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"Cognitive activity"

Eider M Arenaza-Urquijo, Robin de Flores, Julie Gonneaud, Miranka Wirth, Valentin Ourry, William Callewaert, Brigitte Landeau, Stéphanie Egret, Florence Mézenge, Béatrice Desgranges, Gaël Chételat
Engagement in cognitive activity (CA) and physical activity (PA) during the lifespan may counteract brain atrophy later in life. Here, we investigated engagement in CA and PA during late adulthood in association with gray matter volume (GM) in normal older adults, with special focus on the hippocampus. Forty-five cognitively normal older individuals (mean age: 72) underwent T1-weighted MRI and self-reported CA and PA assessment. Whole brain voxel-wise multiple regression models were carried out to assess the relationships between CA, PA and GM volume adjusted by age and sex...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ilse Bloom, Mark Edwards, Karen A Jameson, Holly E Syddall, Elaine Dennison, Catharine R Gale, Janis Baird, Cyrus Cooper, Avan Aihie Sayer, Sian Robinson
BACKGROUND: poor diet quality is common among older people, but little is known about influences on food choice, including the role of psychosocial factors at this age. OBJECTIVE: to identify psychosocial correlates of diet quality in a community-dwelling population of men and women aged 59-73 years; to describe relationships with change in diet quality over 10 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort, Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS). SUBJECTS: HCS participants assessed at baseline (1998-2003: 1,048 men, 862 women); 183 men and 189 women re-assessed in 2011...
October 15, 2016: Age and Ageing
Martin Knapp, Derek King, Renée Romeo, Jessica Adams, Ashley Baldwin, Clive Ballard, Sube Banerjee, Robert Barber, Peter Bentham, Richard G Brown, Alistair Burns, Tom Dening, David Findlay, Clive Holmes, Tony Johnson, Robert Jones, Cornelius Katona, James Lindesay, Ajay Macharouthu, Ian McKeith, Rupert McShane, John T O'Brien, Patrick P J Phillips, Bart Sheehan, Robert Howard
OBJECTIVE: Most investigations of pharmacotherapy for treating Alzheimer's disease focus on patients with mild-to-moderate symptoms, with little evidence to guide clinical decisions when symptoms become severe. We examined whether continuing donepezil, or commencing memantine, is cost-effective for community-dwelling, moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease patients. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness analysis was based on a 52-week, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial clinical trial...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Tomoyuki Nagata, Shinichiro Nakajima, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Eric Plitman, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Masaru Mimura, Kazuhiko Nakayama
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine psychosocial and clinico-demographic factors related to each symptomatic cluster (i.e., aggressiveness, psychosis, apathy/eating problems, and emotion/disinhibition) of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) needing interventional treatment against their agitation or psychotic symptoms. These clusters were classified from 12 Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) subscores in our previous study using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness-Alzheimer's Disease (CATIE-AD) dataset...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Maurizio S Riga, Vicent Teruel-Martí, Connie Sánchez, Pau Celada, Francesc Artigas
Vortioxetine (VOR) is a multimodal antidepressant drug. VOR is a 5-HT3-R, 5-HT7-R and 5-HT1D-R antagonist, 5-HT1B-R partial agonist, 5-HT1A-R agonist, and serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitor. VOR shows pro-cognitive activity in animal models and beneficial effects on cognitive dysfunction in major depressive patients. Here we compared the effects of 14-day treatments with VOR and escitalopram (ESC, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) on neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Ten groups of rats (5 standard, 5 depleted of 5-HT with p-chlorophenylalanine -pCPA-, used as model of cognitive impairment) were fed with control food or with two doses of VOR-containing food...
September 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Andrés Pomi
Every cognitive activity has a neural representation in the brain. When humans deal with abstract mathematical structures, for instance finite groups, certain patterns of activity are occurring in the brain that constitute their neural representation. A formal neurocognitive theory must account for all the activities developed by our brain and provide a possible neural representation for them. Associative memories are neural network models that have a good chance of achieving a universal representation of cognitive phenomena...
September 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Caroline Hommet, Jean-Luc Novella, Sophie Auriacombe, Martine Vercelletto, Gilles Berrut, Serge Belliard, Thomas Desmidt, Mathieu Ceccaldi
Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are used from 15 years, in Alzheimer's disease. Benefits have been demonstrated according to cognition, activities of daily living, affective symptoms and behavior, and global impression of change. The aims of this paper are: 1) to describe how these treatments are used in France with a sample survey managed by the national federation of the french CMRR; 2) to study data about efficacy, safety, medicoeconomic impacts and how they are used in Europe.
September 1, 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Douglas J Wiebe, Michael L Nance, Eileen Houseknecht, Matthew F Grady, Nicole Otto, Danielle K Sandsmark, Christina L Master
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Laurens Van Calster, Arnaud D'Argembeau, Eric Salmon, Frédéric Peters, Steve Majerus
Neuroimaging studies have revealed the recruitment of a range of neural networks during the resting state, which might reflect a variety of cognitive experiences and processes occurring in an individual's mind. In this study, we focused on the default mode network (DMN) and attentional networks and investigated their association with distinct mental states when participants are not performing an explicit task. To investigate the range of possible cognitive experiences more directly, this study proposes a novel method of resting-state fMRI experience sampling, informed by a phenomenological investigation of the fluctuation of mental states during the resting state...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Vicky Booth, Victoria Hood, Fiona Kearney
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a risk factor for falls. Older adults with cognitive impairment (such as dementia) have an increased risk of falling compared with age-matched individuals without a cognitive impairment. To reduce falls in this population, interventions could theoretically target and train both physical and cognitive abilities. Combining and addressing cognitive components in falls rehabilitation is a novel and emerging area of healthcare. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to identify the effectiveness of combined cognitive and physical interventions on the risk of falls in cognitively impaired older adults...
May 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Philippa A Jackson, Vincent Pialoux, Dale Corbett, Lauren Drogos, Kirk I Erickson, Gail A Eskes, Marc J Poulin
The rise in incidence of age-related cognitive impairment is a global health concern. Ageing is associated with a number of changes in the brain that, collectively, contribute to the declines in cognitive function observed in older adults. Structurally, the ageing brain atrophies as white and grey matter volumes decrease. Oxidative stress and inflammation promote endothelial dysfunction thereby hampering cerebral perfusion and thus delivery of energy substrates and nutrients. Further, the development of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles contributes to neuronal loss...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Yutaka Sakaguchi, Eriko Aiba
Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
V V Zabrodina, O V Shreder, E D Shreder, A D Durnev
Cognitive activity in 60-day-old offspring of rats (intrauterine development in experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes) was studied on the model of food-seeking behavior under conditions of free choice in a 6-arm maze. The formation of the food-procuring skill was significantly delayed, which attests to impairment of cognitive functions in these animals. Peroral administration of afobazole (10 and 50 mg/kg) and betaine (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently alleviated this disorder. Correlation analysis of the data on delayed formation of a food-procuring skill and results of DNA comet attests to a strong relationship between DNA damage in cells of the embryo and placenta during intrauterine development and cognitive dysfunction in the postnatal offspring of animals with streptozotocin-induced diabetes...
July 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Sónia Martins, José Artur Paiva, Mário R Simões, Lia Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: Among cognitive reserve markers, educational attainment is the most widely studied, with several studies establishing a strong association with risk of dementia. However, it has not yet been fully examined in delirium. This study aims to analyse the relationship between educational attainment and delirium. METHODS: The study included elderly hospitalised patients admitted (≥48 h) into an intermediate care unit (IMCU) of Intensive Care Medicine Service...
August 9, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Yaakov Stern
The goal of this paper is to review my current understanding of the concepts of cognitive reserve (CR), brain reserve and brain maintenance, and to describe our group's approach to using imaging to study their neural basis. I present a working model for utilizing data regarding brain integrity, clinical status, cognitive activation and CR proxies to develop analyses that can explore the neural basis of cognitive reserve and brain maintenance. The basic model assumes that the effect of brain changes on cognition is mediated by task-related activation...
July 23, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Reinhard Pekrun, Elisabeth Vogl, Krista R Muis, Gale M Sinatra
Measurement instruments assessing multiple emotions during epistemic activities are largely lacking. We describe the construction and validation of the Epistemically-Related Emotion Scales, which measure surprise, curiosity, enjoyment, confusion, anxiety, frustration, and boredom occurring during epistemic cognitive activities. The instrument was tested in a multinational study of emotions during learning from conflicting texts (N = 438 university students from the United States, Canada, and Germany). The findings document the reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the instrument...
July 22, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Fabian Helm, Mathias Reiser, Jörn Munzert
In our everyday environments, we are constantly having to adapt our behavior to changing conditions. Hence, processing information is a fundamental cognitive activity, especially the linking together of perceptual and action processes. In this context, expertise research in the sport domain has concentrated on arguing that superior processing performance is driven by an advantage to be found in anticipatory processes (see Williams et al., 2011, for a review). This has resulted in less attention being paid to the benefits coming from basic internal perceptual-motor processing...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Irén Barkaszi, Endre Takács, István Czigler, László Balázs
This paper focuses on the impact of long-term Antarctic conditions on cognitive processes. Behavioral responses and event-related potentials were recorded during an auditory distraction task and an attention network paradigm. Participants were members of the over-wintering crew at Concordia Antarctic Research Station. Due to the reduced partial pressure of oxygen this environment caused moderate hypoxia. Beyond the hypoxia, the fluctuation of sunshine duration, isolation and confinement were the main stress factors of this environment...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Svenja Rieser, Alexander Naumann, Jasmin Decristan, Benjamin Fauth, Eckhard Klieme, Gerhard Büttner
BACKGROUND: In order for teaching to be successful, students need to be actively involved in learning. However, research on teaching effectiveness often neglects students' learning activities. Although it is assumed that effective teaching promotes the use of beneficial learning activities, empirical evidence for this connection is still limited. AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the connection between effective teaching and reported learning activities. We hypothesize specific relations between a three-dimensional model of teaching quality (i...
July 18, 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Peter C Rowe, Kevin R Fontaine, Megan Lauver, Samantha E Jasion, Colleen L Marden, Malini Moni, Carol B Thompson, Richard L Violand
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex, multisystem disorder that can be disabling. CFS symptoms can be provoked by increased physical or cognitive activity, and by orthostatic stress. In preliminary work, we noted that CFS symptoms also could be provoked by application of longitudinal neural and soft tissue strain to the limbs and spine of affected individuals. In this study we measured the responses to a straight leg raise neuromuscular strain maneuver in individuals with CFS and healthy controls. We randomly assigned 60 individuals with CFS and 20 healthy controls to either a 15 minute period of passive supine straight leg raise (true neuromuscular strain) or a sham straight leg raise...
2016: PloS One
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