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Disabled people

Sally Lindsay, Elaine Cagliostro, Joanne Leck, Winny Shen, Jennifer Stinson
PURPOSE: Many youths with disabilities find it challenging to disclose their medical condition and request workplace accommodations. Our objective was to explore when and how young people with disabilities disclose their condition and request workplace accommodations. METHODS: We conducted 17 in-depth interviews (11 females, six males) with youth with disabilities aged 15-34 (mean age 26). We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, and thematic approach...
March 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Neha Dewan, Joy C MacDermid, Ruby Grewal, Karen Beattie
In a prospective cohort of 113 patients followed 4 years after distal radius fracture (DRF), 24% of patients experienced a subsequent fall and 19% experienced a subsequent fracture. People with poor balance, greater fracture-specific pain/disability, low bone density, and prior falls had nearly a three times higher risk of subsequent falls. PURPOSE: To determine the extent to which modifiable risk factors alone or in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) and non-modifiable risk factors predict subsequent falls and osteoporotic (OP) fractures after distal radius fracture (DRF)...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Dennis H Reid, Mary Rosswurm, David A Rotholz
In this article, the authors offer recommendations for behavior analysts on how to treat adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) with dignity. Initially, the importance of treating adults with disabilities with dignity is emphasized in terms of the impact on people with IDD, their family members, behavior analysts and other service providers, and the behavior analysis field in general. The recommendations are based primarily on the authors' professional and personal experiences along with similar experiences of others involved either personally or professionally in the disability field...
March 2018: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Evangelos Kontopantelis, Mamas A Mamas, Harm van Marwijk, Iain Buchan, Andrew M Ryan, Tim Doran
BACKGROUND: At a low geographical level, little is known about the associations between population characteristics and deprivation, and their trends, which would be directly affected by the house market, labour pressures and government policies. We describe temporal trends in health and overall deprivation in England by age, sex, urbanity and ethnicity. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional whole population study for England, 2004-2015, at a low geographical level (average 1500 residents)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
John E Downey, Nathaniel Schwed, Steven M Chase, Andrew B Schwartz, Jennifer L Collinger
Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are being developed to assist people with motor disabilities in communicating and interacting with the world around them. This technology relies on recordings from the primary motor cortex, which may vary from day to day. 
 Approach: Here we quantify, in two long-term BCI subjects, the length of time that action potentials from the same neuron, or group of neurons, can be recorded from motor cortex. 
 Main Results: These action potentials, are identified by their extracellular waveforms and may change within a single day, although some of these identified units can be identified consistently for weeks and even months...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Zoheir Elkahtib
BACKGROUND: Most health-care organisations are increasingly interested in assessing the quality of their services. Patient satisfaction has a central role in the quality assessment in health care because it reflects the appropriateness of services from the clients' perspectives. The aim of this study was to assess the level of satisfaction in patients with non-communicable diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension) who receive services from UNRWA health centres in Gaza governorates. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we chose a random sample of participants who presented to the randomly selected six health centres for treatment of non-communicable diseases...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Hannah Crawford, Heather Wilkinson
Life grids have been used in qualitative studies for the last two decades. They provide an activity which researcher and participant can focus their attention on, help build rapport, and reduce the control the researcher may hold within a session. Here we describe the novel use of life grids at the end of a data collection phase. Used in this previously unreported way, life grids assisted the closure of the data collection phase by summarizing the data collection and marking departure from the field. Creation of a life grid produced a tangible outcome, evidencing the work undertaken within the data collection period...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Yi-Li Zhang, Bei Li, Zeng-Huan Zhou
Background: The macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), also named chemokine cytokine ligand 3 (CCL3), has been detected in nucleus pulposus and increased following cytokine stimulation. Objective: The current study was performed to explore the relationship between serum CCL3/MIP-1α levels with lumbar intervertebral disk degeneration (IDD). Patients and methods: A total of 132 disk degeneration patients confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and 126 healthy controls were enrolled in the current study...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Laurie E Powers, Ann Fullerton, Jessica Schmidt, Sarah Geenen, Molly Oberweiser-Kennedy, JoAnn Dohn, May Nelson, Rosemary Iavanditti, Jennifer Blakeslee
Research clearly documents the serious challenges and poor outcomes experienced by many young people exiting foster care, as well as compounded disparities for the high percentage of youth in care who are identified with disabilities and/or mental health challenges. However, very little research has been conducted to specify or validate effective models for improving the transition trajectories of youth exiting care. Evidence suggests the My Life self-determination enhancement model offers a promising approach for supporting youths' self-determined and positive transition to adulthood...
February 2018: Children and Youth Services Review
A Minguez, M Milh
The objective of this study was to investigate the adaptive functioning of adults who had a slight to moderate intellectual deficiency, in regard of age and intellectual quotient (IQ). Cognitive and adaptive functioning were evaluated using the WAIS and VINELAND scales in 16 adults who accepted to participate in this study. We found a correlation between global IQ and each domain of the adaptive score, mostly communication skills. We also found that there was an age effect on socialization skills. Most skills were learned during infancy and adolescence, especially communication skills, which are highly stable at different ages and highly correlated with IQ...
March 15, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Asli Kilavuz, Reci Meseri, Sumru Savas, Hatice Simsek, Sevnaz Sahin, Derya Hopanci Bicakli, Fulden Sarac, Mehmet Uyar, Fehmi Akcicek
OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenia, functional disability, and depression are common problems in the elderly. Sarcopenia is associated with physical disability, functional impairment, depression, cardiometabolic diseases, and even mortality. This study aims to determine the association of sarcopenia with depression and functional status among ambulatory community-dwelling elderly aged 65 years and older. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 28,323 people, aged 65 years and older, living in Bornova, Izmir...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Rebecca de Boer, Frithjof Lutscher
Even though medical intervention measures against HIV transmission are available, the epidemic continues to spread in several sub-Saharan African countries. Empirical studies indicate that many people are unable to implement prevention strategies because of individual factors, such as extreme poverty or lack of education, but also because or relational factors, such as gender-based violence or transactional sex. This phenomenon, known as choice disability, may be such a large obstacle in the effectiveness of medical interventions that several field trials of structural (non-medical) interventions are underway that address these issues...
March 14, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Timothy T Brown, Juulia Partanen, Linh Chuong, Vaughn Villaverde, Ann Chantal Griffin, Aaron Mendelson
We examine the hypothesis that psychological distress due to perceived discrimination can result in chronic pain, where perceived discrimination is based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, height/weight, religion, and other characteristics. Using a sample of 1908 individuals from the two most recent waves (2004-2006 and 2013-2014) of panel data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, we apply instrumental variables regression where measures of daily and lifetime perceived discrimination are instruments whose effects on chronic pain are mediated by psychological distress...
March 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Maria Lorenzi, Stefano Bonassi, Teresa Lorenzi, Silvia Giovannini, Roberto Bernabei, Graziano Onder
Sarcopenia and frailty are associated with several important health-related adverse events, including disability, loss of independence, institutionalization and mortality. Sarcopenia can be considered a biological substrate of frailty, and the prevalence of both these conditions progressively increases with age. Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures located at the end of linear chromosomes and implicated in cellular ageing, shorten with age, and are associated with various age-related diseases. In addition, telomere length (TL) is widely considered a molecular/cellular hallmark of the ageing process...
March 16, 2018: Biogerontology
Leah J Mische, Ellen M Mowry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to critically evaluate published studies examining diets and nutritional supplements (excepting vitamin D) for the impact on prevention and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). RECENT FINDINGS: There is a negative relationship between the Mediterranean diet and vascular disease, and vascular co-morbidities are associated with a worse MS prognosis. Low-fat, fish-based diets, sodium-restricted diets, calorie restriction, the paleo diet, and gluten-free diets have been examined, mostly in observational studies; results are inconclusive...
March 17, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Marcos D Machado-Fragua, Ellen A Struijk, Auxiliadora Graciani, Pilar Guallar-Castillon, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Esther Lopez-Garcia
PURPOSE: Habitual coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Since these diseases are main determinants of functional limitations, we have tested the hypothesis that coffee intake is associated with lower risk of physical function impairment, frailty and disability in older adults. We focused on women and those with obesity, hypertension or type 2 diabetes because they are at higher risk of functional limitations. METHODS: Prospective study with 3289 individuals ≥ 60 years from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Leonie A Krops, Rienk Dekker, Jan H B Geertzen, Pieter U Dijkstra
INTRODUCTION: Physically disabled people are less physically active compared with healthy people. Existing physical activity (PA) interventions are limited in reach, since they are primarily rehabilitation or school based. The current study aims to develop a community-based intervention for stimulating PA in hard-to-reach physically disabled people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To systematically develop a PA-stimulating intervention, intervention mapping (six steps) was applied...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Eun Ji Kim, Yiyang Yuan, Jane Liebschutz, Howard Cabral, Lewis Kazis
BACKGROUND: Disabilities affect more than 1 in 5 US adults, and those with disabilities face multiple barriers in accessing health care. A digital gap, defined as the disparity caused by differences in the ability to use advanced technologies, is assumed to be prevalent among individuals with disabilities. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the associations between disability and use of information technology (IT) in obtaining health information and between trust factors and IT use...
March 16, 2018: JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies
Agnus M Kim, Jin Yong Lee, Jayeun Kim
BACKGROUND: According to prior studies, it is possible to consider the emergency care utilization due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) as a proxy measure of access to primary care but there was no confirmed study among people with disabilities. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We examined overall emergency department (ED) utilization patterns among people with disabilities compared with the general population and estimated factors affecting ED utilization. Additionally, we examined whether there were any differences in ED visits due to ACSCs according to type and severity of disability...
March 9, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
Marcie Harris-Hayes, Karen Steger-May, Linda R Van Dillen, Mario Schootman, Gretchen B Salsich, Sylvia Czuppon, John C Clohisy, Paul K Commean, Travis J Hillen, Shirley A Sahrmann, Michael J Mueller
Study Design Ancillary analysis, time-controlled randomized clinical trial. Background Movement pattern training (MPT) has been shown to improve function among patients with chronic hip joint pain (CHJP). Objective Determine the association among treatment outcomes and mechanical factors associated with CHJP. Methods Twenty-eight patients with CHJP, 18-40 years, participated in MPT, either immediately after assessment or after a wait-list period. MPT included task-specific training to reduce hip adduction motion during functional tasks and hip muscle strengthening...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
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