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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913211/sgrasp-a-graph-based-method-for-the-derivation-of-subject-specific-functional-parcellations-of-the-brain
#1
N Honnorat, T D Satterthwaite, R E Gur, R C Gur, C Davatzikos
BACKGROUND: Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has emerged as a prominent tool for the study of functional connectivity. The identification of the regions associated with the different brain functions has received significant interest. However, most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the definition of a common set of regions, valid for an entire population. The variation of the functional regions within a population has rarely been accounted for. New Method: In this paper, we propose sGraSP, a graph-based approach for the derivation of subject-specific functional parcellations...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911897/heterologous-protection-against-asian-zika-virus-challenge-in-rhesus-macaques
#2
Matthew T Aliota, Dawn M Dudley, Christina M Newman, Emma L Mohr, Dane D Gellerup, Meghan E Breitbach, Connor R Buechler, Mustafa N Rasheed, Mariel S Mohns, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Kim L Weisgrau, Josh A Eudailey, Eva G Rakasz, Logan J Vosler, Jennifer Post, Saverio Capuano, Thaddeus G Golos, Sallie R Permar, Jorge E Osorio, Thomas C Friedrich, Shelby L O'Connor, David H O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2016, because of the evidence linking infection with ZIKV to neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome in adults and congenital birth defects including microcephaly in the developing fetus. Because development of a ZIKV vaccine is a top research priority and because the genetic and antigenic variability of many RNA viruses limits the effectiveness of vaccines, assessing whether immunity elicited against one ZIKV strain is sufficient to confer broad protection against all ZIKV strains is critical...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909426/deconstructing-the-bat-skin-microbiome-influences-of-the-host-and-the-environment
#3
Christine V Avena, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Jonathan W Leff, Holly M Archer, Winifred F Frick, Kate E Langwig, A Marm Kilpatrick, Karen E Powers, Jeffrey T Foster, Valerie J McKenzie
Bats are geographically widespread and play an important role in many ecosystems, but relatively little is known about the ecology of their associated microbial communities and the role microbial taxa play in bat health, development, and evolution. Moreover, few vertebrate animal skin microbiomes have been comprehensively assessed, and thus characterizing the bat skin microbiome will yield valuable insight into the variability of vertebrate skin microbiomes as a whole. The recent emergence of the skin fungal disease white-nose syndrome highlights the potentially important role bat skin microbial communities could play in bat health...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905532/validation-of-plasma-micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#4
A Perfetti, S Greco, R Cardani, B Fossati, G Cuomo, R Valaperta, F Ambrogi, A Cortese, A Botta, A Mignarri, M Santoro, C Gaetano, E Costa, M T Dotti, G Silvestri, R Massa, G Meola, F Martelli
Non-invasive and simple to measure biomarkers are still an unmet need for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Indeed, muscle biopsies can be extremely informative, but their invasive nature limits their application. Extracellular microRNAs are emerging humoral biomarkers and preliminary studies identified a group of miRNAs that are deregulated in the plasma or serum of small groups of DM1 patients. Here we adopted very stringent selection and normalization criteria to validate or disprove these miRNAs in 103 DM1 patients and 111 matched controls...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904140/restrictions-in-the-t-cell-repertoire-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-high-throughput-immunoprofiling-supports-selection-by-shared-antigenic-elements
#5
A Vardi, E Vlachonikola, M Karypidou, E Stalika, V Bikos, K Gemenetzi, C Maramis, A Siorenta, A Anagnostopoulos, S Pospisilova, N Maglaveras, I Chouvarda, K Stamatopoulos, A Hadzidimitriou
Immunoglobulin (IG) gene repertoire restrictions strongly support antigen selection in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Given the emerging multifarious interactions between CLL and bystander T cells, we sought to determine whether antigen(s) are also selecting T cells in CLL. We performed a large-scale, next-generation sequencing (NGS) study of the T-cell repertoire, focusing on major stereotyped subsets representing CLL subgroups with undisputed antigenic drive, but also included patients carrying non-subset IG rearrangements to seek for T-cell immunogenetic signatures ubiquitous in CLL...
December 1, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898770/the-amaranth-genome-genome-transcriptome-and-physical-map-assembly
#6
J W Clouse, D Adhikary, J T Page, T Ramaraj, M K Deyholos, J A Udall, D J Fairbanks, E N Jellen, P J Maughan
Amaranth ( L.) is an emerging pseudocereal native to the New World that has garnered increased attention in recent years because of its nutritional quality, in particular its seed protein and more specifically its high levels of the essential amino acid lysine. It belongs to the Amaranthaceae family, is an ancient paleopolyploid that shows disomic inheritance (2 = 32), and has an estimated genome size of 466 Mb. Here we present a high-quality draft genome sequence of the grain amaranth. The genome assembly consisted of 377 Mb in 3518 scaffolds with an N of 371 kb...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884126/help-seeking-behavior-and-onset-to-alarm-time-in-patients-with-acute-stroke-sub-study-of-the-preventive-antibiotics-in-stroke-study
#7
E Zock, H Kerkhoff, R P Kleyweg, T B V van Bavel-Ta, S Scott, N D Kruyt, P J Nederkoorn, D van de Beek
BACKGROUND: Patients with acute stroke often do not seek immediate medical help, which is assumed to be driven by lack of knowledge of stroke symptoms. We explored the process of help seeking behavior in patients with acute stroke, evaluating knowledge about stroke symptoms, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and onset-to-alarm time (OAT). METHODS: In a sub-study of the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS), 161 acute stroke patients were prospectively included in 3 Dutch hospitals...
November 25, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872617/bacterial-genomics-reveal-the-complex-epidemiology-of-an-emerging-pathogen-in-arctic-and-boreal-ungulates
#8
Taya L Forde, Karin Orsel, Ruth N Zadoks, Roman Biek, Layne G Adams, Sylvia L Checkley, Tracy Davison, Jeroen De Buck, Mathieu Dumond, Brett T Elkin, Laura Finnegan, Bryan J Macbeth, Cait Nelson, Amanda Niptanatiak, Shane Sather, Helen M Schwantje, Frank van der Meer, Susan J Kutz
Northern ecosystems are currently experiencing unprecedented ecological change, largely driven by a rapidly changing climate. Pathogen range expansion, and emergence and altered patterns of infectious disease, are increasingly reported in wildlife at high latitudes. Understanding the causes and consequences of shifting pathogen diversity and host-pathogen interactions in these ecosystems is important for wildlife conservation, and for indigenous populations that depend on wildlife. Among the key questions are whether disease events are associated with endemic or recently introduced pathogens, and whether emerging strains are spreading throughout the region...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872103/rapid-and-continued-t-cell-differentiation-into-long-term-effector-and-memory-stem-cells-in-vaccinated-melanoma-patients
#9
Philippe Gannon, Petra Baumgaertner, Alexandre Huber, Emanuela M Iancu, Laurene Cagnon, Samia Abed-Maillard, Helene Maby-El Hajjami, Daniel E Speiser, Nathalie Rufer
PURPOSE: Cancer patients benefit increasingly from T cell-based therapies, such as adoptive T cell transfer, checkpoint blockade or vaccination. We have previously shown that serial vaccinations with Melan-AMART-126-35 peptide, CpG-B and IFA generated robust tumor-specific CD8 T cell responses in melanoma patients. Here, we describe the detailed kinetics of early- and long-term establishment of T cell frequency, differentiation (into memory and effector cells), poly-functionality and clonotype repertoire induced by vaccination...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871719/-work-satisfaction-and-exhaustion-among-psychiatrists-in-psychiatric-emergency-services
#10
E Very, A H Moncany, A Yrondi, T Marquet, E Bui, L Schmitt
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Psychiatric emergency services (PES) have recently occupied a new and growing place in the landscape of mental health services. However, few data are available on the way psychiatrists practice in the PES. Our aim was to survey psychiatrists working in PES, focusing on their job satisfaction and the theoretical models they use in their everyday practice. METHOD: We sent a survey to a sample of 508 psychiatrists working in PES in France. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-seven psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 47%...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869314/runx1-orchestrates-sphingolipid-metabolism-and-glucocorticoid-resistance-in-lymphomagenesis
#11
A Kilbey, A Terry, S Wotton, G Borland, Q Zhang, N Mackay, A McDonald, M Bell, M J O Wakelam, E R Cameron, J C Neil
The three-membered RUNX gene family includes RUNX1, a major mutational target in human leukemias, and displays hallmarks of both tumour suppressors and oncogenes. In mouse models the Runx genes appear to act as conditional oncogenes, as ectopic expression is growth suppressive in normal cells but drives lymphoma development potently when combined with over-expressed Myc or loss of p53. Clues to underlying mechanisms emerged previously from murine fibroblasts where ectopic expression of any of the Runx genes promotes survival through direct and indirect regulation of key enzymes in sphingolipid metabolism associated with a shift in the 'sphingolipid rheostat' from ceramide to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862102/addition-of-an-immunomodulator-can-reverse-antibody-formation-and-loss-of-response-in-patients-treated-with-adalimumab
#12
B Ungar, U Kopylov, T Engel, M Yavzori, E Fudim, O Picard, A Lang, N Williet, S Paul, Y Chowers, A Bar-Gil Shitrit, R Eliakim, S Ben-Horin, X Roblin
BACKGROUND: Anti-adalimumab antibodies (AAA) are associated with loss of clinical response (LOR). Addition of an immunomodulator has been shown to reverse immunogenicity and regain response with infliximab monotherapy. Similar data on adalimumab are lacking. AIM: To study the impact of immunomodulator addition on the emergence of AAA and LOR among adalimumab therapy patients. METHODS: The databases of three tertiary medical centres were reviewed to identify patients who developed AAA during adalimumab monotherapy with resultant LOR, and received an immunomodulator as a salvage combination therapy...
November 16, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859997/minimizing-attrition-for-multi-site-emergency-care-research
#13
Bret A Nicks, Manish N Shah, David H Adler, Aveh Bastani, Christopher W Baugh, Jeffrey M Caterino, Carol L Clark, Deborah B Diercks, Judd E Hollander, Susan E Malveau, Daniel K Nishijima, Kirk A Stiffler, Alan B Storrow, Scott T Wilber, Annick N Yagapen, Benjamin C Sun
Loss to follow-up of enrolled patients (aka attrition) is a major threat to study validity and power. Minimizing attrition can be challenging even under ideal research conditions, including the presence of adequate funding, experienced study personnel, and a refined research infrastructure. Emergency care research is shifting towards enrollment through multi-site networks, but there have been limited descriptions of approaches to minimize attrition for these multi-center emergency care studies. This concept paper describes a stepwise approach to minimize attrition, using a case example of a multi-site emergency department prospective cohort of over 3,000 patients that has achieved a 30-day direct phone follow-up attrition rate of < 3%...
November 17, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859198/relatively-stable-response-of-fruiting-stage-to-warming-and-cooling-relative-to-other-phenological-events
#14
L L Jiang, S P Wang, F D Meng, J C Duan, H S Niu, G P Xu, X X Zhu, Z H Zhang, C Y Luo, S J Cui, Y M Li, X E Li, Q Wang, Y Zhou, X Y Bao, Y N Li, T Dorji, S L Piao, P Ciais, J Peñuelas, M Y Du, X Q Zhao, L Zhao, F W Zhang, G J Wang
The timing of the fruit-set stage (i.e., start and end of fruit set) is crucial in a plant's life cycle, but its response to temperature change is still unclear. We investigated the timing of seven phenological events, including fruit-set dates during 3 yr for six alpine plants transplanted to warmer (approximately +3.5°C in soils) and cooler (approximately -3.5°C in soils) locations along an altitudinal gradient in the Tibetan area. We found that fruit-set dates remained relatively stable under both warming and cooling during the 3-yr transplant experiment...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846006/chest-pain-risk-scores-can-reduce-emergent-cardiac-imaging-test-needs-with-low-major-adverse-cardiac-events-occurrence-in-an-emergency-department-observation-unit
#15
Hao Wang, Katherine Watson, Richard D Robinson, Kristina H Domanski, Johnbosco Umejiego, Layton Hamblin, Sterling E Overstreet, Amanda M Akin, Steven Hoang, Meena Shrivastav, Michael Collyer, Ryan N Krech, Chet D Schrader, Nestor R Zenarosa
OBJECTIVE: To compare and evaluate the performance of the HEART, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE), and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) scores to predict major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rates after index placement in an emergency department observation unit (EDOU) and to determine the need for observation unit initiation of emergent cardiac imaging tests, that is, noninvasive cardiac stress tests and invasive coronary angiography. METHODS: A prospective observational single center study was conducted from January 2014 through June 2015...
December 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845754/secondhand-smoke-is-an-important-modifiable-risk-factor-in-sickle-cell-disease-a-review-of-the-current-literature-and-areas-for-future-research
#16
REVIEW
S Christy Sadreameli, Benjamin T Kopp, Susan E Creary, Michelle N Eakin, Sharon McGrath-Morrow, John J Strouse
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy that causes significant morbidity and mortality related to chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion, and resultant end-organ damage. Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) through secondhand smoke exposure in people with SCD of all ages and through primary smoking in adolescents and adults is associated with significantly increased morbidity, with increased rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for painful vaso-occlusive crises and acute chest syndrome (ACS)...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843148/hypervulnerability-of-the-adolescent-prefrontal-cortex-to-nutritional-stress-via-reelin-deficiency
#17
M A Labouesse, O Lassalle, J Richetto, J Iafrati, U Weber-Stadlbauer, T Notter, T Gschwind, L Pujadas, E Soriano, A C Reichelt, C Labouesse, W Langhans, P Chavis, U Meyer
Overconsumption of high-fat diets (HFDs) can critically affect synaptic and cognitive functions within telencephalic structures such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. Here we show that adolescence is a sensitive period for the emergence of prefrontal cognitive deficits in response to HFD. We establish that the synaptic modulator reelin (RELN) is a critical mediator of this vulnerability because (1) periadolescent HFD (pHFD) selectively downregulates prefrontal RELN(+) cells and (2) augmenting mPFC RELN levels using transgenesis or prefrontal pharmacology prevents the pHFD-induced prefrontal cognitive deficits...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830688/-changes-in-the-phenotypic-properties-of-highly-pathogenic-influenza-a-virus-of-h5n1-subtype-induced-by-n186i-and-n186t-point-mutations-in-hemagglutinin
#18
T A Timofeeva, G K Sadykova, I A Rudneva, E Y Boravleva, A S Gambaryan, N F Lomakina, L V Mochalova, N V Bovin, E V Usachev, A G Prilipov
The change in the phenotypic properties resulting from amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule is an important link in the evolutionary process of influenza viruses. It is believed to be one of the mechanisms of the emergence of highly pathogenic strains of influenza A viruses, including subtype H5N1. Using the site-directed mutagenesis, we introduced mutations in the HA gene of the H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus. The obtained virus variants were analyzed and compared using the following parameters: optimal pH of conformational transition (according to the results of the hemolysis test), specificity of receptor binding (using a set of synthetic analogues of cell surface sialooligosaccharides), thermoresistance (heat-dependent reduction of hemagglutinin activity), virulence in mice, and the kinetics of replication in chicken embryos, and reproductive activity at different temperatures (RCT-based)...
September 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829419/does-fluoride-influence-oviposition-of-anopheles-stephensi-in-stored-water-habitats-in-an-urban-setting
#19
Shalu Thomas, Sangamithra Ravishankaran, N A Johnson Amala Justin, Aswin Asokan, T Maria Jusler Kalsingh, Manu Thomas Mathai, Neena Valecha, Alex Eapen
BACKGROUND: The physico-chemical characteristics of lentic aquatic habitats greatly influence mosquito species in selecting suitable oviposition sites; immature development, pupation and adult emergence, therefore are considerations for their preferred ecological niche. Correlating water quality parameters with mosquito breeding, as well as immature vector density, are useful for vector control operations in identifying and targeting potential breeding habitats. METHODS: A total of 40 known habitats of Anopheles stephensi, randomly selected based on a vector survey in parallel, were inspected for the physical and chemical nature of the aquatic environment...
November 9, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826745/a-person-centered-analysis-of-risk-factors-that-compromise-wellbeing-in-emerging-adulthood
#20
Sarah E Newcomb-Anjo, Erin T Barker, Andrea L Howard
The transition to adulthood is a major life course transition that can pose risk to wellbeing. Research is needed to identify patterns of risk for compromised wellbeing, in order to best identify supports for individuals during this potentially vulnerable transition. The purpose of this study was to identify profiles of risk in an emerging adulthood sample, and to relate these profiles to mental health and subjective and academic wellbeing. Undergraduate emerging adults (N = 903, 82 % female), aged 18-25 years (M = 21...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
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