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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207603/needs-of-stroke-survivors-as-perceived-by-their-caregivers-a-scoping-review
#1
Shilpa Krishnan, Monique R Pappadis, Susan C Weller, Marsja Stearnes, Amit Kumar, Kenneth J Ottenbacher, Timothy A Reistetter
OBJECTIVE: Caregivers usually are not involved while planning the stroke survivor's medical and rehabilitation goals and interventions. This review aimed to identify the needs of stroke survivors as perceived by their caregivers. DESIGN: A literature search from 2003 to 2014 was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar. Sixty-six studies were included. Most studies excluded did not encompass caregivers' perspectives. Four reviewers screened the titles, abstracts, and full texts of the articles for inclusion...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174616/optimal-path-finding-through-mental-exploration-based-on-neural-energy-field-gradients
#2
Yihong Wang, Rubin Wang, Yating Zhu
Rodent animal can accomplish self-locating and path-finding task by forming a cognitive map in the hippocampus representing the environment. In the classical model of the cognitive map, the system (artificial animal) needs large amounts of physical exploration to study spatial environment to solve path-finding problems, which costs too much time and energy. Although Hopfield's mental exploration model makes up for the deficiency mentioned above, the path is still not efficient enough. Moreover, his model mainly focused on the artificial neural network, and clear physiological meanings has not been addressed...
February 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169089/meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-of-timing-and-cognitive-control-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-evidence-of-a-primary-time-deficit
#3
REVIEW
Irene Alústiza, Joaquim Radua, Marta Pla, Raquel Martin, Felipe Ortuño
Schizophrenia (SZ) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) are associated with deficits in both timing and cognitive control functions. However, the underlying neurological dysfunctions remain poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to identify brain structures activated both by increases in cognitive activity and during timing tasks in patients with SZ and BD relative to controls. We conducted two signed differential mapping (SDM) meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies assessing the brain response to increasing levels of cognitive difficulty: one concerned SZ, and the other BD patients...
February 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159609/disentangling-the-mechanisms-underlying-infant-fixation-durations-in-scene-perception-a-computational-account
#4
Irati R Saez de Urabain, Antje Nuthmann, Mark H Johnson, Tim J Smith
The goal of this article is to investigate the unexplored mechanisms underlying the development of saccadic control in infancy by determining the generalizability and potential limitations of extending the CRISP theoretical framework and computational model of fixation durations (FDs) in adult scene-viewing to infants. The CRISP model was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms modulating FDs in 6-month-olds by applying the model to empirical eye-movement data gathered from groups of infants and adults during free-viewing of naturalistic and semi-naturalistic videos...
January 31, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151002/lack-of-associations-between-modifiable-risk-factors-and-dementia-in-the-very-old-findings-from-the-cambridge-city-over-75s-cohort-study
#5
Kay Deckers, Sebastian Köhler, Martin van Boxtel, Frans Verhey, Carol Brayne, Jane Fleming
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between modifiable risk and protective factors and severe cognitive impairment and dementia in the very old. Additionally, the present study tests the predictive validity of the 'LIfestyle for BRAin health' (LIBRA) score, an index developed to assess an individual's dementia prevention potential. METHOD: Two hundred seventy-eight individuals aged 85 years or older from the Cambridge City over-75s cohort study were followed-up until death...
February 2, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139148/circadian-preferences-in-young-adults-psychometric-properties-and-factor-structure-of-the-portuguese-version-of-the-preferences-scale-ps-6
#6
Daniel Ruivo Marques, Ana Allen Gomes, Lee Di Milia, Maria Helena Pinto de Azevedo
Morningness is a trait-like variable which has been extensively studied within chronobiology. Despite the number of existing measures to assess morningness, there is a need for brief instruments that are psychometrically sound to be used in applied settings. Accordingly, the modified version of the Preferences Scale (PS-6) comprises six items and was reported to have adequate reliability and satisfactory validity indicators. In this article, the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the PS-6 are reported...
January 31, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131014/executive-function-performance-and-change-in-aging-is-predicted-by-apolipoprotein-e-intensified-by-catechol-o-methyltransferase-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-moderated-by-age-and-lifestyle
#7
Shraddha Sapkota, Lars Bäckman, Roger A Dixon
Recent studies have reported several genetic, health, and aging interaction effects in predicting cognitive performance and change. We used an accelerated longitudinal design to examine interactions among genetic, lifestyle, and aging for executive function (EF) in non-demented older adults (n = 634; age range = 53-95 years). The polymorphisms were apolipoprotein E (APOE), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We tested (1) independent and additive effects of APOE, COMT, and BDNF and (2) APOE effect modification for COMT + BDNF, on EF performance and 9-year change as separated by age and lifestyle activities...
January 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122495/evoked-potentials-and-behavioral-performance-during-different-states-of-brain-arousal
#8
Jue Huang, Tilman Hensch, Christine Ulke, Christian Sander, Janek Spada, Philippe Jawinski, Ulrich Hegerl
BACKGROUND: Previous studies compared evoked potentials (EPs) between several sleep stages but only one uniform wake state. However, using electroencephalography (EEG), several arousal states can be distinguished before sleep onset. Recently, the Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig (VIGALL 2.0) has been developed, which automatically attributes one out of seven EEG-vigilance stages to each 1-s EEG segment, ranging from stage 0 (associated with cognitively active wakefulness), to stages A1, A2 and A3 (associated with relaxed wakefulness), to stages B1 and B2/3 (associated with drowsiness) up to stage C (indicating sleep onset)...
January 25, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120023/-help-hospital-elder-life-program-multimodal-delirium-prevention-in-elderly-patients
#9
K Singler, C Thomas
Delirium in older adults is associated with an increased risk for cognitive and functional decline. Multiple risk factors, such as underlying dementia, multiple comorbidities, anticholinergic medication or visual and hearing impairment foster the incidence of delirium. By identification of patients at risk and the initiation of a multiple component delirium prevention program delirium is preventable in 30-40% of all cases. There is broad evidence for comprehensive multicomponent delirium prevention strategies in patient care, but their implementation is still lacking in many hospitals...
February 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077708/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#10
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. However, how changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal remains unknown...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067190/leisure-activities-education-and-cognitive-impairment-in-chinese-older-adults-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#11
Xinyi Zhu, Chengxuan Qiu, Yi Zeng, Juan Li
BACKGROUND: We examine the association between leisure-time activities and the risk of developing cognitive impairment among Chinese older people, and further investigate whether the association varies by educational level. METHODS: This follow-up study included 6,586 participants (aged 79.5 ± 9.8 years, range 65-105 years, 51.7% female) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey who were aged ≥65 years and were free of cognitive impairment in 2002...
January 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054159/brain-areas-responsible-for-vigilance-an-eeg-source-imaging-study
#12
Jung-Hoon Kim, Do-Won Kim, Chang-Hwan Im
Vigilance, sometimes referred to as sustained attention, is an important type of human attention as it is closely associated with cognitive activities required in various daily-life situations. Although many researchers have investigated which brain areas control the maintenance of vigilance, findings have been inconsistent. We hypothesized that this inconsistency might be due to the use of different experimental paradigms in the various studies. We found that most of the previous studies used paradigms that included specific cognitive tasks requiring a high cognitive load, which could complicate identification of brain areas associated only with vigilance...
January 4, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044281/the-effects-of-mental-fatigue-on-physical-performance-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Jeroen Van Cutsem, Samuele Marcora, Kevin De Pauw, Stephen Bailey, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
BACKGROUND: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity. It has recently been suggested that mental fatigue can affect physical performance. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the literature on impairment of physical performance due to mental fatigue and to create an overview of the potential factors underlying this effect. METHODS: Two electronic databases, PubMed and Web of Science (until 28 April 2016), were searched for studies designed to test whether mental fatigue influenced performance of a physical task or influenced physiological and/or perceptual responses during the physical task...
January 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041692/neurofeedback-one-of-today-s-techniques-in-psychiatry
#14
M Arns, J-M Batail, S Bioulac, M Congedo, C Daudet, D Drapier, T Fovet, R Jardri, M Le-Van-Quyen, F Lotte, D Mehler, J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, D Purper-Ouakil, F Vialatte
OBJECTIVES: Neurofeedback is a technique that aims to teach a subject to regulate a brain parameter measured by a technical interface to modulate his/her related brain and cognitive activities. However, the use of neurofeedback as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders remains controversial. The aim of this review is to summarize and to comment the level of evidence of electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback and real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback for therapeutic application in psychiatry...
December 29, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025282/memory-resilience-to-alzheimer-s-genetic-risk-sex-effects-in-predictor-profiles
#15
Kirstie L McDermott, G Peggy McFall, Shea J Andrews, Kaarin J Anstey, Roger A Dixon
OBJECTIVES: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 and Clusterin (CLU) C alleles are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and episodic memory (EM) decline. Memory resilience occurs when genetically at-risk adults perform at high and sustained levels. We investigated whether (a) memory resilience to AD genetic risk is predicted by biological and other risk markers and (b) the prediction profiles vary by sex and AD risk variant. METHOD: Using a longitudinal sample of nondemented adults (n = 642, aged 53-95) we focused on memory resilience (over 9 years) to 2 AD risk variants (APOE, CLU)...
December 26, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011290/the-effect-of-a-specialized-content-knowledge-workshop-on-teaching-and-learning-basic-life-support-in-elementary-school-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Peter Iserbyt, Lieselot Theys, Phillip Ward, Nathalie Charlier
BACKGROUND: Research investigating the effect of specialised content knowledge (SCK) on teaching and learning Basic Life Support (BLS) is lacking. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of a specialised content knowledge workshop on teaching behaviour, lesson context and student learning of BLS. Specialised content knowledge comprises knowledge of content progressions, skill analysis, and how to correct common errors. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial...
December 20, 2016: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996319/hypoglycemia-in-older-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#17
Stephanie N DuBose, Ruth S Weinstock, Roy W Beck, Anne L Peters, Grazia Aleppo, Richard M Bergenstal, Henry Rodriguez, Joseph F Largay, Elaine M Massaro, Irl B Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is a major concern in older adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and there is limited knowledge in this population. We examined data from 199 adults, ≥60 years of age, who participated in a T1D Exchange study assessing factors associated with severe hypoglycemia (SH) in older adults with T1D: 100 with SH in the prior year and 99 with no SH in prior 3 years (mean age 68; mean diabetes duration 40 years; 47% female; 92% non-Hispanic white). Hypoglycemia was assessed with up to 14 days of blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)...
December 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988874/cognitive-functioning-and-heat-strain-performance-responses-and-protective-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Cyril Schmit, Christophe Hausswirth, Yann Le Meur, Rob Duffield
Despite the predominance of research on physical performance in the heat, many activities require high cognitive functioning for optimal performance (i.e. decision making) and/or health purposes (i.e. injury risk). Prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity or exercise-induced fatigue will incur altered cognitive functioning. The addition of hot environmental conditions will exacerbate poor cognitive functioning and negatively affect performance outcomes. The present paper attempts to extract consistent themes from the heat-cognition literature to explore cognitive performance as a function of the level of heat stress encountered...
December 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986794/characteristics-of-activities-for-persons-with-dementia-at-the-mild-moderate-and-severe-stages
#19
Natalie G Regier, Nancy A Hodgson, Laura N Gitlin
PURPOSE: To understand activity in dementia care, we examine relationships of disease stage with types and characteristics of meaningful activities (cueing needs, help with initiation, and recommended engagement time) provided in a home-based intervention trial designed to reduce behavioral symptoms. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data involved 158 activity prescriptions or written documents detailing prescribed activities, cueing needs, and engagement goals designed by occupational therapists for 56 families...
December 16, 2016: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965854/the-effect-of-an-enriched-environment-on-activity-levels-in-people-with-stroke-in-an-acute-stroke-unit-protocol-for-a-before-after-pilot-study
#20
Ingrid C M Rosbergen, Rohan S Grimley, Kathryn S Hayward, Katrina C Walker, Donna Rowley, Alana M Campbell, Suzanne McGufficke, Samantha T Robertson, Janelle Trinder, Heidi Janssen, Sandra G Brauer
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines advocate engaging stroke survivors in as much activity as possible early after stroke. One approach found to increase activity levels during inpatient rehabilitation incorporated an enriched environment (EE), whereby physical, cognitive, and social activity was enhanced. The effect of an EE in an acute stroke unit (ASU) has yet not been explored. METHODS/DESIGN: We will perform a prospective non-randomized before-after intervention study...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
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