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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219490/a-multisite-study-of-family-functioning%C3%A2-impairment-in-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#1
S Evelyn Stewart, Yu-Pei Hu, Aldrich Leung, Elaine Chan, Dianne M Hezel, Sarah Yao Lin, Laura Belschner, Casey Walsh, Daniel A Geller, David L Pauls
OBJECTIVE: Familial aspects of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including accommodation and treatment, have received notable and warranted attention. However, individual perspectives of its repercussions on family functioning, including emotional and occupational parental burden, have not been closely examined. The present study details this topic using a large multicenter sample. METHOD: Participants included 354 youth affected with OCD and their mothers and fathers ascertained through OCD programs in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 180) and Vancouver, British Columbia (n = 174)...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196711/acceptance-and-imagery-based-strategies-can-reduce-chocolate-cravings-a-test-of-the-elaborated-intrusion-theory-of-desire
#2
Sophie Schumacher, Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann
The elaborated-intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a two-stage process whereby initial intrusions about a desired target are subsequently elaborated with mental imagery. The present study tested whether the craving reduction strategies of cognitive defusion and guided imagery could differentially target the intrusion and elaboration stages, respectively, and thus differentially impact the craving process. Participants were randomly assigned to a cognitive defusion, a guided imagery or a mind-wandering control condition...
February 11, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194835/mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-as-an-augmentation-treatment-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Brenda L Key, Karen Rowa, Peter Bieling, Randi McCabe, Elizabeth J Pawluk
: A significant number of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients continue to experience symptoms that interfere with their functioning following cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Providing an additional augmentation treatment following CBT could help reduce these residual symptoms. Mindfulness interventions that facilitate less reactivity to thoughts and feelings may be helpful for patients suffering from residual OCD symptoms. The purpose of the current randomized waitlist control trial was to evaluate the feasibility and impact of providing an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention following completion of a CBT intervention to OCD patients who continued to suffer from significant symptoms...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191985/network-models-of-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-implications-for-icd-11
#4
Karen S Mitchell, Erika J Wolf, Michelle J Bovin, Lewina O Lee, Jonathan D Green, Raymond C Rosen, Terence M Keane, Brian P Marx
Recent proposals for revisions to the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria have argued that the current symptom constellation under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 is unwieldy and includes many symptoms that overlap with other disorders. The newly proposed criteria for the ICD-11 include only 6 symptoms. However, restricting the symptoms to those included in the ICD-11 has implications for PTSD diagnosis prevalence estimates, and it remains unclear whether these 6 symptoms are most strongly associated with a diagnosis of PTSD...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163366/young-children-exposed-to-intimate-partner-violence-describe-their-abused-parent-a-qualitative-study
#5
Karin Pernebo, Kjerstin Almqvist
The negative impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) begins early in the child's relationship with a caregiver. Children's relationships with, and internal working models of, abused parents have rarely been documented. The aim of this study was to collect and interpret young children's accounts of their abused parent. Interviews were conducted with 17 children aged 4 to 12 years who had witnessed IPV. Thematic analysis identified three main themes and seven sub-themes: "Coherent accounts of the parent" (sub-themes of "general benevolence", "provision of support, protection, and nurture", and "parental distress"); "Deficient accounts of the parent" ("vague accounts" and "disorganized narrations"); and "The parent as a trauma trigger" ("avoidance" and "breakthrough of intrusive memories and thoughts")...
2017: Journal of Family Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160721/testing-the-differential-effects-of-acceptance-and-attention-based-psychological-interventions-on-intrusive-thoughts-and-worry
#6
B Ainsworth, H Bolderston, M Garner
BACKGROUND: Worry is a key component of anxiety and may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention. We compared two psychological processes (attention and acceptance) on the frequency of intrusive worrying thoughts in an experimental worry task. METHOD: 77 participants were randomised across three groups and completed either a 10 min attention or acceptance-based psychological exercise, or progressive muscle relaxation control. We subsequently measured anxiety, and the content and frequency of intrusive thoughts before and after a 'worry induction task'...
January 24, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150967/note-on-history-of-psychology-in-india-problems-and-prospects
#7
Chetan Sinha, Shayna Fox Lee
Discusses the indigenization movement of psychology in India, which attempts to develop a context sensitive discipline that can understand the concept of mind and human behavior from the cultural perspective. It emphasizes the culturally bound aspects of human nature and uses methods to explore the ways in which culture emerges from history. Given the directions of scientific research, it is not absurd to engage with Western theories. Nevertheless, some Indian psychologists have resisted what they consider the intrusion of modern psychology...
February 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128978/the-association-between-trait-gratitude-and-self-reported-sleep-quality-is-mediated-by-depressive-mood-state
#8
Anna Alkozei, Ryan Smith, Megan D Kotzin, Debby L Waugaman, William D S Killgore
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that higher levels of trait gratitude are associated with better self-reported sleep quality, possibly due to differences in presleep cognitions. However previous studies have not taken into account the role of depressive symptoms in this relationship. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: In this study, 88 nonclinical 18-29-year-olds completed the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT) as a measure of trait gratitude. The Glasgow Content of Thought Inventory (GCTI) was used to measure the intrusiveness of cognitions prior to sleep onset, the Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) assessed daytime fatigue, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess self-reported sleep quality...
January 27, 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077328/dissociation-between-working-memory-performance-and-proactive-interference-control-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Diane Swick, Julien Cayton, Victoria Ashley, And U Turken
Deficits in working memory (WM) and cognitive control processes have been reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in addition to clinical symptoms such as hypervigilance, re-experiencing, and avoidance of trauma reminders. Given the uncontrollable nature of intrusive memories, an important question is whether PTSD is associated with altered control of interference in WM. Some studies also suggest that episodic memory shows a material-specific dissociation in PTSD, with greater impairments in verbal memory and relative sparing of nonverbal memory...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070119/ocd-like-behavior-is-caused-by-dysfunction-of-thalamo-amygdala-circuits-and-upregulated-trkb-erk-mapk-signaling-as-a-result-of-spred2-deficiency
#10
M Ullrich, M Weber, A M Post, S Popp, J Grein, M Zechner, H Guerrero González, A Kreis, A G Schmitt, N Üçeyler, K-P Lesch, K Schuh
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disease affecting about 2% of the general population. It is characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualized behaviors. While gene variations, malfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits, and dysregulated synaptic transmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that OCD-like behavior in mice is caused by deficiency of SPRED2, a protein expressed in various brain regions and a potent inhibitor of Ras/ERK-MAPK signaling...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052491/strength-through-adversity-moderate-lifetime-stress-exposure-is-associated-with-psychological-resilience-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#11
Larissa N Dooley, George M Slavich, Patricia I Moreno, Julienne E Bower
Stress research typically emphasizes the toxic effects of stress, but recent evidence has suggested that stress exposure, in moderation, can facilitate resilience. To test whether moderate stress exposure promotes psychological resilience to cancer, we examined the relationship between lifetime stress exposure prior to cancer diagnosis and postdiagnosis psychological functioning among 122 breast cancer survivors. Lifetime acute and chronic stress was assessed using an interview-based measure, and psychological functioning was assessed using measures of cancer-related intrusive thoughts and positive and negative affect...
January 4, 2017: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027422/care-related-predictors-for-negative-intrusive-thoughts-after-prostate-cancer-diagnosis-data-from-the-prospective-lappro-trial
#12
Thordis Thorsteinsdottir, Heiddis Valdimarsdottir, Arna Hauksdottir, Johan Stranne, Ulrica Wilderäng, Eva Haglind, Gunnar Steineck
OBJECTIVE: Negative intrusive thoughts about one's prostate cancer have been associated with depressive mood and impaired quality of life among prostate cancer patients. However, little is known about possible predictors for negative intrusive thoughts among this group. We aimed to identify health- and care-related predictors for such thoughts among a population of men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and undergoing radical prostatectomy. METHODS: In the LAPPRO-trial, 3154 men (80%) answered study-specific questionnaires at admission and three months after surgery...
December 27, 2016: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004982/intrusive-thoughts-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-non-clinical-participants-a-comparison-using-the-international-intrusive-thought-interview-schedule
#13
Martine Bouvard, Nathalie Fournet, Anne Denis, Adelaide Sixdenier, David Clark
The International Intrusive Thought Interview Schedule (IITIS) was used to assess and compare the unwanted intrusive thoughts (UITs) reported in a group of patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and a non-clinical group. Although all participants reported at least one type of intrusion, OCD patients experienced more intrusive thoughts than non-clinical participants, and this difference was statistically significant. In the OCD group, intrusive thoughts were more frequent, interfered more with daily life, were considered to be more important to get out of the mind, and were more difficult to stop than in non-clinical participants...
December 22, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002832/acute-and-chronic-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-the-emergence-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-network-analysis
#14
Richard A Bryant, Mark Creamer, Meaghan O'Donnell, David Forbes, Alexander C McFarlane, Derrick Silove, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic
Importance: Little is understood about how the symptoms of posttraumatic stress develop over time into the syndrome of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective: To use a network analysis approach to identify the nature of the association between PTSD symptoms in the acute phase after trauma and the chronic phase. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study enrolled 1138 patients recently admitted with traumatic injury to 1 of 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia from March 13, 2004, to February 26, 2006...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991603/relationship-between-depressive-symptoms-and-social-cognitive-processing-in-partners-of-long-term-breast-cancer-survivors
#15
Andrea A Cohee, Rebecca N Adams, Betsy L Fife, Diane M Von Ah, Patrick O Monahan, Kathleen A Zoppi, David Cella, Victoria L Champion
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To determine (a) if depressive symptoms in partners of long-term breast cancer survivors (BCSs) could be predicted by social cognitive processing theory and (b) if partners of younger and older BCSs were differentially affected by the cancer experience.
. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, descriptive study using self-report questionnaires.
. SETTING: Indiana University in Bloomington and 97 ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group sites in the United States...
January 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989258/musical-hallucinations-a-brief-review-of-functional-neuroimaging-findings
#16
Francesco Bernardini, Luigi Attademo, Karen Blackmon, Orrin Devinsky
Musical hallucinations are uncommon phenomena characterized by intrusive and frequently distressful auditory musical percepts without an external source, often associated with hypoacusis, psychiatric illness, focal brain lesion, epilepsy, and intoxication/pharmacology. Their physiological basis is thought to involve diverse mechanisms, including "release" from normal sensory or inhibitory inputs as well as stimulation during seizures, or they can be produced by functional or structural disorders in diverse cortical and subcortical areas...
December 19, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982507/cognitive-processing-in-the-aftermath-of-relationship-dissolution-associations-with-concurrent-and-prospective-distress-and-posttraumatic-growth
#17
Adriana Del Palacio-González, David A Clark, Lucia F O'Sullivan
Non-marital romantic relationship dissolution is amongst the most stressful life events experienced by young adults. Yet, some individuals experience posttraumatic growth following relationship dissolution. Little is known about the specific and differential contribution of trait-like and event-specific cognitive processing styles to each of these outcomes. A longitudinal design was employed in which trait-like (brooding and reflection) and dissolution-specific (intrusive and deliberate) cognitive processing was examined as predictors of growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) and distress (Breakup Distress Scale) following a recent relationship dissolution...
December 16, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929310/network-analysis-of-ptsd-symptoms-following-mass-violence
#18
Connor P Sullivan, Andrew J Smith, Michael Lewis, Russell T Jones
OBJECTIVE: Network analysis is a useful tool for understanding how symptoms interact with one another to influence psychopathology. However, this analytic strategy has not been fully utilized in the PTSD field. The current study utilized network analysis to examine connectedness and strength among PTSD symptoms (employing both partial correlation and regression network analyses) among a community sample of students exposed to the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings. METHOD: Respondents (N = 4,639) completed online surveys 3-4 months postshootings, with PTSD symptom severity measured via the Trauma Symptom Questionnaire...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922720/function-of-personal-growth-initiative-on-posttraumatic-growth-posttraumatic-stress-and-depression-over-and-above-adaptive-and-maladaptive-rumination
#19
Yuki Shigemoto, Blakely Low, Dominika Borowa, Christine Robitschek
OBJECTIVES: The current study examined whether various types of rumination are distinguishable and the effects of personal growth initiative (PGI) on posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress, and depression through adaptive and maladaptive rumination. METHOD: Sample included 292 college students who experienced a potentially traumatic event (PTE). RESULTS: Intrusive and deliberative rumination were found to be distinct factors. However, brooding and reflection, thought to be separate aspects of depression, were a single factor...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922007/generation-of-internal-solitary-waves-by-frontally-forced-intrusions-in-geophysical-flows
#20
Daniel Bourgault, Peter S Galbraith, Cédric Chavanne
Internal solitary waves are hump-shaped, large-amplitude waves that are physically analogous to surface waves except that they propagate within the fluid, along density steps that typically characterize the layered vertical structure of lakes, oceans and the atmosphere. As do surface waves, internal solitary waves may overturn and break, and the process is thought to provide a globally significant source of turbulent mixing and energy dissipation. Although commonly observed in geophysical fluids, the origins of internal solitary waves remain unclear...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
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