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Michio Hashimoto, Shahdat Hossain, Masanori Katakura, Abdullah Al Mamun, Osamu Shido
Abstract : Memory extinction is referred to as a learning process in which a conditioned response (CR) progressively reduces over time as an animal learns to uncouple a response from a stimulus. Extinction occurs when the rat is placed into a context without shock after training. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) is implicated in memory formation in mammalian brains. In a two-way active shuttle-avoidance apparatus, we examined whether DHA affects the extinction memory and the expression of brain cognition-related proteins, including gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor (BDNFR) tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrKB), and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits NR2A and NR2B...
February 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xing-Guang Liang, Chao Tan, Cheng-Kun Wang, Rong-Rong Tao, Yu-Jie Huang, Kui-Fen Ma, Kohji Fukunaga, Ming-Zhu Huang, Feng Han
OBJECTIVE: The cholinergic deficit is thought to underlie progressed cognitive decline in Alzheimer Disease. The lineage reprogramming of somatic cells into cholinergic neurons may provide strategies toward cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we found that a combination of neuronal transcription factors, including Ascl1, Myt1l, Brn2, Tlx3, and miR124 (5Fs) were capable of directly converting human brain vascular pericytes (HBVPs) into cholinergic neuronal cells...
February 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Luciana M Pereira, Isabella M Guimarães, Vinícius E M Oliveira, Cristiane P Bastos, Fabíola M Ribeiro, Vânia F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Grace S Pereira
Estrogens positively affect object recognition memory (ORM). However, whether this effect rely on acetylcholine is unknown. Here we investigated if 17β-estradiol (E2) would be able to recover ORM deficits in animals with decreased expression of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT KDHET ). We found that E2 improved short-term ORM (STM) in VAChT KDHET male and in OVX female mutant mice. However, E2 did not recover long-term (LTM) ORM in both sexes. Next, we tested whether hippocampal ERs activation could also rescue STM in mutant mice...
February 12, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Chunling Liu, Hui Liu, Hongjun Jin, Xuyi Yue, Zonghua Luo, Zhude Tu
Cholinergic dysfunction in the central nervous system is an important characteristic of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). By using a rat EAE model, upregulation of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) level in the EAE rat lumbar spinal cord was detected by western blot and immunostaining, and was associated with lymphocyte filtration and glial activation. Ex vivo and in vitro autoradiography studies with [18 F]VAT, a VAChT-specific radioligand, also revealed increased tracer uptake in EAE rat lumbar spinal cord compared with shams...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Edison Chen, Valeria Lallai, Yasmine Sherafat, Nickolas P Grimes, Anna N Pushkin, J P Fowler, Christie D Fowler
The recent development of transgenic rodent lines expressing cre recombinase in a cell-specific manner, along with advances in engineered viral vectors, has permitted in-depth investigations into circuit function. However, emerging evidence has begun to suggest that genetic modifications may introduce unexpected caveats. In the current studies, we sought to extensively characterize male and female mice from both the ChAT(BAC)-Cre mouse line, created with the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) method, and ChAT(IRES)-Cre mouse line, generated with the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) method...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marc-Antoine Lauzon, Nathalie Faucheux
The current aging of the world population will increase the number of people suffering from brain degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are evidence showing that the use of growth factors such as BMP-9 could restored cognitive function as it acts on many AD hallmarks at the same time. However, BMP-9 is a big protein expensive to produce that can hardly access the central nervous system. We have therefore developed a small peptide, SpBMP-9, derived from the knuckle epitope of BMP-9 and showed its therapeutic potential in a previous study...
January 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
E R Lauriano, C Faggio, G Capillo, N Spanò, M Kuciel, M Aragona, S Pergolizzi
Giant Mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri (Pallas, 1770), is euryhaline, amphibious, and air-breathing fish. These fishes live in close association to mangrove forests and often spend over 90% of time out of water, in adjacent mudflats. They have developed morphological and physiological adaptations to satisfy their unique lifestyles. The skin is the primary interface between the body and the environment, and has a central role in host defence. The initiation of immune responses to antigens in the vertebrate skin has often been attributed to epidermal Langerhans'cells (LC) that are dendritic cells (DC), antigen-presenting cells (APC) which reside in the epidermis...
January 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Hongjun Jin, Xuyi Yue, Hui Liu, Junbin Han, Hubert Flores, Yi Su, Stanley M Parsons, Joel S Perlmutter, Zhude Tu
Molecular imaging of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the brain provides an important cholinergic biomarker for the pathophysiology and treatment of dementias including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, kinetics modeling methods were applied and compared for quantifying regional brain uptake of the VAChT-specific PET radiotracer, ((-)-(1-(-8-(2-fluoroethoxy)-3-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)-methanone) ([18 F]VAT) in macaques. Total volume distribution (VT ) estimates were compared for one-tissue compartment model (1TCM), two-tissue compartment model (2TCM), Logan graphic analysis (LoganAIF) and multiple linear analysis (MA1) with arterial blood input function using data from three macaques...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Yannong Dou, Jinque Luo, Xin Wu, Zhifeng Wei, Bei Tong, Juntao Yu, Ting Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Yan Yang, Xusheng Yuan, Peng Zhao, Yufeng Xia, Huijuan Hu, Yue Dai
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of curcumin exhibited an anti-arthritic effect despite its poor bioavailability. The present study aimed to explore whether the gut-brain axis is involved in the therapeutic effect of curcumin. METHODS: The collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model was induced by immunization with an emulsion of collagen II and complete Freund's adjuvant. Sympathetic and parasympathetic tones were measured by electrocardiographic recordings...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
B Jana, K A Meller, M Czajkowska, J Całka
Elevated levels of endogenous estrogens in the course of pathological states of ovaries, as well as xenoestrogens, may lead to hyperestrogenism. It has previously been demonstrated that long-term estradiol-17β (E2) administration in adult gilts affected the population of sympathetic intraovarian nerve fibers. The aim of this study has been to determine the effect of long-term E2 exposure on the cholinergic innervation pattern of porcine ovaries. Intraovarian distribution and the density of nerve fibers immunoreactive (IR) to vesicular acetylocholine transporter (VAChT) and/or neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM) were determined...
January 2, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
T Christopher Brown, Cherie E Bond, Donald B Hoover
Immunohistochemistry is used widely to identify cholinergic neurons, but this approach has some limitations. To address these problems, investigators developed transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) directed by the promoter for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the acetylcholine synthetic enzyme. Although, it was reported that these mice express GFP in all cholinergic neurons and non-neuronal cholinergic cells, we could not detect GFP in cardiac cholinergic nerves in preliminary experiments...
December 20, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Maddalena Botti, Luisa Ragionieri, Antonio Cacchioli, Rino Panu, Ferdinando Gazza
The location, number and size of the central and peripheral neurons innervating the ischiocavernous muscle (ICM) were studied in male pigs by means of Fast Blue (FB) retrograde neuronal tracing. Moreover the immunohistochemical properties of the sympathetic ganglia were investigated combining the double immunolabeling method. After injection of FB into the left ICM, a mean number of 245.3 ± 134.9 labeled neurons were found in the ipsilateral ventral horn of the S1-S3 segments of the spinal cord (SC), 129...
November 29, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Cátia Vieira, Fátima Ferreirinha, Maria T Magalhães-Cardoso, Isabel Silva, Patrícia Marques, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
Uncoupling between ATP overflow and extracellular adenosine formation changes purinergic signaling in post-inflammatory ileitis. Adenosine neuromodulation deficits were ascribed to feed-forward inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 by high extracellular adenine nucleotides in the inflamed ileum. Here, we hypothesized that inflammation-induced changes in cellular density may also account to unbalance the release of purines and their influence on [3 H]acetylcholine release from longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations of the ileum of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mahendra Kashyap, Subrata Pore, William C de Groat, Christopher Chermansky, Naoki Yoshimura, Pradeep Tyagi
Elevated levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in urine of overactive bladder (OAB) patients support the association of BDNF with OAB symptoms, but the causality is not known. Here, we investigated the functionality of BDNF overexpression in rat bladder following bladder wall transfection of either BDNF or luciferase transgenes (10µg). A week after transfection, BDNF overexpression in bladder tissue and elevation of urine BDNF levels was observed together with increased transcript of BDNF, its cognate receptors (TrkB & p75NTR) and downstream PLCγ isoforms in bladder...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Tadayoshi Watanabe, Takahiro Kiyomoto, Ryosuke Tadokoro, Yuta Takase, Yoshiko Takahashi
The autonomic nervous system consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, which functionally antagonize each other to control physiology and homeostasis of organs. However, it is largely unexplored how the autonomic nervous system is established during development. In particular, early formation of parasympathetic network remains elusive because of its complex anatomical structure. To distinguish between parasympathetic (cholinergic) and sympathetic (adrenergic) ganglia, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and choline O-acetyltransferase (ChAT), proteins associated with acetylcholine synthesis, are known to be useful markers...
October 25, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Sridhar Boppana, Hakeem O Lawal
The role of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the regulation of cholinergic neurotransmission has not been fully elucidated. Here we sought to develop a tool for studying vesicular acetylcholine transporter function, and we present data on the validation of our new anti-VAChT antibody. We show that the immunoreactivity of the antibody is not due to an artifact of secondary antibody staining, and we present two additional validation data. First, the peptide epitope used to generate the antibody is able to block the binding of the anti-VAChT antibody in vivo...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Bai Hui Chen, Joon Ha Park, Dae Won Kim, Jinseu Park, Soo Young Choi, In Hye Kim, Jeong Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae Chul Lee, Choong-Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Young-Myeong Kim, Bing Chun Yan, Il Jun Kang, Bich Na Shin, Yun Lyul Lee, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, Young Joo Lee, Yong Hwan Jeon, Moo-Ho Won, Ji Hyeon Ahn
Melatonin is known to improve cognitive deficits, and its functions have been studied in various disease models, including Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated effects of melatonin on cognition and the cholinergic system of the septum and hippocampus in a mouse model of scopolamine-induced amnesia. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg) and melatonin (10 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to mice for 2 and 4 weeks. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests revealed that both treatments of scopolamine significantly impaired spatial learning and memory; however, 2- and 4-week melatonin treatments significantly improved spatial learning and memory...
September 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
W Sienkiewicz, A Dudek, A Zacharko-Siembida, M Marszałek
The study was carried out on three 4-month old female pigs. All the animals were deeply anesthetized and transcardially perfused with 4% buffered paraformaldehyde (pH 7.4). Left and right superior vagal ganglia (SVG) were collected and processed for immunofluorescence labeling method. The preparations were examined under a Zeiss LSM 710 confocal microscope equipped with adequate filter block. Neurons forming SVG were round or oval in shape with a round nucleus in the center. The majority of them (52%) were medium (M) (31-50 μm in diameter) while 7% and 41% were small (S) (up to 30μm in diameter) or large (L) (above 50 μm in diameter) in size, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Giacomo Zaccone, Eugenia Rita Lauriano, Michał Kuciel, Gioele Capillo, Simona Pergolizzi, Alessio Alesci, Atsushi Ishimatsu, Yuen Kwong Ip, Jose M Icardo
Mudskippers are amphibious fishes living in mudflats and mangroves. These fishes hold air in their large buccopharyngeal-opercular cavities where respiratory gas exchange takes place via the gills and higher vascularized epithelium lining the cavities and also the skin epidermis. Although aerial ventilation response to changes in ambient gas concentration has been studied in mudskippers, the localization and distribution of respiratory chemoreceptors, their neurochemical coding and function as well as physiological evidence for the gill or skin as site for O2 and CO2 sensing are currently not known...
December 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Roger L Albin, Christine Minderovic, Robert A Koeppe
Considerable prior work suggests basal ganglia dysfunction in Tourette syndrome (TS). Analysis of a small number of postmortem specimens suggests deficits of some striatal interneuron populations, including striatal cholinergic interneurons. To assess the integrity of striatal cholinergic interneurons in TS, we used [(18)F]FEOBV positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify striatal vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) expression, a measure of cholinergic terminal density, in human TS and control subjects...
July 2017: ENeuro
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