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G N Christodoulou, M Margariti, N Christodoulou
The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally fused functions of perception and recognition. The classical sub-types are: the syndromes of Capgras, Fregoli,Intermetamorphosis (mentioned in 3) and Subjective doubles. These syndromes occur in a clear sensorium and shouldbe differentiated from the banal transient misidentifications occurring in confusional states and in mania and from thenon-delusional misidentifications (e...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
François Boller, Daniel S Birnbaum, Nicoletta Caputi
Descriptions of hallucinatory phenomena have figured prominently since the beginning of recorded history. Jean Etienne Esquirol (1772-1840) is usually credited for having introduced the term in 1817, differentiating between hallucinations and illusions. Both are wrong perceptions, but in illusions, an external stimulus is always present whereas hallucinations are perceptions that occur in the absence of corresponding sensory stimuli. They occur in a variety of conditions but more often in the mentally ill, especially in schizophrenia where hallucinations, particularly auditory hallucinations represent for many, such as Henri Ey one of the cardinal features...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Y U Sekine
The subject of this report murdered four young girls between 1988 and 1989. The forensic psychiatric evaluation showed that soon after the sudden death of his dearest grandfather he had developed dissociative symptoms including depersonalization, autoscopy, fugue, dissociative amnesia, Ganser's syndrome and DID, on the basis of earlier traumatic experiences under the dysfunctional family circumstances of his early childhood. His DID was thought to be manifest in at least four personalities, i.e., a host personality, a child personality, a cool personality and a female personality...
2000: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Miriam Erick
Of the problems that complicate child-bearing, hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), or severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), is likely one of the most painful with unrelenting retching and vomiting that can lead to measurable injuries such as Mallory-Weiss Syndrome and esophageal rupture, and/or subtle maternal cognitive impairments related to starvation and dehydration. Recognized hallmarks of HG include dehydration, ketonuria, weight loss over 5%, and electrolyte abnormalities not attributable to other causes...
May 2014: Medical Hypotheses
Robert Hoepner, Kirsten Labudda, Theodor W May, Martin Schoendienst, Friedrich G Woermann, Christian G Bien, Christian Brandt
Autoscopic phenomena in general may-among other conditions-occur during epileptic seizures and near death experiences. We set the hypothesis that ictal autoscopic phenomena and near death experiences have a similar semiology as measured by the Near Death Experience Questionnaire. We also investigated whether patients with aura before temporal lobe seizures with or without autoscopic phenomena could be distinguished by this questionnaire. For these purposes, we examined five patients with ictal autoscopy and 12 patients with aura before temporal lobe seizures without ictal autoscopy as controls...
March 2013: Journal of Neurology
Leanne K Wilkins, Todd A Girard, J Allan Cheyne
INTRODUCTION: Out-of-body experiences present a unique paradigm to investigate cognitive and neural mechanisms of bodily-self processes and their disorders. Previous work on out-of-body experiences associated with sleep paralysis supported a model in which illusory movement experiences reflect disrupted bodily-self integration generating anomalous vestibular and motor sensations. Further disintegration and progression of the experience may then give rise to out-of-body feelings, which in turn may instigate out-of-body autoscopy...
2012: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Robert Hoepner, Kirsten Labudda, Matthias Hoppe, Martin Schoendienst, Reinhard Schulz, Maria Tomka-Hoffmeister, Friedrich G Woermann, Alois Ebner, Christian G Bien, Christian Brandt
Positive autoscopic phenomena - autoscopy, heautoscopy and out-of-body experience - may occur in a variety of diseases and also in physiological conditions. They are a rare but probably underreported phenomenon in focal epilepsies. Here, we investigate whether ictal lateralized autoscopic phenomena give lateralizing information about the underlying epileptic focus. We present the cases of seven patients from our center who experienced ictal lateralized autoscopic phenomena and analyzed their focus lateralization and localization of the underlying brain lesion...
March 2012: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
K N Rao
Internal autoscopy, a rare special type of visual hallucination, is claimed to have been mainly reported by French psychiatrist who considered it to occur mainly in young female subjects suffering from hysteria. In this report, such a cases is described in a 70 year old male patient suffering from M.D.P. (Depression). Its differential diagnosis and phenomenology is discussed. It is suggested that Internal autoscopy may be cognitive or ideational disturbance, expressed as a perceptual experience.
July 1992: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Rima Dolgoff-Kaspar, Alan B Ettinger, Sarit A Golub, Kenneth Perrine, Cynthia Harden, Susan D Croll
This study investigated hyperreligiosity in persons with partial epilepsy by exploring a relationship between aura symptoms and spirituality. It was reasoned that patients with high frequencies of auras that are suggestive of metaphysical phenomena, termed numinous-like auras, would report increased spirituality of an unconventional form, both during their seizures and generally. Numinous-like auras included: dreaminess/feeling of detachment, autoscopy, derealization, depersonalization, time speed alterations, bodily distortions, and pleasure...
March 2011: Epilepsia
Francesca Anzellotti, Valeria Onofrj, Valerio Maruotti, Leopoldo Ricciardi, Raffaella Franciotti, Laura Bonanni, Astrid Thomas, Marco Onofrj
BACKGROUND: Autoscopic phenomena are psychic illusory visual experiences consisting of the perception of the image of one's own body or face within space, either from an internal point of view, as in a mirror or from an external point of view. Descriptions based on phenomenological criteria distinguish six types of autoscopic experiences: autoscopic hallucination, he-autoscopy or heautoscopic proper, feeling of a presence, out of body experience, negative and inner forms of autoscopy...
2011: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Nadia Bolognini, Elisabetta Làdavas, Alessandro Farnè
Autoscopic phenomena refer to complex experiences involving the illusory reduplication of one's own body. Here we report the third long-lasting case of autoscopy in a patient with right occipital lesion. Instead of the commonly reported frontal mirror view (fantôme spéculaire), the patient saw her head and upper trunk laterally in side view (fantôme de profil). We found that the visual appearance and completeness of the autoscopic image could be selectively modulated by active and passive movements, without being influenced by imagining the same movements or by tactile and auditory stimulation...
July 2011: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Aaron L Mishara
Kafka's writings are frequently interpreted as representing the historical period of modernism in which he was writing. Little attention has been paid, however, to the possibility that his writings may reflect neural mechanisms in the processing of self during hypnagogic (i.e., between waking and sleep) states. Kafka suffered from dream-like, hypnagogic hallucinations during a sleep-deprived state while writing. This paper discusses reasons (phenomenological and neurobiological) why the self projects an imaginary double (autoscopy) in its spontaneous hallucinations and how Kafka's writings help to elucidate the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms...
August 20, 2010: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Catherine Morin
The sense of personal identity is an element of the Jasperian definition of self-conscience. Each of us is convinced of being a unique and stable individual, different from other individuals. These properties - stability ad coherence - belong to an image of ourselves that was proposed to us by the Other's look during the mirror phase. Brain focal lesions may threaten this certitude in two ways: 1) brain lesions result in deficiency, disability or handicap, which are experienced as a narcissistic injury. The patient questions himself about the image he offers to the Other's look, and, as a result, his sense of personal identity is unsettled; 2) a variety of focal brain lesions or dysfunctions may alter the activity of areas which are necessary for maintaining a stable image of the patients' body or self...
March 2009: Psychologie & Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
J Allan Cheyne, Todd A Girard
Among the varied hallucinations associated with sleep paralysis (SP), out-of-body experiences (OBEs) and vestibular-motor (V-M) sensations represent a distinct factor. Recent studies of direct stimulation of vestibular cortex report a virtually identical set of bodily-self hallucinations. Both programs of research agree on numerous details of OBEs and V-M experiences and suggest similar hypotheses concerning their association. In the present study, self-report data from two on-line surveys of SP-related experiences were employed to assess hypotheses concerning the causal structure of relations among V-M experiences and OBEs during SP episodes...
February 2009: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Yukari Tadokoro, Tomohiro Oshima, Kousuke Kanemoto
Autoscopy is an experience of seeing oneself in external space, viewed from within one's own physical body. It is a complex psycho-sensorial hallucinatory perception of one's own body image projected into external visual space, with epilepsy one of the common disorders reported to be associated with the experience. A survey of the literature revealed that there are few case reports of postictal autoscopic phenomena. Herein, we report a case of a patient with partial epilepsy who has experienced postictal autoscopy for nearly 30 years...
November 2006: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
J A Cheyne, T A Girard
INTRODUCTION: Spatial properties of hallucinations have received relatively little systematic investigation. We present evidence from a web-based study of the spatial properties of a broad array of hallucinations associated with sleep paralysis. Predictions regarding spatial characteristics of hallucinations were based on proposed neurophysiological mechanisms underlying different types of hallucinations. METHOD: Distributions in three dimensions as well as distance and dispersion measures were assessed for 279 experient for two general categories of hallucinations: Intruder hallucinations--including presence, visual, and auditory hallucinations; and Vestibular-Motor (V-M) hallucinations--including floating, flying, illusory motor movements, out-of-body experiences (OBEs), and autoscopy...
November 2004: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Silvia Bünning, Olaf Blanke
Out-of-body experiences (OBEs) are defined as experiences in which a person seems to be awake and sees his body and the world from a location outside his physical body. More precisely, they can be defined by the presence of the following three phenomenological characteristics: (i) disembodiment (location of the self outside one's body); (ii) the impression of seeing the world from an elevated and distanced visuo-spatial perspective (extracorporeal, but egocentric visuo-spatial perspective); and (iii) the impression of seeing one's own body (autoscopy) from this perspective...
2005: Progress in Brain Research
Luis-Carlos Alvaro
Maupassant excelled as a realist writer of the nineteenth century, with fantastical short stories being an outstanding example of his literary genius. We have analysed four of his fantastical stories from a neurological point of view. In "Le Horla," his masterpiece, we have found nightmares, sleep paralysis, a hemianopic pattern of loss and recovery of vision, and palinopsia. In "Qui sait" and in "La main" there is also an illusory movement of the objects in the visual field, although in a dreamlike complex pattern...
June 2005: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Giovanna Zamboni, Carla Budriesi, Paolo Nichelli
Autoscopy is the experience of seeing an image of one's body in external space. We describe the case of a patient who reported longstanding autoscopic hallucinations following post-eclamptic brain damage. The MR scan demonstrated damage involving the occipital cortex and the basal ganglia bilaterally. We hypothesize that the image was the result of aberrant plasticity mechanisms involving cortical areas that play a central role in high-order body or representation of oneself.
June 2005: Neurocase
T A Girard, J A Cheyne
Individual differences were investigated in the lateralisation of two general categories of hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations associated with sleep paralysis: (1) Vestibular-motor (V-M) hallucinations; comprising sensations of floating, flying, illusory locomotion and postural adjustments, out-of-body experiences (OBE), and autoscopy; and (2) Intruder hallucinations; incorporating a sense of the presence, and visual and auditory hallucinations of external, alien agents. Left-right lateralisation of such hallucinations, as well as handedness and footedness, were assessed in a diverse, nonclinical sample of 201 subjects participating in a web-based survey of sleep paralysis experiences...
January 2004: Laterality
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