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Cerebral palsy, foot

Aoife Healy, Sybil Farmer, Anand Pandyan, Nachiappan Chockalingam
BACKGROUND: Assistive products are items which allow older people and people with disabilities to be able to live a healthy, productive and dignified life. It has been estimated that approximately 1.5% of the world's population need a prosthesis or orthosis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to systematically identify and review the evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of prosthetic and orthotic interventions...
2018: PloS One
Edward P Washabaugh, Chandramouli Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Robotic-resisted treadmill walking is a form of task-specific training that has been used to improve gait function in individuals with neurological injury, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsy. Traditionally, these devices use active elements (e.g., motors or actuators) to provide resistance during walking, making them bulky, expensive, and less suitable for overground or in-home rehabilitation. We recently developed a low-cost, wearable robotic brace that generates resistive torques across the knee joint using a simple magnetic brake...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Mayumi Matsuda, Kazuhide Tomita, Arito Yozu, Tomohiro Nakayama, Jyunko Nakayama, Haruka Ohguro, Nobuaki Iwasaki
PURPOSE: This study investigated the sequential physical changes after botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injected in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Nine children with cerebral palsy were included. Measurements were performed before treatment and 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment. We used video-recorded gait in the sagittal plane. The maximum flexion and extension angles of the hip, knee and ankle joints, step length, gait speed, and observational gait were measured using the Foot Contact Scale (FCS) and the Physician's Rating Scale (PRS)...
March 3, 2018: Brain & Development
Bingxu Jin, Wenjie Fu, Nuo Li, Zhixiong Xin, Chen Liu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect difference of wave, intensity, time and treatment frequency by orthogonal design so as to explore the optimal parameters of scalp electroacupuncture (EA) for rehabilitation effect on children of cerebral palsy. METHODS: Ninety children of cerebral palsy were assigned into 9 groups by orthogonal design, 10 cases in each one. The acupoints were bilateral excitable area, foot motor sensory area, speech two area, speech three area, balance area, and intelligent nine acupoints, including Shenting (GV 24), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), and bilateral Benshen (GB 13) and Touwei (ST 8)...
February 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Kyra Kane, Patricia Manns, Joel Lanovaz, Kristin Musselman
PURPOSE: Physiotherapists, orthotists, and physicians are involved in the prescription of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) for children with cerebral palsy (CP); however, little is known about how prescription decisions are made in practice. Therefore, the study objective was to identify current AFO prescription and clinical decision-making practices for children with CP in Canada. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted in five pediatric rehabilitation facilities, with 32 clinicians...
February 21, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Zhengxun Li, Ning Zhang, Yang Wang, Songhua Cao, Zheng Huang, Yong Hu
BACKGROUND: Equinus of the ankle is a common deformity in spastic cerebral palsy. Achilles tendon lengthening is one of the effective options for the treatment of equinus deformity. METHODS: In the study, a new stair-shaped Achilles tendon lengthening (ATL) procedure that preserves of the tendon continuity was performed in 28 tendons with equinus deformity (20 patients, mean age=10.5±2.6 years). The results were compared with a group of patients treated with the Z-lengthening procedure...
October 27, 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Joline E Brandenburg, Sarah F Eby, Pengfei Song, William Bamlet, Gary C Sieck, Kai-Nan An
OBJECTIVE: A pilot study to longitudinally quantify effect of onabotulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) on passive muscle properties in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE). DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study RESULTS: Between 1 and 3 months post-BoNT-A, a significant improvement in the shear modulus of the lateral gastrocnemius was found at 10° plantar flexion (PF) (-7.57 [-10.98, -5.07], p=0.02) and 0° PF (-14.74 [-18...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Germana Cappellini, Francesca Sylos-Labini, Michael J MacLellan, Annalisa Sacco, Daniela Morelli, Francesco Lacquaniti, Yury Ivanenko
To investigate how early injuries to developing motor regions of the brain affect different forms of gait, we compared the spatiotemporal locomotor patterns during forward (FW) and backward (BW) walking in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Bilateral gait kinematics and EMG activity of 11 pairs of leg muscles were recorded in 14 children with CP (9 diplegic, 5 hemiplegic, 3.0-11.1 yrs) and 14 typically developing (TD) children (3.3-11.8 yrs). During BW, children with CP showed a significant increase of gait asymmetry in foot trajectory characteristics and limb intersegmental coordination...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Barbara M Kalkman, Lynn Bar-On, Francesco Cenni, Constantinos N Maganaris, Alfie Bass, Gill Holmes, Kaat Desloovere, Gabor J Barton, Thomas D O'Brien
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Can the increased range of motion seen acutely after stretching in children with cerebral palsy be explained by changes in the stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius fascicles? What is the main finding and its importance? We show, for the first time, that passive muscle and tendon properties are not changed acutely after a single bout of stretching in children with cerebral palsy and, therefore, do not contribute to the increase in range of motion...
December 26, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Suyun Li, Zhenhuan Liu, Wenjian Zhao, Bingxu Jin, Nuo Li, Guanjun Luo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of scalp acupuncture for children with cerebral palsy whose video-electroencephalogram(VEEG) showed epileptiform discharges. METHODS: A total of 184 children with cerebral palsy whose VEEG showed epileptiform discharges or those combined with epilepsy were randomly assigned into a combination group (99 cases) and a rehabilitation group (85 cases). All the cases were treated with the original antiepileptic drugs. The conventional physical training and massage were applied in the rehabilitation group for 3 courses with 20 d at the interval, once a day, 5 times a week and 15 times as one course...
March 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Sarah Prenton, Kristen L Hollands, Laurence P J Kenney, Pornsuree Onmanee
OBJECTIVE: To compare the randomized controlled trial evidence for therapeutic effects on walking of functional electrical stimulation and ankle foot orthoses for foot drop caused by central nervous system conditions. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, REHABDATA, PEDro, NIHR Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Scopus and STUDY SELECTION: One reviewer screened titles/abstracts...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Amit Jain, Brian Sullivan, Suken A Shah, Amer F Samdani, Burt Yaszay, Michelle C Marks, Paul D Sponseller
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a prospective registryObjective: Our objective was to prospectively assess caregivers' perceptions regarding changes in the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with cerebral palsy (CP) after spinal arthrodesis. We assessed caregiver perceptions from 3 perspectives: 1) qualitative assessment of changes in global quality of life, comfort, and health; 2) relative valuation of spine surgery versus other common interventions in CP patients; and 3) quantitative changes in HRQL scores...
December 5, 2017: Spine
Marco Corradin, Roberto Schiavon, Andrea Borgo, Jacques Deslandes, Antonella Cersosimo, Federico Canavese
PURPOSE: Hemiplegic cerebral palsy patient may present a shorten leg on the hemiplegic side that afflicts negatively the kinematic of the uninvolved limb. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the modification of gait kinematic after epiphysiodesis for limb equalization and secondary to verify the prediction of correction. METHODS: Skeletally immature hemiplegic patients with a minimum limb leg discrepancy (LLD) of 2.5 cm were treated with epiphysiodesis of the unaffected knee and clinically evaluated with Edinburgh visual gait score (EVGS)...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Teresa Martín Lorenzo, Eduardo Rocon, Ignacio Martínez Caballero, Ana Ramírez Barragán, Sergio Lerma Lara
Tissue related ankle hyper-resistance has been reported to contribute to equinus gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Hence, ankle plantarflexor stretching programs have been developed in order to restore passive ankle dorsiflexion. Despite high quality evidence on the limited effects of stretching on passive joint mobility, further muscle-tendon adaptations have been reported which may impact gait performance. As such, children with spastic cerebral palsy subject to long-term manual static stretching achieved dorsiflexion gains through the reduction of muscle and fascicle strain whilst preserving tendon strain, and prolonged use of ankle-foot orthoses achieved similar dorsiflexion gains through increased tendon strain whilst preserving muscle and fascicle strain...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Sam Khamis, Talia Herman, Sima Krimus, Barry Danino
BACKGROUND: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a well-known intervention used during walking to improve walking abilities and correct gait deviations by facilitating the proper muscle group at the appropriate timing in the gait cycle. Our aim was to study the types of surface FES currently used in a cerebral palsy (CP) population and examine the evidence of its ability to improve gait deviations, functional ability and therapeutic effects. METHODS: A computerized database search was conducted from inception until 6/2016...
October 14, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Hugo Pasin Neto, Luanda André Collange Grecco, Luis Alfredo Braun Ferreira, Natália Almeida Carvalho Duarte, Manuela Galli, Claudia Santos Oliveira
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of postural insoles on gait performance in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Twenty four children between four and 12 years of age were randomly allocated either the control group (n = 12) or experimental group (n = 12). The control group used placebo insoles and the experimental group used postural insoles. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed under three conditions: barefoot, in shoes and in shoes with insoles. Three evaluations were carried out: 1)immediately following placement of the insoles; 2)after three months of insole use; and 3)one month after suspending insole use...
October 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Yik L Chan, Sonia Saad, Rita Machaalani, Brian G Oliver, Bryce Vissel, Carol Pollock, Nicole M Jones, Hui Chen
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy occurs in approximately 6 per 1000 term newborns leading to devastating neurological consequences, such as cerebral palsy and seizures. Maternal smoking is one of the prominent risk factors contributing to HI injury. Mitochondrial integrity plays a critical role in neural injury and repair during HI. We previously showed that maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) can reduce brain mitochondrial fission and autophagosome markers in male offspring. This was accompanied by increased brain cell apoptosis (active caspase-3) and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL staining)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Mattana Angsupaisal, Linze-Jaap Dijkstra, Sacha la Bastide-van Gemert, Jessika F van Hoorn, Karine Burger, Carel G B Maathuis, Mijna Hadders-Algra
BACKGROUND: The effect of forward-tilting of the seat surface and foot-support in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is debated. AIM: To assess the effect of forward-tilting of the seat surface and foot-support in children with CP on kinematic head stability and reaching. METHODS: Nineteen children functioning at Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-III participated [range 6-12y; ten unilateral spastic CP (US-CP) and nine bilateral spastic CP (BS-CP)]...
October 5, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Wei Chen, Xiaoyu Liu, Fang Pu, Yang Yang, Lizhen Wang, Hong Liu, Yubo Fan
BACKGROUND: A novel splint, the assisting ankle-foot orthoses (AFO), was developed to provide adjustable sustained stretching to improve conservative treatment for equinus deformities in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The treatment effect was validated by follow-up visits. METHODS: This study involved subjects between 2 and 12 years old, including 28 CP children treated with splint-assisted AFO correction, 30 CP children treated with static AFO correction, and 30 normal children with typical development (TD)...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrea Fergus
PURPOSE: To describe the use and outcomes associated with the Upsee in conjunction with Kinesiotape for a child with cerebral palsy. DESCRIPTIONS: The Upsee and Kinesiotaping were implemented for 24 weeks with a 31-month-old child with cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System level III. OUTCOMES: She progressed from walking with maximal assistance and extensive gait deviations to walking with supervision with a walker on level surfaces with improved gait...
October 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
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