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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318904/dual-memory-neural-networks-for-modeling-cognitive-activities-of-humans-via-wearable-sensors
#1
Sang-Woo Lee, Chung-Yeon Lee, Dong-Hyun Kwak, Jung-Woo Ha, Jeonghee Kim, Byoung-Tak Zhang
Wearable devices, such as smart glasses and watches, allow for continuous recording of everyday life in a real world over an extended period of time or lifelong. This possibility helps better understand the cognitive behavior of humans in real life as well as build human-aware intelligent agents for practical purposes. However, modeling the human cognitive activity from wearable-sensor data stream is challenging because learning new information often results in loss of previously acquired information, causing a problem known as catastrophic forgetting...
February 20, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301554/can-volunteering-in-later-life-reduce-the-risk-of-dementia-a-5-year-longitudinal-study-among-volunteering-and-non-volunteering-retired-seniors
#2
Yannick Griep, Linda Magnusson Hanson, Tim Vantilborgh, Laurens Janssens, Samantha K Jones, Martin Hyde
We propose that voluntary work, characterized by social, physical and cognitive activity in later life is associated with fewer cognitive problems and lower dementia rates. We test these assumptions using 3-wave, self-reported, and registry data from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 Swedish National Prescribed Drug Register. We had three groups of seniors in our data: 1) no volunteering (N = 531), 2) discontinuous volunteering (N = 220), and 3) continuous volunteering (N = 250). We conducted a path analysis in Mplus to investigate the effect of voluntary work (discontinuously and continuously) on self-reported cognitive complaints and the likelihood of being prescribed an anti-dementia treatment after controlling for baseline and relevant background variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286427/intraindividual-and-interindividual-di%C3%AF-erences-in-spontaneous-eye-blinking-relationships-to-working-memory-performance-and-frontal-eeg-asymmetry
#3
Leigh F Bacher, Shirley Retz, Courtney Lindon, Martha Ann Bell
The rate and timing of spontaneous eye blinking (SB) may be used to explore mechanisms of cognitive activity in infancy. In particular, SB rate is believed to reflect some dimensions of dopamine function; therefore, we hypothesized that SB rate would relate to working memory performance and to frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry. Forty, 10-mo-old infants completed an A-not-B task while SB and EEG were measured throughout. We found that SB rate varied across phases of the task, variability in SB rate was positively related to working memory performance, and frontal EEG asymmetry was related to individual differences in the rate of SB...
March 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284292/the-abcdef-bundle-in-critical-care
#4
REVIEW
Annachiara Marra, E Wesley Ely, Pratik P Pandharipande, Mayur B Patel
The ABCDEF bundle represents an evidence-based guide for clinicians to approach the organizational changes needed for optimizing intensive care unit patient recovery and outcomes. This article reviews the core evidence and features behind the ABCDEF bundle. The bundle has individual components that are clearly defined, flexible to implement, and help empower multidisciplinary clinicians and families in the shared care of the critically ill. The ABCDEF bundle helps guide well-rounded patient care and optimal resource utilization resulting in more interactive intensive care unit patients with better controlled pain, who can safely participate in higher-order physical and cognitive activities at the earliest point in their critical illness...
April 2017: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282912/predictors-of-nightly-subjective-objective-sleep-discrepancy-in-poor-sleepers-over-a-seven-day-period
#5
Vanessa Herbert, Daniel Pratt, Richard Emsley, Simon D Kyle
This study sought to examine predictors of subjective/objective sleep discrepancy in poor sleepers. Forty-two individuals with insomnia symptoms (mean age = 36.2 years, 81% female) were recruited to take part in a prospective study which combined seven days of actigraphy with daily assessment of sleep perceptions, self-reported arousal, sleep effort, and mood upon awakening. A high level of intra-individual variability in measures of sleep discrepancy was observed. Multilevel modelling revealed that higher levels of pre-sleep cognitive activity and lower mood upon awakening were significantly and independently predictive of the underestimation of total sleep time...
March 9, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282326/effects-of-mental-fatigue-on-endurance-performance-in-the-heat
#6
Jeroen Van Cutsem, Kevin De Pauw, Luk Buyse, Samuele Marcora, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
PURPOSE: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity and has been observed to decrease time-trial (TT) endurance performance by ~3,5% in normal ambient temperatures. Recently it has been suggested that heat may augment the negative effect of mental fatigue on cognitive performance, raising the question whether it may also amplify the effect of mental fatigue on TT-performance. METHODS: In 30 °C and 30% relative humidity, ten endurance-trained male athletes (Age: 22 ± 3 y; Wmax: 332 ± 41 W) completed two experimental conditions: intervention (I; 45-min Stroop task) and control (C; 45-min documentary)...
March 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263928/the-spatiotemporal-substrates-of-autobiographical-recollection-using-event-related-ica-to-study-cognitive-networks-in-action
#7
Chris Tailby, Genevieve Rayner, Sarah Wilson, Graeme Jackson
Higher cognitive functions depend upon dynamically unfolding brain network interactions. Autobiographical recollection - the autonoetic re-experiencing of context rich, emotionally laden, personally experienced episodes - is an excellent example of such a process. Autobiographical recollection unfolds over time, with different cognitive processes engaged at different times throughout. In this paper we apply a recently developed analysis technique - event related independent components analysis (eICA) - to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural activity supporting autobiographical recollection...
March 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257930/regional-homogeneity-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-associated-with-creativity-measured-by-divergent-thinking-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#8
Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Kunio Iizuka, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Takamitsu Shinada, Kohei Sakaki, Takayuki Nozawa, Shigeyuki Ikeda, Susumu Yokota, Magistro Daniele, Yuko Sassa, Ryuta Kawashima
Brain connectivity is traditionally thought to be important for creativity. Here we investigated the associations of creativity measured by divergent thinking (CMDT) with resting-state functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) measures and their sex differences. We examined these relationships in the brains of 1277 healthy young adults. Whole-brain analyses revealed a significant interaction between verbal CMDT and sex on (a) regional homogeneity within an area from the left anterior temporal lobe (b) on the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) between the mPFC and the left inferior frontal gyrus and (c) on fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in several distinct areas, including the precuneus and middle cingulate gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and cerebellum...
February 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207603/needs-of-stroke-survivors-as-perceived-by-their-caregivers-a-scoping-review
#9
Shilpa Krishnan, Monique R Pappadis, Susan C Weller, Marsja Stearnes, Amit Kumar, Kenneth J Ottenbacher, Timothy A Reistetter
OBJECTIVE: Caregivers usually are not involved while planning the stroke survivor's medical and rehabilitation goals and interventions. This review aimed to identify the needs of stroke survivors as perceived by their caregivers. DESIGN: A literature search from 2003 to 2014 was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar. Sixty-six studies were included. Most studies excluded did not encompass caregivers' perspectives. Four reviewers screened the titles, abstracts, and full texts of the articles for inclusion...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174616/optimal-path-finding-through-mental-exploration-based-on-neural-energy-field-gradients
#10
Yihong Wang, Rubin Wang, Yating Zhu
Rodent animal can accomplish self-locating and path-finding task by forming a cognitive map in the hippocampus representing the environment. In the classical model of the cognitive map, the system (artificial animal) needs large amounts of physical exploration to study spatial environment to solve path-finding problems, which costs too much time and energy. Although Hopfield's mental exploration model makes up for the deficiency mentioned above, the path is still not efficient enough. Moreover, his model mainly focused on the artificial neural network, and clear physiological meanings has not been addressed...
February 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169089/meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-of-timing-and-cognitive-control-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-evidence-of-a-primary-time-deficit
#11
REVIEW
Irene Alústiza, Joaquim Radua, Marta Pla, Raquel Martin, Felipe Ortuño
Schizophrenia (SZ) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) are associated with deficits in both timing and cognitive control functions. However, the underlying neurological dysfunctions remain poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to identify brain structures activated both by increases in cognitive activity and during timing tasks in patients with SZ and BD relative to controls. We conducted two signed differential mapping (SDM) meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies assessing the brain response to increasing levels of cognitive difficulty: one concerned SZ, and the other BD patients...
February 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159609/disentangling-the-mechanisms-underlying-infant-fixation-durations-in-scene-perception-a-computational-account
#12
Irati R Saez de Urabain, Antje Nuthmann, Mark H Johnson, Tim J Smith
The goal of this article is to investigate the unexplored mechanisms underlying the development of saccadic control in infancy by determining the generalizability and potential limitations of extending the CRISP theoretical framework and computational model of fixation durations (FDs) in adult scene-viewing to infants. The CRISP model was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms modulating FDs in 6-month-olds by applying the model to empirical eye-movement data gathered from groups of infants and adults during free-viewing of naturalistic and semi-naturalistic videos...
January 31, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151002/lack-of-associations-between-modifiable-risk-factors-and-dementia-in-the-very-old-findings-from-the-cambridge-city-over-75s-cohort-study
#13
Kay Deckers, Sebastian Köhler, Martin van Boxtel, Frans Verhey, Carol Brayne, Jane Fleming
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between modifiable risk and protective factors and severe cognitive impairment and dementia in the very old. Additionally, the present study tests the predictive validity of the 'LIfestyle for BRAin health' (LIBRA) score, an index developed to assess an individual's dementia prevention potential. METHOD: Two hundred seventy-eight individuals aged 85 years or older from the Cambridge City over-75s cohort study were followed-up until death...
February 2, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139148/circadian-preferences-in-young-adults-psychometric-properties-and-factor-structure-of-the-portuguese-version-of-the-preferences-scale-ps-6
#14
Daniel Ruivo Marques, Ana Allen Gomes, Lee Di Milia, Maria Helena Pinto de Azevedo
Morningness is a trait-like variable which has been extensively studied within chronobiology. Despite the number of existing measures to assess morningness, there is a need for brief instruments that are psychometrically sound to be used in applied settings. Accordingly, the modified version of the Preferences Scale (PS-6) comprises six items and was reported to have adequate reliability and satisfactory validity indicators. In this article, the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the PS-6 are reported...
2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131014/executive-function-performance-and-change-in-aging-is-predicted-by-apolipoprotein-e-intensified-by-catechol-o-methyltransferase-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-moderated-by-age-and-lifestyle
#15
Shraddha Sapkota, Lars Bäckman, Roger A Dixon
Recent studies have reported several genetic, health, and aging interaction effects in predicting cognitive performance and change. We used an accelerated longitudinal design to examine interactions among genetic, lifestyle, and aging for executive function (EF) in non-demented older adults (n = 634; age range = 53-95 years). The polymorphisms were apolipoprotein E (APOE), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We tested (1) independent and additive effects of APOE, COMT, and BDNF and (2) APOE effect modification for COMT + BDNF, on EF performance and 9-year change as separated by age and lifestyle activities...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122495/evoked-potentials-and-behavioral-performance-during-different-states-of-brain-arousal
#16
Jue Huang, Tilman Hensch, Christine Ulke, Christian Sander, Janek Spada, Philippe Jawinski, Ulrich Hegerl
BACKGROUND: Previous studies compared evoked potentials (EPs) between several sleep stages but only one uniform wake state. However, using electroencephalography (EEG), several arousal states can be distinguished before sleep onset. Recently, the Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig (VIGALL 2.0) has been developed, which automatically attributes one out of seven EEG-vigilance stages to each 1-s EEG segment, ranging from stage 0 (associated with cognitively active wakefulness), to stages A1, A2 and A3 (associated with relaxed wakefulness), to stages B1 and B2/3 (associated with drowsiness) up to stage C (indicating sleep onset)...
January 25, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120023/-help-hospital-elder-life-program-multimodal-delirium-prevention-in-elderly-patients
#17
K Singler, C Thomas
Delirium in older adults is associated with an increased risk for cognitive and functional decline. Multiple risk factors, such as underlying dementia, multiple comorbidities, anticholinergic medication or visual and hearing impairment foster the incidence of delirium. By identification of patients at risk and the initiation of a multiple component delirium prevention program delirium is preventable in 30-40% of all cases. There is broad evidence for comprehensive multicomponent delirium prevention strategies in patient care, but their implementation is still lacking in many hospitals...
February 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077708/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#18
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. However, how changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal remains unknown. To address this issue, we collected functional MRI data and continuously assessed the heart rate from 120 healthy human adults as they viewed emotionally arousing and ecologically valid cinematographic material...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067190/leisure-activities-education-and-cognitive-impairment-in-chinese-older-adults-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#19
Xinyi Zhu, Chengxuan Qiu, Yi Zeng, Juan Li
BACKGROUND: We examine the association between leisure-time activities and the risk of developing cognitive impairment among Chinese older people, and further investigate whether the association varies by educational level. METHODS: This follow-up study included 6,586 participants (aged 79.5 ± 9.8 years, range 65-105 years, 51.7% female) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey who were aged ≥65 years and were free of cognitive impairment in 2002...
January 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054159/brain-areas-responsible-for-vigilance-an-eeg-source-imaging-study
#20
Jung-Hoon Kim, Do-Won Kim, Chang-Hwan Im
Vigilance, sometimes referred to as sustained attention, is an important type of human attention as it is closely associated with cognitive activities required in various daily-life situations. Although many researchers have investigated which brain areas control the maintenance of vigilance, findings have been inconsistent. We hypothesized that this inconsistency might be due to the use of different experimental paradigms in the various studies. We found that most of the previous studies used paradigms that included specific cognitive tasks requiring a high cognitive load, which could complicate identification of brain areas associated only with vigilance...
January 4, 2017: Brain Topography
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