...
June 1, 2015: Current Biology: CB
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