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"Cognitive activity"

Grace Blest-Hopley, Vincent Giampietro, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
While numerous studies have investigated the residual effects of cannabis use on human brain function, results of these studies have been inconsistent. Using meta-analytic approaches we summarize the effects of prolonged cannabis exposure on human brain function as measured using task-based functional MRI (fMRI) across studies employing a range of cognitive activation tasks comparing regular cannabis users with non-users. Separate meta-analyses were carried out for studies investigating adult and adolescent cannabis users...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Shawn J Stachel, Melissa S Egbertson, Jenny Wai, Michelle Machacek, Dawn M Toolan, John Swestock, Donnie M Eddins, Vanita Puri, Georgia McGaughey, Hua-Poo Su, Debbie Perlow, Deping Wang, Lei Ma, Gopal Parthasarathy, John C Reid, Pravien D Abeywickrema, Sean M Smith, Jason M Uslaner
An internal HTS effort identified a novel PDE2 inhibitor series that was subsequently optimized for improved PDE2 activity and off-target selectivity. The optimized lead, compound 4, improved cognitive performance in a rodent novel object recognition task as well as a non-human primate object retrieval task. In addition, co-crystallization studies of close analog of 4 in the PDE2 active site revealed unique binding interactions influencing the high PDE isoform selectivity.
April 1, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Erik K St Louis
Apathy has been recently recognized as a distinct neuropsychological syndrome, overlapping with but also separable from mood disorders and cognitive impairment. While it is perhaps seen most often as a cardinal feature of depression as an amotivational symptom, it may occur independently in isolation without other prominent mood, vegetative, or cognitive symptoms or signs. The etymology of apathy is derived from the Greek "pathos" (passion), so apathy may be considered to be an amotivational state, i...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
J J Garcia-Penas
INTRODUCTION: Most individuals with epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs are common and can negatively affect tolerability, compliance, and long-term retention of the treatment. Ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for these children with refractory epilepsy without any negative effect on cognition or behavior. AIM: To review the current state of experimental and clinical data concerning the neuroprotective and cognitive effects of the ketogenic diet in both humans and animals...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Mariachiara Zuccarini, Patricia Giuliani, Monica Frinchi, Giuseppa Mudò, Rosa Maria Serio, Natale Belluardo, Silvana Buccella, Marzia Carluccio, Daniele F Condorelli, Francesco Caciagli, Renata Ciccarelli, Patrizia Di Iorio
Mounting evidence suggests that the guanine-based purines stand out as key player in cell metabolism and in several models of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Guanosine (GUO) and guanine (GUA) are extracellular signaling molecules derived from the breakdown of the correspondent nucleotide, GTP, and their intracellular and extracellular levels are regulated by the fine-tuned activity of two major enzymes, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and guanine deaminase (GDA)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yoko Eguchi, Kumiko Tasato, Shinichiro Nakajima, Yoshihiro Noda, Sakiko Tsugawa, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Hidehito Niimura, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Yasumichi Arai, Masaru Mimura
BACKGROUND: Despite a steady increase in life expectancy, a few studies have investigated cross-sectional correlates and longitudinal predictors of cognitive function, a core domain of the successful aging, among socio-clinico-demographic factors in the oldest-old exclusively. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to examine socio-clinico-demographic characteristics associated with global cognition and its changes in the oldest-old. METHODS: We reanalyzed a dataset of cognitively preserved community-dwelling subjects aged 85 years and older in the Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health, a 6-year longitudinal observational study...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Christine R Kovach, Crystal-Rae Evans, Lisa Sattell, Kimberly Rosenau, Sandeep Gopalakrishnan
Mindfulness interventions have been beneficial for healthy adults and individuals experiencing a stressful medical or mental health diagnosis. The purposes of the current study were to: (a) determine feasibility of mindfulness for older adults in long-term residential settings, and (b) examine differences in outcomes between a mindfulness and cognitive activity. The current study is the first mindfulness study to include individuals in moderate and severe stages of dementia, and included 36 individuals with a range of cognitive abilities...
March 1, 2018: Research in Gerontological Nursing
Devendra Kumar, Ankit Ganeshpurkar, Dileep Kumar, Gyan Modi, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Sushil Kumar Singh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, characterized by progressive loss of memory which is associated with other cognitive deficits. The two protein structures in the brain i.e. neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques are considered to hamper the normal cognitive activity of the brain. There are various therapeutic interpolations under investigation to thwart and treat AD. Secretases inhibitors are important agents that inhibit the development of senile plaques. β-secretase (BACE) inhibitors are in lime light for the drug development of AD...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Hannah G Caldwell, Geoff B Coombs, Michael M Tymko, Daniela Nowak-Flück, Philip N Ainslie
With exposure to acute normobaric hypoxia, global cerebral oxygen delivery is maintained via increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF); therefore, regional and localized changes in oxygen tension may explain neurocognitive impairment. Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the close temporal and regional relationship of CBF to changes in neural activity and may aid in explaining the localized CBF response with cognitive activation. High-altitude related cognitive impairment is likely affected by hypocapnic cerebral vasoconstriction that may influence regional CBF regulation independent of hypoxia...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Aritz Lasarte-Cia, Teresa Lozano, Marta Pérez-González, Marta Gorraiz, Kristina Iribarren, Sandra Hervás-Stubbs, Pablo Sarobe, Obdulia Rabal, Mar Cuadrado-Tejedor, Ana García-Osta, Noelia Casares, Juan José Lasarte
A complex network of interactions exists between the immune, the olfactory, and the central nervous system (CNS). Inhalation of different fragrances can affect immunological reactions in response to an antigen but also may have effects on the CNS and cognitive activity. We performed an exploratory study of the immunomodulatory ability of a series of compounds representing each of the 10 odor categories or clusters described previously. We evaluated the impact of each particular odor on the immune response after immunization with the model antigen ovalbumin in combination with the TLR3 agonist poly I:C...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Shigehiko Ogoh, Hiroki Nakata, Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Damian M Bailey, Manabu Shibasaki
Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) subsequent to alterations in the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide can modify dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA). While cognitive activity increases CBF, to what extent it impacts CA remains to be established. In the present study we determined if dynamic CA would decrease during a cognitive task and whether hypoxia would further compound impairment. Fourteen young healthy subjects performed a simple Go/No-go task during normoxia and hypoxia (FIO2 =12%) and the corresponding relationship between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and mean middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCA Vmean) was examined...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Terry McMorris, Martin Barwood, Beverley J Hale, Matt Dicks, Jo Corbett
Recent research has examined the effect that undertaking a cognitively fatiguing task for ≤90 min has on subsequent physical performance. Cognitive fatigue is claimed to affect subsequent physical performance by inducing energy depletion in the brain, depletion of brain catecholamine neurotransmitters or changes in motivation. Observation of the psychophysiology and neurochemistry literature questions the ability of 90 min' cognitive activity to deplete energy or catecholamine resources. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the evidence for cognitive fatigue having an effect on subsequent physical performance...
February 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Tim Pauley, Byung Wook Chang, Anne Wojtak, Gayle Seddon, John Hirdes
PURPOSE OF STUDY: The purpose of this study was to identify factors predictive of new onset and improved caregiver distress among informal caregivers providing assistance for clients receiving home care. PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTINGS: Home care. METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLE: The sample included 323,409 clients receiving home care from a Community Care Access Centre between March 2002 and March 2015 for whom data were available from two subsequent Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (RAI-HC) assessments...
March 2018: Professional Case Management
Cinzia Arzilli, Mariangela Cerasuolo, Francesca Conte, Valentina Bittoni, Claudia Gatteschi, Benedetta Albinni, Fiorenza Giganti, Gianluca Ficca
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the effects of a learning task on the characteristics of a subsequent daytime nap. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight subjects were administered a control nap (C) and one preceded by a cognitive training session (TR). RESULTS: Relative to C, TR naps showed significantly increased sleep duration with decreased sleep latency, as well as significantly increased sleep efficiency due to reduced awakening frequency...
January 25, 2018: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Sterling C Johnson, Rebecca L Koscik, Erin M Jonaitis, Lindsay R Clark, Kimberly D Mueller, Sara E Berman, Barbara B Bendlin, Corinne D Engelman, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Kirk J Hogan, Sanjay Asthana, Cynthia M Carlsson, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager
The Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention is a longitudinal observational cohort study enriched with persons with a parental history (PH) of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Since late 2001, Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention has enrolled 1561 people at a mean baseline age of 54 years. Participants return for a second visit 4 years after baseline, and subsequent visits occur every 2 years. Eighty-one percent (1270) of participants remain active in the study at a current mean age of 64 and 9 years of follow-up...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Flavio A Cadegiani, Claudio E Kater
Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is caused by an imbalance between training, nutrition and resting, and leads to decreased performance and fatigue; however, the precise underlying triggers of OTS remain unclear. This study investigated the body composition, metabolism, eating, sleeping patterns and mood states among participants with OTS. Selected participants were divided into OTS-affected athletes (OTS, n = 14), healthy athletes (ATL, n = 25), and healthy non-physically active controls (NCS, n = 12). Compared to ATL, OTS showed decreased sleep quality (p = 0...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Jeroen Van Cutsem, Kevin De Pauw, Samuele Marcora, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
INTRODUCTION: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity that has negative implications on many aspects in daily life. Caffeine and carbohydrate ingestion have been shown to be able to reduce these negative effects of mental fatigue. Intake of these substances might however be less desirable in some situations (e.g., restricted caloric intake, Ramadan). Rinsing caffeine or glucose within the mouth has already been shown to improve exercise performance...
December 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Lei Jiang, Yun Wang, Bangyu Cai, Yueming Wang, Yiwen Wang
The event-related potential (ERP) is the brain response measured in electroencephalography (EEG), which reflects the process of human cognitive activity. ERP has been introduced into brain computer interfaces (BCIs) to communicate the computer with the subject's intention. Due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of EEG, most ERP studies are based on grand-averaging over many trials. Recently single-trial ERP detection attracts more attention, which enables real time processing tasks as rapid face identification...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Stephanie Tow, Desi Carozza, Kim Barker
A 48-year-old man with lung squamous cell carcinoma was admitted to acute care with cognitive impairment after recent chemotherapy. He developed myoclonus, ataxia, agitation, and visual hallucinations. Morvan syndrome, a rare voltage-gated potassium channel antibody disorder characterized by neuromyotonia with central nervous system dysfunction, was eventually diagnosed. He received plasmapheresis and was admitted to inpatient rehabilitation, where he safely participated in therapies. By focusing on neuromuscular rehabilitation, balance training, fine motor skills, and cognitive retraining emphasizing skills relevant to the patient's premorbid cognitive activities, the patient demonstrated significant functional improvement, decreasing the burden of care of his caregivers...
December 6, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Christina Martins Borges Lima, Heloisa Veiga Dias Alves, Daniel Correa Mograbi, Flávia Furtado Pereira, Jesus Landeira Fernandez, Helenice Charchat-Fichman
Objective: To describe the performance on basic cognitive tasks, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) who participated in multiple physical, social, and cognitive activities at government-run community centers. Methods: A total of 264 educated older adults (> 60 years of age of both genders) were evaluated by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB), Lawton's and Pfeffer's activities of daily living indexes, and the Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS)...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
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