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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761010/central-cholinergic-system-mediates-working-memory-deficit-induced-by-anesthesia-surgery-in-adult-mice
#1
Xiao Zhang, Xuliang Jiang, Lili Huang, Weitian Tian, Xuemei Chen, Xiyao Gu, Weifeng Yu, Jie Tian, Diansan Su
Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is consistently associated with increased morbidity and mortality, which has become a major concern of patients and caregivers. Although POCD occurs mainly in aged patients, it happens at any age. Previous studies demonstrated that anesthesia/surgery had no effects on reference memory of adult mice. However, whether it impairs working memory remains unclear. Working memory deficit would result in many deficits of executive function...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741434/effects-of-oxaliplatin-treatment-on-the-myenteric-plexus-innervation-and-glia-in-the-murine-distal-colon
#2
Vanesa Stojanovska, Rachel M McQuade, Sarah Miller, Kulmira Nurgali
Oxaliplatin (platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent) is a first-line treatment of colorectal malignancies; its use associates with peripheral neuropathies and gastrointestinal side effects. These gastrointestinal dysfunctions might be due to toxic effects of oxaliplatin on the intestinal innervation and glia. Male Balb/c mice received intraperitoneal injections of sterile water or oxaliplatin (3 mg/kg/d) triweekly for 2 weeks. Colon tissues were collected for immunohistochemical assessment at day 14. The density of sensory, adrenergic, and cholinergic nerve fibers labeled with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), respectively, was assessed within the myenteric plexus of the distal colon...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729306/postnatal-chlorpyrifos-exposure-and-apolipoprotein-e-apoe-genotype-differentially-affect-cholinergic-expression-and-developmental-parameters-in-transgenic-mice
#3
Pia Basaure, Laia Guardia-Escote, Maria Cabré, Fiona Peris-Sampedro, Fernando Sánchez-Santed, José L Domingo, Maria Teresa Colomina
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most commonly used organophosphate pesticides in the world. Our previous results described that apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms are a source of individual differences in susceptibility to CPF. The aim of this study was to assess the physical and biochemical effects of postnatal exposure to CPF in the apoE targeted replacement mouse model. Mice were exposed to CPF at 0 or 1 mg/kg/day from postnatal day 10-15. Physical development, plasma and forebrain cholinesterase (ChE) activity and gene expression in liver and forebrain were evaluated...
May 2, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681988/nervous-system-development-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-mollusca-bivalvia
#4
Olga V Yurchenko, Olga I Skiteva, Elena E Voronezhskaya, Vyacheslav A Dyachuk
Background: Bivalves comprise a large, highly diverse taxon of invertebrate species. Developmental studies of neurogenesis among species of Bivalvia are limited. Due to a lack of neurogenesis information, it is difficult to infer a ground pattern for Bivalvia. To provide more comprehensive morphogenetic data on bivalve molluscs and relationships among molluscan clades, we investigated neurogenesis in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , from the appearance of the first sensory cells to the formation of the larval ganglionic nervous system by co-immunocytochemistry of the neuronal markers FMRFamide or 5-HT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577965/bisphenol-a-induced-changes-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-duodenum
#5
Kamila Szymanska, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound from the phenolic group commonly used for the production of plastics. The use of BPA in food and drinking water containers carries a significant risk to human health since BPA can be washed out and enter consumables. BPA entering the human body with food shows a multi-directional effect and causes disorders in the functioning of many systems and organs. There is no current knowledge about the effects of BPA on the enteric nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to verify the influence of BPA on tolerable daily intake (TDI) dose (0...
March 22, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558425/the-influence-of-high-and-low-doses-of-bisphenol-a-bpa-on-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-ileum
#6
Kamila Szymanska, Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A, used in the production of plastic, is able to leach from containers into food and cause multidirectional adverse effects in living organisms, including neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders. Knowledge of the impact of BPA on enteric neurons is practically non-existent. The destination of this study was to investigate the influence of BPA at a specific dose (0.05 mg/kg body weight/day) and at a dose ten times higher (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day), given for 28 days, on the porcine ileum. The influence of BPA on enteric neuron immunoreactive to selected neuronal active substances, including substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT-used here as a marker of cholinergic neurons), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), was studied by the double immunofluorescence method...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463009/docosahexaenoic-acid-helps-to-lessen-extinction-memory-in-rats
#7
Michio Hashimoto, Shahdat Hossain, Masanori Katakura, Abdullah Al Mamun, Osamu Shido
Abstract : Memory extinction is referred to as a learning process in which a conditioned response (CR) progressively reduces over time as an animal learns to uncouple a response from a stimulus. Extinction occurs when the rat is placed into a context without shock after training. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) is implicated in memory formation in mammalian brains. In a two-way active shuttle-avoidance apparatus, we examined whether DHA affects the extinction memory and the expression of brain cognition-related proteins, including gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor (BDNFR) tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrKB), and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits NR2A and NR2B...
February 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453933/myt1l-induced-direct-reprogramming-of-pericytes-into-cholinergic-neurons
#8
Xing-Guang Liang, Chao Tan, Cheng-Kun Wang, Rong-Rong Tao, Yu-Jie Huang, Kui-Fen Ma, Kohji Fukunaga, Ming-Zhu Huang, Feng Han
OBJECTIVE: The cholinergic deficit is thought to underlie progressed cognitive decline in Alzheimer Disease. The lineage reprogramming of somatic cells into cholinergic neurons may provide strategies toward cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we found that a combination of neuronal transcription factors, including Ascl1, Myt1l, Brn2, Tlx3, and miR124 (5Fs) were capable of directly converting human brain vascular pericytes (HBVPs) into cholinergic neuronal cells...
February 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447857/estradiol-effect-on-short-term-object-memory-under-hypocholinergic-condition
#9
Luciana M Pereira, Isabella M Guimarães, Vinícius E M Oliveira, Cristiane P Bastos, Fabíola M Ribeiro, Vânia F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Grace S Pereira
Estrogens positively affect object recognition memory (ORM). However, whether this effect rely on acetylcholine is unknown. Here we investigated if 17β-estradiol (E2) would be able to recover ORM deficits in animals with decreased expression of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT KDHET ). We found that E2 improved short-term ORM (STM) in VAChT KDHET male and in OVX female mutant mice. However, E2 did not recover long-term (LTM) ORM in both sexes. Next, we tested whether hippocampal ERs activation could also rescue STM in mutant mice...
February 12, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397207/cholinergic-imbalance-in-lumbar-spinal-cord-of-a-rat-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Chunling Liu, Hui Liu, Hongjun Jin, Xuyi Yue, Zonghua Luo, Zhude Tu
Cholinergic dysfunction in the central nervous system is an important characteristic of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). By using a rat EAE model, upregulation of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) level in the EAE rat lumbar spinal cord was detected by western blot and immunostaining, and was associated with lymphocyte filtration and glial activation. Ex vivo and in vitro autoradiography studies with [18 F]VAT, a VAChT-specific radioligand, also revealed increased tracer uptake in EAE rat lumbar spinal cord compared with shams...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371319/altered-baseline-and-nicotine-mediated-behavioral-and-cholinergic-profiles-in-chat-cre-mouse-lines
#11
Edison Chen, Valeria Lallai, Yasmine Sherafat, Nickolas P Grimes, Anna N Pushkin, J P Fowler, Christie D Fowler
The recent development of transgenic rodent lines expressing cre recombinase in a cell-specific manner, along with advances in engineered viral vectors, has permitted in-depth investigations into circuit function. However, emerging evidence has begun to suggest that genetic modifications may introduce unexpected caveats. In the current studies, we sought to extensively characterize male and female mice from both the ChAT(BAC) -Cre mouse line, created with the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) method, and ChAT(IRES) -Cre mouse line, generated with the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) method...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341901/a-small-peptide-derived-from-bmp-9-can-increase-the-effect-of-bfgf-and-ngf-on-sh-sy5y-cells-differentiation
#12
Marc-Antoine Lauzon, Nathalie Faucheux
The current aging of the world population will increase the number of people suffering from brain degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are evidence showing that the use of growth factors such as BMP-9 could restored cognitive function as it acts on many AD hallmarks at the same time. However, BMP-9 is a big protein expensive to produce that can hardly access the central nervous system. We have therefore developed a small peptide, SpBMP-9, derived from the knuckle epitope of BMP-9 and showed its therapeutic potential in a previous study...
January 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337248/immunohistochemical-characterization-of-epidermal-dendritic-like-cells-in-giant-mudskipper-periophthalmodon-schlosseri
#13
E R Lauriano, C Faggio, G Capillo, N Spanò, M Kuciel, M Aragona, S Pergolizzi
Giant Mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri (Pallas, 1770), is euryhaline, amphibious, and air-breathing fish. These fishes live in close association to mangrove forests and often spend over 90% of time out of water, in adjacent mudflats. They have developed morphological and physiological adaptations to satisfy their unique lifestyles. The skin is the primary interface between the body and the environment, and has a central role in host defence. The initiation of immune responses to antigens in the vertebrate skin has often been attributed to epidermal Langerhans'cells (LC) that are dendritic cells (DC), antigen-presenting cells (APC) which reside in the epidermis...
March 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315563/kinetic-modeling-of-18-f-vat-a-novel-radioligand-for-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-in-non-human-primate-brain
#14
Hongjun Jin, Xuyi Yue, Hui Liu, Junbin Han, Hubert Flores, Yi Su, Stanley M Parsons, Joel S Perlmutter, Zhude Tu
Molecular imaging of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the brain provides an important cholinergic biomarker for the pathophysiology and treatment of dementias including Alzheimer's disease. In this study, kinetics modeling methods were applied and compared for quantifying regional brain uptake of the VAChT-specific positron emission tomography radiotracer, ((-)-(1-(-8-(2-fluoroethoxy)-3-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)-methanone) ([18 F]VAT) in macaques...
March 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306322/curcumin-attenuates-collagen-induced-inflammatory-response-through-the-gut-brain-axis
#15
Yannong Dou, Jinque Luo, Xin Wu, Zhifeng Wei, Bei Tong, Juntao Yu, Ting Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Yan Yang, Xusheng Yuan, Peng Zhao, Yufeng Xia, Huijuan Hu, Yue Dai
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of curcumin exhibited an anti-arthritic effect despite its poor bioavailability. The present study aimed to explore whether the gut-brain axis is involved in the therapeutic effect of curcumin. METHODS: The collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model was induced by immunization with an emulsion of collagen II and complete Freund's adjuvant. Sympathetic and parasympathetic tones were measured by electrocardiographic recordings...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305268/long-term-estradiol-17%C3%AE-exposure-decreases-the-cholinergic-innervation-pattern-of-the-pig-ovary
#16
B Jana, K A Meller, M Czajkowska, J Całka
Elevated levels of endogenous estrogens in the course of pathological states of ovaries, as well as xenoestrogens, may lead to hyperestrogenism. It has previously been demonstrated that long-term estradiol-17β (E2 ) administration in adult gilts affected the population of sympathetic intraovarian nerve fibers. The aim of this study has been to determine the effect of long-term E2 exposure on the cholinergic innervation pattern of porcine ovaries. Intraovarian distribution and the density of nerve fibers immunoreactive (IR) to vesicular acetylocholine transporter (VAChT) and/or neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM) were determined...
March 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288022/variable-expression-of-gfp-in-different-populations-of-peripheral-cholinergic-neurons-of-chat-bac-egfp-transgenic-mice
#17
T Christopher Brown, Cherie E Bond, Donald B Hoover
Immunohistochemistry is used widely to identify cholinergic neurons, but this approach has some limitations. To address these problems, investigators developed transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) directed by the promoter for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the acetylcholine synthetic enzyme. Although, it was reported that these mice express GFP in all cholinergic neurons and non-neuronal cholinergic cells, we could not detect GFP in cardiac cholinergic nerves in preliminary experiments...
March 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193823/striated-perineal-muscles-location-of-somatic-and-autonomic-neurons-projecting-to-the-male-pig-ischiocavernous-muscle-neurochemical-features-of-the-sympathetic-subset
#18
Maddalena Botti, Luisa Ragionieri, Antonio Cacchioli, Rino Panu, Ferdinando Gazza
The location, number and size of the central and peripheral neurons innervating the ischiocavernous muscle (ICM) were studied in male pigs by means of Fast Blue (FB) retrograde neuronal tracing. Moreover the immunohistochemical properties of the sympathetic ganglia were investigated combining the double immunolabeling method. After injection of FB into the left ICM, a mean number of 245.3 ± 134.9 labeled neurons were found in the ipsilateral ventral horn of the S1-S3 segments of the spinal cord (SC), 129...
November 29, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167643/post-inflammatory-ileitis-induces-non-neuronal-purinergic-signaling-adjustments-of-cholinergic-neurotransmission-in-the-myenteric-plexus
#19
Cátia Vieira, Fátima Ferreirinha, Maria T Magalhães-Cardoso, Isabel Silva, Patrícia Marques, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
Uncoupling between ATP overflow and extracellular adenosine formation changes purinergic signaling in post-inflammatory ileitis. Adenosine neuromodulation deficits were ascribed to feed-forward inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 by high extracellular adenine nucleotides in the inflamed ileum. Here, we hypothesized that inflammation-induced changes in cellular density may also account to unbalance the release of purines and their influence on [3 H]acetylcholine release from longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations of the ileum of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092846/bdnf-overexpression-in-bladder-induces-neuronal-changes-to-mediate-bladder-overactivity
#20
Mahendra Kashyap, Subrata Pore, William C de Groat, Christopher Chermansky, Naoki Yoshimura, Pradeep Tyagi
Elevated levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in urine of overactive bladder (OAB) patients support the association of BDNF with OAB symptoms, but the causality is not known. Here, we investigated the functionality of BDNF overexpression in rat bladder following bladder wall transfection of either BDNF or luciferase transgenes (10µg). A week after transfection, BDNF overexpression in bladder tissue and elevation of urine BDNF levels was observed together with increased transcript of BDNF, its cognate receptors (TrkB & p75NTR) and downstream PLCγ isoforms in bladder...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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