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skin associated lymphoid tissue

Petya Apostolova, Robert Zeiser
Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) causes high mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. An early event in the classical pathogenesis of acute GvHD is tissue damage caused by the conditioning treatment or infection that consecutively leads to translocation of bacterial products [pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)] into blood or lymphoid tissue, as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), mostly intracellular components that act as pro-inflammatory agents, once they are released into the extracellular space...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Sachiko Ono, Kenji Kabashima
  The skin is one of the largest organs in the human body, which acts as the primary interface with the external world. In view of its protective role, mammalian skin consists of physical and immunological barriers. The water-impermeable stratum corneum and the tight junctions in the granular layer work at the epidermal level work as the most important first and second "physical" barriers. Upon antigen invasion to the skin, the integrated innate and acquired immune systems in both the epidermis and dermis are activated in a coordinated manner to neutralize the external intruder as the strong third "immunological" barriers...
2016: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
Nicole Lukovsky-Akhsanov, M Kelly Keating, Pamela Spivey, George W Lathrop, Nathaniel Powell, Michael L Levin
Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
Junko Nio-Kobayashi
Fifteen galectins, β-galactose-binding animal lectins, are known to be distributed throughout the body. We herein summarize current knowledge on the tissue- and cell-specific localization of galectins and their potential functions in health and disease. Galectin-3 is widely distributed in epithelia, including the simple columnar epithelium in the gut, stratified squamous epithelium in the gut and skin, and transitional epithelium and several regions in nephrons in the urinary tract. Galectin-2 and galectin-4/6 are gut-specific, while galectin-7 is found in the stratified squamous epithelium in the gut and skin...
January 2017: Anatomical Science International
Ming-Qing Du
Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) invariably arises from a background of chronic microbial infection and/or autoimmune disorder at diverse mucosal sites. The prolonged chronic infection and/or autoimmunity generate active immune and inflammatory responses that provide a setting for evolution and development of autoreactive B-cells, their expansion and eventual malignant transformation following acquisition of genetic changes. The immune responses also play a critical role in sustaining the growth and survival of the transformed cells as shown by complete regression of a high proportion of MALT lymphoma of the stomach, ocular adnexa and skin following anti-microbial treatment...
August 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Nicolas Feldreich, Olle Ringden, Lennart Emtestam, Brigitta Omazic
BACKGROUND: Photochemotherapy may be used to treat cutaneous graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Animal models show that in the days after photochemotherapy and antigen provocation, cells with an antigen-specific suppressive phenotype are elicited in the lymphoid organs. In GvHD, host antigens are present not only in the skin treated by photochemotherapy but also in the visceral tissues. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect on visceral acute GvHD (aGvHD) of photochemotherapy of the skin...
2016: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
Chiara Cardamone, Roberta Parente, Giulia De Feo, Massimo Triggiani
Mast cells are widely distributed in human organs and tissues and they are particularly abundant at major body interfaces with the external environment such as the skin, the lung and the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, mast cells are located around blood vessels and are highly represented within central and peripheral lymphoid organs. The strategic distribution of mast cells closely reflects the primary role of these cells in providing first-line defense against environmental dangers, in regulating local and systemic inflammatory reactions and in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses...
October 2016: Immunology Letters
Fernanda M O Silva, Juliana P Guimarães, Jociery E Vergara-Parente, Vitor L Carvalho, Ana Carolina, O Meirelles, Miriam Marmontel, Bruno S S P Oliveira, Silvanise M Santos, Estella Z Becegato, Janaina S A M Evangelista, Maria Angelica Miglino
This study describes the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in odontocetes from the Brazilian coast and freshwater systems. Seven species were evaluated and tissue samples were analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Laryngeal tonsil was a palpable oval mass located in the larynx, composed of a lymphoepithelial complex. Dense collections of lymphocytes were found in the skin of male fetus and calf. Clusters of lymphoid tissue were found in the uterine cervix of a reproductively active juvenile female and along the pulmonary artery of an adult female...
September 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yoshimi Miki, Yuh Kidoguchi, Mariko Sato, Yoshitaka Taketomi, Choji Taya, Kazuaki Muramatsu, Michael H Gelb, Kei Yamamoto, Makoto Murakami
Phospholipase A2 enzymes have long been implicated in the promotion of inflammation by mobilizing pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, yet recent evidence suggests that they also contribute to anti-inflammatory or pro-resolving programs. Group IID-secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IID) is abundantly expressed in dendritic cells in lymphoid tissues and resolves the Th1 immune response by controlling the steady-state levels of anti-inflammatory lipids such as docosahexaenoic acid and its metabolites. Here, we show that psoriasis and contact dermatitis were exacerbated in Pla2g2d-null mice, whereas they were ameliorated in Pla2g2d-overexpressing transgenic mice, relative to littermate wild-type mice...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Adalbjorg Kristbjornsdottir, Thor Aspelund, Vilhjalmur Rafnsson
BACKGROUND: Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence. METHODS: The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013...
2016: PloS One
Igor Hrgovic, Sylvia Hartmann, Björn Steffen, Thomas Vogl, Roland Kaufmann, Markus Meissner
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a unique type of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which very rarely exhibits skin involvement. We herein describe the case of a 55-year-old woman, who initially presented with a nodular mass of the right infraorbital region. On histological analysis of the subcutaneous tissue, a diffuse neoplastic cell infiltration was identified, composed of medium-sized lymphoid cells with irregular nuclei, which was diagnosed as MCL. The tumor cells were positive for CD5, CD20, CD79a, cyclin D1 and sex-determining region Y-box 11, but negative for CD10 and CD23...
May 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Catherine M Shilton, Ian V Jerrett, Steven Davis, Susan Walsh, Suresh Benedict, Sally R Isberg, Grahame J W Webb, Charlie Manolis, Timothy H Hyndman, David Phalen, Gregory P Brown, Lorna Melville
Since 2006, 3 new disease syndromes have emerged in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in the Northern Territory of Australia. We describe the syndromes through a retrospective study of laboratory findings from 187 diagnostic cases submitted to Berrimah Veterinary Laboratories between 2005 and 2014. The first syndrome was characterized by conjunctivitis and/or pharyngitis (CP), primarily in hatchlings. Herpesviruses were isolated in primary crocodile cell culture, or were detected by PCR directly from conjunctiva or pharyngeal tissue, in 21 of 39 cases of CP (54%), compared with 9 of 64 crocodiles without the syndrome (14%, p < 0...
May 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Antonella Franchini, Annalaura Della Rocca, Evelina Bertolotti
In most vertebrates, the regenerative capacity to restore lost/damage tissues to original structure and functionality decreases at some time during ontogenesis. To evaluate the role of the acquired immunity in the decline of regenerative potential, we examined the cellular responses elicited in the spleen during skin repair in Xenopus adults. Modifications in the architecture were found to be induced and were remarkable 14 days postinjury when the spleen increased significantly in size. In white pulp, the periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths were associated with follicles having central light zones, morphologically similar to germinal centers...
July 2016: Journal of Morphology
Hu Xia, Wanjing Liu, Kang Wu, Weimin Wang, Xuezhen Zhang
IgZ is considered to be the last immunoglobulin discovered in vertebrate species. In this study, the structure of secreted form of blunt snout bream (Megalabrama amblycephala) IgZ (sIgZ) heavy chain gene is VH-Cζ1-Cζ2-Cζ3-Cζ4, in which Cζ4 provides the specificity to the IgZ isotype. The deduced amino acid sequence of sIgZ shows highest similarity with that of Ctenopharyngodon idella (79%). The ontogeny of sIgZ gene expression showed a V-shape change pattern: decreased initially from unfertilized egg stage to 16-cell embryos and increased significantly from blastula stage, which exhibited maternal transmission effects...
July 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yohei Natsuaki, Kenji Kabashima
Antigen presentation to peripheral memory T cells is a key step in the prompt elicitation of acquired immune responses. In the mucosa, specific sentinel lymphoid tissues called mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue serve as antigen presentation sites. Correspondingly, the concept of skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) has been proposed in the 1980s. However, the details of SALT have not been clarified so far. Recently, the live imaging analysis using two photon microscopes are developed. Here, we have identified inducible lymphoid clusters in the skin, we called it inducible SALTs (iSALTs), using a murine contact hypersensitivity model...
September 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yen-Rei A Yu, Emily G O'Koren, Danielle F Hotten, Matthew J Kan, David Kopin, Erik R Nelson, Loretta Que, Michael D Gunn
Flow cytometry is used extensively to examine immune cells in non-lymphoid tissues. However, a method of flow cytometric analysis that is both comprehensive and widely applicable has not been described. We developed a protocol for the flow cytometric analysis of non-lymphoid tissues, including methods of tissue preparation, a 10-fluorochrome panel for cell staining, and a standardized gating strategy, that allows the simultaneous identification and quantification of all major immune cell types in a variety of normal and inflamed non-lymphoid tissues...
2016: PloS One
J Cromvik, J Varkey, G Herlenius, J-E Johansson, C Wennerås
BACKGROUND: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) that develops after intestinal or multivisceral transplantation is difficult to diagnose and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The objectives of this study were to investigate the incidence, clinical picture, risk factors, and outcome of GVHD in a Scandinavian cohort of patients who underwent intestinal or multivisceral transplantation during a period of 16 years (1998-2014). All transplanted patients (n = 26) were retrospectively analyzed with respect to donor- and recipient-derived risk factors...
January 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Fang Wang, Xue Han, Beibei Bai, Chunjian Wang, Ye Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features and treatment in patients of marginal zone lymphoma (MZL)with monoclonal immunoglobulin (McIg). METHODS: The clinical data of MZL patients with McIg, including 3 cases diagnosed and treated in Beijing Anzhen Hospital from Jan 2007 to Dec 2014 were retrospectively studied, meanwhile 36 patients searched from literatures were reviewed. RESULTS: Of a total of 39 patients, the ratio of male and female was 1...
January 2016: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Esther Leal, Aitor G Granja, Carlos Zarza, Carolina Tafalla
Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills...
2016: PloS One
C Fiegna, M P Dagleish, L Coulter, E Milne, A Meredith, J Finlayson, A Di Nardo, C J McInnes
To improve our understanding of squirrelpox virus (SQPV) infection in the susceptible host, three red squirrels were challenged with wild-type SQPV via scarification of the hind-limb skin. All squirrels seroconverted to the infection by the end of the experiment (17 days post-challenge). Challenged animals suffered disease characterised by the development of multiple skin and oral lesions with rapid progression of skin lesions at the infection site by day 10 post-challenge. No internal pathological changes were found at post-mortem examination...
2016: Veterinary Microbiology
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