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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323526/psychological-and-neural-correlates-of-embitterment-in-old-age
#1
Simone Kühn, Sandra Düzel, Johanna Drewelies, Denis Gerstorf, Ulman Lindenberger, Jürgen Gallinat
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic embitterment disorder (PTED) comprises a stress-related response to a negative life event that violates the belief system of the individual. Characteristic symptoms involve repeated intrusive thoughts, emotional arousal when reminded of the event, and decreases in well-being. METHOD: Within the scope of the present study, embitterment was treated as a continuous rather than categorical concept, and we investigated its psychological and brain structural correlates in a sample of healthy older adults...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323524/work-disability-in-soldiers-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-posttraumatic-embitterment-disorder-and-not-event-related-common-mental-disorders
#2
Beate Muschalla, Heinrich Rau, Gerd Dieter Willmund, Christine Knaevelsrud
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic mental disorders may occur with different affect qualities. Best known is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a conditioned anxiety reaction with intrusions. Another event-related mental disorder is posttraumatic embitterment (PTED), characterized by affect of embitterment and thoughts of revenge, occurring after an event deeply hurting basic beliefs. Knowing about associated disability is important for treatment and sociomedical decisions. This is the first study to explore work-disability in patients with PTSD, PTED, and not-event-related common mental disorder (CMD)...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317581/-alexithymia-and-negative-emotions-in-cancer-patients-mediating-effects-of-intrusive-thoughts
#3
Rong Xu, Xiuhong Yuan, Qiuping Tang
To explore associations of negative emotions with alexithymia and intrusive thoughts in cancer patients.
 Methods: A total of 115 cancer patients were assessed by Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the state anxiety subscales of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
 Results: Negative emotions were positively correlated with alexithymia and the intrusive thoughts (r 0.251 to 0.600, P<0.01). Intrusive thoughts were significantly associated with the total score of alexithymia, difficulty in identifying feelings, and difficulty in describing feelings (r 0...
December 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316843/diagnosis-threat-and-underperformance-the-threat-must-be-relevant-and-implicit
#4
Megan Fresson, Benoit Dardenne, Thierry Meulemans
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis threat (DT) phenomenon shows that, in some cases, reminding people with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) about their past neurological history diminishes subsequent cognitive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of personal relevance (i.e., domain identification) and type of threat (i.e., implicit vs. explicit) as moderating variables. We investigated intrusive thoughts as a potential mediator. METHOD: Control (non-mTBI) and mTBI participants were recruited and completed a domain identification questionnaire...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314412/coping-thought-suppression-and-perceived-stress-in-currently-depressed-previously-depressed-and-never-depressed-individuals
#5
Jens C Thimm, Catharina E A Wang, Knut Waterloo, Martin Eisemann, Marianne Halvorsen
BACKGROUND: Previous research shows that depression is associated with an increase in stressful life events and perceived stress as well as dysfunctional ways of coping with stress. However, knowledge about coping in previously depressed individuals is scant. METHODS: This study compared perceived stress, coping, and thought suppression in a sample of 30 currently depressed, 63 previously depressed, and 42 never depressed individuals. RESULTS: Analysis of variance revealed that previously depressed individuals showed less wishful thinking and thought suppression than the currently depressed individuals, but scored significantly higher on these strategies than the never depressed individuals...
January 4, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302772/development-and-preliminary-psychometric-properties-of-an-instrument-for-the-measurement-of-obsessional-dissociative-experiences-the-van-obsessional-dissociation-questionnaire-vod-q
#6
Murat Boysan, Abdullah Yıldırım, Lütfullah Beşiroğlu, Mehmet Celal Kefeli, Mücahit Kağan
A growing body of research evidence documents the substantial associations between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and dissociation. This article describes the development and preliminary psychometric properties of the Van Obsessional Dissociation Questionnaire (VOD-Q). Obsessional dissociation is defined as a tendency to dissociate in reaction to distressing, unwanted and intrusive thoughts, images and impulses. The screening tool is conceptualized to tap obsessional dissociation across three dimensions: obsessional absorption, obsessional depersonalization/ derealization and obsessional amnesia...
January 4, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300137/disabling-reenactment-imagery-after-violent-dying
#7
Edward K Rynearson
Reenactment imagery that remains fixating after violent dying is associated with diminished psychological resilience. The nonresilient teller struggles to maintain an integrative orientation within the recounting. Reestablishing the resilient capacities of pacification (mastery of terror through self-calming), partition (mastery of intrusive thoughts through self-differentiation), and perspective (mastery of self-determination through self-transcendence) is an important preparatory goal with intervention. Without these resilient capacities, premature exposure increases the risk that patients will experience a dysfunctional merger with the possessive reenactment representation...
January 4, 2018: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243008/examining-the-psychosocial-impact-of-genetic-testing-for-cardiomyopathies
#8
Julia Wynn, David T Holland, Jimmy Duong, Priyanka Ahimaz, Wendy K Chung
Inherited cardiomyopathies, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), are the most common monogenic cause of cardiac disease and can rarely lead to sudden cardiac death (SCD). They are characterized by incomplete and age-dependent penetrance and are usually initially symptomatic in adulthood yet can present in childhood as well. Over 20 genes have been identified to cause HCM, and more than 40 genes are known to cause DCM. Genetic testing for these genes has been integrated into medical care; however, the psychological impact of genetic testing and the impact of the uncertainty that comes with receiving these results have not been well studied...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235228/experiences-of-singapore-nurses-as-second-victims-a-qualitative-study
#9
Shi Teng Chan, Betty Peck Chui Khong, Lynnette Pei Lin Tan, Hong-Gu He, Wenru Wang
Nurses, like other healthcare professionals, such as physicians, pharmacists, and therapists, are susceptible to unanticipated patient harm, in which they suffer as second victims due to the immense personal and professional impact from the adverse event. The aim of the present study was to explore the psychological responses, coping strategies, and support needs of Singapore nurses as second victims of adverse events. A descriptive qualitative study was adopted. Eight participants (6 women and 2 men) who had been involved in an adverse event were interviewed and audio-recorded...
December 12, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232487/relation-of-social-constraints-on-disclosure-to-adjustment-among-chinese-american-cancer-survivors-a-multi-processes-approach
#10
Celia C Y Wong, Krystal Warmoth, Shelby Ivy, Bernice Cheung, Qian Lu
PURPOSE: The present study examines the association between social constraints and depressive symptoms among Chinese American breast cancer survivors, and the mechanism underling this association. A multi-processes model is tested to examine the mediating roles of ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE), avoidance, intrusive thoughts, and social support in the association between social constraints and depressive symptoms among Chinese American breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Ninety-six Chinese American breast cancer survivors were recruited from Chinese community organizations...
December 12, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214602/peromyscus-maniculatus-bairdii-as-a-naturalistic-mammalian-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-current-status-and-future-challenges
#11
De Wet Wolmarans, Isabella M Scheepers, Dan J Stein, Brian H Harvey
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent and debilitating condition, characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive behavior. Animal models of OCD arguably have the potential to contribute to our understanding of the condition. Deer mice (Permomyscus maniculatus bairdii) are characterized by stereotypic behavior which is reminiscent of OCD symptomology, and which may serve as a naturalistic animal model of this disorder. Moreover, a range of deer mouse repetitive behaviors may be representative of different compulsive-like phenotypes...
December 6, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210143/sudden-death-in-paediatrics-as-a-traumatic-experience-for-critical-care-nurses
#12
Lígia Lima, Sandra Gonçalves, Cândida Pinto
BACKGROUND: Research shows that nurses working in critical care units and in particular, paediatric units, are at risk of developing symptoms of secondary traumatic stress (STS). However, little attention has been given to this phenomenon when associated with situations of sudden death in paediatrics. AIM: This study aimed to examine the impact of sudden death in paediatrics on nurses working in paediatrics critical care units and to explore nurses' experiences of this event...
December 5, 2017: Nursing in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194740/stereotype-threat-effects-on-learning-from-a-cognitively-demanding-mathematics-lesson
#13
Emily McLaughlin Lyons, Nina Simms, Kreshnik N Begolli, Lindsey E Richland
Stereotype threat-a situational context in which individuals are concerned about confirming a negative stereotype-is often shown to impact test performance, with one hypothesized mechanism being that cognitive resources are temporarily co-opted by intrusive thoughts and worries, leading individuals to underperform despite high content knowledge and ability (see Schmader & Beilock, ). We test here whether stereotype threat may also impact initial student learning and knowledge formation when experienced prior to instruction...
December 1, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161610/experimental-modification-of-dysfunctional-interpretations-in-individuals-with-contamination-concerns
#14
Sara L Conley, Kevin D Wu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dysfunctional interpretations of intrusive thoughts are implicated in the etiology and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Cognitive Bias Modification training for interpretations (CBM-I) has successfully modified dysfunctional interpretations in the context of several disorders, including OCD. However, research regarding CBM-I's impact on symptom reduction and behavior is mixed, which limits its clinical application. Further, support for the specific efficacy of CBM-I in individuals with contamination concerns is limited...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154583/when-you-see-it-coming-stressor-anticipation-modulates-stress-effects-on-negative-affect
#15
Andreas B Neubauer, Joshua M Smyth, Martin J Sliwinski
Research on the effect of exposure to minor stressors in people's daily lives consistently reports negative effects on indicators of well-being, often coined stress reactivity. Recent advances in the intensity of data collection have brought about an increasing interest in within-day associations of stress exposure and indicators of well-being, including dynamic aspects of the stress response such as stress recovery. In the present work, we investigated the other end of the stress response: the anticipation of a stressor...
November 20, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154502/if-it-is-absurd-then-why-do-you-do-it-the-richer-the-obsessional-experience-the-more-compelling-the-compulsion
#16
Steffen Moritz, Christine Purdon, Lena Jelinek, Brenda Chiang, Marit Hauschildt
Mounting evidence suggests that obsessive intrusions are often accompanied and amplified by perceptual experiences of different modalities (e.g., feeling dirt on one's skin while experiencing intrusive thoughts about contamination). Pilot studies conducted online with individuals endorsing mild obsessive-compulsive symptoms have linked the co-occurrence of perceptual experiences and obsessions to the severity of subsequent compulsive behaviour as well as low insight. However, it is presently unclear whether sensory experiences accompany all types of obsessional thoughts or are restricted to certain preoccupations (e...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134581/the-pain-of-ambivalence-over-emotional-expression
#17
Carol Wang, Celia C Y Wong, Qian Lu
PURPOSE: Ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) is defined as the desire to express emotion but failing to do so. Recent studies have revealed that AEE is associated with more pain. Pain is common among cancer survivors. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between AEE and pain, its underlying mechanism, and cultural relevance among cancer survivors. METHODS: Ninety-six Chinese American breast cancer survivors completed a questionnaire package assessing AEE and pain...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131058/nonfunctional-redundant-acts-characterize-ocd-even-in-ocd-unrelated-tasks-a-demonstration-in-questionnaire-completion
#18
Maya Amitai, Nitzan Arnon, Noa Shaham, Shay Gur, Alan Apter, Abraham Weizman, Haggai Hermesh
BACKGROUND: Ethological methods used to analyze human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rituals demonstrated excess of unnecessary repetitions as well as irrelevant, idiosyncratic acts (additions) compared to normal activity. A question that still remains is whether these well-known repetitions and additions are manifested in behaviors unrelated to the OCD rituals. Our objectives were to: (1) assess whether OCD-related repetitions and additions as found in previous studies also affect the patients' activity of filling out questionnaires and (2) evaluate the specificity of these behaviors to OCD as opposed to other anxiety disorders and healthy controls...
November 3, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107201/alexithymia-and-problematic-alcohol-use-a-critical-update
#19
REVIEW
K E Cruise, R Becerra
There has been a substantial growth in empirical research aimed at examining the co-occurrence of alexithymia and problematic alcohol use and alcohol use disorder (AUD) since Thorberg, Young, Sullivan, and Lyvers (2009) original review article. The objective of the present paper is therefore to provide a critical update review of research on alexithymia and problematic alcohol use published since 2009. A systematic search was conducted through PsychINFO, Medline, and ProQuest databases to obtain relevant literature published between 2009 and 2016...
October 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101315/hippocampal-gaba-enables-inhibitory-control-over-unwanted-thoughts
#20
Taylor W Schmitz, Marta M Correia, Catarina S Ferreira, Andrew P Prescot, Michael C Anderson
Intrusive memories, images, and hallucinations are hallmark symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Although often attributed to deficient inhibitory control by the prefrontal cortex, difficulty in controlling intrusive thoughts is also associated with hippocampal hyperactivity, arising from dysfunctional GABAergic interneurons. How hippocampal GABA contributes to stopping unwanted thoughts is unknown. Here we show that GABAergic inhibition of hippocampal retrieval activity forms a key link in a fronto-hippocampal inhibitory control pathway underlying thought suppression...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
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