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intrusive thoughts

Philippe Svandra
Despite a particularly difficult approach, Emmanuel Levinas remains a philosopher who « speaks » quite naturally to caregivers. The reason is simple ; he is interested in an issue that has long been hidden in philosophy, but that directly affects care : vulnerability.However, it seems that his thinking has too often been watered down. By presenting it as a form of benevolent altruism, the radical, even subversive, aspect of the approach that he proposes to us is erased. Indeed, Levinassian responsibility is experienced first of all as a rupture, a violence that makes me the « hostage of others...
March 2018: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
Helena Brooks, Stephen A Kichuk, Thomas G Adams, William N Koller, H Nur Eken, Mariela Rance, Shelby Monahan, Suzanne Wasylink, Benjamin Kelmendi, Christopher Pittenger, Patricia Gruner, Michelle Hampson
Visual stimuli are often used for obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom provocation in research studies. We tested the induction of anxiety and OC checking symptoms across different types of checking provocation stimuli in three populations: individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), individuals with checking symptoms but without a diagnosis of OCD, and control individuals with neither checking symptoms nor a clinical diagnosis. One set of provocative images depicted objects that are commonly associated with checking anxiety...
April 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Tracey J Shors, Han Y M Chang, Emma M Millon
Sexual violence against women often leads to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by intrusive thoughts and memories about the traumatic event (Shors and Millon, 2016). These mental processes are obviously generated by the brain but often felt in the body. MAP Training My Brain ™ is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training of the brain with physical training of the body (Curlik and Shors, 2013; Shors et al., 2014). Each training session begins with 20-min of sitting meditation, followed by 10-min of slow-walking meditation, and ending with 30-min of aerobic exercise at 60-80% of the maximum heart rate (see maptrainmybrain...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Agnes Norbury, Trevor W Robbins, Ben Seymour
Generalization during aversive decision-making allows us to avoid a broad range of potential threats following experience with a limited set of exemplars. However, over-generalization, resulting in excessive and inappropriate avoidance, has been implicated in a variety of psychological disorders. Here, we use reinforcement learning modelling to dissect out different contributions to the generalization of instrumental avoidance in two groups of human volunteers ( N =26, N =482). We found that generalization of avoidance could be parsed into perceptual and value-based processes, and further, that value-based generalization could be subdivided into that relating to aversive and neutral feedback - with corresponding circuits including primary sensory cortex, anterior insula, amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex...
May 8, 2018: ELife
Matthew Brooks, Nicola Graham-Kevan, Sarita Robinson, Michelle Lowe
OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests trauma characteristics can impact on posttraumatic growth (PTG). The current study considers whether previously identified predictors of PTG may produce different outcomes dependent on the characteristics of the trauma experienced. METHOD: Active coping, avoidant coping, emotional coping, intrusive thoughts, social support, and spirituality were examined as potential mediators of relationships between trauma characteristics (interpersonal trauma, number of trauma types, and childhood trauma) and PTG...
May 3, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Gerardo Villarreal, Mark B Hamner, Clifford Qualls, José M Cañive
Objectives: A previous randomized placebo-controlled trial in military veterans posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found that quetiapine improved global PTSD symptoms severity, depression and anxiety as well as the re-experiencing and hypearousal clusters. However, it is not known if individual symptoms had a preferential response to this medication. The goal of this study was to analyze the individual symptom response in this group of patients. Methods: Data from a previous trial was re-analyzed...
February 5, 2018: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Martha Giraldo-O'Meara, Amparo Belloch
Current cognitive approaches to Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) assume that appearance-related intrusive cognitions and their functional consequences characterize the disorder, in a similar way that obsessive intrusive thoughts characterize the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This study explores whether normal but unwanted appearance-related intrusive thoughts (AITs), escalate to clinical AITs when they are dysfunctionally appraised and instigate counterproductive neutralizing strategies. From a sample of 344 non-clinical individuals who reported a highly upsetting AIT during the past three months two subgroups were extracted according to their high (n = 68) and low (n = 276) vulnerability to BDD...
April 21, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Gabriel Talask, Sabrina Bastos de Freitas, Maria Estela Wildner Rasmussen, Mônica Santos Silva, Rafael Thomaz da Costa, Gisele Pereira Dias, Antonio E Nardi, Marcele Regine de Carvalho
Introduction Intrusive thoughts may cause a significant level of distress, since some individuals evaluate the content of those thoughts as aversive. Suppression of intrusive thoughts is one of the strategies adopted by these individuals, which increases the level of distress. Suppression of thoughts may be present as one of the factors that maintain different psychological disorders. Objective To describe the translation and adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI), which measures thought suppression...
March 2018: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Mattias Prytz, Anna Ledebo, Eva Angenete, David Bock, Eva Haglind
The aim of this prospective registry-based population study was to investigate the association between QoL 3 years after surgery for rectal cancer and intrusive thoughts and to assess the association with the type of surgery (i.e., APE or ELAPE) in a population-based national cohort. ELAPE has been proposed as a superior surgical technique for distal rectal cancer, but long-term effects on QoL are not known. There are also no studies on the association of negative intrusive thoughts on patients' self-reported Quality of Life following surgery for distal rectal cancer...
April 17, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Joyce J Endendijk, Hannah Spencer, Anneloes L van Baar, Peter A Bos
Certain infant facial characteristics, referred to as baby schema, are thought to automatically trigger parenting behavior and affective orientation toward infants. Electroencephalography (EEG) is well suited to assessing the intuitive nature and temporal dynamics of parenting responses, due to its millisecond temporal resolution. Little is known, however, about the relations between neural processing of infant cues and actual parenting behavior in a naturalistic setting. In the present study we examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) of mothers (N = 33) watching infant faces of varying attractiveness, in relation to activation of the maternal care system and the mothers' observed parenting behavior (sensitivity, nonintrusiveness) with their own child (2-6 years old)...
April 12, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Megan Fresson, Benoit Dardenne, Thierry Meulemans
Objective: Some studies have shown that diagnosis threat (DT) could negatively impact the cognitive performance of undergraduate students who had sustained a mild traumatic brain injury. This study was designed to examine DT in people with acquired brain injury (ABI). As a second goal, we investigated the effect of stereotype lift as a way to overcome DT's harmful impact. The purpose of this study was also to examine the mechanisms mediating stereotype effects. Method: People with ABI and control participants were assigned to one of three conditions: DT, cognitive-neutral (in which the cognitive status of participants with ABI and the cognitive characteristics of the tasks were deemphasized), and stereotype lift (in which a downward comparison was made with another neurological group)...
March 22, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Robert C Bransfield
Background: No study has previously analyzed aggressiveness, homicide, and Lyme disease (LD). Materials and methods: Retrospective LD chart reviews analyzed aggressiveness, compared 50 homicidal with 50 non-homicidal patients, and analyzed homicides. Results: Most aggression with LD was impulsive, sometimes provoked by intrusive symptoms, sensory stimulation or frustration and was invariably bizarre and senseless. About 9.6% of LD patients were homicidal with the average diagnosis delay of 9 years...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Julia F Henrich, Maryanne Martin
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to investigate differences in attentional control between patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy participants and to examine the link between attentional control and IBS catastrophizing. Previous research has shown that patients with chronic functional illnesses have lower levels of attentional control. However, no previous study has found altered attentional control in patients with IBS or directly investigated the link between attentional control and catastrophizing...
March 23, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Samantha Bellini, Denise Erbuto, Karl Andriessen, Mariantonietta Milelli, Marco Innamorati, David Lester, Gaia Sampogna, Andrea Fiorillo, Maurizio Pompili
Suicide often has a severe impact on the surviving family and friends. There is a need to better understand the psychological and psychopathological consequences of losing a significant other by suicide. The aim of the present study was to assess hopelessness, depression, suicide risk, complicated grief, intrusive memories, and avoidance in a sample of suicide survivors. In this observational study, 35 bereaved individuals were recruited at the Suicide Prevention Centre of Sant'Andrea Hospital in Rome. Individuals were administered a series of validated instruments: the Beck Depression Inventory II ( BDI ), the Beck Hopelessness Scale ( BHS ), the Inventory of Complicated Grief ( ICG ), the Impact of Event Scale ( IES ), the Subjective Happiness Scale ( SHS ), and the Satisfaction With Life Scale ( SWLS )...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Belén López-Pérez, Catherine Deeprose, Yaniv Hanoch
Mental imagery is known to play a key role in the development and maintenance of depression and anxiety. Prisoners commonly experience psychological distress, but interventions to address this are currently lacking. We aimed to examine the link between prospective mental imagery and anxiety and depression among prisoners. One hundred twenty-three male prisoners from a Category C prison in southwest England participated in the study. They completed the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) to measure whether they experience depression and/or anxiety symptoms...
2018: PloS One
Thomas V Fernandez, James F Leckman, Christopher Pittenger
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is present in 1.5-2.5% of the population and can result in substantial lifelong disability. It is characterized by intrusive thoughts, sensations, and urges and by repetitive behaviors that are difficult to control despite, in most cases, preserved insight as to their excessive or irrational nature. The causes and underlying pathophysiology of OCD are not well understood, which has limited the development of new treatments and interventions. Despite evidence for a substantial genetic contribution to disease risk, identification and replication of genetic variants associated with OCD have been challenging...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ryan C T DeLapp, Gregory S Chasson, Jessica Swerbilow, Brittany Gibby, Ghazel Tellawi, Monnica T Williams
Aggressive intrusive thoughts (AITs) are unwanted and repetitive thoughts, impulses, or desires that enter into consciousness involuntarily. The current study compared the frequency of and distress from AITs in a sample of inmates jailed for violent crimes ( n = 78) versus college students ( n = 103; that is, participant status). The relationship between psychopathic traits and AITs was also explored. Results indicated that, although there were no differences between students and inmates, AIT frequency was positively associated with Primary Psychopathy...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Nichole Fairbrother, Dana S Thordarson, Fiona L Challacombe, John K Sakaluk
BACKGROUND: Unwanted, intrusive thoughts of infant-related harm are a normal, albeit distressing experience for most new mothers. The occurrence of these thoughts can represent a risk factor for the development of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). As the early postpartum period represents a time of increased risk for OCD development, the transition to parenthood provides a unique opportunity to better understand OCD development. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to assess components of cognitive behavioural conceptualizations of postpartum OCD in relation to new mothers' thoughts of infant-related harm...
February 20, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Marion Rouault, Tricia Seow, Claire M Gillan, Stephen M Fleming
BACKGROUND: Distortions in metacognition-the ability to reflect on and control other cognitive processes-are thought to be characteristic of poor mental health. However, it remains unknown whether such shifts in self-evaluation are due to specific alterations in metacognition and/or a downstream consequence of changes in decision-making processes. METHODS: Using perceptual decision making as a model system, we employed a computational psychiatry approach to relate parameters governing both decision formation and metacognitive evaluation to self-reported transdiagnostic symptom dimensions in a large general population sample (N = 995)...
January 11, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
María Roncero, Amparo Belloch, Guy Doron
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to cognitive models, obsessive compulsive symptoms result from catastrophic misinterpretations of commonly occurring intrusive experiences and the use of counterproductive strategies to manage them. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) related beliefs such as inflated responsibility, importance of thoughts and perfectionism increases the likelihood of such misinterpretations. Consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the usefulness of mobile delivered technologies in fostering cognitive behavior change, the present study assessed the effectiveness of a novel cognitive training exercise designed to challenge OCD-related beliefs...
June 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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