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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213124/reciprocal-relationships-between-substance-use-and-disorders-and-suicidal-ideation-and-suicide-attempts-in-the-collaborative-study-of-the-genetics-of-alcoholism
#1
Arpana Agrawal, Rebecca Tillman, Richard A Grucza, Elliot C Nelson, Vivia V McCutcheon, Lauren Few, Kenneth R Conner, Michael T Lynskey, Danielle M Dick, Howard J Edenberg, Victor M Hesselbrock, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, John I Nurnberger, Marc A Schuckit, Bernice Porjesz, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND: Substance use and misuse and suicidal thoughts and behaviors tend to co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether (a) suicidal ideation and attempt are related to onset of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use and dependence; (b) early use of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis is associated with onset of suicidal ideation and attempt; and (c) whether these associations persist while controlling for covariates, such as family history of alcohol problems, major depression and other internalizing and externalizing disorders...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197094/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-ptp1b-a-potential-target-for-alzheimer-s-therapy
#2
Marcelo N N Vieira, Natalia M Lyra E Silva, Sergio T Ferreira, Fernanda G De Felice
Despite significant advances in current understanding of mechanisms of pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD), attempts at drug development based on those discoveries have failed to translate into effective, disease-modifying therapies. AD is a complex and multifactorial disease comprising a range of aberrant cellular/molecular processes taking part in different cell types and brain regions. As a consequence, therapeutics for AD should be able to block or compensate multiple abnormal pathological events. Here, we examine recent evidence that inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) may represent a promising strategy to combat a variety of AD-related detrimental processes...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173749/testing-a-systematic-approach-to-identify-and-prioritise-barriers-to-successful-implementation-of-a-complex-healthcare-intervention
#3
Louise E Craig, Leonid Churilov, Liudmyla Olenko, Dominique A Cadilhac, Rohan Grimley, Simeon Dale, Cintia Martinez-Garduno, Elizabeth McInnes, Julie Considine, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Sandy Middleton
BACKGROUND: Multiple barriers may inhibit the adoption of clinical interventions and impede successful implementation. Use of standardised methods to prioritise barriers to target when selecting implementation interventions is an understudied area of implementation research. The aim of this study was to describe a method to identify and prioritise barriers to the implementation of clinical practice elements which were used to inform the development of the T(3) trial implementation intervention (Triage, Treatment [thrombolysis administration; monitoring and management of temperature, blood glucose levels, and swallowing difficulties] and Transfer of stroke patients from Emergency Departments [ED])...
February 7, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153061/trajectories-of-stroke-care-in-ontario-which-path-to-best-care
#4
Ruth E Hall, Diana Sondergaard, Walter P Wodchis, Jiming Fang, Prosanta Mondal, Mark T Bayley
BACKGROUND: Few studies have tracked stroke survivors through transitions across the health system and identified the most common trajectories and quality of care received. The objectives of our study were to examine the trajectories that incident stroke patients experience and to quantify the extent to which their care adhered to the best practices for stroke care. METHODS: A population-based cohort of first-ever stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients from the 2012/13 Ontario Stroke Audit was linked to administrative databases using an encrypted health card number to identify dominant trajectories (N=12,362)...
February 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145088/clinical-outcomes-after-trans-catheter-aortic-valve-replacement-in-men-and-women-in-ontario-canada
#5
Andrew Czarnecki, Feng Qiu, Maria Koh, Treesa J Prasad, Warren J Cantor, Asim N Cheema, Michael W A Chu, Christopher Feindel, Stephen E Fremes, Kori Kingsbury, Madhu K Natarajan, Mark D Peterson, Marc Ruel, Bradley H Strauss, Harindra C Wijeysundera, Dennis T Ko
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate sex-differences in outcomes after trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in a population-based cohort from Ontario, Canada. BACKGROUND: Prior studies comparing outcomes in men and women after TAVR have yielded divergent results. Some studies have suggested that women have better survival than men while others have not corroborated this finding. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted using chart abstraction data on all TAVR procedures performed between 2007 and 2013 in Ontario, Canada...
February 1, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142085/effect-of-crisis-response-planning-vs-contracts-for-safety-on-suicide-risk-in-u-s-army-soldiers-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Craig J Bryan, Jim Mintz, Tracy A Clemans, Bruce Leeson, T Scott Burch, Sean R Williams, Emily Maney, M David Rudd
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of crisis response planning for the prevention of suicide attempts. METHOD: Randomized clinical trial of active duty Army Soldiers (N=97) at Fort Carson, Colorado, presenting for an emergency behavioral health appointment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a contract for safety, a standard crisis response plan, or an enhanced crisis response plan. Incidence of suicide attempts during follow-up was assessed with the Suicide Attempt Self-Injury Interview...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124018/effectiveness-of-resident-as-teacher-curriculum-in-preparing-emergency-medicine-residents-for-their-teaching-role
#7
Hooman Hosein Nejad, Mehdi Bagherabadi, Alireza Sistani, Helen Dargahi
INTRODUCTION: Over the past 30 years, recognizing the need and importance of training residents in teaching skills has resulted in several resident-as-teacher programs. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of this teaching initiative and investigate the improvement in residents' teaching skills through evaluating their satisfaction and perceived effectiveness as well as assessing medical students' perception of the residents' teaching quality. METHODS: This research is a quasi-experimental study with pre- and post-tests, continuing from Dec 2010 to May 2011 in Imam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences...
January 2017: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122872/prevalence-of-fusobacterium-necrophorum-in-children-presenting-with-pharyngitis
#8
Tam T Van, Laura M Cox, Mike E Cox, Jennifer Dien Bard
Fusobacterium necrophorum, an obligate anaerobic bacterium, has recently been reported to be an important cause of bacterial pharyngitis with prevalence as high as group A Streptococcus (GAS) in adolescents and young adults. Importantly, F. necrophorum is the primary causative agent of the life-threatening Lemierre's syndrome and screening of pharyngeal samples may be warranted for early detection and prevention. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of F. necrophorum and groups A, C/G streptococci as agents of bacterial pharyngitis in children...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119356/a-cross-cultural-adaptation-of-the-sniffin-sticks-olfactory-identification-test-for-us-children
#9
Annachiara Cavazzana, Christiane Wesarg, Valentin A Schriever, Thomas Hummel, Johan N Lundström, Valentina Parma
Disorders associated with smell loss are common in adolescents. However, current odor identification tests focus on children from age 6 and older and no cross-cultural test has to date been validated and fully implemented. Here, we aimed to investigate how 3-to-11-year-old US children performed to an adapted and shortened (11 odors instead of 14) version of a European odor identification test-the Sniffin' Kids (Schriever VA, Mori E, Petters W, Boerner C, Smitka M, Hummel T. 2014. The "Sniffin'Kids" test: a 14-item odor identification test for children...
February 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119137/simple-and-rapid-quantification-of-serotonin-transporter-binding-using-11-c-dasb-bolus-plus-constant-infusion
#10
G Gryglewski, L Rischka, C Philippe, A Hahn, G M James, E Klebermass, M Hienert, L Silberbauer, T Vanicek, A Kautzky, N Berroterán-Infante, L Nics, T Traub-Weidinger, M Mitterhauser, W Wadsak, M Hacker, S Kasper, R Lanzenberger
INTRODUCTION: In-vivo quantification of serotonin transporters (SERT) in human brain has been a mainstay of molecular imaging in the field of neuropsychiatric disorders and helped to explore the underpinnings of several medical conditions, therapeutic and environmental influences. The emergence of PET/MR hybrid systems and the heterogeneity of SERT binding call for the development of efficient methods making the investigation of larger or vulnerable populations with limited scanner time and simultaneous changes in molecular and functional measures possible...
January 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115347/perturbations-of-phosphatidate-cytidylyltransferase-cdsa-mediate-daptomycin-resistance-in-streptococcus-mitis-by-a-novel-mechanism
#11
Nagendra N Mishra, Truc T Tran, Ravin Seepersaud, Cristina Garcia-de-la-Maria, Kym Faull, Alex Yoon, Jose M Miro, Michael J Rybak, Arnold S Bayer, Cesar A Arias, Paul M Sullam
Streptococcus mitis is an important pathogen, causing life-threatening infections such as endocarditis and severe sepsis in immunocompromised patients. The β-lactam antibiotics are the usual therapy of choice for this organism, but their effectiveness is threatened by the frequent emergence of resistance. The lipopeptide, daptomycin ( DAP: ), has been suggested for such resistant S. mitis, due to its in vitro bactericidal activity and demonstrated efficacy with other Gram-positive pathogens. Unlike other bacteria, however, S...
January 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104354/profound-loss-of-esophageal-tissue-differentiation-in-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#12
M Rochman, J Travers, C E Miracle, M C Bedard, T Wen, N P Azouz, J M Caldwell, K Kc, J D Sherrill, B P Davis, J K Rymer, K M Kaufman, M E Rothenberg
BACKGROUND: A key question in the allergy field is to understand how tissue specific disease is manifested. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging tissue specific allergic disease whose pathogenesis remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Herein, we tested the hypothesis that a defect in tissue specific esophageal genes is an integral part of EoE pathogenesis. METHODS: We interrogated the pattern of expression of esophagus-specific signature genes derived from the Human Protein Atlas in the EoE transcriptome and in EPC2 esophageal epithelial cells...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095725/geospatial-clustering-in-sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption-among-boston-youth
#13
Kosuke Tamura, Dustin T Duncan, Jessica K Athens, Marie A Bragg, Michael Rienti, Jared Aldstadt, Marc A Scott, Brian Elbel
The objective was to detect geospatial clustering of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake in Boston adolescents (age = 16.3 ± 1.3 years [range: 13-19]; female = 56.1%; White = 10.4%, Black = 42.6%, Hispanics = 32.4%, and others = 14.6%) using spatial scan statistics. We used data on self-reported SSB intake from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (n = 1292). Two binary variables were created: consumption of SSB (never versus any) on (1) soda and (2) other sugary drinks (e...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077647/sensitive-next-generation-sequencing-method-reveals-deep-genetic-diversity-of-hiv-1-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#14
M A Rodgers, E Wilkerson, A Vallari, C McArthur, L Sthreshley, C A Brennan, G Cloherty, T de Oliveira
: As the epidemiological epicentre of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a reservoir of circulating HIV strains exhibiting high levels of diversity and recombination. In this study, we characterized HIV specimens collected in two rural areas of the DRC between 2001 and 2003 to identify rare strains of HIV. The env gp41 region was sequenced and characterized for 172 HIV-positive specimens. The env sequences were predominantly subtype A (43...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074444/effects-of-an-education-intervention-about-hpv-self-testing-for-healthcare-providers-and-staff
#15
Brynne E Presser, Mira L Katz, Abigail B Shoben, Deborah Moore, Mack T Ruffin, Electra D Paskett, Paul L Reiter
Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-testing is an emerging cervical cancer screening strategy, yet efforts to educate healthcare providers and staff about HPV self-testing are lacking. We report the findings of a brief education intervention about HPV self-testing for healthcare providers and staff. We conducted education sessions during 2015 with healthcare providers and staff (n = 33) from five federally qualified health centers located in Appalachian Ohio. Participants attended a one-time session and completed pre- and post-intervention surveys...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073611/propofol-versus-midazolam-for-procedural-sedation-in-the-emergency-department-a-study-on-efficacy-and-safety
#16
Heleen Lameijer, Ytje T Sikkema, Albert Pol, Maike G E Bosch, Femke Beije, Rieneke Feenstra, Bas W J Bens, Ewoud Ter Avest
BACKGROUND: Procedural sedation for painful procedures in the emergency department (ED) can be accomplished with various pharmacological agents. The choice of the sedative used is highly dependent on procedure- and patient characteristics and on personal- or local preferences. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study of procedural sedations performed in the EDs of 5 hospitals in the Netherlands over a 4year period to evaluate the efficacy- (success rate of the intended procedure) and safety (incidence of sedation (adverse) events) of propofol sedations compared to midazolam sedations...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073524/distribution-occurrence-and-biotoxin-composition-of-the-main-shellfish-toxin-producing-microalgae-within-european-waters-a-comparison-of-methods-of-analysis
#17
Sara E McNamee, Linda K Medlin, Jessica Kegel, Gary R McCoy, Robin Raine, Lucia Barra, Maria Valeria Ruggiero, Wiebe H C F Kooistra, Marina Montresor, Johannes Hagstrom, Eva Perez Blanco, Edna Graneli, Francisco Rodríguez, Laura Escalera, Beatriz Reguera, Simon Dittami, Bente Edvardsen, Joe Taylor, Jane M Lewis, Yolanda Pazos, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a natural global phenomena emerging in severity and extent. Incidents have many economic, ecological and human health impacts. Monitoring and providing early warning of toxic HABs are critical for protecting public health. Current monitoring programmes include measuring the number of toxic phytoplankton cells in the water and biotoxin levels in shellfish tissue. As these efforts are demanding and labour intensive, methods which improve the efficiency are essential. This study compares the utilisation of a multitoxin surface plasmon resonance (multitoxin SPR) biosensor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analytical methods such as high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for toxic HAB monitoring efforts in Europe...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062515/joint-attention-and-brain-functional-connectivity-in-infants-and-toddlers
#18
Adam T Eggebrecht, Jed T Elison, Eric Feczko, Alexandre Todorov, Jason J Wolff, Sridhar Kandala, Chloe M Adams, Abraham Z Snyder, John D Lewis, Annette M Estes, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Kelly N Botteron, Robert C McKinstry, John N Constantino, Alan Evans, Heather C Hazlett, Stephen Dager, Sarah J Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin A Styner, Guido Gerig, Samir Das, Penelope Kostopoulos, Bradley L Schlaggar, Steven E Petersen, Joseph Piven, John R Pruett
Initiating joint attention (IJA), the behavioral instigation of coordinated focus of 2 people on an object, emerges over the first 2 years of life and supports social-communicative functioning related to the healthy development of aspects of language, empathy, and theory of mind. Deficits in IJA provide strong early indicators for autism spectrum disorder, and therapies targeting joint attention have shown tremendous promise. However, the brain systems underlying IJA in early childhood are poorly understood, due in part to significant methodological challenges in imaging localized brain function that supports social behaviors during the first 2 years of life...
January 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056114/diagnosis-and-management-of-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-macroglobulinemia-mayo-stratification-of-macroglobulinemia-and-risk-adapted-therapy-msmart-guidelines-2016
#19
Prashant Kapoor, Stephen M Ansell, Rafael Fonseca, Asher Chanan-Khan, Robert A Kyle, Shaji K Kumar, Joseph R Mikhael, Thomas E Witzig, Michelle Mauermann, Angela Dispenzieri, Sikander Ailawadhi, A Keith Stewart, Martha Q Lacy, Carrie A Thompson, Francis K Buadi, David Dingli, William G Morice, Ronald S Go, Dragan Jevremovic, Taimur Sher, Rebecca L King, Esteban Braggio, Ann Novak, Vivek Roy, Rhett P Ketterling, Patricia T Greipp, Martha Grogan, Ivana N Micallef, P Leif Bergsagel, Joseph P Colgan, Nelson Leung, Wilson I Gonsalves, Yi Lin, David J Inwards, Suzanne R Hayman, Grzegorz S Nowakowski, Patrick B Johnston, Steven J Russell, Svetomir N Markovic, Steven R Zeldenrust, Yi L Hwa, John A Lust, Luis F Porrata, Thomas M Habermann, S Vincent Rajkumar, Morie A Gertz, Craig B Reeder
Importance: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), an IgM-associated lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, has witnessed several practice-altering advances in recent years. With availability of a wider array of therapies, the management strategies have become increasingly complex. Our multidisciplinary team appraised studies published or presented up to December 2015 to provide consensus recommendations for a risk-adapted approach to WM, using a grading system. Observations: Waldenström macroglobulinemia remains a rare, incurable cancer, with a heterogeneous disease course...
January 5, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050272/adjuvant-induced-arthritis-in-guinea-pigs
#20
O S Taranov, S N Yakubitskiy, T S Nepomnyashchikh, A E Nesterov, S N Shchelkunov
We propose a model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) induced in outbred guinea pigs using a single subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant to the hind paw. Histological examination of this model shows fibrin deposition on the surface of the synovial membrane, leukocyte infiltration of the synovial membrane and adjacent tissues, proliferation of the granulation tissue, and emergence of angioid areas, characteristic of RA. The cell response appears as an increase in the plasma cell count and development of follicle-like lymphoid infiltrates; erosion of the articular surface of the cartilage, frequently with deep cartilage destruction over large areas; and epiphysiopathy...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
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