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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160930/brain-responses-to-social-norms-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#1
Oksana Zinchenko, Marie Arsalidou
Social norms have a critical role in everyday decision-making, as frequent interaction with others regulates our behavior. Neuroimaging studies show that social-based and fairness-related decision-making activates an inconsistent set of areas, which sometimes includes the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and others lateral prefrontal cortices. Social-based decision-making is complex and variability in findings may be driven by socio-cognitive activities related to social norms. To distinguish among social-cognitive activities related to social norms, we identified 36 eligible articles in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature, which we separate into two categories (a) social norm representation and (b) norm violations...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153754/effects-of-combined-physical-and-cognitive-exercises-on-cognition-and-mobility-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a%C3%A2-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Hiroyuki Shimada, Hyuma Makizako, Takehiko Doi, Hyuntae Park, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Joe Verghese, Takao Suzuki
IMPORTANCE: Although participation in physical and cognitive activities is encouraged to reduce the risk of dementia, the preventive efficacy of these activities for patients with mild cognitive impairment is unestablished. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cognitive and mobility effects of a 40-week program of combined cognitive and physical activity with those of a health education program. DESIGN: A randomized, parallel, single-blind controlled trial...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135924/the-impact-of-synaptic-zn-2-dynamics-on-cognition-and-its-decline
#3
REVIEW
Atsushi Takeda, Hanuna Tamano
The basal levels of extracellular Zn(2+) are in the range of low nanomolar concentrations and less attention has been paid to Zn(2+), compared to Ca(2+), for synaptic activity. However, extracellular Zn(2+) is necessary for synaptic activity. The basal levels of extracellular zinc are age-dependently increased in the rat hippocampus, implying that the basal levels of extracellular Zn(2+) are also increased age-dependently and that extracellular Zn(2+) dynamics are linked with age-related cognitive function and dysfunction...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126580/codebook-based-electrooculography-data-analysis-towards-cognitive-activity-recognition
#4
P Lagodzinski, K Shirahama, M Grzegorzek
With the advancement in mobile/wearable technology, people started to use a variety of sensing devices to track their daily activities as well as health and fitness conditions in order to improve the quality of life. This work addresses an idea of eye movement analysis, which due to the strong correlation with cognitive tasks can be successfully utilized in activity recognition. Eye movements are recorded using an electrooculographic (EOG) system built into the frames of glasses, which can be worn more unobtrusively and comfortably than other devices...
October 28, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117052/concussions-benefits-of-academic-reentry-plans
#5
Amy Coyle Connell
Purpose of this study was to identify whether children aged 12-14 years benefit from academic reentry plans when returning to school following a mild traumatic brain injury. An integrative review was carried out with data sourced from CINAHL, Medline, Education Full Text, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and hand searching of references. Abstracts were reviewed for inclusion/exclusion criteria, resulting with six articles appraised and analyzed for this article. The review shows the need for gradual return to physical and cognitive activity postconcussion to facilitate a quicker recovery with fewer postconcussive symptoms...
November 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115065/editor-s-introduction-and-review-coordination-and-context-in-cognitive-science
#6
Christopher T Kello
The role of coordination in cognitive science has been on the rise in recent years, in terms of coordination among neurons, coordination among sensory and motor systems, and coordination among individuals. Research has shown that coordination patterns corresponding to cognitive activities depend on the various contexts in which the underlying interactions are situated. The present issue of Topics in Cognitive Science centers on studies of coordination that address the role of context in shaping or interpreting dynamical patterns of human behavior...
November 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104558/cognitive-engagement-mediates-the-relationship-between-positive-life-events-and-positive-emotionality
#7
Alexander Strobel, Kristin Anacker, Anja Strobel
Need for Cognition (NFC) is conceptualized as an individuals' tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activity and, thus, captures one's cognitive engagement. It plays a well-established role in information processing in experimental or academic contexts. However, so far comparably little is known about its consequences for other than purely cognitive or academic outcomes. Indeed, NFC is positively associated with personality traits pertaining to Positive Emotionality (PE) and negatively to traits related to Negative Emotionality (NE)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103867/impact-of-analgesics-on-executive-function-and-memory-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-database
#8
Lisa Doan, Daniel Choi, Richard Kline
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pain is common in older adults but may be undertreated in part due to concerns about medication toxicity. Analgesics may affect cognition. In this retrospective cohort study, we used the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database to examine the interaction of cognitive status and medications, especially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We hypothesized NSAID use would be associated with cognition and that this could be mediated through changes in brain structure...
November 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093693/getting-the-joke-insight-during-humor-comprehension-evidence-from-an-fmri-study
#9
Fang Tian, Yuling Hou, Wenfeng Zhu, Arne Dietrich, Qinglin Zhang, Wenjing Yang, Qunlin Chen, Jiangzhou Sun, Qiu Jiang, Guikang Cao
As a high-level cognitive activity, humor comprehension requires incongruity detection and incongruity resolution, which then elicits an insight moment. The purpose of the study was to explore the neural basis of humor comprehension, particularly the moment of insight, by using both characters and language-free cartoons in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. The results showed that insight involving jokes elicited greater activation in language and semantic-related brain regions as well as a variety of additional regions, such as the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), the superior temporal gyrus (STG), the temporoparietal junctions (TPJ), the hippocampus and visual areas...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090832/sustaining-attention-to-simple-visual-tasks-a-central-deficit-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Marc Hoonakker, Nadège Doignon-Camus, Anne Bonnefond
Impairments in sustained attention, that is, the ability to achieve and maintain the focus of cognitive activity on a given stimulation source or task, have been described as central to schizophrenia. Today, sustained attention deficit is still considered as a hallmark of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, current findings on this topic are not consistent. To clarify these findings, we attempt to put these results into perspective according to the type of assessment (i.e., overall and over time assessment), the participants' characteristics (i...
November 1, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079871/-cognitive-interventions-in-nursing-homes-systematic-review-of-the-preventive-effectiveness-on-cognitive-performance-in-persons-in-need-of-care
#11
REVIEW
C Wöhl, S Richter, B Blättner
BACKGROUND: The strengthening of cognitive resources is considered to be a preventive field of action within inpatient care. The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions on cognitive performance in nursing home residents. METHODS: A systematic literature search was carried out in the databases MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, as well as searches in trial registries and a screening of reference lists. The combined results were based on meta-analyses in random-effects models...
October 27, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077783/mental-fatigue-increases-gait-variability-during-dual-task-walking-in-old-adults
#12
Martin Behrens, Anett Mau-Moeller, Alexander Lischke, Felix Katlun, Martin Gube, Volker Zschorlich, Ralf Skripitz, Matthias Weippert
Background: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state induced by sustained periods of demanding cognitive activity and characterized by feelings of tiredness which are common in everyday life. Recently, it has been hypothesized that mental fatigue might have an impact on gait performance in old adults. Therefore, the effect of mental fatigue on gait performance under single- and dual-task conditions was investigated in young and old participants. Methods: Spatio-temporal gait parameters of 16 young and 16 old healthy participants were measured using a photoelectric system during single- and dual-task walking before and after a randomly assigned mental fatigue (performing a stop-signal task for 90 min) and control intervention (watching a video for 90 min), respectively...
October 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073509/rhythms-of-the-body-rhythms-of-the-brain-respiration-neural-oscillations-and-embodied-cognition
#13
Somogy Varga, Detlef H Heck
In spite of its importance as a life-defining rhythmic movement and its constant rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the body, respiration has not received attention in Embodied Cognition (EC) literature. Our paper aims to show that (1) respiration exerts significant and unexpected influence on cognitive processes, and (2) it does so by modulating neural synchronization that underlies specific cognitive processes. Then, (3) we suggest that the particular example of respiration may function as a model for a general mechanism through which the body influences cognitive functioning...
October 23, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067317/social-interaction-and-cognitive-decline-results-of-a-7-year-community-intervention
#14
Hiroyuki Hikichi, Katsunori Kondo, Tokunori Takeda, Ichiro Kawachi
INTRODUCTION: There are few intervention studies that demonstrated linking social participation to lower risk of cognitive decline. We examined prospectively the protective effect of a community intervention program promoting social participation on the incidence of cognitive disability. METHODS: The baseline was established in a survey of community-dwelling older people aged 65 years old or more in July 2006 (2793 respondents, response rate 48.5%). The setting was Taketoyo town in Japan, where municipal authorities launched an intervention that was based on the establishment of community-based centers called "salons," where the town's senior residents could congregate and participate in social activities, ranging from arts and crafts, games, and interactive activities with preschool children...
January 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064869/vision-and-vestibular-system-dysfunction-predicts-prolonged-concussion-recovery-in-children
#15
Christina L Master, Stephen R Master, Douglas J Wiebe, Eileen P Storey, Julia E Lockyer, Olivia E Podolak, Matthew F Grady
OBJECTIVE: Up to one-third of children with concussion have prolonged symptoms lasting beyond 4 weeks. Vision and vestibular dysfunction is common after concussion. It is unknown whether such dysfunction predicts prolonged recovery. We sought to determine which vision or vestibular problems predict prolonged recovery in children. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort of pediatric patients with concussion. SETTING: A subspecialty pediatric concussion program...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061098/the-cognitive-reserve-model-in-the-development-of-delirium-the-successful-aging-after-elective-surgery-study
#16
Sevdenur Cizginer, Edward Marcantonio, Sarinnapha Vasunilashorn, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Mouhsin Shafi, Eva M Schmitt, Sharon K Inouye, Richard N Jones
We evaluated the role of cognitive and brain reserve markers in modifying the risk of postoperative delirium associated with a pathophysiologic marker. The Successful Aging after Elective Surgery study (SAGES) enrolled 556 adults age ≥70 years without dementia scheduled for major surgery. Patients were assessed preoperatively and daily during hospitalization for delirium. We used C-reactive protein (CRP) as a pathophysiologic marker of inflammation, previously associated with delirium. Markers of reserve included vocabulary knowledge, education, cognitive activities, occupation type and complexity, head circumference, intracranial volume, and leisure activities...
November 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060941/on-one-approach-to-health-protection-music%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-brain
#17
Alexander Fedotchev, Grigoriy Radchenko, Anna Zemlianaia
This review presents the current status of a method for prevention and timely correction of human functional disturbances that was first proposed by Russian neurologist Ya.I. Levin in 1998 and further developed by the authors. The approach is named "Music of the Brain" and is based on musical or music-like stimulation organized in strict accordance with the biopotentials of a patient's brain. Initial studies on the music of the brain approach were analyzed, and its limitations were noted. To enhance the efficiency and usability of the approach, several combinations of music therapy with neurofeedback technique - musical neurofeedback - were developed...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060724/a-flexible-method-for-the-automated-offline-detection-of-artifacts-in-multi-channel-electroencephalogram-recordings
#18
Markus Waser, Heinrich Garn, Thomas Benke, Peter Dal-Bianco, Gerhard Ransmayr, Reinhold Schmidt, Poul J Jennum, Helge B D Sorensen
Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal quality is often compromised by artifacts that corrupt quantitative EEG measurements used in clinical applications and EEG-related studies. Techniques such as filtering, regression analysis and blind source separation are often used to remove these artifacts. However, these preprocessing steps do not allow for complete artifact correction. We propose a method for the automated offline-detection of remaining artifacts after preprocessing in multi-channel EEG recordings. In contrast to existing methods it requires neither adaptive parameters varying between recordings nor a topography template...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060584/decoding-brain-cognitive-activity-across-subjects-using-multimodal-m-eeg-neuroimaging
#19
Sarwat Fatima, Awais M Kamboh
Brain decoding is essential in understanding where and how information is encoded inside the brain. Existing literature has shown that a good classification accuracy is achievable in decoding for single subjects, but multi-subject classification has proven difficult due to the inter-subject variability. In this paper, multi-modal neuroimaging was used to improve two-class multi-subject classification accuracy in a cognitive task of differentiating between a face and a scrambled face. In this transfer learning problem, a feature space based on special-form covariance matrices manipulated with riemannian geometry are used...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060016/development-and-testing-of-a-new-cognitive-technological-tool-for-episodic-memory-a-feasibility-study
#20
M Maselli, L Fiorini, E Castro, I Baldoli, S Tocchini, M T Sportiello, F Cavallo, F Cecchi, C Laschi
Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy refers to any systemic therapy specifically designed to enhance cognitive performance. Recent studies have shown that physical exercise is beneficial for cognitive activity in patients with degenerative diseases. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to provide training for cognitive functions that take advantage of the physical activity in the execution of the task. A feasibility study concerning the application of a new bioengineering technique in cognitive rehabilitation is presented and it divided into two parts...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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