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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915150/tics-and-tourette-a-clinical-pathophysiological-and-etiological-review
#1
Russell C Dale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe developments in the etiological understanding of Tourette syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Tourette syndrome is a complex heterogenous clinical syndrome, which is not a unitary entity. Pathophysiological models describe gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic-associated disinhibition of cortico-basal ganglia motor, sensory and limbic loops. MRI studies support basal ganglia volume loss, with additional white matter and cerebellar changes. Tourette syndrome cause likely involves multiple vulnerability genes and environmental factors...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894297/the-pnkd-gene-is-associated-with-tourette-disorder-or-tic-disorder-in-a-multiplex-family
#2
N Sun, C Nasello, L Deng, N Wang, Y Zhang, Z Xu, Z Song, K Kwan, R A King, Z P Pang, J Xing, G A Heiman, J A Tischfield
Tourette Disorder (TD) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the presence of both motor and vocal tics. The genetic architecture of TD is believed to be complex and heterogeneous. Nevertheless, DNA sequence variants co-segregating with TD phenotypes within multiplex families have been identified. This report examines whole exomes of affected and unaffected individuals in a multiplex TD family to discover genes involved in the TD etiology. We performed whole exome sequencing on six out of nine members in a three-generation TD multiplex family...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878322/altered-topology-of-structural-brain-networks-in-patients-with-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#3
E Schlemm, B Cheng, F Fischer, C Hilgetag, C Gerloff, G Thomalla
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics. Abnormal neuronal circuits in a wide-spread structural and functional network involved in planning, execution and control of motor functions are thought to represent the underlying pathology. We therefore studied changes of structural brain networks in 13 adult GTS patients reconstructed by diffusion tensor imaging and probabilistic tractography. Structural connectivity and network topology were characterized by graph theoretical measures and compared to 13 age-matched controls...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861008/case-of-secondary-tics-associated-with-olanzapine-in-an-adult
#4
Eric W Mills, Lindsay S Shaffer, Fernando S Goes, Akira Sawa, Frederick C Nucifora
Atypical antipsychotic medications, such as risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine, have utility in treating motor tics, particularly in Tourette syndrome. In rare cases, atypical antipsychotic medications have been associated with adult-onset motor tics. Such adverse drug reactions have been documented in response to quetiapine, aripiprazole, and amisulpride. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first case of adult-onset motor tics related to olanzapine administration.
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833746/a-tug-of-war-antagonistic-effective-connectivity-patterns-over-the-motor-cortex-and-the-severity-of-motor-symptoms-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#5
Laura Zapparoli, Marco Tettamanti, Mauro Porta, Alberto Zerbi, Domenico Servello, Giuseppe Banfi, Eraldo Paulesu
We tested the hypothesis that Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterized by perturbed connectivity within cortico-subcortical motor networks. To this end, we performed a dynamic causal modelling (DCM) analysis of fMRI data collected during a finger opposition task in 24 normal controls and 24 GTS patients. The DCM analysis allowed us to assess whether any GTS-specific patterns of brain activity were related to intrinsic and/or to task-dependent connectivity. While no abnormalities were found for task-dependent connectivity, intrinsic connectivity was abnormally increased in the premotor network, with stronger connections from the supplementary motor area (SMA), from the dorsolateral premotor cortex and from the putamen to the right superior frontal gyrus, an area where GTS showed over-activation in a previous univariate analysis...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831377/centrality-of-prefrontal-and-motor-preparation-cortices-to-tourette-syndrome-revealed-by-meta-analysis-of-task-based-neuroimaging-studies
#6
Liliana Polyanska, Hugo D Critchley, Charlotte L Rae
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by chronic multiple tics, which are experienced as compulsive and 'unwilled'. Patients with TS can differ markedly in the frequency, severity, and bodily distribution of tics. Moreover, there are high comorbidity rates with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorders, and depression. This complex clinical profile may account for apparent variability of findings across neuroimaging studies that connect neural function to cognitive and motor behavior in TS...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816926/feasibility-and-relevance-of-antipsychotic-safety-monitoring-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#7
Tamara Pringsheim, Josephine Ho, Justyna R Sarna, Tracy Hammer, Scott Patten
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics are efficacious for tics and are increasingly prescribed to children with behavioral disorders. Antipsychotics have important adverse effects, and systematic monitoring of drug safety is infrequently performed. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of antipsychotic safety monitoring in children with Tourette Syndrome using a defined protocol and to evaluate the risk of adverse effects with chronic use. METHODS/PROCEDURES: A prospective longitudinal study of children prescribed antipsychotics was performed...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816835/acute-worsening-of-tics-on-varenicline
#8
Shivam Om Mittal, Bryan T Klassen, Anhar Hassan, James H Bower, Elizabeth A Coon
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report worsening of Tourette syndrome (TS) in 2 patients treated with varenicline. BACKGROUND: Abnormal dopaminergic signaling is likely involved in the pathophysiology of TS. Varenicline is a partial α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine agonist that enhances dopamine release. Therefore, the use of varenicline may influence tics in patients with TS. METHOD: We analyzed and described 2 case studies on patients with significant worsening of tics after treatment with varenicline...
September 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815684/cognitive-psychophysiological-treatment-of-bodily-focused-repetitive-behaviors-in-adults-an-open-trial
#9
Kieron O'Connor, Marc Lavoie, Benoît Desaulniers, Jean-Sébastien Audet
BACKGROUND: Body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs), such as hair pulling, skin picking, and nail biting, are repetitive, destructive, and nonfunctional habits that cause significant distress. Separate BFRBs form a cohesive group and could be assessed as part of the Tourette/tic spectrum or obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders. The treatment of choice is either antidepressant or behavioral treatment, both of which have shown effectiveness. The cognitive psychophysiological (CoPs) model focuses on the tension and emotional build up that triggers habits by addressing cognitive-behavioral, emotional and psychophysiological processes preceding onset rather than the habit itself...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807495/the-colorful-spectrum-of-tourette-syndrome-and-its-medical-surgical-and-behavioral-therapies
#10
Jan Roth
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, more common in males than females, with onset before age 18. TS is characterized by multiple motor tics and one or more vocal/phonic tics, persisting for more than a year. Tics are unvoluntary, abrupt, rapid, repetitive, but non-rhythmic movements or sounds (vocalizations). They are preceded by an inner urge. Tics can be temporarily suppressed, but this leads to a powerful re-emergence. The performance of tics results in immediate but transient relief...
August 10, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805580/tourette-syndrome-and-chronic-tic-disorders-the-clinical-spectrum-beyond-tics
#11
Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Tamara M Pringsheim
The clinical surveillance and active management of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other primary chronic tic disorders cannot be limited to tics, as these patients manifest a spectrum of sensory-, behavioral-, cognitive-, and sleep-related problems that have a major impact on their functioning and quality of life, influencing enormously clinical decision making on a routine basis. The sensory phenomena of primary tic disorders consist of premonitory urges and heightened sensitivity to external somatosensory and interoceptive stimuli...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798371/evidence-for-enhanced-multi-component-behaviour-in-tourette-syndrome-an-eeg-study
#12
Valerie C Brandt, Ann-Kathrin Stock, Alexander Münchau, Christian Beste
Evidence suggests that Tourette syndrome is characterized by an increase in dopamine transmission and structural as well as functional changes in fronto-striatal circuits that might lead to enhanced multi-component behaviour integration. Behavioural and neurophysiological data regarding multi-component behaviour was collected from 15 patients with Tourette syndrome (mean age = 30.40 ± 11.10) and 15 healthy controls (27.07 ± 5.44), using the stop-change task. In this task, participants are asked to sometimes withhold responses to a Go stimulus (stop cue) and change hands to respond to an alternative Go stimulus (change cue)...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796166/speechlessness-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-cannabis-based-medicines-improve-severe-vocal-blocking-tics-in-two-patients
#13
Ewgeni Jakubovski, Kirsten Müller-Vahl
We report the cases of two young German male patients with treatment-resistant Tourette syndrome (TS), who suffer from incapacitating stuttering-like speech disfluencies caused by vocal blocking tics and palilalia. Case 1: a 19-year old patient received medical cannabis at a dose of 1 × 0.1 g cannabis daily. Case 2: a 16-year old patient initially received dronabinol at a maximum dose of 22.4-33.6 mg daily. Both treatments provided significant symptom improvement of vocal blocking tics as well as of comorbid conditions and were well tolerated...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789621/tics-as-an-initial-manifestation-of-juvenile-huntington-s-disease-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Shi-Shuang Cui, Ru-Jing Ren, Ying Wang, Gang Wang, Sheng-Di Chen
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder, typically characterized by chorea due to a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the HTT gene, although the clinical manifestations of patients with juvenile HD (JHD) are atypical. CASE PRESENTATION: A 17-year-old boy with initial presentation of tics attended our clinic and his DNA analysis demonstrated mutation in the HTT gene (49 CAG repeats). After treatment, his symptoms improved. Furthermore, we performed literature review through searching the databases and summarized clinical features in 33 JHD patients...
August 8, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741401/trans-diagnostic-comparison-of-response-inhibition-in-tourette-s-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
Siyan Fan, Danielle C Cath, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Stella de Wit, Dick J Veltman, Odile A van den Heuvel
OBJECTIVES: Impaired response inhibition is related to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Tourette's disorder (TD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Unlike OCD, in which neural correlates of response inhibition have been extensively studied, TD literature is limited. By using a Stop-Signal task, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition deficits in TD compared to OCD and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Twenty-three TD patients, 20 OCD patients and 22 HCs were scanned (3T MRI)...
July 25, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740637/antipsychotic-induced-hyperprolactinemia-in-tourette-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Judith J G Rath, Marlies E J Deen, Hessel van Houten, Sebastiaan F T M de Bruijn, Joop van Gerven, Dick Mul
For many years, Tourette syndrome (TS) was considered to be a rare disorder, but tics and TS are now recognized as fairly common childhood-onset conditions. Children and adolescents with TS are frequently treated with antipsychotics, either as monotherapy or in combination with psychostimulants, melatonin and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Antipsychotics are most often used in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, and in these conditions hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common adverse effects associated with antipsychotics, occurring in 40-50% of patients...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738196/parental-age-and-the-risk-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-tourette-syndrome-chronic-tic-disorder-in-a-nationwide-population-based-sample
#17
Roshan Chudal, Susanna Leivonen, Hanna Rintala, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Andre Sourander
OBJECTIVES: Advancing paternal age has been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders in children. However, there is limited understanding of this association with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) with inconsistent findings. We examined the association between parental age and offspring OCD and TS/CT. METHODS: This nested case-control study used the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) to identify 1358 individuals with OCD and 1195 with TS/CT, born from 1991 to 2009 and diagnosed by 2010...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734459/the-roles-of-phasic-and-tonic-dopamine-in-tic%C3%A2-learning-and-expression
#18
REVIEW
Tiago V Maia, Vasco A Conceição
Tourette syndrome (TS) prominently involves dopaminergic disturbances, but the precise nature of those disturbances has remained elusive. A substantial body of empirical work and recent computational models have characterized the specific roles of phasic and tonic dopamine (DA) in action learning and selection, respectively. Using insights from this work and models, we suggest that TS involves increases in both phasic and tonic DA, which produce increased propensities for tic learning and expression, respectively...
June 8, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723227/extended-release-guanfacine-does-not-show-a-large-effect-on-tic-severity-in-children-with-chronic-tic-disorders
#19
Tanya K Murphy, Thomas V Fernandez, Barbara J Coffey, Omar Rahman, Allison Gavaletz, Camille E Hanks, Caitlin S Tillberg, Laura Ibanez Gomez, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Lily Katsovich, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tolerability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of extended-release guanfacine in children with chronic tic disorders, including Tourette's disorder (collectively referred to as CTD). METHODS: This was a multisite, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The primary outcome measure was the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) total score. Key secondary outcomes included the Improvement item of Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale and the Tic Symptom Self-report (TSSR)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722101/-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-symptoms-causes-and-therapy
#20
Ewgeni Jakubovski, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a chronic neuropsychiatric movement disease with combined motor tics and at least one vocal tic for a minimum period of 1 year. It typically begins in the childhood (under 18 years of age).Most of the patients with Tourette syndrome have comorbidities, which often impair their quality of life more than the tics themselves.There are reported abnormalities in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical regions as well as in the neurotransmission of dopamine and other neurotransmission systems...
June 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
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