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intrusive thoughts

Belén López-Pérez, Catherine Deeprose, Yaniv Hanoch
Mental imagery is known to play a key role in the development and maintenance of depression and anxiety. Prisoners commonly experience psychological distress, but interventions to address this are currently lacking. We aimed to examine the link between prospective mental imagery and anxiety and depression among prisoners. One hundred twenty-three male prisoners from a Category C prison in southwest England participated in the study. They completed the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) to measure whether they experience depression and/or anxiety symptoms...
2018: PloS One
Thomas V Fernandez, James F Leckman, Christopher Pittenger
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is present in 1.5-2.5% of the population and can result in substantial lifelong disability. It is characterized by intrusive thoughts, sensations, and urges and by repetitive behaviors that are difficult to control despite, in most cases, preserved insight as to their excessive or irrational nature. The causes and underlying pathophysiology of OCD are not well understood, which has limited the development of new treatments and interventions. Despite evidence for a substantial genetic contribution to disease risk, identification and replication of genetic variants associated with OCD have been challenging...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ryan C T DeLapp, Gregory S Chasson, Jessica Swerbilow, Brittany Gibby, Ghazel Tellawi, Monnica T Williams
Aggressive intrusive thoughts (AITs) are unwanted and repetitive thoughts, impulses, or desires that enter into consciousness involuntarily. The current study compared the frequency of and distress from AITs in a sample of inmates jailed for violent crimes ( n = 78) versus college students ( n = 103; that is, participant status). The relationship between psychopathic traits and AITs was also explored. Results indicated that, although there were no differences between students and inmates, AIT frequency was positively associated with Primary Psychopathy...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Nichole Fairbrother, Dana S Thordarson, Fiona L Challacombe, John K Sakaluk
BACKGROUND: Unwanted, intrusive thoughts of infant-related harm are a normal, albeit distressing experience for most new mothers. The occurrence of these thoughts can represent a risk factor for the development of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). As the early postpartum period represents a time of increased risk for OCD development, the transition to parenthood provides a unique opportunity to better understand OCD development. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to assess components of cognitive behavioural conceptualizations of postpartum OCD in relation to new mothers' thoughts of infant-related harm...
February 20, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Marion Rouault, Tricia Seow, Claire M Gillan, Stephen M Fleming
BACKGROUND: Distortions in metacognition-the ability to reflect on and control other cognitive processes-are thought to be characteristic of poor mental health. However, it remains unknown whether such shifts in self-evaluation are due to specific alterations in metacognition and/or a downstream consequence of changes in decision-making processes. METHODS: Using perceptual decision making as a model system, we employed a computational psychiatry approach to relate parameters governing both decision formation and metacognitive evaluation to self-reported transdiagnostic symptom dimensions in a large general population sample (N = 995)...
January 11, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
María Roncero, Amparo Belloch, Guy Doron
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to cognitive models, obsessive compulsive symptoms result from catastrophic misinterpretations of commonly occurring intrusive experiences and the use of counterproductive strategies to manage them. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) related beliefs such as inflated responsibility, importance of thoughts and perfectionism increases the likelihood of such misinterpretations. Consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the usefulness of mobile delivered technologies in fostering cognitive behavior change, the present study assessed the effectiveness of a novel cognitive training exercise designed to challenge OCD-related beliefs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Sarah Elizabeth Golding, Birgitta Gatersleben, Mark Cropley
Exposure to natural environments has been shown to have beneficial effects on mood. Rumination is a thinking style associated with negative mood, and sometimes depression, and is characterized by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, often with a negative emotional element. This study investigated whether exposure to nature, operationalized using photographs presented as a slideshow, could aid reduction in levels of state rumination. An experimental, within-between (Time x Condition) participant design was used; participants (n = 58) undertook a presentation task designed to induce rumination and influence mood...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Péter Simor, András Harsányi, Kata Csigó, Gergely Miklós, Alpár Sándor Lázár, Gyula Demeter
Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive behaviors that severely encumber daily functioning. OCD patients seem to exhibit sleep disturbances, especially delayed bedtimes that reflect disrupted circadian rhythmicity. Morningness-eveningness is a fundamental factor reflecting individual variations in diurnal preferences related to sleep and waking activities. Eveningness reflecting a delayed sleep-wake timing has repeatedly been associated with sleep problems and negative affect (NA)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Rachel Tillery, Sarah J Beal, Aimee N Thompson, Ahna L H Pai
Late physical and emotional effects of cancer treatment pose a burden for adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer, including family milestone achievement. This brief report examined links between ongoing cancer-related post-traumatic stress symptoms (CR-PTSS) and family milestone achievement. Survivors (n = 51; Mage  = 24.73, SD = 8.20) completed CR-PTSS and family formation questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, univariate parameter-constraints, and correlation analyses examined relations among study variables...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Maud Grol, Anne K Schwenzfeier, Johannes Stricker, Charlotte Booth, Alexander Temple-McCune, Nazanin Derakshan, Colette Hirsch, Eni Becker, Elaine Fox
Worry refers to the experience of uncontrollable negative thoughts. Cognitive models suggest that the combination of negative information processing biases along with diminished attentional control contribute to worry. In the current study we investigate whether promoting a) adaptive interpretation bias and b) efficient deployment of attentional control would influence the tendency to worry. Worry-prone individuals (n = 60) received either active cognitive bias modification for interpretation bias (CBM-I) combined with sham working memory training (WMT), adaptive WMT combined with sham CBM-I, or sham WMT combined with sham CBM-I...
January 20, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Dan Asplund, Thue Bisgaard, David Bock, Jakob Burcharth, Elisabeth González, Eva Haglind, Yanislav Kolev, Peter Matthiessen, Carina Rosander, Jacob Rosenberg, Kenneth Smedh, Marina Åkerblom Sörensson, Eva Angenete
The original version of this article, unfortunately, contained errors.
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Simone Kühn, Sandra Düzel, Johanna Drewelies, Denis Gerstorf, Ulman Lindenberger, Jürgen Gallinat
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic embitterment disorder (PTED) comprises a stress-related response to a negative life event that violates the belief system of the individual. Characteristic symptoms involve repeated intrusive thoughts, emotional arousal when reminded of the event, and decreases in well-being. METHOD: Within the scope of the present study, embitterment was treated as a continuous rather than categorical concept, and we investigated its psychological and brain structural correlates in a sample of healthy older adults...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Beate Muschalla, Heinrich Rau, Gerd Dieter Willmund, Christine Knaevelsrud
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic mental disorders may occur with different affect qualities. Best known is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a conditioned anxiety reaction with intrusions. Another event-related mental disorder is posttraumatic embitterment (PTED), characterized by affect of embitterment and thoughts of revenge, occurring after an event deeply hurting basic beliefs. Knowing about associated disability is important for treatment and sociomedical decisions. This is the first study to explore work-disability in patients with PTSD, PTED, and not-event-related common mental disorder (CMD)...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Rong Xu, Xiuhong Yuan, Qiuping Tang
To explore associations of negative emotions with alexithymia and intrusive thoughts in cancer patients.
 Methods: A total of 115 cancer patients were assessed by Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the state anxiety subscales of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
 Results: Negative emotions were positively correlated with alexithymia and the intrusive thoughts (r 0.251 to 0.600, P<0.01). Intrusive thoughts were significantly associated with the total score of alexithymia, difficulty in identifying feelings, and difficulty in describing feelings (r 0...
December 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Megan Fresson, Benoit Dardenne, Thierry Meulemans
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis threat (DT) phenomenon shows that, in some cases, reminding people with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) about their past neurological history diminishes subsequent cognitive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of personal relevance (i.e., domain identification) and type of threat (i.e., implicit vs. explicit) as moderating variables. We investigated intrusive thoughts as a potential mediator. METHOD: Control (non-mTBI) and mTBI participants were recruited and completed a domain identification questionnaire...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Jens C Thimm, Catharina E A Wang, Knut Waterloo, Martin Eisemann, Marianne Halvorsen
BACKGROUND: Previous research shows that depression is associated with an increase in stressful life events and perceived stress as well as dysfunctional ways of coping with stress. However, knowledge about coping in previously depressed individuals is scant. METHODS: This study compared perceived stress, coping, and thought suppression in a sample of 30 currently depressed, 63 previously depressed, and 42 never depressed individuals. RESULTS: Analysis of variance revealed that previously depressed individuals showed less wishful thinking and thought suppression than the currently depressed individuals, but scored significantly higher on these strategies than the never depressed individuals...
January 4, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Murat Boysan, Abdullah Yıldırım, Lütfullah Beşiroğlu, Mehmet Celal Kefeli, Mücahit Kağan
A growing body of research evidence documents the substantial associations between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and dissociation. This article describes the development and preliminary psychometric properties of the Van Obsessional Dissociation Questionnaire (VOD-Q). Obsessional dissociation is defined as a tendency to dissociate in reaction to distressing, unwanted and intrusive thoughts, images and impulses. The screening tool is conceptualized to tap obsessional dissociation across three dimensions: obsessional absorption, obsessional depersonalization/ derealization and obsessional amnesia...
January 4, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
Edward K Rynearson
Reenactment imagery that remains fixating after violent dying is associated with diminished psychological resilience. The nonresilient teller struggles to maintain an integrative orientation within the recounting. Reestablishing the resilient capacities of pacification (mastery of terror through self-calming), partition (mastery of intrusive thoughts through self-differentiation), and perspective (mastery of self-determination through self-transcendence) is an important preparatory goal with intervention. Without these resilient capacities, premature exposure increases the risk that patients will experience a dysfunctional merger with the possessive reenactment representation...
January 4, 2018: Death Studies
Julia Wynn, David T Holland, Jimmy Duong, Priyanka Ahimaz, Wendy K Chung
Inherited cardiomyopathies, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), are the most common monogenic cause of cardiac disease and can rarely lead to sudden cardiac death (SCD). They are characterized by incomplete and age-dependent penetrance and are usually initially symptomatic in adulthood yet can present in childhood as well. Over 20 genes have been identified to cause HCM, and more than 40 genes are known to cause DCM. Genetic testing for these genes has been integrated into medical care; however, the psychological impact of genetic testing and the impact of the uncertainty that comes with receiving these results have not been well studied...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Shi Teng Chan, Betty Peck Chui Khong, Lynnette Pei Lin Tan, Hong-Gu He, Wenru Wang
Nurses, like other healthcare professionals, such as physicians, pharmacists, and therapists, are susceptible to unanticipated patient harm, in which they suffer as second victims due to the immense personal and professional impact from the adverse event. The aim of the present study was to explore the psychological responses, coping strategies, and support needs of Singapore nurses as second victims of adverse events. A descriptive qualitative study was adopted. Eight participants (6 women and 2 men) who had been involved in an adverse event were interviewed and audio-recorded...
December 12, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
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