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Diane Deroualle, Michel Toupet, Christian van Nechel, Ulla Duquesne, Charlotte Hautefort, Christophe Lopez
Recent findings suggest that vestibular information plays a significant role in anchoring the self to the body. Out-of-body experiences of neurological origin are frequently associated with vestibular sensations, and galvanic vestibular stimulation in healthy participants anchors the self to the body. Here, we provide the first objective measures of anchoring the self to the body in chronic bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). We compared 23 patients with idiopathic BVF to 23 healthy participants in a series of experiments addressing several aspects of visuo-spatial perspective taking and embodiment...
2017: PloS One
Pierre Bourdin, Itxaso Barberia, Ramon Oliva, Mel Slater
Immersive virtual reality can be used to visually substitute a person's real body by a life-sized virtual body (VB) that is seen from first person perspective. Using real-time motion capture the VB can be programmed to move synchronously with the real body (visuomotor synchrony), and also virtual objects seen to strike the VB can be felt through corresponding vibrotactile stimulation on the actual body (visuotactile synchrony). This setup typically gives rise to a strong perceptual illusion of ownership over the VB...
2017: PloS One
Jorge Cecílio Daher, Rodolfo Furlan Damiano, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti, Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Giancarlo Lucchetti
This study aims to conduct a search of publications investigating experiences commonly associated with the possibility of the existence of a consciousness independent of the brain held on the main scientific databases (Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Scopus). Of the 9065 articles retrieved, 1954 were included (598 near-death experiences, 223 out-of-body experiences, 56 end-of-life experiences, 224 possession, 244 memories suggestive of past lives, 565 mediumship, 44 others). Over the decades, there was an evident increase in the number of articles on all the areas of the field, with the exception of studies on mediumship that showed a decline during the late 20th century and subsequent rise in the early 21st century...
January 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Clinton Lauritsen, Santiago Mazuera, Richard B Lipton, Sait Ashina
BACKGROUND: Refractory migraine is a challenging condition with great impact on health related quality of life. Intravenous (IV) ketamine has been previously used to treat various refractory pain conditions. We present a series of patients with refractory migraine treated with intravenous ketamine in the hospital setting. METHODS: Based on retrospective chart review, we identified six patients with refractory migraine admitted from 2010 through 2014 for treatment with intravenous ketamine...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Raymund E Horch, Annika Weigand, Justus P Beier, Andreas Arkudas, Anja M Boos
Despite recent advances in surgery, medicine and anaesthesiology as well as the development of microsurgical tissue transplantation, wear out of body parts remains a problem, and organ shortage does not allow to allocate enough donor organs for patients with vital diseases and conditions. The idea to create spare parts or spare organs from the patients own cells by combining engineering approaches to cellular and molecular medicine for th purpose of Tissue Engineering (TE) was fascinating when popularized in the early 1990ies...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jason J Braithwaite, Anthony S David
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Laura Aymerich-Franch, Damien Petit, Gowrishankar Ganesh, Abderrahmane Kheddar
Whole-body embodiment studies have shown that synchronized multi-sensory cues can trick a healthy human mind to perceive self-location outside the bodily borders, producing an illusion that resembles an out-of-body experience (OBE). But can a healthy mind also perceive the sense of self in more than one body at the same time? To answer this question, we created a novel artificial reduplication of one's body using a humanoid robot embodiment system. We first enabled individuals to embody the humanoid robot by providing them with audio-visual feedback and control of the robot head movements and walk, and then explored the self-location and self-identification perceived by them when they observed themselves through the embodied robot...
September 27, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Klaus Kessler, Jason J Braithwaite
INTRODUCTION: Hallucinations that involve shifts in the subjectively experienced location of the self, have been termed "out-of-body experiences" (OBEs). Early psychiatric accounts cast OBEs as a specific instance of depersonalisation and derealisation disorder (DPD-DR). However, during feelings of alienation and lack of body realism in DPD-DR the self is experienced within the physical body. Deliberate forms of "disembodiment" enable humans to imagine another's visuo-spatial perspective taking (VPT), thus, if a strong relationship between deliberate and spontaneous forms of disembodiment could be revealed, then uncontrolled OBEs could be "the other side of the coin" of a uniquely human capacity...
August 10, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
J Pamment, J E Aspell
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a growing societal concern that warrants scientific investigation, especially given the ineffectiveness of many treatments. Given evidence that pain experience relies on multisensory integration, there is interest in using body ownership illusions for reducing acute pain. AIM: In the present study, we investigate whether patients' experience of chronic pain could be reduced by full body illusions (FBIs) that cause participants to dissociate from their own body...
February 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
M Arias
All human experiences, including mystical and religious ones, are the result of brain functional activity. Thanks to the study of cases of ecstatic epilepsy with structural (MRI) and functional neuroimaging (fMRI, PET, SPECT) and neurophysiological technologies (recording and stimulation with intracranial electrodes), we now have a better knowledge of certain mental states which involve pleasant and affective symptoms and clarity of mind. These ecstatic experiences are thought to be caused by the activation of the anterior insular cortex and some neuronal networks (basically related to mirror neurons and salience) participating in introspection, social cognition, memory, and emotional processes...
June 20, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Christopher Thomas Scott, Laura DeFrancesco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
Jerome Daltrozzo, Boris Kotchoubey, Fatma Gueler, Ahmed A Karim
Previous data suggest that the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) may have a specific role in abnormal body perception (ABP), including out-of-body experience. We tested this hypothesis with inhibitory (1 Hz) and excitatory (15 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the rTPJ and a control site (CS, 5 cm posterior to the rTPJ along the lateral sulcus direction in Brodmann area 19R) in 35 healthy adults. ABP frequency was higher with 1 Hz than with 15 Hz rTMS but unaffected by the rTMS site (rTPJ/CS)...
September 2016: Brain Topography
Eelke M Bos, Jochem K H Spoor, Marion Smits, Joost W Schouten, Arnaud J P E Vincent
BACKGROUND: The out-of-body experience (OBE), during which a person feels as if he or she is spatially removed from the physical body, is a mystical phenomenon because of its association with near-death experiences. Literature implicates the cortex at the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) as the possible anatomic substrate for OBE. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a patient who had an out-of-body experience during an awake craniotomy for resection of low-grade glioma. During surgery, stimulation of subcortical white matter in the left TPJ repetitively induced OBEs, in which the patient felt as if she was floating above the operating table looking down on herself...
August 2016: World Neurosurgery
Madelaine Lawrence
The purpose of this article is to describe examples of near-death and other transpersonal experiences occurring during catastrophic events like floods, wars, bombings, and death camps. To date, researchers have limited their investigations of these transpersonal events to those occurring to seriously ill patients in hospitals, those dying from terminal illnesses, or to individuals experiencing a period of grief after the death of a loved one. Missing is awareness by first responders and emergency healthcare professionals about these transpersonal experiences and what to say to the individuals who have them...
March 2, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Amit Prasad, Ali Ghodsizad, Walter Pae, Kai Singbartl, Jacqueline Boone, M Zeriouh, Arjang Ruhparwar, M Loebe, G Sadat Hoesseini Khorrami, Michael M Koerner, Christoph Brehm
The Syncardia™ total artificial heart (TAH) is an option for patients as a bridge to transplant in those who are not candidates for left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) due to right ventricular failure. Postoperative course is highly dependent on volume status and aggressive diuresis is often necessary. One complication from aggressive diuresis is hypokalemia; however, in these patients we tolerate a lower potassium level because cardiac arrhythmias are not a concern.  However, in two separate instances non-cardiac symptoms related to severe hypokalemia occurred...
February 17, 2016: Heart Surgery Forum
Nicoleta Stoicea, Gregory Versteeg, Diana Florescu, Nicholas Joseph, Juan Fiorda-Diaz, Víctor Navarrete, Sergio D Bergese
Since its discovery, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist related to phencyclidine, has been linked to multiple adverse reactions sometimes described as "out of body" and "near death experiences," including emergence phenomena, delusions, hallucinations, delirium, and confusion. Due to these effects, ketamine has been withdrawn from mainstream anesthetic use in adult patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) are utilized to monitor neural pathways during surgery, detect intraoperative stress or damage, detect and define the level of neural lesions, and define abnormalities...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Soghra Fallahi, Minoo Rajaei, Kianoosh Malekzadeh, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar
INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress is a key factor involved in male infertility, which is due to an unnatural increase in environmental free radicals. In the majority of cases, this has a negative effect on a male's ability to impregnate a female. Currently, it is believed that spermatozoa can be protected against the damages induced by oxidative stress by saturating sperm with antioxidants. The antioxidant role of phoenix dactylifera pollen is capable of collecting the reactive oxygen and neutralizing it in and out of body cells...
December 2015: Electronic Physician
Mariia Kaliuzhna, Dominique Vibert, Petr Grivaz, Olaf Blanke
Out-of-body experiences (OBEs) are illusory perceptions of one's body from an elevated disembodied perspective. Recent theories postulate a double disintegration process in the personal (visual, proprioceptive and tactile disintegration) and extrapersonal (visual and vestibular disintegration) space as the basis of OBEs. Here we describe a case which corroborates and extends this hypothesis. The patient suffered from peripheral vestibular damage and presented with OBEs and lucid dreams. Analysis of the patient's behaviour revealed a failure of visuo-vestibular integration and abnormal sensitivity to visuo-tactile conflicts that have previously been shown to experimentally induce out-of-body illusions (in healthy subjects)...
2015: Multisensory Research
Silvia Serino, Antonios Dakanalis, Santino Gaudio, Giuseppe Carrà, Pietro Cipresso, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Riva
A distorted body representation is a core symptom in eating disorders (EDs), though its mechanism is unclear. Allocentric lock theory, emphasising the role of reference frame processing in body image, suggests that ED patients may be (b)locked to an (allocentric) representation of their own body stored in long-term memory (e.g., my body is fat) that is not updated (modified) by the (real-time egocentric) perception-driven experience of the physical body. Employing a well-validated virtual reality-based procedure, relative to healthy controls, ED patients showed deficits in the ability to refer to and update a long-term stored (allocentric) representation with (egocentric) perceptual-driven inputs...
December 15, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Nicole Stachel, Andrea Jacobsen-Bauer, Gisela Skopp
Methoxydiphenidine (MXP) was first reported in 1989 as a dissociative anesthetic but did not enter the market for pharmaceuticals. The substance re-appeared in 2013 as a new psychoactive substance. A case of driving under the influence of MXP is reported. The concentration of MXP has been determined from a serum sample (57 ng/mL) by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry following liquid-liquid extraction. In addition, amphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and its major metabolite were present in concentrations of 111, 28, and 3 ng/mL, respectively...
March 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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