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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209841/salicylic-acid-dependent-plant-stress-signalling-via-mitochondrial-succinate-dehydrogenase
#1
Katharina Belt, Shaobai Huang, Louise F Thatcher, Hayley Casarotto, Karam Singh, Olivier Van Aken, A Harvey Millar
Mitochondria are known for their role in ATP production and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but little is known about the mechanism of their early involvement in plant stress signalling. The role of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in salicylic acid (SA) signalling was analysed using two mutants; disrupted in stress response 1 (dsr1) which is a point mutation in SDH1 identified in a loss of SA signalling screen, and a knockdown mutant (sdhaf2) for SDH assembly factor 2 that is required for FAD insertion into SDH1...
February 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209190/the-effects-of-different-familial-alzheimer-s-disease-mutations-on-app-processing-in-vivo
#2
Steinunn Thordardottir, Anne Kinhult Ståhlbom, Ove Almkvist, Håkan Thonberg, Maria Eriksdotter, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Caroline Graff
BACKGROUND: Disturbed amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing is considered to be central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The autosomal dominant form of the disease, familial AD (FAD), may serve as a model for the sporadic form of AD. In FAD the diagnosis of AD is reliable and presymptomatic individuals carrying FAD mutations can give valuable insights into the earliest stages of the disease where therapeutic interventions are thought to be the most effective. METHODS: In the current cross-sectional study, products of APP processing (e...
February 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208042/is-wearable-technology-an-activity-motivator-or-a-fad-that-wears-thin
#3
Jo Salmon, Nicola D Ridgers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193867/genetic-signature-of-natural-selection-in-first-americans
#4
Carlos Eduardo G Amorim, Kelly Nunes, Diogo Meyer, David Comas, Maria Cátira Bortolini, Francisco Mauro Salzano, Tábita Hünemeier
When humans moved from Asia toward the Americas over 18,000 y ago and eventually peopled the New World they encountered a new environment with extreme climate conditions and distinct dietary resources. These environmental and dietary pressures may have led to instances of genetic adaptation with the potential to influence the phenotypic variation in extant Native American populations. An example of such an event is the evolution of the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes, which have been claimed to harbor signals of positive selection in Inuit populations due to adaptation to the cold Greenland Arctic climate and to a protein-rich diet...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192293/the-intrinsic-fluorescence-of-fad-and-its-application-in-analytical-chemistry-a-review
#5
Javier Galbán, Isabel Sanz-Vicente, Jesús Navarro, Susana de Marcos
This review (with 106 references) mainly deals with the analytical applications of flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) fluorescence. In the first section, the spectroscopic properties of this compound are reviewed at the light of his different acid-base, oxidation and structural forms; the chemical and spectroscopic properties of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and other flavins will be also briefly discussed. The second section discusses how the properties of FAD fluorescence changes in flavoenzymes (FvEs), again considering the different chemical and structural forms; the glucose oxidase (GOx) and the choline oxidase (ChOx) cases will be commented...
December 19, 2016: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186827/exploration-of-the-perceived-and-actual-benefits-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-the-impact-of-fads1-and-fads2-genetic-information-on-dietary-intake-and-blood-levels-of-epa-and-dha
#6
Kaitlin Roke
From a global health perspective, increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs), in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for human health. However, the consumption of EPA- and DHA-rich foods such as fatty fish is low in the Western diet. Therefore, finding new ways to motivate people to increase their consumption of omega-3 FAs is essential. To find effective ways to motivate individuals, understanding people's awareness of omega-3 FAs and how they obtain their knowledge about nutrition and health is critical...
February 10, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178302/the-2-0-%C3%A3-x-ray-structure-for-yeast-acetohydroxyacid-synthase-provides-new-insights-into-its-cofactor-and-quaternary-structure-requirements
#7
Thierry Lonhienne, Mario D Garcia, James A Fraser, Craig M Williams, Luke W Guddat
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) catalyzes the first step of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, a pathway essential to the life-cycle of plants and micro-organisms. The catalytic subunit has thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as indispensable co-factors. A new, high resolution, 2.0 Å crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AHAS reveals that the dimer is asymmetric, with the catalytic centres having distinct structures where FAD is trapped in two different conformations indicative of different redox states...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176609/outbreak-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-minnesota-in-2015
#8
Ann Fitzpatrick, Sunil K Mor, Mary Thurn, Elizabeth Wiedenman, Tracy Otterson, Robert E Porter, Devi P Patnayak, Dale C Lauer, Shauna Voss, Stephanie Rossow, James E Collins, Sagar M Goyal
The incursion of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) into the United States during 2014 resulted in an unprecedented foreign animal disease (FAD) event; 232 outbreaks were reported from 21 states. The disease affected 49.6 million birds and resulted in economic losses of $950 million. Minnesota is the largest turkey-producing state, accounting for 18% of U.S. turkey production. Areas with concentrated numbers of turkeys in Minnesota were the epicenter of the outbreak. The first case was presumptively diagnosed in the last week of February 2015 at the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (MVDL) and confirmed as HPAI H5N2 at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories on March 4, 2015...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162103/a-study-of-associations-between-early-dha-status-and-fatty-acid-desaturase-fads-snp-and-developmental-outcomes-in-children-of-obese-mothers
#9
Karina R Andersen, Laurine B S Harsløf, Theresia M Schnurr, Torben Hansen, Lars I Hellgren, Kim F Michaelsen, Lotte Lauritzen
DHA from diet or endogenous synthesis has been proposed to affect infant development, however, results are inconclusive. In this study, we aim to verify previously observed fatty acid desaturase gene cluster (FADS) SNP-specific associations with erythrocyte DHA status in 9-month-old children and sex-specific association with developmental outcomes. The study was performed in 166 children (55 % boys) of obese mothers. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition was analysed in blood-samples obtained at 9 months of age, and developmental outcomes assessed by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years...
February 6, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161285/genetic-polymorphisms-of-fads1-fads2-and-fads3-and-fatty-acid-profiles-in-subjects-received-methadone-maintenance-therapy
#10
Hui-Ting Yang, Ruey-Yun Wang, Shih-Yi Huang, Chieh-Liang Huang, Kuan-Pin Su
Abnormal fatty acid metabolism and the related enzymes had been observed to be associated with psychiatric disorders. We investigated FADS gene family genetic polymorphisms and variations of lipid profiles in patients with heroin dependence receiving 6-month methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). We recruited 89 MMT drug abusers and analyzed 3 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Fatty acid desaturases (FADS), FADS1, FADS2 and FADS3. The fatty acid profiles of erythrocyte membranes were analyzed based on genetic variations...
January 25, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159841/kinetic-mechanism-of-the-dechlorinating-flavin-dependent-monooxygenase-hada
#11
Panu Pimviriyakul, Kittisak Thotsaporn, Jeerus Sucharitakul, Pimchai Chaiyen
The accumulation of chlorophenols (CPs) in the environment, due to their wide use as agrochemicals, has become a serious environmental problem. These organic halides can be degraded by aerobic microorganisms, where the initial steps of various biodegradation pathways include an oxidative dechlorinating process in which chloride is replaced by a hydroxyl substituent. Harnessing these dechlorinating processes could provide an opportunity for environmental remediation, but detailed catalytic mechanisms for these enzymes are not yet known...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159840/the-role-of-a-fad-cofactor-in-the-regulation-of-acetohydroxyacid-synthase-by-redox-signaling-molecules
#12
Thierry Lonhienne, Mario D Garcia, Luke W Guddat
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) catalyzes the first step of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis, a pathway essential to the lifecycle of plants and microorganisms. This enzyme is of high interest because its inhibition is at the base of the exceptional potency of herbicides and potentially a target for the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The enzyme has conserved attributes from its predicted ancestor, pyruvate oxidase, such as a ubiquinone-binding site and the requirement for FAD as cofactor...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145068/interorgan-cross-talk-between-fatty-acid-metabolism-tissue-inflammation-and-fads2-genotype-in-humans-with-obesity
#13
Maija Vaittinen, Ville Männistö, Pirjo Käkelä, Jyrki Ågren, Mika Tiainen, Ursula Schwab, Jussi Pihlajamäki
OBJECTIVE: Fatty acid (FA) composition affects obesity-associated low-grade inflammation. It has been shown that the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 2 gene polymorphism associates with FA metabolism and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between FA metabolism and inflammation in different tissues and the possible interorgan cross talk. METHODS: Cross-sectional baseline data from 155 individuals with obesity (both male and female) participating in the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operation in the ongoing Kuopio Obesity Surgery Study were used...
February 1, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137621/crystal-structure-and-molecular-dynamics-studies-of-l-amino-acid-oxidase-from-bothrops-atrox
#14
Patricia R Feliciano, Joane K Rustiguel, Ricardo O S Soares, Suely V Sampaio, M Cristina Nonato
L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs) are dimeric flavoproteins that catalyze the deamination of L-amino acid to α-keto acid, producing ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we report the crystal structure and molecular dynamics simulations of LAAO from the venom of Bothrops atrox (BatroxLAAO). BatroxLAAO presents several biological and pharmacological properties with promising biomedical applications. BatroxLAAO structure contains the highly conserved structural pattern of LAAOs comprising a FAD-binding domain, substrate-binding domain and helical domain, and a dimeric arrangement that can be stabilized by zinc...
January 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134365/temperature-dependent-esr-and-computational-studies-on-antiferromagnetic-electron-transfer-in-the-yeast-nadh-dehydrogenase-ndi1
#15
Kaiqi Wu, Wenfei Li, Lu Yu, Wei Tong, Yue Feng, Shenglong Ling, Longhua Zhang, Xiao Zheng, Maojun Yang, Changlin Tian
Ndi1 is a special type-II complex I nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (NADH):ubiquinone (UQ) oxidoreductase in the yeast respiratory chain, with two bound UQs (UQI and UQII) mediating electron transfer from flavin cofactors to ubiquinone, in the absence of Fe-S chains. Here, we elucidate the underlying mechanism of electron transfer in Ndi1 through temperature-dependent Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) experiments in conjunction with quantum chemical calculations. It is revealed that electron transfer is mediated by antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions between flavin-adenosine-dinucleotide (FAD) and UQI and between UQI and UQII...
January 30, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130928/renal-graft-intolerance-syndrome-in-late-graft-failure-patients-efficacy-and-safety-of-embolization-as-first-line-treatment-compared-to-surgical-removal
#16
Ghalib Al Badaai, Vincent Pernin, Valérie Garrigue, Valérie Monnin, Thibaut Murez, Saad Ed Dine Fadli, Nicolas Molinari, Rodolphe Thuret, François Iborra, Georges Mourad
BACKGROUND: Although renal graft percutaneous embolization was introduced to avoid the risk associated with graft nephrectomy, there is no universal consensus about its indications and results. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the efficacy of graft embolization in the treatment of graft intolerance syndrome as well as its safety compared to surgical removal with respect to complications and other morbidity measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study comparing 2 groups of patients treated for graft intolerance syndrome: Group 1: patients who had embolization as first line treatment and Group 2: patients directly treated by surgical removal...
January 28, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129796/two-photon-flim-of-nad-p-h-and-fad-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-undergoing-either-osteogenic-or-chondrogenic-differentiation
#17
Aleksandra V Meleshina, Varvara V Dudenkova, Alena S Bystrova, Daria S Kuznetsova, Marina V Shirmanova, Elena V Zagaynova
BACKGROUND: Metabolic plasticity and the versatility of different lineages of stem cells as they satisfy their energy demands are not completely understood. In this study we investigated the metabolic changes in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) undergoing differentiation in two directions, osteogenic and chondrogenic, using two-photon fluorescence microscopy combined with FLIM. METHODS: Differentiation was induced by incubating the human bone marrow MSCs in osteogenic or chondrogenic mediums...
January 28, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126614/testing-the-main-prediction-of-the-interpersonal-theory-of-suicide-in-a-representative-sample-of-the-german-general-population
#18
Heide Glaesmer, Nina Hallensleben, Thomas Forkmann, Lena Spangenberg, Nestor Kapusta, Tobias Teismann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the main prediction of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (IPTS): 3-way-interaction of perceived burdensomeness (PB), thwarted belongingness (TB), and acquired capability (AC) for the prediction of suicidal behavior in a representative population sample. METHOD: A total of 2513 participants completed measures of suicidal behavior, TB, PB, acquired capability (AC-FAD), and symptoms of depression and anxiety. RESULTS: The two-way-interaction of TB and PB, and the three-way interaction of TB, PB and AC-FAD predict suicidality...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107886/measuring-family-functioning-in-families-with-parental-cancer-reliability-and-validity-of-the-german-adaptation-of-the-family-assessment-device-fad
#19
Volker Beierlein, Johanna Christine Bultmann, Birgit Möller, Kai von Klitzing, Hans-Henning Flechtner, Franz Resch, Wolfgang Herzog, Elmar Brähler, Daniel Führer, Georg Romer, Uwe Koch, Corinna Bergelt
OBJECTIVE: The concept of family functioning is gaining importance in psycho-oncology research and health care services. The Family Assessment Device (FAD) is a well-established measure of family functioning. Psychometric properties inherent in the German 51-item adaptation of the FAD are examined in different samples of families with parental cancer. METHODS: Acceptance, reliability, and validity of FAD scales are analysed in samples from different study settings (N=1701 cancer patients, N=261 partners, N=158 dependent adolescent children 11 to 18years old)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106225/co-immobilization-of-glucose-oxidase-and-catalase-for-enhancing-the-performance-of-a-membraneless-glucose-biofuel-cell-operated-under-physiological-conditions
#20
Marcelinus Christwardana, Yongjin Chung, Yongchai Kwon
Glucose oxidase (GOx)-catalase co-immobilized catalyst (CNT/PEI/(GOx-Cat)) was synthesized, and its catalytic activity and electrical performance were investigated and compared, whereas the amount of immobilized catalase was optochemically inspected by chemiluminescence (CL) assay. With the characterizations, it was confirmed that the catalase was well immobilized on the CNT/PEI surface, whereas both the GOx and catalase play their roles well in the catalyst. According to the measurements of the current density peak of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) redox reaction, electron transfer rate, Michaelis-Menten constants and sensitivity, CNT/PEI/(GOx-Cat) shows the best values, and this is attributed to the excellent catalytic activity of GOx and the H2O2 decomposition capability of the catalase...
January 20, 2017: Nanoscale
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