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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340053/does-the-regulatory-environment-for-e-cigarettes-influence-the-effectiveness-of-e-cigarettes-for-smoking-cessation-longitudinal-findings-from-the-itc-four-country-survey
#1
Hua-Hie Yong, Sara C Hitchman, K Michael Cummings, Ron Borland, Shannon M L Gravely, Ann McNeill, Geoffrey T Fong
Introduction: To date, no studies have explored how different regulatory environments may influence the effectiveness of ECs as a smoking cessation aid. Objective: This study compares the real-world effectiveness of adult smokers using ECs for quitting compared with quitting unassisted or quitting with NRT and/or prescription medications in two countries with restrictive policies towards ECs (i.e., Canada and Australia) versus two countries with less restrictive policies (i...
March 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337491/meeting-report-unesco-merck-africa-research-summit-2015-accelerating-access-and-sustaining-innovation-from-africa-for-africa
#2
R W Omange, A O Ocholla, A O Kwallah, S N Kageha, J Mwangi, R K Cherutich, Odeny T A, T Nzomo, S Angwenyi, P Yonga, F Kariuki, M Kyalo, P C Mutai, F Nindo, E M Songok
BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus disease outbreak of 2014 was the largest, longest and most devastating in the history of the disease. It demonstrated the social and economic impact an emerging infectious disease can have in a globalized world. Health systems in affected countries were stretched to the point of near collapse, while social relations and traditional practices were negatively impacted. Heads of African research institutions, African government representatives, leaders of global pharmaceutical companies, global infectious disease experts and close to 100 young African researchers from 25 countries; Assembled in Geneva on 19 and 20th October 2015, for the inaugural UNESCO-Merck Africa Summit sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Science and Culture Organization and Merck KGA...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336552/prospective-comprehensive-molecular-characterization-of-lung-adenocarcinomas-for-efficient-patient-matching-to-approved-and-emerging-therapies
#3
Emmet J Jordan, Hyunjae R Kim, Maria E Arcila, David A Barron, Debyani Chakravarty, Jianjiong Gao, Matthew T Chang, Andy Ni, Ritika Kundra, Philip Jonsson, Gowtham Jayakumaran, Sizhi P Gao, Hannah C Johnsen, Aphrothiti J Hanrahan, Ahmet Zehir, Natasha Rekhtman, Michelle S Ginsberg, Bob T Li, Helena Yu, Paul K Paik, Alexander Drilon, Matthew D Hellmann, Dalicia N Reales, Ryma Benayed, Valerie W Rusch, Mark G Kris, Jamie E Chaft, José Baselga, Barry S Taylor, Nikolaus Schultz, Charles M Rudin, David M Hyman, Michael F Berger, David B Solit, Marc Ladanyi, Gregory J Riely
Tumor genetic testing is standard of care for patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma but the fraction of patients who derive clinical benefit remains undefined. Here, we report the experience of 860 patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma analyzed prospectively for mutations in >300 cancer-associated genes. Potentially actionable genetic events were stratified into one of four levels based upon published clinical or laboratory evidence that the mutation in question confers increased sensitivity to standard or investigational therapies...
March 23, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333488/the-hierarchical-taxonomy-of-psychopathology-hitop-a-dimensional-alternative-to-traditional-nosologies
#4
Roman Kotov, Robert F Krueger, David Watson, Thomas M Achenbach, Robert R Althoff, R Michael Bagby, Timothy A Brown, William T Carpenter, Avshalom Caspi, Lee Anna Clark, Nicholas R Eaton, Miriam K Forbes, Kelsie T Forbush, David Goldberg, Deborah Hasin, Steven E Hyman, Masha Y Ivanova, Donald R Lynam, Kristian Markon, Joshua D Miller, Terrie E Moffitt, Leslie C Morey, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt, Johan Ormel, Christopher J Patrick, Darrel A Regier, Leslie Rescorla, Camilo J Ruggero, Douglas B Samuel, Martin Sellbom, Leonard J Simms, Andrew E Skodol, Tim Slade, Susan C South, Jennifer L Tackett, Irwin D Waldman, Monika A Waszczuk, Thomas A Widiger, Aidan G C Wright, Mark Zimmerman
The reliability and validity of traditional taxonomies are limited by arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, often unclear boundaries between disorders, frequent disorder co-occurrence, heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic instability. These taxonomies went beyond evidence available on the structure of psychopathology and were shaped by a variety of other considerations, which may explain the aforementioned shortcomings. The Hierarchical Taxonomy Of Psychopathology (HiTOP) model has emerged as a research effort to address these problems...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326535/effect-of-day-of-the-week-on-short-and-long-term-mortality-after-emergency-general-surgery
#5
M A Gillies, N I Lone, R M Pearse, C Haddow, L Smyth, R W Parks, T S Walsh, E M Harrison
BACKGROUND: The effect of day of the week on outcome after surgery is the subject of debate. The aim was to determine whether day of the week of emergency general surgery alters short- and long-term mortality. METHODS: This was an observational study of all patients undergoing emergency general surgery in Scotland between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2007, followed to 2012. Multilevel logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to assess the effect of day of the week of surgery on outcome after adjustment for case mix and risk factors...
March 21, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325210/breast-cancer-immunology-and-immunotherapy-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#6
L de la Cruz-Merino, M Chiesa, R Caballero, F Rojo, N Palazón, F H Carrasco, V Sánchez-Margalet
Cancer immunology has gained renewed interest in the past few years due to emerging findings on mechanisms involved in tumoral immune evasion. Indisputably, immune edition is currently considered a critical hallmark of cancer. Basic research has revealed new targets which can be modulated in the clinical setting with new compounds and strategies. As recent evidence confirms, breast cancer (BC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease in which host immune responses play a substantial role. T-infiltrating lymphocytes measurement is suggested as a powerful new tool necessary to predict early BC evolution, especially in HER2-positive and triple negative subtypes...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318808/t-cell-receptor-assessment-in-autoimmune-disease-requires-access-to-the-most-adjacent-immunologically-active-organ
#7
Bergithe E Oftedal, Brita Ardesjö Lundgren, David Hamm, Poh-Yi Gan, Stephen R Holdsworth, Christopher N Hahn, Andreas W Schreiber, Hamish S Scott
Next generation sequencing of T and B cell receptors is emerging as a valuable and effective method to diagnose and monitor hematopoietic malignancies. So far, this approach has not been fully explored in regard to autoimmune diseases. T cells develop in the thymus where they undergo positive and negative selection, and the autoimmune regulator (Aire) is central in the establishment of immunological tolerance. Loss of Aire leads to severe multiorgan autoimmune disease with infiltration of autoreactive T cells in affected organs...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315949/-89-zr-onartuzumab-pet-imaging-of-c-met-receptor-dynamics
#8
Martin Pool, Anton G T Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Arjan Kol, Danique Giesen, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Marjolijn N Lub-de Hooge
PURPOSE: c-MET and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor are often dysregulated in human cancers. Dynamic changes in c-MET expression occur and might predict drug efficacy or emergence of resistance. Noninvasive visualization of c-MET dynamics could therefore potentially guide c-MET-directed therapies. We investigated the feasibility of (89)Zr-labelled one-armed c-MET antibody onartuzumab PET for detecting relevant changes in c-MET levels induced by c-MET-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib resistance or heat shock protein-90 (HSP90) inhibitor NVP-AUY-922 treatment in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenografts...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315761/a-growing-geographic-disparity-rural-and-urban-cigarette-smoking-trends-in-the-united-states
#9
N J Doogan, M E Roberts, M E Wewers, C A Stanton, D R Keith, D E Gaalema, A N Kurti, R Redner, A Cepeda-Benito, J Y Bunn, A A Lopez, S T Higgins
Rural areas of the United States have a higher smoking prevalence than urban areas. However, no recent studies have rigorously examined potential changes in this disparity over time or whether the disparity can be explained by demographic or psychosocial characteristics associated with smoking. The present study used yearly cross sectional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2007 through 2014 to examine cigarette smoking trends in rural versus urban areas of the United States. The analytic sample included 303,311 respondents...
March 15, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302430/antimicrobial-copper-alloys-decreased-bacteria-on-stethoscope-surfaces
#10
Michael G Schmidt, Rachel E Tuuri, Arif Dharsee, Hubert H Attaway, Sarah E Fairey, Keith T Borg, Cassandra D Salgado, Bruce E Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Stethoscopes may serve as vehicles for transmission of bacteria among patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial copper surfaces to reduce the bacterial concentration associated with stethoscope surfaces. METHODS: A structured prospective trial involving 21 health care providers was conducted at a pediatric emergency division (ED) (n = 14) and an adult medical intensive care unit located in tertiary care facilities (n = 7)...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299894/insights-on-food-webs-associated-with-the-south-american-tomato-pinworm
#11
Mario Naselli, Antonio Biondi, Giovanna Tropea Garzia, Nicolas Desneux, Agatino Russo, Gaetano Siscaro, Lucia Zappalà
BACKGROUND: Complexity of both natural and managed ecosystems involves various forms of interaction among organisms. Two or more species that exploit the same resource can engage in competitive behaviors, usually referred to as intra-guild interactions. These can be direct, i.e. one species feeds directly upon the competitor (intra-guild predation) or indirect, e.g. when the dominant organism competes for a food source which another organism is feeding on (kleptoparasitism). We investigated the potential for such interactions in a biological model composed by the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, and three of its newly associated natural enemies: the zoophytophagous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis, and two idiobiont ectoparasitoids Bracon nigricans, and Necremnus tutae...
March 16, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285882/effect-of-altering-the-intervals-between-consecutive-superovulatory-doses-of-porcine-follicle-stimulating-hormone-on-ovarian-responses-and-embryo-yields-in-anestrous-ewes
#12
P M Bartlewski, M Murawski, T Schwarz, M E F Oliveira
The effect of varying intervals between successive gonadotropin injections on the superovulatory outcomes in anestrous Rideau Arcott ewes superstimulated for ovarian follicular development with multiple doses of porcine FSH (pFSH) was evaluated in a single study. Twenty-five animals received six (1×2.5ml and 5×1.25ml) injections of Folltropin(®)-V given at 0800 and 1600h or at 0800 and 2000h in Group 1 (n=9) or Group 2 (n=16), respectively. An i.m. injection of 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; Folligon(®)) was given concurrently with the first pFSH dose...
March 6, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283847/increased-plasma-concentrations-of-soluble-st2-independently-predict-mortality-but-not-cardiovascular-events-in-stable-coronary-heart-disease-patients-13-year-follow-up-of-the-karola-study
#13
Vanessa Pfetsch, Veronika Sanin, Andrea Jaensch, Dhayana Dallmeier, Ute Mons, Hermann Brenner, Wolfgang Koenig, Dietrich Rothenbacher
PURPOSE: sST2 (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2), a member of the interleukin-1 family, has been suggested to play a role in cardiac remodeling and inflammatory signaling. We assessed the association between sST2 in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) with multiple cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality, simultaneously controlling for a large number of potential confounders. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of sST2 (ELISA, Critical Diagnostics) were measured at baseline in a cohort of 1081 patients...
March 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276841/effectiveness-of-an-interprofessional-education-model-based-on-the-transtheoretical-model-of-behaviour-change-to-improve-interprofessional-collaboration
#14
Fatemeh Keshmiri, Mahdi Rezai, Reza Mosaddegh, Kamran Moradi, Peyman Hafezimoghadam, Mohammad Amin Zare, Nader Tavakoli, Mohammad Ali Cheraghi, Mandana Shirazi
This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an interprofessional education model (IPE) based on the transtheoretical model to improve the participants' interprofessional collaborative practice. The study was conducted in Iran using a controlled before-and-after study design. The participants (n = 91) were the residents of emergency medicine and nurses of the emergency units from two teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. The participants in the intervention group (n = 40) were 22 residents and 18 nurses...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274253/phase-1b-randomized-double-blind-study-of-namilumab-an-anti-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-monoclonal-antibody-in-mild-to-moderate-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
T W J Huizinga, A Batalov, R Stoilov, E Lloyd, T Wagner, D Saurigny, B Souberbielle, E Esfandiari
BACKGROUND: Namilumab (AMG203) is an immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to the GM-CSF ligand. This was a phase 1b, randomized, double-blind study (PRIORA) to assess namilumab in active, mild-to-moderate rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The primary outcome was the safety and tolerability of repeated subcutaneous injections of namilumab in patients with mild-to-moderate RA. METHODS: Adults with mild-to-moderate RA on stable methotrexate doses for ≥12 weeks were eligible...
March 9, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268071/no-filter-a-characterization-of-pharmacist-posts-on-instagram
#16
F Mark Hindman, Alison E Bukowitz, Brent N Reed, T Joseph Mattingly
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to characterize the underlying intent of Instagram posts using the hashtag metadata term "#pharmacist" over a 1-year period. The secondary objective was to determine whether statistically significant relationships existed between the categories and the 2 dichotomous variables tested, self-portrayed images, and relation to health care. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional, mixed methods, exploratory, descriptive study. SETTING: A review of available Instagram posts using the hashtag metadata "#pharmacist" from November 4, 2014, to November 3, 2015...
March 4, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264974/emerging-role-of-dopamine-in-neovascularization-of-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#17
REVIEW
Thamara E Osinga, Thera P Links, Robin P F Dullaart, Karel Pacak, Anouk N A van der Horst-Schrivers, Michiel N Kerstens, Ido P Kema
Dopamine is a catecholamine that acts both as a neurotransmitter and as a hormone, exerting its functions via dopamine (DA) receptors that are present in a broad variety of organs and cells throughout the body. In the circulation, DA is primarily stored in and transported by blood platelets. Recently, the important contribution of DA in the regulation of angiogenesis has been recognized. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that DA inhibits angiogenesis through activation of the DA receptor type 2. Overproduction of catecholamines is the biochemical hallmark of pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL)...
March 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262864/comment-on-relating-side-chain-organization-of-pnipam-with-its-conformation-in-aqueous-methanol-by-d-mukherji-m-wagner-m-d-watson-s-winzen-t-e-de-oliveira-c-m-marques-and-k-kremer-soft-matter-2016-12-7995
#18
Nico F A van der Vegt, Francisco Rodríguez-Ropero
In a recent paper, Mukherji et al. describe the collapse of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) in methanol-water mixtures based on experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. The conclusion of their work is that chain collapse is dominated by enthalpic bridging interactions while entropic effects play no major role. Here we show that this claim arises from an improper interpretation of preferential binding and the corresponding thermodynamic data presented. When interpreted correctly, the data instead provide evidence for repulsive enthalpic interactions of methanol with the polymer, supporting the emerging view of entropic chain collapse...
March 6, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258477/detection-of-norovirus-gii-17-kawasaki-2014-in-shellfish-marine-water-and-underwater-sewage-discharges-in-italy
#19
G La Rosa, S Della Libera, M Iaconelli, Y T R Proroga, D De Medici, V Martella, E Suffredini
Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and the variants of genotype GII.4 are currently the predominant human strains. Recently, a novel variant of NoV GII.17 (GII.P17_GII.17 NoV), termed Kawasaki 2014, has been reported as the cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in Asia, replacing the pandemic strain GII.4 Sydney 2012. The GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 variant has also been reported sporadically in patients with gastroenteritis outside of Asia, including Italy. In this study, 384 shellfish samples were subjected to screening for human NoVs using real-time PCR and 259 (67...
March 3, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247068/the-role-of-infants-mother-directed-gaze-maternal-sensitivity-and-emotion-recognition-in-childhood-callous-unemotional-behaviours
#20
R Bedford, N J Wagner, P D Rehder, C Propper, M T Willoughby, R W Mills-Koonce
While some children with callous unemotional (CU) behaviours show difficulty recognizing emotional expressions, the underlying developmental pathways are not well understood. Reduced infant attention to the caregiver's face and a lack of sensitive parenting have previously been associated with emerging CU features. The current study examined whether facial emotion recognition mediates the association between infants' mother-directed gaze, maternal sensitivity, and later CU behaviours. Participants were 206 full-term infants and their families from a prospective longitudinal study, the Durham Child Health and Development Study (DCHDS)...
February 28, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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