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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821467/in-vitro-characterization-of-cyp102g4-from-streptomyces-cattleya-a-self-sufficient-p450-naturally-producing-indigo
#1
Joonwon Kim, Pyung-Gang Lee, Eun-Ok Jung, Byung-Gee Kim
Self-sufficient CYP102As possess outstanding hydroxylating activity to fatty acids such as myristic acid. Other CYP102 subfamily members share substrate specificity of CYP102As, but, occasionally, unusual characteristics of its own subfamily have been found. In this study, only one self-sufficient cytochrome P450 from Streptomyces cattleya was renamed from CYP102A_scat to CYP102G4, purified and characterized. UV-Vis spectrometry pattern, FAD/FMN analysis, and protein sequence comparison among CYP102s have shown that CYP102 from Streptomyces cattleya belongs to CYP102G subfamily...
August 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820140/clarity-of-objectives-and-working-principles-enhances-the-success-of-biomimetic-programs
#2
Jonas Wolff, David Wells, Chris Reid, Sean John Blamires
Biomimetics, the transfer of functional principles from living systems into product designs, is increasingly being utilized by engineers. Nevertheless, recurring problems must be overcome if it is to avoid becoming a short-lived fad. Here we assess the efficiency and suitability of methods typically employed by examining three flagship examples of biomimetic design approaches from different disciplines: (1) the creation of gecko-inspired adhesives; (2) the synthesis of spider silk, and (3) the derivation of computer algorithms from natural self-organizing systems...
August 18, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818427/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-nadph-dependent-cytochrome-p450-reductase-from-the-green-microalga-botryococcus-braunii-b-race
#3
Chung-Yau Tsou, Shigeki Matsunaga, Shigeru Okada
The green microalga Botryococcus braunii of the B race accumulates various lipophilic compounds containing a 10,11-oxidosqualene epoxide moiety in addition to large amounts of triterpene hydrocarbons. While 2,3-squalene epoxidases have already been isolated and characterized from the alga, the enzyme that catalyzes the 10,11-epoxidation of squalene has remained elusive. In order to obtain a molecular tool to explore a 10,11-squalene epoxidase, cDNA cloning of an NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) that is required by both squalene epoxidases and cytochrome P450 enzymes was carried out...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817283/the-effects-of-a21g-mutation-on-transmembrane-amyloid-beta-11-40-trimer-an-in-silico-study
#4
Son Tung Ngo, Minh Tung Nguyen, Nguyen Thanh Nguyen, Van V Vu
Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) is passed down in family, which account for 2-3% of about 40 million AD cases worldwide. The Flemish (A21G) mutant of amyloid β (Aβ) exhibits unique properties among all hereditary mutants of FAD, including lowest aggregation rate. Recent studies showed that Aβ oligomers play key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. They could insert themselves in brain cell membrane, disrupting the membrane integrity and ion homeostasis. However, experimental studies of transmembrane Aβ oligomers have been limited due to their intrinsic heterogeneity...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814316/evaluation-of-sarolaner-and-spinosad-oral-treatments-to-eliminate-fleas-reduce-dermatologic-lesions-and-minimize-pruritus-in-naturally-infested-dogs-in-west-central-florida-usa
#5
Michael W Dryden, Michael S Canfield, Emily Niedfeldt, Amanda Kinnon, Kimberly Kalosy, Amber Smith, Kaitlin M Foley, Vicki Smith, Todd S Bress, Nicole Smith, Mike Endrizzi, Joyce Login
BACKGROUND: An in-home investigation of naturally flea infested dogs was conducted in West Central Florida, USA to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea adulticides to control flea infestations, minimize dermatologic lesions and reduce pruritus over an 8-week period. METHODS: Twenty-nine dogs living in 19 homes and another 26 dogs residing in 16 different homes were orally administered either a sarolaner or spinosad chewable, respectively on day 0 and once between days 28-30...
August 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813217/saying-goodbye-to-lectures-in-medical-school-paradigm-shift-or-passing-fad
#6
Richard M Schwartzstein, David H Roberts
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 377, Issue 7, Page 605-607, August 2017.
August 17, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811544/mutations-in-the-promoter-intron-and-cds-of-two-fad2-generate-multiple-alleles-modulating-linoleic-acid-level-in-yellow-mustard
#7
Fangqin Zeng, Vicky Roslinsky, Bifang Cheng
Linoleic acid (C18:2) is an important polyunsaturated fatty acid in the seed oil of many crops. Here, we report that mutations in the promoter, intron and CDS of the FAD2 genes SalFAD2.LIA1 and SalFAD2.LIA2 generate three alleles LIA (1a) , LIA (1b) and lia (1) and two alleles LIA (2) and lia (2), respectively, controlling the C18:2 variation (4.4-32.7%) in yellow mustard. The allelic effect on increasing C18:2 content is LIA (1a)  > LIA (1b)  > lia (1) , LIA (2) > lia (2), and LIA (1a)  > LIA (2)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810820/quantitative-label-free-evaluation-of-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-through-multiphoton-microscopy
#8
Brian C Syverud, Mary-Ann Mycek, Lisa Marie Larkin
The lack of tools for assessing engineered tissue viability and function in a non-invasive manner is a major regulatory and translational challenge facing tissue engineers. Label-free, nonlinear optical molecular imaging (OMI) has utilized endogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) fluorescence to indicate metabolic activity. Similarly, second harmonic generation (SHG) signals from myosin and collagen can measure overall muscle structural integrity and function...
August 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808132/defining-electron-bifurcation-in-the-electron-transferring-flavoprotein-family
#9
Amaya M Garcia Costas, Saroj Poudel, Anne-Frances Miller, Gerrit J Schut, Rhesa N Ledbetter, Kathryn R Fixen, Lance C Seefeldt, Michael W W Adams, Caroline S Harwood, Eric S Boyd, John W Peters
Electron bifurcation is the coupling of exergonic and endergonic redox reactions to simultaneously generate (or utilize) low and high potential electrons. It is the third recognized form of energy conservation in biology and has recently been described in select electron transferring flavoproteins (Etfs). Etfs are flavin-containing heterodimers best known for donating electrons derived from fatty acid and amino acid oxidation to an electron transfer respiratory chain via ETF quinone oxidoreductase. Canonical examples contain a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) that is involved in electron transfer as well as a non-redox active adenosine monophosphate (AMP)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804392/the-impact-of-aging-stereotypes-on-dementia-worry
#10
Joie Molden, Molly Maxfield
Dementia worry, an anxiety-related response to the possibility of developing dementia, represents an important yet underexplored health concern for an aging population. Such a construct is likely impacted by stereotypes concerning aging, including biased associations of aging with inevitable cognitive decline. The present article explores the impact of mixed positive and negative aging stereotype messages on levels of dementia worry. The Fear of Alzheimer's Disease Scale (FADS) was used to measure impact of priming with different proportions of positive and negative aging stereotype words...
March 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802828/photolyase-dynamics-and-electron-transfer-mechanisms-of-dna-repair
#11
REVIEW
Meng Zhang, Lijuan Wang, Dongping Zhong
Photolyase, a flavoenzyme containing flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) molecule as a catalytic cofactor, repairs UV-induced DNA damage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproduct using blue light. The FAD cofactor, conserved in the whole protein superfamily of photolyase/cryptochromes, adopts a unique folded configuration at the active site that plays a critical functional role in DNA repair. Here, we review our comprehensive characterization of the dynamics of flavin cofactor and its repair photocycles by different classes of photolyases on the most fundamental level...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799695/high-level-spectroscopy-quantum-chemistry-and-catalysis-not-just-a-passing-fad
#12
REVIEW
Frank Neese
Quantum chemistry can be used as a powerful link between theory and experiment for studying reactions in all areas of catalysis. The key feature of this approach is the combination of quantum chemistry with a range of high-level spectroscopic methods. This allows for conclusions to be reached that neither theory nor experiment would have been able to obtain in isolation.
August 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799009/genome-wide-survey-and-characterization-of-fatty-acid-desaturase-gene-family-in-brassica-napus-and-its-parental-species
#13
Yufei Xue, Baojun Chen, Rui Wang, Aung Naing Win, Jiana Li, Yourong Chai
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oilseed crop worldwide, and fatty acid (FA) compositions determine the nutritional and economic value of its seed oil. Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) play a pivotal role in regulating FA compositions, but to date, no comprehensive genome-wide analysis of FAD gene family in rapeseed and its parent species has been reported. In this study, using homology searches, 84, 45, and 44 FAD genes were identified in rapeseed, Brassica rapa, and Brassica oleracea genomes, respectively...
August 10, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790457/the-fad-synthetase-from-the-human-pathogen-streptococcus-pneumoniae-a-bifunctional-enzyme-exhibiting-activity-dependent-redox-requirements
#14
María Sebastián, Erandi Lira-Navarrete, Ana Serrano, Carlos Marcuello, Adrián Velázquez-Campoy, Anabel Lostao, Ramón Hurtado-Guerrero, Milagros Medina, Marta Martínez-Júlvez
Prokaryotic bifunctional FAD synthetases (FADSs) catalyze the biosynthesis of FMN and FAD, whereas in eukaryotes two enzymes are required for the same purpose. FMN and FAD are key cofactors to maintain the flavoproteome homeostasis in all type of organisms. Here we shed light to the properties of the hitherto unstudied bacterial FADS from the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpnFADS). As other members of the family, SpnFADS catalyzes the three typical activities of prokaryotic FADSs: riboflavin kinase (RFK), ATP:FMN:adenylyltransferase (FMNAT), and FAD pyrophosphorylase (FADpp)...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790170/dimerization-of-the-transmembrane-domain-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-is-determined-by-residues-around-the-gamma-secretase-cleavage-sites
#15
Yan Yan, Ting-Hai Xu, Kaleeckal G Harikumar, Laurence J Miller, Karsten Melcher, H Eric Xu
One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the formation of extracellular amyloid plaques that consist mainly of abnormally aggregated forms of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides. These peptides are generated by γ-secretase-catalyzed cleavage of a dimeric membrane-bound C-terminal fragment (C99) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). While C99 homodimerization has been linked to Aβ; production and changes in the aggregation-determining Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, the motif through which C99 dimerizes has remained controversial...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783258/high-resolution-studies-of-hydride-transfer-in-the-ferredoxin-nadp-reductase-superfamily
#16
Kelsey M Kean, Russell A Carpenter, Vittorio Pandini, Giuliana Zanetti, Andrea R Hall, Rick Faber, Alessandro Aliverti, P Andrew Karplus
Ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) is an FAD-containing enzyme best known for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from ferredoxin (Fd) to NADP(+) to make NADPH during photosynthesis. It is also the prototype for a broad enzyme superfamily, including the NADPH oxidases (NOXs) that all catalyze similar FAD-enabled electron transfers between NAD(P)H and one-electron carriers. Here we define further mechanistic details of the NAD(P)H This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. ⇌ FAD hydride-transfer step of the reaction based on spectroscopic studies and high resolution (~1...
August 7, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782614/how-a-multimeric-macromolecule-is-affected-by-divalent-salts-experimental-and-simulation-study
#17
Fatemeh Janati-Fard, Mohammad R Housaindokht, Hassan Monhemi, Ali Nakhaei Pour
Salts exist in any cell and living organism in contact with biological macromolecules. How these salts affect biomolecules such as enzyme is important from both basic sciences and practical technologies. It was observed that divalent salts can change structure and function of protein at higher concentrations. Here, we investigated the effect of divalent salt on the behavior of a multimeric enzyme. We treated glucose oxidase as dimer-active enzyme in different CaCl2 concentration and seen that the enzyme become inactive at high concentration of salt...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782586/breaking-the-mirror-l-amino-acid-deaminase-a-novel-stereoselective-biocatalyst
#18
REVIEW
Gianluca Molla, Roberta Melis, Loredano Pollegioni
Enantiomerically pure amino acids are of increasing interest for the fine chemical, agrochemicals and pharmaceutical industries. During past years l-amino acids have been produced from deracemization of dl-solution employing the stereoselective flavoenzyme d-amino acid oxidase. On the other hand, the isolation of corresponding d-isomer was hampered by the scarce availability of a suitable l-amino acid oxidase activity. On this side, l-amino acid deaminase (LAAD), only present in the Proteus bacteria, represents a suitable alternative...
August 3, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778066/inhibition-of-lsd1-epigenetically-attenuates-oral-cancer-growth-and-metastasis
#19
Saqer F Alsaqer, Mustafa M Tashkandi, Vinay K Kartha, Ya-Ting Yang, Yazeed Alkheriji, Andrew Salama, Xaralabos Varelas, Maria Kukuruzinska, Stefano Monti, Manish V Bais
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a nuclear histone demethylase and a member of the amine oxidase (AO) family. LSD1 is a flavin-containing AO that specifically catalyzes the demethylation of mono- and di-methylated histone H3 lysine 4 through an FAD-dependent oxidative reaction. LSD1 is inappropriately upregulated in lung, liver, brain and esophageal cancers, where it promotes cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. However, unlike other lysine-specific demethylases, the role and specific targets of LSD1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) pathogenesis remain unknown...
July 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776258/a-model-of-the-fad-redox-cycle-describes-the-dynamics-of-the-effect-of-the-geomagnetic-field-on-the-human-visual-system
#20
Franz Thoss, Bengt Bartsch
In experimental studies, we could show that the visual threshold of man is influenced by the geomagnetic field. One of the results was that the threshold shows periodic fluctuations when the vertical component of the field is reversed periodically. The maximum of these oscillations occurred at a period duration of 110 s. To explain this phenomenon, we chose the process that likely underlies the navigation of birds in the geomagnetic field: the light reaction of the FAD component of cryptochrome in the retina...
August 3, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
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