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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922535/association-between-short-term-exposure-to-ultrafine-particles-and-mortality-in-eight-european-urban-areas
#1
Massimo Stafoggia, Alexandra Schneider, Josef Cyrys, Evangelia Samoli, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Getahun Bero Bedada, Tom Bellander, Giorgio Cattani, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Annunziata Faustini, Barbara Hoffmann, Bénédicte Jacquemin, Klea Katsouyanni, Andreas Massling, Juha Pekkanen, Noemi Perez, Annette Peters, Ulrich Quass, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Francesco Forastiere
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence on the association between short-term exposure to ultrafine particles and mortality is weak, due to the lack of routine measurements of these particles and standardized multi-center studies. We investigated the relationship between ultrafine particles and particulate matter (PM) and daily mortality in eight European urban areas. METHODS: We collected daily data on non-accidental and cardio-respiratory mortality, particle number concentrations (as proxy for ultrafine particle number concentration), fine and coarse PM, gases and meteorologic parameters in eight urban areas of Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Greece, between 1999 and 2013...
November 29, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919533/biochar-applied-at-an-appropriate-rate-can-avoid-increasing-nh3-volatilization-dramatically-in-rice-paddy-soil
#2
Yanfang Feng, Haijun Sun, Lihong Xue, Yang Liu, Qian Gao, Kouping Lu, Linzhang Yang
Biochar application can increase carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gases emissions in paddy soils. However, its influence on ammonia (NH3) volatilization is neglected. This soil column study was conducted using two biochars (wheat straw pyrolyzed at 500 °C and 700 °C) with two application rates (0.5 wt% and 3 wt%) to evaluate their impact on NH3 volatilization from rice paddy. Results showed that biochar application did not change NH3 volatilization fluxes pattern after N fertilization. Four biochar treatments recorded higher NH3 volatilization (20...
December 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918615/top-down-control-of-methane-emission-and-nitrogen-cycling-by-waterfowl
#3
R Scott Winton, Curtis J Richardson
Aquatic herbivores impose top-down control on the structure of wetland ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of herbivory on methane (CH4 ) and nitrogen (N) are poorly known. To investigate the top-down effects of waterfowl on wetland biogeochemistry, we implemented exclosure experiments in a major waterfowl overwintering wetland in the southeastern United States over two growing seasons. We found that herbivory inhibited the oxidation of CH4 , leading to a mean increase in emission by 230% over control plots, and prevented nitrification, as indicated by low nitrate availability and undetectable emissions of nitrous oxide...
November 4, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918019/three-dimensional-mof-sponge-for-fast-dynamic-adsorption
#4
Huizeng Li, Mingzhu Li, Wenbo Li, Qiang Yang, Yanan Li, Zhenkun Gu, Yanlin Song
Nowadays, environmental pollution is a big problem. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) provide a novel strategy for exhaust gases adsorption and toxic pollutants removal. We proposed a facile and versatile method to prepare a highly efficient three dimensional MOF-sponge by coating MOF crystals on polyurethane sponge surface, mimicking the porous structure of the marine animal, sponge. Owing to combination of the spatial structure of the commercial sponge and the excellent adsorption capacity of MOF coatings, the MOF-sponge possessed good permeability and high dynamic adsorption capacity...
December 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918014/trapping-of-gaseous-pollutants-on-defective-n-doped-graphene
#5
Dibyajyoti Ghosh, Swapan K Pati
The use of pristine as well as structurally modified two-dimensional materials to efficiently trap and separate various harmful gases from the atmosphere is an intensively explored field of current research. In this paper, we have computationally demonstrated the efficient trapping of several polar poisonous and greenhouse gases on top of different kinds of pyridinic/pyrrolic nitrogen-doped graphene sheets. van der Waals corrected Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) studies evidently demonstrate the trapping of the gas molecules on top of the defect-sites of the sheets at room-temperature...
December 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916285/a-quick-reference-on-hypoxemia
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Bach
This article describes the calculation of the alveolar-arterial gas gradient and its clinical application in determining the cause of hypoxemia. It also outlines the analysis of arterial blood gases and the clinical approach toward diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disease.
December 1, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916116/atmospheric-pressure-solution-cathode-glow-discharge-a-versatile-ion-source-for-atomic-and-molecular-mass-spectrometry
#7
Andrew J Schwartz, Kelsey L Williams, Gary M Hieftje, Jacob T Shelley
An atmospheric-pressure solution-cathode glow discharge (SCGD) has been evaluated as an ion source for atomic, molecular, and ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The SCGD consists of a direct-current plasma, supported in the ambient air in the absence of gas flows, and sustained upon the surface of a flowing liquid cathode. Analytes introduced in the flowing liquid, as an ambient gas, or as a solid held near the plasma are vaporized and ionized by interactions within or near the discharge. Introduction of acidic solutions containing metal salts produced bare elemental ions as well as H2O, OH(-) and NO3(-) adducts...
January 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914642/chemical-and-physical-properties-of-biomass-burning-aerosols-and-their-ccn-activity-a-case-study-in-beijing-china
#8
Zhijun Wu, Jing Zheng, Yu Wang, Dongjie Shang, Zhoufei Du, Yuanhang Zhang, Min Hu
Biomass burning emits large amounts of both trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. It plays a profound role in regional air quality and climate change. In the present study, an intensive campaign was carried out at an urban site in Beijing, China, in June 2014, which covered the winter wheat harvest season over the North China Plain (NCP). Meanwhile, two evident biomass-burning events were observed. A clear burst in ultrafine particles (below 100nm in diameter, PM1) and subsequent particle growth took place during the events...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911514/comparison-of-spectral-linewidths-for-quantum-degenerate-bosons-and-fermions
#9
R P M J W Notermans, R J Rengelink, W Vassen
We observe a dramatic difference in optical line shapes of a ^{4}He Bose-Einstein condensate and a ^{3}He degenerate Fermi gas by measuring the 1557-nm 2 ^{3}S-2 ^{1}S magnetic dipole transition (8 Hz natural linewidth) in an optical dipole trap. The 15 kHz FWHM condensate line shape is only broadened by mean field interactions, whereas the degenerate Fermi gas line shape is broadened to 75 kHz FWHM due to the effect of Pauli exclusion on the spatial and momentum distributions. The asymmetric optical line shapes are observed in excellent agreement with line shape models for the quantum degenerate gases...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910392/real-time-radiative-divertor-feedback-control-development-for-the-nstx-u-tokamak-using-a-vacuum-ultraviolet-spectrometer
#10
V A Soukhanovskii, R Kaita, B Stratton
A radiative divertor technique is planned for the NSTX-U tokamak to prevent excessive erosion and thermal damage of divertor plasma-facing components in H-mode plasma discharges with auxiliary heating up to 12 MW. In the radiative (partially detached) divertor, extrinsically seeded deuterium or impurity gases are used to increase plasma volumetric power and momentum losses. A real-time feedback control of the gas seeding rate is planned for discharges of up to 5 s duration. The outer divertor leg plasma electron temperature Te estimated spectroscopically in real time will be used as a control parameter...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908275/does-standing-or-sitting-position-of-the-anesthesiologist-in-the-operating-theatre-influence-sevoflurane-exposure-during-craniotomies
#11
Péter Sárkány, Béla Tankó, Éva Simon, Judit Gál, Béla Fülesdi, Csilla Molnár
BACKGROUND: Exposure of the OR staff to inhalational anesthetics has been proven by numerous investigators, but its potential adverse effect under the present technical circumstances is a debated issue. The aim of the present work was to test whether using a laminar flow air conditioning system exposure of the team to anesthetic gases is different if the anesthetist works in the sitting as compared to the standing position. METHODS: Sample collectors were placed at the side of the patient and were fixed at two different heights: at 100 cm (modelling sitting position) and 175 cm (modelling standing position), whereas the third collector was placed at the independent corner of the OR...
December 1, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908098/communication-stiffening-of-dilute-alcohol-and-alkane-mixtures-with-water
#12
Henry S Ashbaugh, J Wesley Barnett, Alexander Saltzman, Mae E Langrehr, Hayden Houser
We probe the anomalous compressibilities of dilute mixtures of alcohols and alkane gases in water using molecular simulations. The response to increasing solute concentration depends sensitively on temperature, with the compressibility decreasing upon solute addition at low temperatures and increasing at elevated temperatures. The thermodynamic origin of stiffening is directly tied to the solute's partial compressibility, which is negative at low temperatures and rises above water's compressibility with increasing temperature...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906717/spectrum-of-postoperative-complications-in-pulmonary-hypertension-and-obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome
#13
Roop K Kaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to identify chronic pulmonary conditions which may often not be recognized preoperatively especially before elective noncardiac surgery and which carry the highest risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: This review discusses some of the most recent studies that highlight the perioperative complications, and their prevention and management strategies. SUMMARY: Pulmonary hypertension is a well recognized risk factor for postoperative complications after cardiac surgery but the literature surrounding noncardiac surgery is sparse...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906532/medical-gas-containers-and-closures-current-good-manufacturing-practice-requirements-final-rule
#14
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is amending its current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) and labeling regulations regarding medical gases. FDA is requiring that portable cryogenic medical gas containers not manufactured with permanent gas use outlet connections have gas-specific use outlet connections that cannot be readily removed or replaced except by the manufacturer. FDA is also requiring that portable cryogenic medical gas containers and high-pressure medical gas cylinders meet certain labeling, naming, and color requirements...
November 18, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906508/co2-capture-with-ionic-liquids-ils-and-deep-eutectic-solvents-dess-a-new-generation-of-sorbents
#15
Shokat Sarmad, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, Xiaoyan Ji
High cost and high energy penalty for carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake from flue gases are important obstacles in large-scale industrial applications, and developing efficient technology for CO2 capture from technic and economic points is crucial. Ionic liquids (ILs) show the potential for CO2 separation due to their inherent advantages and have been proposed as alternatives in order to overcome the drawbacks of conventional sorbents. Chemical modification of ILs to improve their performance in CO2 absorption has received more attention...
December 1, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906360/large-amplitude-wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy-for-sensitive-measurements-of-broad-absorbers
#16
Torrey R S Hayden, Gregory B Rieker
We demonstrate large amplitude wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with a MEMS-tunable vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (MEMS-VCSEL) to measure high-density gases. WMS enables sensitive measurements of gas phase thermodynamic properties in harsh environments, but has been limited to moderate pressure and density conditions because of the narrow tuning range of traditional DFB lasers. The MEMS-tunable laser is able to rapidly modulate across the broadened features of high-density gas mixtures to produce the harmonic signals in the detected light intensity typical of WMS...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906234/generation-of-spectral-clusters-in-a-mixture-of-noble-and-raman-active-gases
#17
Pooria Hosseini, Amir Abdolvand, Philip St J Russell
We report a novel scheme for the generation of dense clusters of Raman sidebands. The scheme uses a broadband-guiding hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) filled with a mixture of H<sub>2</sub>, D<sub>2</sub>, and Xe for efficient interaction between the gas mixture and a green laser pump pulse (532 nm, 1 ns) of only 5 μJ of energy. This results in the generation from noise of more than 135 rovibrational Raman sidebands covering the visible spectral region with an average spacing of only 2...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906023/surface-area-dependence-of-gas-particle-interactions-influences-pulmonary-and-neuroinflammatory-outcomes
#18
Christina R Tyler, Katherine E Zychowski, Bethany N Sanchez, Valeria Rivero, Selita Lucas, Guy Herbert, June Liu, Hammad Irshad, Jacob D McDonald, Barry E Bleske, Matthew J Campen
BACKGROUND: Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, generated as ultrafine (UFP) and fine (FP) sizes, with additional exposures using UFP or FP combined with gaseous copollutants derived from fresh gasoline and diesel emissions, labeled as UFP + G and FP + G...
December 1, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904096/development-and-analysis-of-novel-therapeutic-targets-to-improve-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-type-2-diabetes
#19
Yukiko K Kaneko
 Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction is a major feature of type 2 diabetes. Therefore maintenance of β-cell function is essential to preventing the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of insulin secretion and β-cell survival, we particularly focused on the roles of gasotransmitters in pancreatic β-cells. Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are recognized as toxic gases. However, they are also vital physiological and pathophysiological mediators in various cell types...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903670/oxygen-the-lung-and-the-diver-friends-and-foes
#20
Pieter-Jan A M van Ooij, Peter J Sterk, Robert A van Hulst
Worldwide, the number of professional and sports divers is increasing. Most of them breathe diving gases with a raised partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 ). However, if the PO2 is between 50 and 300 kPa (375-2250 mmHg) (hyperoxia), pathological pulmonary changes can develop, known as pulmonary oxygen toxicity (POT). Although in its acute phase, POT is reversible, it can ultimately lead to non-reversible pathological changes. Therefore, it is important to monitor these divers to prevent them from sustaining irreversible lesions...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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