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Christoph Rameshan, Hao Li, Kresimir Anic, Matteo Roiaz, Verena Pramhaas, Raffael Rameshan, Raoul Blume, Michael Hävecker, Jan Knudsen, Axel Knop-Gericke, Gunther Rupprechter
Due to the need of sustainable energy sources, methane dry reforming (MDR) is a useful reaction for the conversion of the greenhouse gases CH<sub>4</sub> and CO<sub>2</sub> to synthesis gas (CO + H<sub>2</sub>). Syngas is the basis for a wide range of commodity chemicals and can be utilized for fuel production via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The current study focuses on spectroscopic investigations of the surface and reaction properties of a ZrO<sub>2</sub>/Pt inverse model catalyst, i...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
L Bovo, M Twengström, O A Petrenko, T Fennell, M J P Gingras, S T Bramwell, P Henelius
The description and detection of unconventional magnetic states, such as spin liquids, is a recurring topic in condensed matter physics. While much of the efforts have traditionally been directed at geometrically frustrated antiferromagnets, recent studies reveal that systems featuring competing antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic interactions are also promising candidate materials. We find that this competition leads to the notion of special temperatures, analogous to those of gases, at which the competing interactions balance, and the system is quasi-ideal...
May 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Neetha Rachel John, Paulose Thomas, Divya K V, Abraham K E
The study signifies a conductometric chemical sensor design using aligned Mn3O4 nanorods. Nanostructuring is an emerging field of prominence due to its capacity to introduce unprecedented properties in materials with potential applications. Hydrothermally prepared in situ Mn3O4 sample appears in urchin rod like morphology which changes to spherical shape on annealing. An aluminum anodic membrane/template (AAO) is used for the growth of the nanorods and also as a medium to support the sensor. Aligned Mn3O4nanorods are formed in the pores of AAO by vacuum infiltration approach which is later on annealed...
May 21, 2018: Nanotechnology
Pau Amaro-Seoane
It is now well-established that a dark, compact object, very likely a massive black hole (MBH) of around four million solar masses is lurking at the centre of the Milky Way. While a consensus is emerging about the origin and growth of supermassive black holes (with masses larger than a billion solar masses), MBHs with smaller masses, such as the one in our galactic centre, remain understudied and enigmatic. The key to understanding these holes-how some of them grow by orders of magnitude in mass-lies in understanding the dynamics of the stars in the galactic neighbourhood...
2018: Living Reviews in Relativity
Yi Li, Hua Zhang, Zongshan Zhao, Yong Tian, Kun Liu, Feifan Jie, Liang Zhu, Huanwen Chen
Particulate matters (PMs) emitted by automobile exhaust contribute to a significant fraction of the global PMs. Extractive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (EAPCI-MS) was developed to explore the molecular dependence of PMs collected from exhaust gases produced at different vehicle engine speeds. The mass spectral fingerprints of the organic compounds embedded in differentially sized PMs (e.g., 0.22-0.45, 0.45-1.00, 1.00-2.00, 2.00-3.00, 3.00-5.00, and 5.00-10.00μm) generated at different engine speeds (e...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Vahid Irani, Ahmad Tavasoli, Mehdi Vahidi
A novel approach was examined by addition of amine-modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to amine solutions in order to enhance the CO2 absorption capacity of amine solutions. Amine functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/methyl diethanolamine (MDEA) nanofluid was prepared for absorption of acid gases (CO2 , H2 S). GO was synthesized via a modified hummer method and functionalized through solvothermal method. As-synthesized NH2 -rGO was characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, FTIR, EDX and XPS analysis to determine the structure...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Sara L Jackrel, Anita Narwani, Bastian Bentlage, Robert B Levine, David C Hietala, Phillip E Savage, Todd H Oakley, Vincent J Denef, Bradley J Cardinale
Algal biofuels have the potential to curb emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels, but current growing methods fail to produce fuels that meet the multiple standards necessary for economical industrial use. For example, algae grown as monocultures for biofuel production have not simultaneously and economically achieved high yields of the high-quality, lipid-rich biomass desired for the industrial-scale production of bio-oil. Decades of study in the field of ecology have demonstrated that simultaneous increases in multiple functions, such as the quantity and quality of biomass, can occur in natural ecosystems by increasing biological diversity...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Alexander Schnell, Roland Ketzmerick, André Eckardt
In an ideal Bose gas that is driven into a steady state far from thermal equilibrium, a generalized form of Bose condensation can occur. Namely, the single-particle states unambiguously separate into two groups: the group of Bose-selected states, whose occupations increase linearly with the total particle number, and the group of all other states whose occupations saturate [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. However, so far very little is known about how the number of Bose-selected states depends on the properties of the system and its coupling to the environment...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Ming Liu, Yan Wang, Yiqiang Wu, Hui Wan
Urea formaldehyde (UF) resin residues generate many poisonous chemicals during traditional disposal technologies for organic hazardous wastes. In this study, hydrothermal hydrolysis was developed to decompose, remove, and recycle cured UF resin. Under 140 °C and 2 h of hydrothermal process, 20 mL of either 2 M HCl or 30 w.t. % of formaldehyde solutions can decompose as much as 1.7 g of cured UF resin. In addition, from the attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses, it confirmed that the hydrothermal hydrolysis could hydrolyze cured UF resin...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
J P Shaffer, S T Rittenhouse, H R Sadeghpour
Ultracold molecules formed from association of a single Rydberg atom with surrounding atoms or molecules and those from double Rydberg excitations are discussed in this review. Ultralong-range Rydberg molecules possess a novel molecular bond resulting from scattering of the Rydberg electron from the perturber atoms or molecules. The strong interactions between Rydberg atoms in ultracold gases may lead to formation of macroscopic Rydberg macrodimers. The exquisite control over the properties of the Rydberg electron means that interesting and unusual few-body and quantum many-body features can be realized in such systems...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Alexander J Schmithausen, Inga Schiefler, Manfred Trimborn, Katrin Gerlach, Karl-Heinz Südekum, Martin Pries, Wolfgang Büscher
Extensive experimentation on individual animals in respiration chambers has already been carried out to evaluate the potential of dietary changes and opportunities to mitigate CH₄ emissions from ruminants. Although it is difficult to determine the air exchange rate of open barn spaces, measurements at the herd level should provide similarly reliable and robust results. The primary objective of this study was (1) to define a validity range (data classification criteria (DCC)) for the variables of wind velocity and wind direction during long-term measurements at barn level; and (2) to apply this validity range to a feeding trial in a naturally cross-flow ventilated dairy barn...
May 16, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Woosuck Shin, Tomoyo Goto, Daisuke Nagai, Toshio Itoh, Akihiro Tsuruta, Takafumi Akamatsu, Kazuo Sato
Inflammable breath gases such as H₂ and CH₄ are used as bio markers for monitoring the condition of the colon. However, their typical concentrations of below 100 ppm pose sensitivity and selectivity challenges to current gas sensing systems without the use of chromatography. We fabricated a compact, gas-selective thermoelectric array sensor (TAS) that uses micro-machined sensor devices with three different combustion catalysts to detect gases such as H₂, CO, and CH₄ in breath. Using Pt/Pt-W thin-film micro-heater meanders, Pd/Al₂O₃, Pt,Pd,Au/Co₃O₄, and Pt/Al₂O₃ catalysts were heated to 320, 200, and 125 °C, respectively, and the gas sensing performances of the TAS for each gas and for a model breath gas mixture of 100 ppm H₂, 25 ppm CO, 50 ppm CH₄, and 199 ppm CO₂ in air were investigated...
May 16, 2018: Sensors
Jae Kook Yoon, Seunghoon Nam, Hyung Cheoul Shim, Kunwoo Park, Taeho Yoon, Hyung Sang Park, Seungmin Hyun
LTO (Li₄Ti₅O12 ) has been highlighted as anode material for next-generation lithium ion secondary batteries due to advantages such as a high rate capability, excellent cyclic performance, and safety. However, the generation of gases from undesired reactions between the electrode surface and the electrolyte has restricted the application of LTO as a negative electrode in Li-ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) and energy storage systems (ESS). As the generation of gases from LTO tends to be accelerated at high temperatures (40⁻60 °C), the thermal stability of LTO should be maintained during battery discharge, especially in EVs...
May 16, 2018: Materials
Changsong Zhou, Zijian Song, Hongmin Yang, Hao Wu, Ben Wang, Jie Yu, Lushi Sun
Elemental mercury (Hg0 ) emitted from coal-fired power plants and municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators has caused great harm to the environment and human beings. The strong oxidized • OH radicals produced by UV/H2 O2 advanced oxidation processes were studied to investigate the performance of Hg0 removal from simulated flue gases. The results showed that when H2 O2 concentration was 1.0 mol/L and the solution pH value was 4.1, the UV/H2 O2 system had the highest Hg0 removal efficiency. The optimal reaction temperature was approximately 50 °C and Hg0 removal was inhibited when the temperature was higher or lower...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chang-Hoon Kwak, Tae-Hyung Kim, Seong-Yong Jeong, Ji-Won Yoon, Jun-Sik Kim, Jong-Heun Lee
The chemiresistive sensing characteristics of metal oxide gas sensors depend closely on ambient humidity. Herein, we report that gas sensors using Tb-doped SnO2 yolk-shell spheres can be used for reliable acetone detection regardless of the variations in humidity. Pure SnO2 and Tb-doped SnO2 yolk-shell spheres were prepared via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and their chemiresistive sensing characteristics were studied. The sensor resistance and gas response of the pure SnO2 yolk-shell spheres significantly changed and deteriorated upon exposure to moisture...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Christopher Reeg, Daniel Loss, Jelena Klinovaja
There have recently been several experiments studying induced superconductivity in semiconducting two-dimensional electron gases that are strongly coupled to thin superconducting layers, as well as probing possible topological phases supporting Majorana bound states in such setups. We show that a large band shift is induced in the semiconductor by the superconductor in this geometry, thus making it challenging to realize a topological phase. Additionally, we show that while increasing the thickness of the superconducting layer reduces the magnitude of the band shift, it also leads to a more significant renormalization of the semiconducting material parameters and does not reduce the challenge of tuning into a topological phase...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Parisa Mirbod
The placenta is a transient vascular organ that enables nutrients and blood gases to be exchanged between fetal and maternal circulations. Herein, the structure and oxygen diffusion across the trophoblast membrane between the fetal and maternal red blood cells in the feto-placental vasculature system in both human and mouse placentas are presented together as a functional unit. Previous models have claimed that the most efficient fetal blood flow relies upon structures containing a number of 'conductive' symmetrical branches, offering a path of minimal resistance that maximizes blood flow to the terminal villi, where oxygen diffusion occurs...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Marceau Gresse, Jean Vandemeulebrouck, Svetlana Byrdina, Giovanni Chiodini, Philippe Roux, Antonio Pio Rinaldi, Marc Wathelet, Tullio Ricci, Jean Letort, Zaccaria Petrillo, Paola Tuccimei, Carlo Lucchetti, Alessandra Sciarra
Fumaroles are a common manifestation of volcanic activity that are associated with large emissions of gases into the atmosphere. These gases originate from the magma, and they can provide indirect and unique insights into magmatic processes. Therefore, they are extensively used to monitor and forecast eruptive activity. During their ascent, the magmatic gases interact with the rock and hydrothermal fluids, which modify their geochemical compositions. These interactions can complicate our understanding of the real volcanic dynamics and remain poorly considered...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
G Myhre, B H Samset, Ø Hodnebrog, T Andrews, O Boucher, G Faluvegi, D Fläschner, P M Forster, M Kasoar, V Kharin, A Kirkevåg, J-F Lamarque, D Olivié, T B Richardson, D Shawki, D Shindell, K P Shine, C W Stjern, T Takemura, A Voulgarakis
Globally, latent heating associated with a change in precipitation is balanced by changes to atmospheric radiative cooling and sensible heat fluxes. Both components can be altered by climate forcing mechanisms and through climate feedbacks, but the impacts of climate forcing and feedbacks on sensible heat fluxes have received much less attention. Here we show, using a range of climate modelling results, that changes in sensible heat are the dominant contributor to the present global-mean precipitation change since preindustrial time, because the radiative impact of forcings and feedbacks approximately compensate...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Hui Cai, Bin Chen, Mark Blei, Shery L Y Chang, Kedi Wu, Houlong Zhuang, Sefaattin Tongay
Akin to the enormous number of discoveries made through traditional semiconductor alloys, alloying selected 2D semiconductors enables engineering of their electronic structure for a wide range of new applications. 2D alloys have been demonstrated when two components crystallized in the same phase, and their bandgaps displayed predictable monotonic variation. By stabilizing previously unobserved compositions and phases of GaSe1-x Te x at nanoscales on GaAs(111), we demonstrate abnormal band bowing effects and phase instability region when components crystallize in different phases...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
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