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A Tiwari, N Miyashita, N Espallargas, B N J Persson
There are two contributions to the friction force when a rubber block is sliding on a hard and rough substrate surface, namely, a contribution Fad = τf A from the area of real contact A and a viscoelastic contribution Fvisc from the pulsating forces exerted by the substrate asperities on the rubber block. Here we present experimental results obtained at different sliding speeds and temperatures, and we show that the temperature dependency of the shear stress τf , for temperatures above the rubber glass transition temperature Tg , is weaker than that of the bulk viscoelastic modulus...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Claus Nielsen, Morten Steen Nørby, Jacob Kongsted, Ilia A Solov'yov
The magnetic compass sense utilized by migratory birds for long-distance navigation functions only once light of a certain wavelength is present. This piece of evidence fits partially with the popular hypothesis of chemical magnetoreception in cryptochrome proteins, located in the bird retina. According to this hypothesis a magnetosensitive radical pair is produced after photoexcitation of an FAD co-factor inside cryptochrome, and as such the absorption properties of FAD is of crucial importance for cryptochrome activation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Yu Xiu, Guodong Wu, Wensi Tang, Zhengfeng Peng, Xiangpan Bu, Longjun Chao, Xue Yin, Jiannan Xiong, Haiwu Zhang, Xiaoqing Zhao, Jing Ding, Lvyi Ma, Huafang Wang, Johannes van Staden
Paeonia ostii var. lishizhenii, a well-known medicinal and horticultural plant, is indigenous to China. Recent studies have shown that its seed has a high oil content, and it was approved as a novel resource of edible oil with a high level of α-linolenic acid by the Chinese Government. This study measured the seed oil contents and fatty acid components of P. ostii var. lishizhenii and six other peonies, P. suffruticosa, P. ludlowii, P. decomposita, P. rockii, and P. lactiflora Pall. 'Heze' and 'Gansu'. The results show that P...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Joseph H Lynch, Na Sa, Sompop Saeheng, Nadia Raffaelli, Sanja Roje
The flavin cofactors FMN and FAD are required for a wide variety of biological processes, however, little is known about their metabolism. Here, we report the cloning and biochemical characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pyrophosphatase Fpy1p. Genetic and functional studies suggest that Fpy1p may play a key role in flavin metabolism and is the first-reported non-Nudix superfamily enzyme to display FAD pyrophosphatase activity. Characterization of mutant yeast strains found that deletion of fpy1 counteracts the adverse effects that are caused by deletion of flx1, a known mitochondrial FAD transporter...
2018: PloS One
Bárbara Brayner, Gunveen Kaur, Michelle A Keske, Katherine M Livingstone
The role of n- 3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n- 3 PUFA) in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is not well established. The synthesis of LC n- 3 PUFA requires fatty acid desaturase enzymes, which are encoded by the FADS gene. It is unclear if FADS polymorphism and dietary fatty acid intake can influence plasma or erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile and thereby the risk of T2DM. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the current evidence for an effect of FADS polymorphism on T2DM risk and understand its associations with serum/erythrocyte and dietary LC n- 3 PUFA...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
Martin Schmidt, Dominic Tran-Nguyen, Patrick Chizek
Boron presents at physiological pH in the form of boric acid (BA), a molecule that has both positive and negative effects on biological processes. In medicine, BA is used as a topical treatment for vaginal yeast infections by Candida species because of its well-documented but poorly understood effect on inhibition of growth in general and of invasive, hyphal growth in particular. The present study examines the influence of BA on carbohydrate energy metabolism of this common human pathogen. Starting from previous findings about an inhibition of key NAD-dependent enzymes by BA in vitro, we confirmed that such an inhibition occurs in permeabilized C...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
David E Lee, Kinan Alhallak, Samir V Jenkins, Isaac Vargas, Nicholas P Greene, Kyle P Quinn, Robert J Griffin, Ruud P M Dings, Narasimhan Rajaram
Treatment failure caused by a radiation-resistant cell phenotype remains an impediment to the success of radiation therapy in cancer. We recently showed that a radiation-resistant isogenic line of human A549 lung cancer cells had significantly elevated expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α), and increased glucose catabolism compared with the parental, radiation-sensitive cell line. The objective of this study was to investigate the longitudinal metabolic changes in radiation-resistant and sensitive A549 lung cancer cells after treatment with a combination of radiation therapy and YC-1, a potent HIF-1 inhibitor...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ran Qin, Dongdong Zeng, Chengcong Yang, Delara Akhter, Md Alamin, Xiaoli Jin, Chunhai Shi
Panicle architecture and grain size are two important agronomic traits which determine grain yield directly in rice. In the present study, a mutant named ltbsg1 ( longer top branch and shorter grain 1 ) was isolated from the cultivar “Zhenong 34” ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica ) by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis. The target gene was studied through phenotype observation, genetic analysis, map-based cloning and functional analysis. The histocytological analysis indicated that the elongated top branch and shorter grain of mutant ltbsg1 were caused from the defects of cell elongation...
June 11, 2018: Genes
Remco J Molenaar, Mohammed Khurshed, Vashendriya V V Hira, Cornelis J F Van Noorden
Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and infection. The metabolic motor units of cells are enzymes and their activity is heavily regulated at many levels, including the transcriptional, mRNA stability, translational, post-translational and functional level. This complex regulation means that conventional quantitative or imaging assays, such as quantitative mRNA experiments, Western Blots and immunohistochemistry, yield incomplete information regarding the ultimate activity of enzymes, their function and/or their subcellular localization...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xin Yan, Wen Jin, Guang Wu, Wankui Jiang, Zhangong Yang, Junbin Ji, Jiguo Qiu, Jian He, Jiandong Jiang, Qing Hong
Carbofuran, a broad-spectrum systemic insecticide, has been extensively used for approximately 50 years. Diverse carbofuran-degrading bacteria have been described, among which sphingomonads have exhibited an extraordinary ability to catabolize carbofuran; other bacteria can only convert carbofuran to carbofuran phenol, while all carbofuran-degrading sphingomonads can degrade both carbofuran and carbofuran phenol. However, the genetic basis of carbofuran catabolism in sphingomonads has not been well elucidated...
June 8, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
L Giacomozzi, C Kjær, J Langeland Knudsen, L H Andersen, S Brøndsted Nielsen, M H Stockett
We report the absorption profile of isolated Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) mono-anions recorded using photo-induced dissociation action spectroscopy. In this charge state, one of the phosphoric acid groups is deprotonated and the chromophore itself is in its neutral oxidized state. These measurements cover the first four optical transitions of FAD with excitation energies from 2.3 to 6.0 eV (210-550 nm). The S0 → S2 transition is strongly blue shifted relative to aqueous solution, supporting the view that this transition has a significant charge-transfer character...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jonathan Y Bernard, Hong Pan, Izzuddin M Aris, Margarita Moreno-Betancur, Shu-E Soh, Fabian Yap, Kok Hian Tan, Lynette P Shek, Yap-Seng Chong, Peter D Gluckman, Philip C Calder, Keith M Godfrey, Mary Foong-Fong Chong, Michael S Kramer, Neerja Karnani, Yung Seng Lee
Background: In randomized trials, supplementation of n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) during pregnancy has resulted in increased size at birth, which is attributable to longer gestation. Objective: We examined this finding by using a Mendelian randomization approach utilizing fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene variants affecting LC-PUFA metabolism. Design: As part of a tri-ethnic mother-offspring cohort in Singapore, 35 genetic variants in FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3 were genotyped in 898 mothers and 1103 offspring...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Andre M Miranda, Mathieu Herman, Rong Cheng, Eden Nahmani, Geoffrey Barrett, Elizabeta Micevska, Gaelle Fontaine, Marie-Claude Potier, Elizabeth Head, Frederick A Schmitt, Ira T Lott, Ivonne Z Jiménez-Velázquez, Stylianos E Antonarakis, Gilbert Di Paolo, Joseph H Lee, S Abid Hussaini, Catherine Marquer
The phosphoinositide phosphatase synaptojanin 1 (SYNJ1) is a key regulator of synaptic function. We first tested whether SYNJ1 contributes to phenotypic variations in familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) and show that SYNJ1 polymorphisms are associated with age of onset in both early- and late-onset human FAD cohorts. We then interrogated whether SYNJ1 levels could directly affect memory. We show that increased SYNJ1 levels in autopsy brains from adults with Down syndrome (DS/AD) are inversely correlated with synaptophysin levels, a direct readout of synaptic integrity...
June 5, 2018: Cell Reports
Peng Liu, Jie Du, Jia Zhang, Jian Wang, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Spiroplasma eriocheiris, a pathogen that causes mass mortality of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, is a wall less bacteria and belongs to the Mollicutes. This study was designed to investigate the effects of colchicine on S. eriocheiris growth, cell morphology, and proteins expression. We found that in the presence of colchicine, the spiroplasma cells lost their helicity, and the length of the cells in the experimental group was longer than that of the control. With varying concentrations of the colchicine treatment, the total time to achieve a stationary phase of the spiroplasma was increased, and the cell population was decreased...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rafael Ruiz-Partida, Silvia Prado, Magda Villarroya, Adrián Velázquez-Campoy, Jerónimo Bravo, M -Eugenia Armengod
The Escherichia coli homodimeric proteins MnmE and MnmG form a functional complex, MnmEG, that modifies tRNAs using GTP, methylene-tetrahydrofolate, FAD, and glycine or ammonium. MnmE is a tetrahydrofolate- and GTP-binding protein, whereas MnmG is an FAD-binding protein with each protomer composed of the FAD-binding domain, two insertion domains, and the helical C-terminal domain. The detailed mechanism of the MnmEG-mediated reaction remains unclear partially due to incomplete structural information on the free- and substrate-bound forms of the complex...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Vladimir Volloch, Sophia Rits
The present review analyzes the results of recent clinical trials of β secretase inhibition in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD), considers the striking dichotomy between successes in tests of β-site Amyloid Precursor Protein-Cleaving Enzyme (BACE) inhibitors in healthy subjects and familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) models versus persistent failures of clinical trials and interprets it as a confirmation of key predictions for a mechanism of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-independent, β secretase inhibition-resistant production of β amyloid in SAD, previously proposed by us...
June 2, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Allison Mula
There has been a recent trend in the integration of sit-stand option desks in the work place. Fear-based advertising insinuating that sitting is the health equivalent of smoking has pervaded many work environments. As workers want to remain healthy and pain free, and employers want and need a healthy workforce, it appears that there is a pervasive trend of avoiding sitting as often as possible. Because work tasks that call for an extensive amount of sitting are often times computer-based, this 'standing is healthy' fad is most notably presenting itself at computer-based work stations...
May 28, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Naoya Matsumura, Yoshiyuki Yamaura, Jun Katagi, Shizuka Ono, Soonih Kim, Shinji Yamashita, Kiyohiko Sugano
Dogs have been widely used to study the oral absorption of a drug in drug discovery. However, there has been no quantitative validation of using dogs to predict the fraction of oral dose absorbed (Fa) in humans (Fah ) for poorly water-soluble drugs. Here we report the results of using dogs for quantitative Fah prediction, focusing on poorly water-soluble free acid and neutral drugs. The Fa values of four acidic and one neutral proprietary compounds were measured in humans and dogs. Extensive literature survey was also performed to increase the number of Fa data...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Meina Neumann-Schaal, Nicole G Metzendorf, Daniel Troitzsch, Aaron Mischa Nuss, Julia Danielle Hofmann, Michael Beckstette, Petra Dersch, Andreas Otto, Susanne Sievers
Clostridioides difficile is the major pathogen causing diarrhea following antibiotic treatment. It is considered to be a strictly anaerobic bacterium, however, previous studies have shown a certain and strain-dependent oxygen tolerance. In this study, the model strain C. difficile 630Δerm was shifted to micro-aerobiosis and was found to stay growing to the same extent as anaerobically growing cells with only few changes in the metabolite pattern. However, an extensive change in gene expression was determined by RNA-Seq...
May 31, 2018: Anaerobe
Silva Hovsepian, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard, Marjan Mansourian, Mohamadhasan Tajadini, Mahin Hashemipour, Roya Kelishadi
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to assess the association between four variants in three genes whose association has been reported in adults but not in children. We evaluated the relationship of the GCKR (rs780094), GCKR (rs1260333), FADS (rs174547), and MLXIPL (rs3812316) polymorphisms with serum lipid levels in Iranian children. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a subpopulation of the CASPIAN III study. During this study, 550 frozen whole blood samples were selected randomly...
March 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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