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Xiaoyuan Chi, Zhimeng Zhang, Na Chen, Xiaowen Zhang, Mian Wang, Mingna Chen, Tong Wang, Lijuan Pan, Jing Chen, Zhen Yang, Xiangyu Guan, Shanlin Yu
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid desaturases are enzymes that introduce double bonds into fatty acyl chains. Extensive studies of fatty acid desaturases have been done in many plants. However, less is known about the diversity of this gene family in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oilseed crop that is cultivated worldwide. RESULTS: In this study, twelve novel AhFADs genes were identified and isolated from peanut. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcript abundances of AhFAB2-2 and AhFAD3-1 were higher in seeds than in other tissues examined, whereas the AhADS and AhFAD7-1 transcripts were more abundant in leaves...
2017: PloS One
Chong Ding, Zhi-Hao Du, Sheng-Lin Li, Li-Ling Wu, Guang-Yan Yu
Adiponectin functions as a promoter of saliva secretion in rat submandibular gland via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased paracellular permeability. Ca2+ mobilization is the primary signal for fluid secretion in salivary acinar cells. However, whether intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is involved in adiponectin-induced salivary secretion is unknown. Here, we found that full-length adiponectin (fAd) increased intracellular Ca2+ and saliva secretion in submandibular glands...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
Julia Brailovskaia, Jürgen Margraf
The present study aimed to investigate Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD) in a German student sample over a period of one year. While mean FAD level did not increase during the investigation period, a significant increase was shown in the number of participants reaching the critical cutoff score. FAD was significantly positively related to the personality trait narcissism and to negative mental health variables (depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms). Furthermore, FAD fully mediated the significant positive relationship between narcissism and stress symptoms, which demonstrates that narcissistic people can be specifically at risk to develop FAD...
2017: PloS One
Madhusmita Nayak, Avinash Pradhan, Shiba Shankar Giri, Mrinal Samanta, V Badireenath Konkimalla, Ashis Saha
Fatty acid desaturase (Fads) and elongase (Elovl) are two important enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in fishes. Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. Earlier, Δ6 fads cDNA was characterized to understand the molecular mechanism of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in this species. In the present study elovl5-like elongase full-length cDNA was cloned and characterized by RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends), and analyzed its basal expression in various organs/tissues by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay...
December 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Noëlle Gunst, Paul L Vasey, Jean-Baptiste Leca
This is the first quantitative study of heterospecific sexual behavior between a non-human primate and a non-primate species. We observed multiple occurrences of free-ranging adolescent female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) performing mounts and sexual solicitations toward sika deer (Cervus nippon) at Minoo, central Japan. Our comparative description of monkey-deer versus monkey-monkey interactions supported the "heterospecific sexual behavior" hypothesis: the mounts and demonstrative solicitations performed by adolescent female Japanese macaques toward sika deer were sexual in nature...
December 11, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Guillaume Aw Beaudoin, Qiang Li, Steven D Bruner, Andrew D Hanson
Flavins are notoriously photolabile, but while the photoproducts derived from the iso -alloxazine ring are well known the other photoproducts are not. In the case of FAD, typically the main cellular flavin, the other photoproducts are predicted to include four- and five-carbon sugars linked to ADP. These FAD photoproducts were shown to be potent glycating agents, more so than ADP-ribose. Such toxic compounds would require disposal via an ADP-sugar diphosphatase or other route. Comparative analysis of bacterial genomes uncovered a candidate disposal gene that is chromosomally clustered with genes for FAD synthesis or transport and is predicted to encode a protein of the PhnP cyclic phosphodiesterase family...
December 11, 2017: Biochemical Journal
Rebecca Johnson, Matt Ravenhall, Derek Pickard, Gordon Dougan, Alexander Byrne, Gad Frankel
Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Typhimurium cause typhoid fever and gastroenteritis respectively. A unique feature of typhoid infection is asymptomatic carriage within the gallbladder, which is linked with S Typhi transmission. Despite this, S Typhi responses to bile have been poorly studied. RNA-Seq of S Typhi Ty2 and a clinical S Typhi isolate belonging to the globally dominant H58 lineage (129-0238), as well as S Typhimurium 14028, revealed that 249, 389 and 453 genes respectively were differentially expressed in the presence of 3% bile compared to control cultures lacking bile...
December 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
Yuxin Qiao, Xiaoyan Zhao, Jun Zhu, Ran Tu, Libing Dong, Li Wang, Zhiyang Dong, Qinhong Wang, Wenbin Du
Lipases are ubiquitous enzymes of great physiological significance that have been used extensively in multiple industries. Environmental microorganisms are a major source for the discovery of novel lipases with high catalytic efficiency and selectivity. However, current plate-based screening of lipase-producing strains is time consuming, labour intensive and inefficient. In this study, we developed an ultra-high throughput screening pipeline for lipase-producing strains based on fluorescence-activated droplet sorting (FADS) using a compact optical system that could be easily set up in an alignment-free manner...
December 11, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Kazumi Hirano, Masakazu Namihira
Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), synthesized from riboflavin, is redox cofactor in energy production and plays an important role in cell survival. More recently, riboflavin deficiency has been linked to developmental disorders, but its role in stem cell differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that FAD treatment, using DMSO as a solvent, enabled an increase in the amount of intracellular FAD and promoted neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSCs) derived not only from fetal brain, but also from induced pluripotent stem cells...
December 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Alexander Egbe, Arooj R Khan, Sana F Khan, Nandan S Anavekar, Sameh M Said, Philip M Young, Emmanuel Akintoye, William R Miranda, Mohamad N Al-Otaibi, Gruschen R Veldtman, Heidi M Connolly
BACKGROUND: To determine (1) correlation between Doppler stroke volume index (SVI) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) SVI and (2) association between Doppler SVI and Fontan-associated diseases (FAD) and Fontan failure. METHODS: Review of Fontan patients who underwent same-day CMRI and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), 2005 to 2015. We defined FAD as cardiac thrombus, protein-losing enteropathy, arrhythmia, and hospitalization for heart failure. Fontan failure was defined as Fontan conversion or revision, heart transplantation or listing, or death...
January 2018: American Heart Journal
Li-Juan Yu, Emily Golden, Nanhao Chen, Yuan Zhao, Alice Vrielink, Amir Karton
Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx), a member of the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) family, catalyzes the oxidation of the substrate via a hydride transfer mechanism and concomitant reduction of the FAD cofactor. Unlike other GMC enzymes, the conserved His447 is not the catalytic base that deprotonates the substrate in ChOx. Our QM/MM MD simulations indicate that the Glu361 residue acts as a catalytic base facilitating the hydride transfer from the substrate to the cofactor. We find that two rationally chosen point mutations (His447Gln and His447Asn) cause notable decreases in the catalytic activity...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
María Alejandra Vorphal, Carola Bruna, Traudy Wandersleben, Jorge Dagnino-Leone, Francisco Lobos-González, Elena Uribe, José Martínez-Oyanedel, Marta Bunster
BACKGROUD: Ferredoxin NADP(H) oxidoreductases (EC (FNR) are flavoenzymes present in photosynthetic organisms; they are relevant for the production of reduced donors to redox reactions, i.e. in photosynthesis, the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH using the electrons provided by Ferredoxin (Fd), a small FeS soluble protein acceptor of electrons from PSI in chloroplasts. In rhodophyta no information about this system has been reported, this work is a contribution to the molecular and functional characterization of FNR from Gracilaria chilensis, also providing a structural analysis of the complex FNR/Fd...
December 8, 2017: Biological Research
Joanne L Porter, Jack Manning, Selina Sabatini, Michele Tavanti, Nicholas J Turner, Sabine L Flitsch
Cytochrome P450 monooxgenases are highly desired biocatalysts due to their ability to catalyse a wide variety of chemically challenging C-H activation reactions. The CYP102A subfamily of enzymes are natural catalytically self-sufficient proteins consisting of a haem and FMN-FAD reductase domain fused in a single component system. They catalyse the oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids to produce primarily ω-1, ω-2 and ω-3 hydroxy acids. These monooxygenases have broad applications in biotechnology however, their substrate range is still limited and there is a continued need to add diversity to this class of biocatalysts...
December 8, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Yueyue Jing, Yulan Wang, Xinyi Wang, Chuan Song, Jiong Ma, Yonghui Xie, Yiyan Fei, Qinghua Zhang, Lan Mi
The label-free imaging and spectroscopy method was studied on cervical unstained tissue sections obtained from 36 patients. The native fluorescence spectra of tissues are analyzed by the optical redox ratio (ORR), which is defined as fluorescence intensity ratio between NADH and FAD, and indicates the metabolism change with the cancer development. The ORRs of normal tissues are consistently higher than those of precancer or cancerous tissues. A criterion line of ORR at 5.0 can be used to discriminate cervical precancer/cancer from normal tissues...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
Sonja Brosel, Benedikt Grothe, Lars Kunz
The correlation between neuronal activity and metabolism is essential for coding, plasticity, neurological disorders and the interpretation of functional neuroimaging data. Most likely, metabolic requirements depend upon neuron type and macroscopic energy demands vary with brain region. However, specific needs of individual neuron types are enigmatic. Therefore, we monitored metabolic activity in the lateral superior olive (LSO), an auditory brainstem nucleus containing only one neuron type. LSO neurons exhibit extreme but well described biophysics with firing rates of several hundred hertz and low input resistances of a few megaohms...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kandasamy Eniyan, Sudhaker Dharavath, Ramachandran Vijayan, Urmi Bajpai, Samudrala Gourinath
The biosynthesis of UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UDP-MurNAc) by reduction of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-enolpyruvate (UDP-GlcNAc-EP) in an NADPH and FAD-dependent reaction in bacteria is one of the key steps in peptidoglycan biosynthesis catalyzed by UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-enolpyruvate reductase (MurB). Here, we present the crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MurB (MtbMurB) with FAD as the prosthetic group at 2.0Å resolution. There are six molecules in asymmetric unit in the form of dimers. Each protomer can be subdivided into three domains and the prosthetic group, FAD is bound in the active site between domain I and domain II...
December 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yingfu Jin, Li Han, Shasha Zhang, Shizhong Li, Weifeng Liu, Yong Tao
To optimize key enzymes, such as to explore the gene resources and to modify the expression level, can maximize metabolic pathways of target products. β-carotene is a terpenoid compound with important application value. Lycopene cyclase (CrtY) is the key enzyme in β-carotene biosynthesis pathway, catalyzing flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent cyclization reaction and β-carotene synthesis from lycopene precursor. We optimized lycopene cyclase (CrtY) to improve the synthesis of β-carotene and determined the effect of CrtY expression on metabolic pathways...
November 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Taeko Kakizawa, Yosuke Ota, Yukihiro Itoh, Takayoshi Suzuki
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a flavin-dependent enzyme that removes methyl groups from mono- or dimethylated lysine residues at the fourth position of histone H3. We have previously reported several histone H3 peptides containing an LSD1 inactivator motif at Lys-4. In this study, histone H3 peptides having a trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (PCPA), a 2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole, and a 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine moiety at Lys-4 were prepared along with related compounds possessing a shorter side chain at the fourth position...
November 23, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Sangwoo Kim, Kyung-Jin Kim
Acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX) plays an important role in fatty acid degradation. The enzyme catalyzes the first reaction in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation by reducing acyl-CoA to 2-trans-enoyl-CoA. The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is able to utilize fatty acids, fats, and oil as carbon sources to produce valuable bioproducts. We determined the crystal structure of ACOX1 from Y. lipolytica (YlACOX1) at a resolution of 2.5 Å. YlACOX1 forms a homodimer, and the monomeric structure is composed of four domains, the Nα, Nβ, Cα1, and Cα2...
November 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jerad Suresh, Seung Cheol Baek, Surya Parakkot Ramakrishnan, Hoon Kim, Bijo Mathew
A series of twelve furanochalcones (F1-F12) was synthesized and investigated for their human monoamine oxidase inhibitory activities. Among the series, compound (2E, 4E)-1-(furan-2-yl)-5-phenylpenta-2, 4-dien-1-one (F1), which was analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, showed potent and selective MAO-B inhibitory activity with an inhibition constant (Ki) value of 0.0041μM and selectivity index of (SI) 172.4, and exhibited competitive inhibition. Introduction of a cinnamyl group to the furanochalcone significantly increased the inhibitory activity...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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