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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088675/involvement-of-water-channel-aquaporin-5-in-h2s-induced-pulmonary-edema
#1
Chunyang Xu, Lei Jiang, Yuxia Zou, Jingjing Xing, Hao Sun, Baoli Zhu, Hengdong Zhang, Jun Wang, Jinsong Zhang
Acute exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) poses a significant threat to life, and the lung is one of the primary target organs of H2S. However, the mechanisms involved in H2S-induced acute pulmonary edema are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the effects of H2S on the expression of water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) and to elucidate the signaling pathways involved in AQP5 regulation. In an in vivo study, C57BL6 mice were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of inhaled H2S, and histological injury of the lungs and ultrastructure injury of the epithelial cells were evaluated...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088568/nanostructured-tin-oxide-films-physical-synthesis-characterization-and-gas-sensing-properties
#2
S M Ingole, S T Navale, Y H Navale, D K Bandgar, F J Stadler, R S Mane, N S Ramgir, S K Gupta, D K Aswal, V B Patil
Nanostructured tin oxide (SnO2) films are synthesized using physical method i.e. thermal evaporation and are further characterized with X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy measurement techniques for confirming its structure and morphology. The chemiresistive properties of SnO2 films are studied towards different oxidizing and reducing gases where these films have demonstrated considerable selectivity towards oxidizing nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas with a maximum response of 403% to 100ppm @200°C, and fast response and recovery times of 4s and 210s, respectively, than other test gases...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087984/challenges-in-detecting-substances-for-equine-anti-doping
#3
REVIEW
A G Fragkaki, N Kioukia-Fougia, P Kiousi, M Kioussi, M Tsivou
The artificial increase of the physical capability of horses using drugs is well-known in racing and in other equine sports. Both illicit and therapeutic substances are regarded as prohibited substances in competition in most countries. Some countries do make distinctions for a few, specific drugs which are, however, allowed for use in other countries. The primary objective in the case of doping control is the detection of any trace of drug exposure, either parent drug or any of its metabolites, using the most powerful analytical methods which generally are based on chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques...
January 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081386/effects-of-biodiesel-made-from-swine-and-chicken-fat-residues-on-co-co2-and-nox-emissions
#4
Vivian Feddern, Anildo Cunha Junior, Marina C De Prá, Marcio L Busi da Silva, Rodrigo da S Nicoloso, Martha M Higarashi, Arlei Coldebella, Paulo G de Abreu
Implications Emissions from motor vehicles can contribute considerably to the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The use of biodiesel to replace or augment diesel can not only decrease our dependency on fossil fuels but also help decrease air pollution. Thus, different sources of feedstocks are constantly being explored for affordable biodiesel production. However, the amount of CO, CO2 and/or NOx emissions can vary largely depending on type of feedstock used to produce biodiesel. In this work we demonstrated animal fat feasibility in replacing petrodiesel with less impact regarding greenhouse gas emissions than other sources...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081161/factors-related-with-ch4-and-n2o-emissions-from-a-paddy-field-clues-for-management-implications
#5
Chun Wang, Derrick Y F Lai, Jordi Sardans, Weiqi Wang, Congsheng Zeng, Josep Peñuelas
Paddy fields are major sources of global atmospheric greenhouse gases, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The different phases previous to emission (production, transport, diffusion, dissolution in pore water and ebullition) despite well-established have rarely been measured in field conditions. We examined them and their relationships with temperature, soil traits and plant biomass in a paddy field in Fujian, southeastern China. CH4 emission was positively correlated with CH4 production, plant-mediated transport, ebullition, diffusion, and concentration of dissolved CH4 in porewater and negatively correlated with sulfate concentration, suggesting the potential use of sulfate fertilizers to mitigate CH4 release...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079216/one-step-hydroprocessing-of-fatty-acids-into-renewable-aromatic-hydrocarbons-over-ni-hzsm-5-insights-into-the-major-reaction-pathways
#6
Shiyou Xing, Pengmei Lv, Jiayan Wang, Junying Fu, Pei Fan, Lingmei Yang, Gaixiu Yang, Zhenhong Yuan, Yong Chen
For high caloricity and stability in bio-aviation fuels, a certain content of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs, 8-25 wt%) is crucial. Fatty acids, obtained from waste or inedible oils, are a renewable and economic feedstock for AHC production. Considerable amounts of AHCs, up to 64.61 wt%, were produced through the one-step hydroprocessing of fatty acids over Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts. Hydrogenation, hydrocracking, and aromatization constituted the principal AHC formation processes. At a lower temperature, fatty acids were first hydrosaturated and then hydrodeoxygenated at metal sites to form long-chain hydrocarbons...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079178/significance-of-oxygen-transport-through-aquaporins
#7
Janusz J Zwiazek, Hao Xu, Xiangfeng Tan, Alfonso Navarro-Ródenas, Asunción Morte
Aquaporins are membrane integral proteins responsible for the transmembrane transport of water and other small neutral molecules. Despite their well-acknowledged importance in water transport, their significance in gas transport processes remains unclear. Growing evidence points to the involvement of plant aquaporins in CO2 delivery for photosynthesis. The role of these channel proteins in the transport of O2 and other gases may also be more important than previously envisioned. In this study, we examined O2 permeability of various human, plant, and fungal aquaporins by co-expressing heterologous aquaporin and myoglobin in yeast...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075565/redox-couple-involving-nox-in-aerobic-pd-catalyzed-oxidation-of-sp-3-c-h-bonds-direct-evidence-for-pd-no3-no2-interactions-involved-in-oxidation-and-reductive-elimination
#8
Margot N Wenzel, Philippa K Owens, Joshua T W Bray, Jason M Lynam, Pedro M Aguiar, Christopher Reed, James D Lee, Jacqueline F Hamilton, Adrian C Whitwood, Ian J S Fairlamb
NaNO3 is used in oxidative Pd-catalyzed processes as a complementary co-catalyst to common oxidants, e.g., Cu(II) salts, in C-H bond activation and Wacker oxidation processes. NaNO3 and NaNO2 (with air or O2) assist the sp(3)-C-H bond acetoxylation of substrates bearing an N-directing group. It has been proposed previously that a redox couple is operative. The role played by NOx anions is examined in this investigation. Evidence for an NOx anion interaction at Pd(II) is presented. Palladacyclic complexes containing NOx anions are competent catalysts for acetoxylation of 8-methylquinoline, with and without exogenous NaNO3...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074475/what-makes-you-feel-sick-after-inflammation-predictors-of-acute-and-persisting-physical-sickness-symptoms-induced-by-experimental-endotoxemia
#9
Sven Benson, Harald Engler, Alexander Wegner, Laura Rebernik, Ingo Spreitzer, Manfred Schedlowski, Sigrid Elsenbruch
We aimed to identify statistical predictor variables of LPS-induced physical sickness symptoms during the acute and late inflammatory phases using multivariate regression analyses. Data from N=128 healthy volunteers who received i.v. LPS injection (0.4 or 0.8 ng/kg) or placebo were pooled for analyses. Physical sickness symptoms experienced during the acute (0-6h post-injection) and late (6-24h post-injection) phases were assessed with the validated General-Assessment-of-Side-Effects (GASE) questionnaire. LPS-treated subjects reported significantly more physical sickness symptoms...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070957/controlled-trial-of-hartmann-s-solution-versus-0-9-saline-for-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#10
Michael Yung, Georgia Letton, Steve Keeley
AIM: We aimed to determine whether using a balanced salt solution, Hartmann's solution (HS), in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) shortens the time to normalise acid-base status through the avoidance of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis compared with 0.9% normal saline (NS). METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomised controlled trial comparing HS to NS as the initial intravenous fluid in children with DKA. Patients were stratified by severity (pH < 7.1) and known or new diabetes...
January 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069937/centuries-of-thermal-sea-level-rise-due-to-anthropogenic-emissions-of-short-lived-greenhouse-gases
#11
Kirsten Zickfeld, Susan Solomon, Daniel M Gilford
Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with short lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that short-lived greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068106/cooperativity-and-dynamics-increase-the-performance-of-nife-dry-reforming-catalysts
#12
Sung Min Kim, Paula Macarena Abdala, Tigran Margossian, Davood Hosseini, Lucas Foppa, Andac Armutlulu, Wouter van Beek, Aleix Comas-Vives, Christophe Copéret, Christoph Mueller
The dry reforming of methane (DRM), i.e. the reaction of methane and CO2 to form a synthesis gas, converts two major greenhouse gases into a useful chemical feedstock. In this work, we probe in detail the effect and role of Fe in bimetallic NiFe dry reforming catalysts. To this end, monometallic Ni, Fe and bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts supported on a MgxAlyOz-matrix derived via a hydrotalcite-like precursor were synthetized. Importantly, the textural features of the catalysts, i.e. the specific surface area (172-178 m2/gcat), pore volume (0...
January 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067520/reactive-uptake-of-gaseous-sesquiterpenes-on-aqueous-surfaces
#13
Kohei Matsuoka, Yosuke Sakamoto, Tetsuya Hama, Yoshizumi Kajii, Shinichi Enami
Sesquiterpenes emitted from biogenic sources play important roles in atmospheric HOx cycles and new particle formation. Current atmospheric models, however, fail to account for their fates, possibly due to missing heterogeneous sinks. Here we apply interface-specific mass spectrometry to detect carbocation products of the reactive uptake of gaseous sesquiterpenes C15H24 (beta-caryophyllene (b-C), alpha-humulene (a-H), and alloaromadendrene (a-d)) on the surface of aqueous microjets as functions of water acidity and gas concentration...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066988/a-high-performance-low-tortuosity-wood-carbon-monolith-reactor
#14
Yangang Wang, Guanwu Sun, Jiaqi Dai, Guang Chen, Joe Morgenstern, Yanbin Wang, Shifei Kang, Mingwei Zhu, Siddhartha Das, Lifeng Cui, Liangbing Hu
A highly efficient 3D wood-derived carbon monolith reactor with a low tortuosity is demonstrated for high-temperature reaction applications, using catalytic steam reforming of biomass tar as the model system. Outstanding catalytic activity is achieved as the reactant gases flow through this 3D natural wood-derived catalyst, where over 99% toluene conversion and good stability at 700 °C are observed.
January 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066948/efficient-synthesis-of-nitrogen-and-sulfur-co-doped-ketjenblack-with-single-source-precursor-for-enhancing-the-oxygen-reduction-reaction-activity
#15
Guang-Chun Cheng, Guang-Lan Li, Cai-Di Liu, Li-Fang Yuan, Wen-Wen Chen, Ce Hao
Promoting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activities of cost-effective catalysts is significant for the development of various energy conversion and storage systems. Herein, a highly active N and S co-doped ketjenblack (Kb) was prepared by facile pyrolyzing the mixture of thiourea and Kb in the presence of FeCl3 with a subsequently acid-leaching process. This novel synthetic approach was rational designed with the virtues that the thiourea could easily introduce the heteroatoms of both N and S elements into the carbon matrix by releasing plentiful reactive N and S-containing gases, and could simultaneously optimize the porous structure of the resultant catalyst...
January 8, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066511/biomass-waste-to-energy-valorisation-technologies-a-review-case-for-banana-processing-in-uganda
#16
REVIEW
Robert Gumisiriza, Joseph Funa Hawumba, Mackay Okure, Oliver Hensel
BACKGROUND: Uganda's banana industry is heavily impeded by the lack of cheap, reliable and sustainable energy mainly needed for processing of banana fruit into pulp and subsequent drying into chips before milling into banana flour that has several uses in the bakery industry, among others. Uganda has one of the lowest electricity access levels, estimated at only 2-3% in rural areas where most of the banana growing is located. In addition, most banana farmers have limited financial capacity to access modern solar energy technologies that can generate sufficient energy for industrial processing...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065276/using-imaging-as-a-biomarker-for-asthma
#17
REVIEW
Abhaya Trivedi, Chase Hall, Eric A Hoffman, Jason C Woods, David S Gierada, Mario Castro
There have been significant advancements in the various imaging techniques being used for the evaluation of asthmatic patients, both from a clinical and research perspective. Imaging characteristics can be used to identify specific asthmatic phenotypes and provide a more detailed understanding of endotypes contributing to the pathophysiology of the disease. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography can be used to assess pulmonary structure and function. It has been shown that specific airway and lung density measurements using computed tomography correlate with clinical parameters, including severity of disease and pathology, but also provide unique phenotypes...
January 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063434/integral-steric-asymmetry-in-the-inelastic-scattering-of-no-x-2-%C3%AE
#18
M Brouard, S D S Gordon, A Hackett Boyle, C G Heid, B Nichols, V Walpole, F J Aoiz, S Stolte
The integral steric asymmetry for the inelastic scattering of NO(X) by a variety of collision partners was recorded using a crossed molecular beam apparatus. The initial state of the NO(X, v = 0, j = 1/2, Ω=1/2, ϵ=-1,f) molecule was selected using a hexapole electric field, before the NO bond axis was oriented in a static electric field, allowing probing of the scattering of the collision partner at either the N- or O-end of the molecule. Scattered NO molecules were state selectively probed using (1 + 1') resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionisation, coupled with velocity-map ion imaging...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063371/individual-dose-due-to-radioactivity-accidental-release-from-fusion-reactor
#19
Baojie Nie, Muyi Ni, Shiping Wei
As an important index shaping the design of fusion safety system, evaluation of public radiation consequences have risen as a hot topic on the way to develop fusion energy. In this work, the comprehensive public early dose was evaluated due to unit gram tritium (HT/HTO), activated dust, activated corrosion products (ACPs) and activated gases accidental release from ITER like fusion reactor. Meanwhile, considering that we cannot completely eliminate the occurrence likelihood of multi-failure of vacuum vessel and tokamak building, we conservatively evaluated the public radiation consequences and environment restoration after the worst hypothetical accident preliminarily...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062102/exploring-the-impact-of-determining-factors-behind-co2-emissions-in-china-a-cge-appraisal
#20
Bowen Xiao, Dongxiao Niu, Han Wu
Along with the arrival of the post-Kyoto Protocol era, the Chinese government faces ever greater pressure to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Hence, this paper aims to discuss the drivers of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their impact on society as a whole. First, we analyzed the background and overall situations of CO2 emissions in China. Then, we reviewed previous studies to explore the determinants behind China's CO2 emissions. It is widely acknowledged that energy efficiency, energy mix, and economy structure are three key factors contributing to CO2 emissions...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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