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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331468/symposium-review-the-influences-of-heat-stress-on-bovine-mammary-gland-function
#1
S Tao, R M Orellana, X Weng, T N Marins, G E Dahl, J K Bernard
Heat stress reduces cow milk yield and results in a significant economic loss for the dairy industry. During lactation, heat stress lowers milk production by 25 to 40% with half of the decrease in milk synthesis resulting from the reduced feed intake. In vitro studies indicate that primary bovine mammary epithelial cells display greater rates of programmed cell death when exposed to high ambient temperatures, which may lead to a decrease in the total number of mammary epithelial cells in the mammary gland, partially explaining the lower milk production of lactating cows under heat stress...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306587/perioperative-patient-outcomes-in-the-african-surgical-outcomes-study-a-7-day-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#2
Bruce M Biccard, Thandinkosi E Madiba, Hyla-Louise Kluyts, Dolly M Munlemvo, Farai D Madzimbamuto, Apollo Basenero, Christina S Gordon, Coulibaly Youssouf, Sylvia R Rakotoarison, Veekash Gobin, Ahmadou L Samateh, Chaibou M Sani, Akinyinka O Omigbodun, Simbo D Amanor-Boadu, Janat T Tumukunde, Tonya M Esterhuizen, Yannick Le Manach, Patrice Forget, Abdulaziz M Elkhogia, Ryad M Mehyaoui, Eugene Zoumeno, Gabriel Ndayisaba, Henry Ndasi, Andrew K N Ndonga, Zipporah W W Ngumi, Ushmah P Patel, Daniel Zemenfes Ashebir, Akwasi A K Antwi-Kusi, Bernard Mbwele, Hamza Doles Sama, Mahmoud Elfiky, Maher A Fawzy, Rupert M Pearse
BACKGROUND: There is a need to increase access to surgical treatments in African countries, but perioperative complications represent a major global health-care burden. There are few studies describing surgical outcomes in Africa. METHODS: We did a 7-day, international, prospective, observational cohort study of patients aged 18 years and older undergoing any inpatient surgery in 25 countries in Africa (the African Surgical Outcomes Study). We aimed to recruit as many hospitals as possible using a convenience sampling survey, and required data from at least ten hospitals per country (or half the surgical centres if there were fewer than ten hospitals) and data for at least 90% of eligible patients from each site...
January 3, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303128/biomechanical-comparison-of-transoral-and-transbuccal-lateral-cortical-plate-fixation-for-the-management-of-mandibular-angle-fractures
#3
M M Omezli, F Ayranci, M E Polat, E Dayi, H Ghahramanzadehasl, S Karagol
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the biomechanical behaviors of two different types of osteosynthesis that are used in the treatment of mandibular angle fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty synthetic polyurethane human mandible replicas, with medullar and cortical portions, were used in this study. These polyurethane hemimandibles were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10). The transbuccal group (Group A) was fixed with 7 mm long self-tapping 2...
November 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285684/socioeconomic-disparities-and-metabolic-risk-in-veterans-with-serious-mental-illness
#4
Stanley N Caroff, Shirley H Leong, Daisy Ng-Mak, E Cabrina Campbell, Rosalind M Berkowitz, Krithika Rajagopalan, Chien-Chia Chuang, Antony Loebel
Socioeconomic disparities were assessed in predicting metabolic risk among veterans with serious mental illness. Veterans with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or bipolar disorders were identified in VISN 4 facilities from 10/1/2010 to 9/30/2012. Differences between patients with and without metabolic syndrome were compared using t-tests, Chi square tests and multivariate logistic regressions. Among 10,132 veterans with mental illness, 48.8% had metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that patients with metabolic syndrome were significantly more likely to be older, male, African-American, married, and receiving disability pensions but less likely to be homeless...
December 28, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284851/comparison-of-i-gel-versus-endotracheal-tube-in-patients-undergoing-elective-cesarean-section-a-prospective-randomized-control-study
#5
Manohar Panneer, Saravana Babu, Prakash Murugaiyan
Background and Aim: Physiological changes during pregnancy and the sympatho adrenalstimulation during larynoscopy and intubation leads to evaluation of safe devices to secure airway during cesarean section under general anesthesia. I-gel, recently emerging effective supra glottic device found safe during general anesthesia in cesarean section. Aim of the study is to compare the hemodynamic disturbances and airway related complications of I-gel and Endotracheal tube in patients undergoing cesarean section under general anesthesia...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283192/functional-and-phenotypical-analysis-of-il-6-secreting-cd4-t-cells-in-human-adipose-tissue
#6
Anja J de Jong, Sabrina Pollastro, Joanneke C Kwekkeboom, Stefan N Andersen, Annemarie L Dorjée, Aleida M Bakker, Fawaz Alzaid, Antoine Soprani, Rob G H H Nelissen, Jan B Mullers, Nicolas Venteclef, Niek de Vries, Margreet Kloppenburg, René E M Toes, Andreea Ioan-Facsinay
Emerging evidence indicates that a dynamic interplay between the immune system and adipocytes contributes to the disturbed homeostasis in adipose tissue of obese subjects. Recently, we observed IL-6-secretion by CD4+ T cells from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) of knee osteoarthritis patients directly ex vivo. Here we show that human IL-6+ CD4+ T cells from SVF display a more activated phenotype than the IL-6- T cells, as evidenced by the expression of the activation marker CD69...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283020/gaba-from-inhibition-to-cognition-emerging-concepts
#7
T Schmidt-Wilcke, E Fuchs, K Funke, A Vlachos, F Müller-Dahlhaus, N A J Puts, R E Harris, R A E Edden
Neural functioning and plasticity can be studied on different levels of organization and complexity ranging from the molecular and synaptic level to neural circuitry of whole brain networks. Across neuroscience different methods are being applied to better understand the role of various neurotransmitter systems in the evolution of perception and cognition. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult mammalian brain and, depending on the brain region, up to 25% of the total number of cortical neurons are GABAergic interneurons...
October 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281934/ethical-challenges-experienced-by-clinical-research-nurses-a-qualitative-study
#8
Mary E Larkin, Brian Beardslee, Enrico Cagliero, Catherine A Griffith, Kerry Milaszewski, Marielle T Mugford, Joanna M Myerson, Wen Ni, Donna J Perry, Sabune Winkler, Elizabeth R Witte
BACKGROUND: Clinical investigation is a growing field employing increasing numbers of nurses. This has created a new specialty practice defined by aspects unique to nursing in a clinical research context: the objectives (to implement research protocols and advance science), setting (research facilities), and nature of the nurse-participant relationship. The clinical research nurse role may give rise to feelings of ethical conflict between aspects of protocol implementation and the duty of patient advocacy, a primary nursing responsibility...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275946/ecg-predictors-of-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-older-adults-with-syncope
#9
Daniel K Nishijima, Amber L Lin, Robert E Weiss, Annick N Yagapen, Susan E Malveau, David H Adler, Aveh Bastani, Christopher W Baugh, Jeffrey M Caterino, Carol L Clark, Deborah B Diercks, Judd E Hollander, Bret A Nicks, Manish N Shah, Kirk A Stiffler, Alan B Storrow, Scott T Wilber, Benjamin C Sun
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Cardiac arrhythmia is a life-threatening condition in older adults who present to the emergency department (ED) with syncope. Previous work suggests the initial ED ECG can predict arrhythmia risk; however, specific ECG predictors have been variably specified. Our objective is to identify specific ECG abnormalities predictive of 30-day serious cardiac arrhythmias in older adults presenting to the ED with syncope. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study at 11 EDs in adults aged 60 years or older who presented with syncope or near syncope...
December 21, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260768/-prevalence-of-dna-viruses-in-maxillofacial-area-of-hiv-infected
#10
A I Shatokhin, M N Boichenko, T Zh Umbetov, S G Pak, E V Volchkova
DNA viruses have high oncogenic risk viruses; they cause emergence of Kaposi sarcoma, Lymphoma, Squamous cell carcinoma. HIV immunodeficiency promotes increase in frequency of such tumors. Etiotropic therapy of HIV patients considerably reduces prevalence of DNA viruses and a viral malignization.
2017: Stomatologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251702/safety-and-efficacy-of-brain-injury-guidelines-at-a-level-iii-trauma-center
#11
Grace E Martin, Christopher P Carroll, Zach J Plummer, D A Millar, Timothy A Pritts, Amy T Makley, Bellal A Joseph, Laura B Ngwenya, Michael D Goodman
BACKGROUND: Patients with mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often primarily managed by emergency medicine and trauma/acute care physicians. The Brain Injury Guidelines (BIG) were developed at an ACS-accredited level 1 trauma center to triage mild-to-moderate TBI patients and help identify patients who warrant neurosurgical consultation. The BIG have not been validated at a level III trauma center. We hypothesized that BIG criteria can be safely adapted to an ACS-accredited level III trauma center to guide transfers to a higher echelon of care...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245784/directional-optical-switching-and-transistor-functionality-using-optical-parametric-oscillation-in-a-spinor-polariton-fluid
#12
Przemyslaw Lewandowski, Samuel M H Luk, Chris K P Chan, P T Leung, N H Kwong, Rolf Binder, Stefan Schumacher
Over the past decade, spontaneously emerging patterns in the density of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities were found to be a promising candidate for all-optical switching. But recent approaches were mostly restricted to scalar fields, did not benefit from the polariton's unique spin-dependent properties, and utilized switching based on hexagon far-field patterns with 60° beam switching (i.e. in the far field the beam propagation direction is switched by 60°). Since hexagon far-field patterns are challenging, we present here an approach for a linearly polarized spinor field, that allows for a transistor-like (e...
December 11, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239852/management-specificities-for-abdominal-pelvic-and-vascular-penetrating-trauma
#13
E Hornez, F Béranger, T Monchal, Y Baudouin, G Boddaert, H De Lesquen, S Bourgouin, Y Goudard, B Malgras, G Pauleau, V Reslinger, N Mocellin, C Natale, L Meyrat, J-P Avaro, P Balandraud, S Gaujoux, S Bonnet
Management of patients with penetrating trauma of the abdomen, pelvis and their surrounding compartments as well as vascular injuries depends on the patient's hemodynamic status. Multiple associated lesions are the rule. Their severity is directly correlated with initial bleeding, the risk of secondary sepsis, and lastly to sequelae. In patients who are hemodynamically unstable, the goal of management is to rapidly obtain hemostasis. This mandates initial laparotomy for abdominal wounds, extra-peritoneal packing (EPP) and resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) in the emergency room for pelvic wounds, insertion of temporary vascular shunts (TVS) for proximal limb injuries, ligation for distal vascular injuries, and control of exteriorized extremity bleeding with a tourniquet, compressive or hemostatic dressings for bleeding at the junction or borderline between two compartments, as appropriate...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Visceral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237792/zoonotic-transfer-of-clostridium-difficile-harboring-antimicrobial-resistance-between-farm-animals-and-humans
#14
C W Knetsch, N Kumar, S C Forster, T R Connor, H P Browne, C Harmanus, I M Sanders, S R Harris, L Turner, T Morris, M Perry, F Miyajima, P Roberts, M Pirmohamed, J G Songer, J S Weese, A Indra, J Corver, M Rupnik, B W Wren, T V Riley, E J Kuijper, T D Lawley
The emergence of Clostridium difficile as a significant human diarrheal pathogen is associated with the production of highly transmissible spores and the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence factors. Unlike the hospital associated C. difficile RT027 lineage, the community associated C. difficile RT078 lineage is isolated from both humans and farm animals; however, the geographical population structure and transmission networks remain unknown. Here we applied whole genome phylogenetic analysis of 248 C...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237003/illumina-short-read-and-minion-long-read-wgs-to-characterize-the-molecular-epidemiology-of-an-ndm-1-serratia-marcescens-outbreak-in-romania
#15
H T T Phan, N Stoesser, I E Maciuca, F Toma, E Szekely, M Flonta, A T M Hubbard, L Pankhurst, T Do, T E A Peto, A S Walker, D W Crook, D Timofte
Background and Objectives: Serratia marcescens is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, and the carbapenemase blaNDM has been reported in several surveys in Romania. We aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. marcescens in two Romanian hospitals over 2010-15, including a neonatal NDM-1 S. marcescens outbreak. Methods: Isolates were sequenced using Illumina technology together with carbapenem-non-susceptible NDM-1-positive and NDM-1-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae to provide genomic context...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232576/effects-of-oxytocin-on-cortisol-reactivity-and-conflict-resolution-behaviors-among-couples-with-substance-misuse
#16
Julianne C Flanagan, Melanie S Fischer, Paul J Nietert, Sudie E Back, Megan Moran-Santa Maria, Alexandra Snead, Kathleen T Brady
Social stress, particularly in the form of dyadic conflict, is a well-established correlate of substance use disorders (SUD). The neuropeptide oxytocin can enhance prosocial behavior and mitigate addictive behaviors. These effects may be, in part, a result of oxytocin's ability to attenuate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. However, only one study to date has examined the effects of oxytocin on neuroendocrine reactivity or conflict resolution behavior among couples. Participants (N = 33 couples or 66 total participants) were heterosexual couples in which one or both partners endorsed substance misuse...
December 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219497/binding-energy-of-79-cu-probing-the-structure-of-the-doubly-magic-78-ni-from-only-one-proton-away
#17
A Welker, N A S Althubiti, D Atanasov, K Blaum, T E Cocolios, F Herfurth, S Kreim, D Lunney, V Manea, M Mougeot, D Neidherr, F Nowacki, A Poves, M Rosenbusch, L Schweikhard, F Wienholtz, R N Wolf, K Zuber
The masses of the neutron-rich copper isotopes ^{75-79}Cu are determined using the precision mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the CERN-ISOLDE facility. The trend from the new data differs significantly from that of previous results, offering a first accurate view of the mass surface adjacent to the Z=28, N=50 nuclide ^{78}Ni and supporting a doubly magic character. The new masses compare very well with large-scale shell-model calculations that predict shape coexistence in a doubly magic ^{78}Ni and a new island of inversion for Z<28...
November 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215380/applying-the-ottawa-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-rule-on-a-cohort-of-emergency-department-patients-with-headache
#18
Kevin H Chu, Gerben Keijzers, Jeremy S Furyk, Robert M Eley, Frances B Kinnear, Ogilvie N Thom, Tegwen E Howell, Ibrahim Mahmoud, Joseph Y S Ting, Anthony F T Brown
OBJECTIVE: The Ottawa subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) rule suggests that alert patients older than 15 years with a severe nontraumatic headache reaching maximum intensity within 1 h and absence of high-risk variables effectively have a SAH ruled out. We aimed to determine the proportion of emergency department (ED) patients with any headache fulfilling the entry criteria for the Ottawa SAH rule. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Ottawa SAH rule was applied retrospectively in a substudy of a prospective snapshot of 34 EDs in Queensland, Australia, carried out over 4 weeks in September 2014...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214689/distinct-factors-determine-the-kinetics-of-disease-relapse-in-adults-transplanted-for-acute-myeloid-leukaemia
#19
C Craddock, J Versluis, M Labopin, G Socie, A Huynh, E Deconinck, L Volin, N Milpied, J H Bourhis, A Rambaldi, P Chevallier, D Blaise, M Manz, E Vellenga, M-C Vekemans, J Maertens, J Passweg, P Vyas, C Schmid, B Löwenberg, G Ossenkoppele, M Mohty, J J Cornelissen, A Nagler
Disease recurrence remains the major cause of death in adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated using either intensive chemotherapy (IC) or allogenic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). The timely delivery of maintenance drug or cellular therapies represent emerging strategies with the potential to reduce relapse after both treatment modalities, but whilst the determinants of overall relapse risk have been extensively characterized the factors determining the timing of disease recurrence have not been characterized...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209302/influence-of-stress-and-antibiotic-resistance-on-cell-length-distribution-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates
#20
Srinivasan Vijay, Dao N Vinh, Hoang T Hai, Vu T N Ha, Vu T M Dung, Tran D Dinh, Hoang N Nhung, Trinh T B Tram, Bree B Aldridge, Nguyen T Hanh, Do D A Thu, Nguyen H Phu, Guy E Thwaites, Nguyen T T Thuong
Mycobacterial cellular variations in growth and division increase heterogeneity in cell length, possibly contributing to cell-to-cell variation in host and antibiotic stress tolerance. This may be one of the factors influencing Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence to antibiotics. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in developing countries, antibiotic persistence, and emergence of antibiotic resistance further complicates this problem. We wanted to investigate the factors influencing cell-length distribution in clinical M...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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