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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416633/intrusions-in-episodic-memory-reconsolidation-or-interference
#1
Angela Klingmüller, Jeremy B Caplan, Tobias Sommer
It would be profoundly important if reconsolidation research in animals and other memory domains generalized to human episodic memory. A 3-d-list-discrimination procedure, based on free recall of objects, with a contextual reminder cue (the testing room), has been thought to demonstrate reconsolidation of human episodic memory (as noted in a previous study). Our goal was to replicate the central result, a high intrusion rate during recall of the target list, and evaluate the reconsolidation account relative to an alternative account, based on state-dependent learning and interference...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412616/measuring-fluctuations-across-the-continuum-of-auditory-hallucinations-development-and-validation-of-a-state-inventory
#2
Björn Schlier, Timo Hennig, Tania M Lincoln
In order to identify causes and triggers of hallucinations that can inform therapy, reliable, valid, and change-sensitive instruments to assess hallucinatory experiences in the subclinical and clinical range are needed. We developed and validated a novel scale, the Continuum of Auditory Hallucinations - State Assessment (CAHSA), to be used for repeated assessment of the subclinical factors vivid imagination, intrusive thoughts, and perceptual sensitivity as well as auditory hallucinations. After selecting items for the four factors in a first test sample (n=84), we tested factorial validity using CFA and criterion validity with self-reported psychosis-like experiences (n=534)...
March 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402534/an-unpleasant-emotional-state-reduces-working-memory-capacity-electrophysiological-evidence
#3
Jessica S B Figueira, Leticia Oliveira, Mirtes G Pereira, Luiza B Pacheco, Isabela Lobo, Gabriel C Motta-Ribeiro, Isabel A David
Emotional states can guide the actions and decisions we make in our everyday life through their influence on cognitive processes such as working memory (WM). We investigated the long-lasting interference that an unpleasant emotional state had on goal-relevant WM representations from an electrophysiological perspective. Participants performed a change detection task that was preceded by the presentation of unpleasant or neutral task-irrelevant pictures in a blocked fashion. We focused on the contralateral delay activity (CDA), an event-related potential that is sensitive to the number of task-relevant items stored in WM...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397354/seeking-help-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd-a-qualitative-study-of-the-enablers-and-barriers-conducted-by-a-researcher-with-personal-experience-of-ocd
#4
Karen J Robinson, Diana Rose, Paul M Salkovskis
OBJECTIVES: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) can be hugely disabling. Although very effective psychological treatments exist, many people delay years before seeking help or never seek treatment. There have been clinical observation and short questionnaire studies on why people delay, but little qualitative research exists on this complex subject. The present qualitative study aimed to identify the barriers to seeking treatment and the factors that encourage or push people to seek help for their OCD (positive and negative enablers)...
April 10, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362564/posttraumatic-stress-in-mothers-related-to-giving-birth-prematurely-a-mixed-research-synthesis
#5
Cheryl Tatano Beck, Lisa Harrison
BACKGROUND: Globally the preterm birth rate for 184 countries in 2010 was 11.1%. Preterm births can be a traumatic experience for mothers. OBJECTIVE: This article provides a mixed research synthesis of the quantitative and qualitative studies on posttraumatic stress in mothers who have given birth prematurely. DESIGN: Narrative synthesis was the mixed research synthesis approach used. RESULTS: Included in this narrative synthesis were quantitative prevalence studies ( n = 19), quantitative intervention studies ( n = 6), and qualitative studies ( n = 5)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357778/impact-of-panel-gene-testing-for-hereditary-breast-and-ovarian-cancer-on-patients
#6
Heidi S Lumish, Hallie Steinfeld, Carrie Koval, Donna Russo, Elana Levinson, Julia Wynn, James Duong, Wendy K Chung
Recent advances in next generation sequencing have enabled panel gene testing, or simultaneous testing for mutations in multiple genes for a clinical condition. With more extensive and widespread genetic testing, there will be increased detection of genes with moderate penetrance without established clinical guidelines and of variants of uncertain significance (VUS), or genetic variants unknown to either be disease-causing or benign. This study surveyed 232 patients who underwent genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer to examine the impact of panel gene testing on psychological outcomes, patient understanding, and utilization of genetic information...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355881/delineating-characteristics-of-maladaptive-repetitive-thought
#7
Lauren E Szkodny, Michelle G Newman
Worry, rumination, and obsessive thinking are theorized to differ on temporal orientation, positive perceived function, degree of intrusiveness, and discordance with one's self-concept. However, prior findings with respect to such differences may be due to method variance of the measures used and/or inclusion of items confounded by diagnostic symptoms. Accurately capturing differences between types of perseverative thought linked to psychopathology and understanding whether such aspects are common across disorders or specific to some may be important to designing effective treatments for them...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352242/verbal-emotional-disclosure-of-traumatic-experiences-in-adolescents-the-role-of-social-risk-factors
#8
Silvia Pérez, Wenceslao Peñate, Juan M Bethencourt, Ascensión Fumero
It is well-known that traumatic events and adverse life situations are very important in both physical and psychological health. Prevalence studies suggested that adolescents experience at least one potentially traumatic event before reaching age 18. The paradigm of research centered on expressive writing has evidenced the beneficial effects that the emotional disclosure of previous traumas produces on physical health and psychological adjustment. The aims of the study are threefold: determining the prevalence of adverse or traumatic events; examining the extent to which psychopathological symptoms developed in those exposed to traumatic events; and exploring an verbal emotional disclosure (VED) paradigm in which variations on time spent talking about traumatic experiences to others resulted in a reduction of the psychological impact of trauma in a sample of Spanish adolescents...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348911/a-case-of-persistent-generalized-retrograde-autobiographical-amnesia-subsequent-to-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-in-2011
#9
Yuji Odagaki
Functional retrograde autobiographical amnesia is often associated with physical and/or psychological trauma. On 11 March 2011, the largest earthquake on record in Japan took place, and subsequent huge tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of northern Japan. This case report describes a patient suffering from retrograde episodic-autobiographical amnesia for whole life, persisting for even more than five years after the disaster. A Japanese man, presumably in his 40s, got police protection in April 2016 but was unable to respond to question about his own name...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333611/transcendental-meditation-and-reduced-trauma-symptoms-in-female-inmates-a-randomized-controlled-study
#10
Sanford Nidich, Angela Seng, Blaze Compton, Tom O'connor, John W Salerno, Randi Nidich
CONTEXT: Compared with the general population, trauma experiences are higher among incarcerated women. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on trauma symptoms in female offenders. DESIGN: Twenty-two inmates at the Coffee Creek Correctional Facility in Wilsonville, OR, with at least 4 months left of incarceration were enrolled in this randomized controlled pilot study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the TM group (n = 11) or a wait-list control group (n = 11)...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333512/randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-positive-affect-intervention-for-people-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv
#11
Judith T Moskowitz, Adam W Carrico, Larissa G Duncan, Michael A Cohn, Elaine O Cheung, Abigail Batchelder, Lizet Martinez, Eisuke Segawa, Michael Acree, Susan Folkman
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether IRISS (Intervention for those Recently Informed of their Seropositive Status), a positive affect skills intervention, improved positive emotion, psychological health, physical health, and health behaviors in people newly diagnosed with HIV. METHOD: One-hundred and fifty-nine participants who had received an HIV diagnosis in the past 3 months were randomized to a 5-session, in-person, individually delivered positive affect skills intervention or an attention-matched control condition...
May 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302189/temporal-dynamics-of-rituals-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Robert W Bond, Stephen J Guastello, Andrea D Guastello
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessions, defined as intrusive and persistent thoughts, and compulsions, defined as repetitive ritualistic behaviors that attempt to neutralize the anxiety associated with the obsessions. The present study investigated the patterns of symptoms as they occur over time in order to generate new insights about the triggers to symptoms. Fourteen adult participants who met the DSM-5 criteria for OCD completed 7-day logbooks of daily activities including the times when they engaged in compulsive rituals...
April 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282968/temporal-and-structural-evolution-of-the-early-pal%C3%A3-ogene-rocks-of-the-seychelles-microcontinent
#13
J Gregory Shellnutt, Meng-Wan Yeh, Kenshi Suga, Tung-Yi Lee, Hao-Yang Lee, Te-Hsien Lin
The Early Palæogene Silhouette/North Island volcano-plutonic complex was emplaced during the rifting of the Seychelles microcontinent from western India. The complex is thought to have been emplaced during magnetochron C28n. However, the magnetic polarities of the rocks are almost entirely reversed and inconsistent with a normal polarity. In this study we present new in situ zircon U/Pb geochronology of the different intrusive facies of the Silhouette/North Island complex in order to address the timing of emplacement and the apparent magnetic polarity dichotomy...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219490/a-multisite-study-of-family-functioning%C3%A2-impairment-in-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#14
S Evelyn Stewart, Yu-Pei Hu, Aldrich Leung, Elaine Chan, Dianne M Hezel, Sarah Yao Lin, Laura Belschner, Casey Walsh, Daniel A Geller, David L Pauls
OBJECTIVE: Familial aspects of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including accommodation and treatment, have received notable and warranted attention. However, individual perspectives of its repercussions on family functioning, including emotional and occupational parental burden, have not been closely examined. The present study details this topic using a large multicenter sample. METHOD: Participants included 354 youth affected with OCD and their mothers and fathers ascertained through OCD programs in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 180) and Vancouver, British Columbia (n = 174)...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196711/acceptance-and-imagery-based-strategies-can-reduce-chocolate-cravings-a-test-of-the-elaborated-intrusion-theory-of-desire
#15
Sophie Schumacher, Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann
The elaborated-intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a two-stage process whereby initial intrusions about a desired target are subsequently elaborated with mental imagery. The present study tested whether the craving reduction strategies of cognitive defusion and guided imagery could differentially target the intrusion and elaboration stages, respectively, and thus differentially impact the craving process. Participants were randomly assigned to a cognitive defusion, a guided imagery or a mind-wandering control condition...
February 11, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194835/mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-as-an-augmentation-treatment-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
Brenda L Key, Karen Rowa, Peter Bieling, Randi McCabe, Elizabeth J Pawluk
A significant number of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients continue to experience symptoms that interfere with their functioning following cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Providing an additional augmentation treatment following CBT could help reduce these residual symptoms. Mindfulness interventions that facilitate less reactivity to thoughts and feelings may be helpful for patients suffering from residual OCD symptoms. The purpose of the current randomized waitlist control trial was to evaluate the feasibility and impact of providing an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention following completion of a CBT intervention to OCD patients who continued to suffer from significant symptoms...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191985/network-models-of-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-implications-for-icd-11
#17
Karen S Mitchell, Erika J Wolf, Michelle J Bovin, Lewina O Lee, Jonathan D Green, Raymond C Rosen, Terence M Keane, Brian P Marx
Recent proposals for revisions to the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria have argued that the current symptom constellation under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 is unwieldy and includes many symptoms that overlap with other disorders. The newly proposed criteria for the ICD-11 include only 6 symptoms. However, restricting the symptoms to those included in the ICD-11 has implications for PTSD diagnosis prevalence estimates, and it remains unclear whether these 6 symptoms are most strongly associated with a diagnosis of PTSD...
April 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163366/young-children-exposed-to-intimate-partner-violence-describe-their-abused-parent-a-qualitative-study
#18
Karin Pernebo, Kjerstin Almqvist
The negative impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) begins early in the child's relationship with a caregiver. Children's relationships with, and internal working models of, abused parents have rarely been documented. The aim of this study was to collect and interpret young children's accounts of their abused parent. Interviews were conducted with 17 children aged 4 to 12 years who had witnessed IPV. Thematic analysis identified three main themes and seven sub-themes: "Coherent accounts of the parent" (sub-themes of "general benevolence", "provision of support, protection, and nurture", and "parental distress"); "Deficient accounts of the parent" ("vague accounts" and "disorganized narrations"); and "The parent as a trauma trigger" ("avoidance" and "breakthrough of intrusive memories and thoughts")...
2017: Journal of Family Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160721/testing-the-differential-effects-of-acceptance-and-attention-based-psychological-interventions-on-intrusive-thoughts-and-worry
#19
B Ainsworth, H Bolderston, M Garner
BACKGROUND: Worry is a key component of anxiety and may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention. We compared two psychological processes (attention and acceptance) on the frequency of intrusive worrying thoughts in an experimental worry task. METHOD: 77 participants were randomised across three groups and completed either a 10 min attention or acceptance-based psychological exercise, or progressive muscle relaxation control. We subsequently measured anxiety, and the content and frequency of intrusive thoughts before and after a 'worry induction task'...
April 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150967/note-on-history-of-psychology-in-india-problems-and-prospects
#20
Chetan Sinha, Shayna Fox Lee
Discusses the indigenization movement of psychology in India, which attempts to develop a context sensitive discipline that can understand the concept of mind and human behavior from the cultural perspective. It emphasizes the culturally bound aspects of human nature and uses methods to explore the ways in which culture emerges from history. Given the directions of scientific research, it is not absurd to engage with Western theories. Nevertheless, some Indian psychologists have resisted what they consider the intrusion of modern psychology...
February 2017: History of Psychology
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