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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777770/construction-and-feasibility-study-of-the-sofmer-activity-score-sas-a-new-assessment-of-physical-and-cognitive-activity
#1
M D Morard, S Gonzalez-Monge, P Rippert, S Roche, J C Bernard, D Lagauche, C Delvert, J Luauté, S Jacquin Courtois, F Caillet, J Di Marco, F Ghelfi, S Otmani, P Calmels, M Royet, P A Joseph, R Ecochard, G Rode, C Vuillerot
OBJECTIVES: For hospitalizations in rehabilitation centers (RCs) in France, the quantification of healthcare givers' activity is based on the dependency of the patients, defined as a total or partial inability to perform activities required for daily living without help. The tools currently used to quantify dependency are not sufficiently precise. Here we describe the construction of a new tool, the SOFMER Activity Score (SAS scoring), which allows for a good description of the level of activity of patients hospitalized in RCs, and a feasibility study of the tool...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771308/what-do-older-people-do-when-sitting-and-why-implications-for-decreasing-sedentary-behavior
#2
Victoria J Palmer, Cindy M Gray, Claire F Fitzsimons, Nanette Mutrie, Sally Wyke, Ian J Deary, Geoff Der, Sebastien F M Chastin, Dawn A Skelton
Background and Objectives: Sitting less can reduce older adults' risk of ill health and disability. Effective sedentary behavior interventions require greater understanding of what older adults do when sitting (and not sitting), and why. This study compares the types, context, and role of sitting activities in the daily lives of older men and women who sit more or less than average. Research Design and Methods: Semistructured interviews with 44 older men and women of different ages, socioeconomic status, and objectively measured sedentary behavior were analyzed using social practice theory to explore the multifactorial, inter-relational influences on their sedentary behavior...
May 15, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770467/anticholinergic-load-negatively-correlates-with-recovery-of-cognitive-activities-of-daily-living-for-geriatric-patients-after-stroke-in-the-convalescent-stage
#3
E Kose, T Hirai, T Seki, S Hidaka, T Hamamoto
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Anticholinergic drugs are associated with risks of falls, confusion and cognitive dysfunction. However, the effect of anticholinergic drug use on rehabilitation outcomes after a stroke is poorly documented. We therefore aimed to establish whether the anticholinergic load was associated with functional recovery among geriatric patients convalescing after stroke. METHOD: Consecutive geriatric stroke patients admitted and discharged from a convalescence rehabilitation ward between 2010 and 2016 were included in this retrospective cohort study...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757108/cognitively-active-older-adults-comprehension-and-metacomprehension-of-negated-text
#4
Sara J Margolin
Background/Study context: Previous research has demonstrated that negated text is universally difficult to understand, and while readers are aware of the difficulty, they are not always able to direct this awareness to improve their comprehension of negation. The present research aimed to determine whether this holds true for older adults, even while maintaining good cognitive function through reading activity. METHODS: The study used an online paradigm, where young (age range 19-24) and older (age range 60-87) adults read passages, rated their comprehension, and answered questions about what they read...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755349/ibogaine-acute-administration-in-rats-promotes-wakefulness-long-lasting-rem-sleep-suppression-and-a-distinctive-motor-profile
#5
Joaquín González, José P Prieto, Paola Rodríguez, Matías Cavelli, Luciana Benedetto, Alejandra Mondino, Mariana Pazos, Gustavo Seoane, Ignacio Carrera, Cecilia Scorza, Pablo Torterolo
Ibogaine is a potent psychedelic alkaloid that has been the focus of intense research because of its intriguing anti-addictive properties. According to anecdotic reports, ibogaine has been originally classified as an oneirogenic psychedelic; i.e., induces a dream-like cognitive activity while awake. However, the effects of ibogaine administration on wakefulness (W) and sleep have not been thoroughly assessed. The main aim of our study was to characterize the acute effects of ibogaine administration on W and sleep...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729302/neonatal-immune-activation-by-lipopolysaccharide-causes-inadequate-emotional-responses-to-novel-situations-but-no-changes-in-anxiety-or-cognitive-behavior-in-wistar-rats
#6
Iveta Vojtechova, Tomas Petrasek, Kristyna Maleninska, Hana Brozka, Hana Tejkalova, Jiri Horacek, Ales Stuchlik, Karel Vales
Infection during the prenatal or neonatal stages of life is considered one of the major risk factors for the development of mental diseases such as schizophrenia or autism. However, the impacts of such an immune challenge on adult behavior are still not clear. In our study, we used a model of early postnatal immune activation by the application of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rat pups at a dose of 2 mg/kg from postnatal day (PD) 5 to PD 9. In adulthood, the rats were tested in a battery of tasks probing various aspects of behavior: spontaneous activity (open field test), social behavior (social interactions and female bedding exploration), anxiety (elevated plus maze), cognition (active place avoidance in Carousel) and emotional response (ultrasonic vocalization recording)...
May 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723679/neural-correlates-of-active-controlled-retrieval-development-an-exploratory-erp-study
#7
France Simard, Geneviève Cadoret
Working memory is composed of different processes and encompasses not only the temporary storage of information but also its manipulation in order to perform complex cognitive activities. During childhood, one of these manipulation processes, namely active controlled retrieval, improves significantly between the age of 6 to 10, suggesting that the neuronal network supporting this function undergoes substantial maturational changes. The present study examined the neural activity of 14 healthy children and 14 adults while performing an active controlled retrieval task...
April 30, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723176/the-dunedin-dementia-risk-awareness-project-a-convenience-sample-of-general-practitioners
#8
Yoram Barak, Charlene Rapsey, Dana Fridman, Kate Scott
AIMS: Recent recommendations of US and UK governmental and academic agencies suggest that up to 35% of dementia cases are preventable. We aimed to appraise general practitioners' (GPs) awareness of risk and protective factors associated with dementia and their intentions to act within the context of the Health Beliefs Model. METHODS: We canvassed degree of dementia awareness, using the modified Lifestyle for Brain Health (LIBRA) scale among a convenience sample of local GPs...
May 4, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699895/association-between-increased-serum-d-serine-and-cognitive-gains-induced-by-intensive-cognitive-training-in-schizophrenia
#9
Rogerio Panizzutti, Melissa Fisher, Coleman Garrett, Wai Hong Man, Walter Sena, Caroline Madeira, Sophia Vinogradov
Neuroscience-guided cognitive training induces significant improvement in cognition in schizophrenia subjects, but the biological mechanisms associated with these changes are unknown. In animals, intensive cognitive activity induces increased brain levels of the NMDA-receptor co-agonist d-serine, a molecular system that plays a role in learning-induced neuroplasticity and that may be hypoactive in schizophrenia. Here, we investigated whether training-induced gains in cognition were associated with increases in serum d-serine in outpatients with schizophrenia...
April 23, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682597/linkages-between-resources-motivation-and-engagement-in-everyday-activities
#10
Tara L Queen, Thomas M Hess
The goal of this research was to examine the linkage between personal resources, intrinsic motivation, and participation in everyday activities. It was hypothesized the reductions in resources in later life will be associated with reduced motivation to engage in cognitively demanding activities, leading to reduction in participation in such activities in everyday life. To test this, we utilized data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Survey. We used structural equation modeling to construct latent factors associated with health resources, cognitive resources, and intrinsic motivation...
March 2018: Motivation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677690/investigating-the-effects-of-visual-distractors-on-the-performance-of-a-motor-imagery-brain-computer-interface
#11
Zahra Emami, Tom Chau
OBJECTIVES: Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow users to operate a device or application by means of cognitive activity. This technology will ultimately be used in real-world environments which include the presence of distractors. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of visual distractors on BCI performance. METHODS: Sixteen able-bodied participants underwent neurofeedback training to achieve motor imagery-guided BCI control in an online paradigm using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure neural signals...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623037/early-life-cognitive-activity-is-related-to-reduced-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-signature-regions-in-late-life
#12
Kang Ko, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Jun Ho Lee, Chan Hyung Kim, Dong Young Lee
Background: Although increased cognitive activity (CA), both current and past, is known to be associated with a decreased occurrence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia in older adults, the exact neural mechanisms underlying the association between CA during different stages of life and human dementia remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether CA during different life stages is associated with cerebral amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology and AD-related neurodegeneration in non-demented older adults. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of data collected between April 2014 and March 2016 from the Korean Brain Aging Study for Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease (KBASE), an ongoing prospective cohort...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578054/silver-ions-are-responsible-for-memory-impairment-induced-by-oral-administration-of-silver-nanoparticles
#13
M Węsierska, K Dziendzikowska, J Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J Dudek, H Polkowska-Motrenko, J N Audinot, A C Gutleb, A Lankoff, M Kruszewski
Increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) results in increased human exposure. AgNPs are able to cross brain-blood barrier and are a risk factor for the brain. Thus, we hypothesized that AgNPs exposure might affect hippocampal dependent memory, which required cognitive coordination processes. To verify the assumption, in this study we evaluated the effects of orally administered bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated AgNPs on spatial memory, which engage cognitive coordination processes for on-going stimuli segregation...
March 22, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569517/discrepancies-between-crystallized-and-fluid-ability-are-associated-with-frequency-of-social-and-physical-engagement-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#14
Deirdre M O'Shea, Robert Fieo, Adam Woods, John Williamson, Eric Porges, Ron Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Age differences have been noted in the discrepancies between crystallized and fluid ability (Gc-Gf). Larger Gc-Gf discrepancies have also been shown to be associated with Alzheimer's disease biomarkers and clinical severity. However, little is known regarding the relationship between Gc-Gf discrepancies in normal aging and functional outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine this. METHOD: Data from 104 adults (Mage  = 71.70 years, SD = 9...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535069/residual-effects-of-cannabis-use-in-adolescent-and-adult-brains-a-meta-analysis-of-fmri-studies
#15
REVIEW
Grace Blest-Hopley, Vincent Giampietro, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
While numerous studies have investigated the residual effects of cannabis use on human brain function, results of these studies have been inconsistent. Using meta-analytic approaches we summarize the effects of prolonged cannabis exposure on human brain function as measured using task-based functional MRI (fMRI) across studies employing a range of cognitive activation tasks comparing regular cannabis users with non-users. Separate meta-analyses were carried out for studies investigating adult and adolescent cannabis users...
May 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534798/indole-acids-as-a-novel-pde2-inhibitor-chemotype-that-demonstrate-pro-cognitive-activity-in-multiple-species
#16
Shawn J Stachel, Melissa S Egbertson, Jenny Wai, Michelle Machacek, Dawn M Toolan, John Swestock, Donnie M Eddins, Vanita Puri, Georgia McGaughey, Hua-Poo Su, Debbie Perlow, Deping Wang, Lei Ma, Gopal Parthasarathy, John C Reid, Pravien D Abeywickrema, Sean M Smith, Jason M Uslaner
An internal HTS effort identified a novel PDE2 inhibitor series that was subsequently optimized for improved PDE2 activity and off-target selectivity. The optimized lead, compound 4, improved cognitive performance in a rodent novel object recognition task as well as a non-human primate object retrieval task. In addition, co-crystallization studies of close analog of 4 in the PDE2 active site revealed unique binding interactions influencing the high PDE isoform selectivity.
April 1, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528541/take-care-to-identify-apathy-in-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder
#17
EDITORIAL
E K St Louis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516456/-epilepsy-cognition-and-ketogenic-diet
#18
J J Garcia-Penas
INTRODUCTION: Most individuals with epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs are common and can negatively affect tolerability, compliance, and long-term retention of the treatment. Ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for these children with refractory epilepsy without any negative effect on cognition or behavior. AIM: To review the current state of experimental and clinical data concerning the neuroprotective and cognitive effects of the ketogenic diet in both humans and animals...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515443/uncovering-the-signaling-pathway-behind-extracellular-guanine-induced-activation-of-no-system-new-perspectives-in-memory-related-disorders
#19
Mariachiara Zuccarini, Patricia Giuliani, Monica Frinchi, Giuseppa Mudò, Rosa Maria Serio, Natale Belluardo, Silvana Buccella, Marzia Carluccio, Daniele F Condorelli, Francesco Caciagli, Renata Ciccarelli, Patrizia Di Iorio
Mounting evidence suggests that the guanine-based purines stand out as key player in cell metabolism and in several models of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Guanosine (GUO) and guanine (GUA) are extracellular signaling molecules derived from the breakdown of the correspondent nucleotide, GTP, and their intracellular and extracellular levels are regulated by the fine-tuned activity of two major enzymes, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and guanine deaminase (GDA)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514399/relationships-between-socio-clinico-demographic-factors-and-global-cognitive-function-in-the-oldest-old-living-in-the-tokyo-metropolitan-area-reanalysis-of-the-tokyo-oldest-old-survey-on-total-health-tooth
#20
REVIEW
Yoko Eguchi, Kumiko Tasato, Shinichiro Nakajima, Yoshihiro Noda, Sakiko Tsugawa, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Hidehito Niimura, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Yasumichi Arai, Masaru Mimura
BACKGROUND: Despite a steady increase in life expectancy, a few studies have investigated cross-sectional correlates and longitudinal predictors of cognitive function, a core domain of the successful aging, among socio-clinico-demographic factors in the oldest-old exclusively. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to examine socio-clinico-demographic characteristics associated with global cognition and its changes in the oldest-old. METHODS: We reanalyzed a dataset of cognitively preserved community-dwelling subjects aged 85 years and older in the Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health, a 6-year longitudinal observational study...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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