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Y Tang, A G Sykes, N Q Burdick, J M DiSciacca, D S Petrov, B L Lev
We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the postexpansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipolar thermal Bose gases...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Nejc Hodnik, Claudio Baldizzone, George Polymeros, Simon Geiger, Jan-Philipp Grote, Serhiy Cherevko, Andrea Mingers, Aleksandar Zeradjanin, Karl J J Mayrhofer
The recycling of precious metals, for example, platinum, is an essential aspect of sustainability for the modern industry and energy sectors. However, due to its resistance to corrosion, platinum-leaching techniques rely on high reagent consumption and hazardous processes, for example, boiling aqua regia; a mixture of concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acid. Here we demonstrate that complete dissolution of metallic platinum can be achieved by induced surface potential alteration, an 'electrode-less' process utilizing alternatively oxidative and reductive gases...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Matthias Jacob, Daniel Chappell, Bernhard F Becker
Oxygen delivery to cells is the basic prerequisite of life. Within the human body, an ingenious oxygen delivery system, comprising steps of convection and diffusion from the upper airways via the lungs and the cardiovascular system to the microvascular area, bridges the gap between oxygen in the outside airspace and the interstitial space around the cells. However, the complexity of this evolutionary development makes us prone to pathophysiological problems. While those problems related to respiration and macrohemodynamics have already been successfully addressed by modern medicine, the pathophysiology of the microcirculation is still often a closed book in daily practice...
October 21, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Xiaoyang Shi, Hang Xiao, Klaus Lackner, Xi Chen
A great deal of information exists concerning the hydration of ions in bulk water. Much less noticeable, but equally ubiquitous is the hydration of ions holding on to several water molecules in nanoscopic pores or in natural air at low relative humidity. Such hydration of ions with a high ratio of ions to water molecules (up to 1:1) are essential in determining the energetics of many physical and chemical systems. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the energetics of ion hydration in nanopores based on molecular modeling of a series of basic salts associated with different numbers of water molecules...
October 20, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Rajasree Omanakutty Amma, Subha Ravindran, Rachel Cherian Koshy, K M Jagathnath Krishna
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: With the availability of modern workstations and heightened awareness on the environmental effects of waste anaesthesia gases, anaesthesiologists worldwide are practicing low flow anaesthesia (LFA). Although LFA is being practiced in India, hard evidence on the current practice of the same from anaesthesiologists practicing in India is lacking and hence, we conducted this survey. METHODS: A questionnaire containing 16 questions was distributed among a subgroup of anaesthesiologists who attended the 2014 National Conference of Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Thomas Breuer, Nima Hatam, Benjamin Grabiger, Gernot Marx, Bradley J Behnke, Joachim Weis, Ruedger Kopp, Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez, Norbert Zoremba, Christian S Bruells
Perioperative necessity of deep sedation is inevitably associated with diaphragmatic inactivation. This study investigated 1) the feasibility of a new phrenic nerve stimulation method allowing early diaphragmatic activation even in deep sedation and, 2) metabolic changes within the diaphragm during mechanical ventilation compared to artificial activity. 12 piglets were separated into 2 groups. One group was mechanically ventilated for 12 hrs (CMV) and in the second group both phrenic nerves were stimulated via pacer wires inserted near the phrenic nerves to mimic spontaneous breathing (STIM)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tan Xing, Srikanth Mateti, Lu Hua Li, Fengxian Ma, Aijun Du, Yury Gogotsi, Ying Chen
Two-dimensional (2D) materials can be produced using ball milling with the help of liquid surfactants or solid exfoliation agents, as ball milling of bulk precursor materials usually produces nanosized particles because of high-energy impacts. Post-milling treatment is thus needed to purify the nanosheets. We show here that nanosheets of graphene, BN, and MoS2 can be produced by ball milling of their bulk crystals in the presence of ammonia or a hydrocarbon ethylene gas and the obtained nanosheets remain flat and maintain their single-crystalline structure with low defects density even after a long period of time; post-milling treatment is not needed...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
S Gonzalez-Cortes, D R Slocombe, T Xiao, A Aldawsari, B Yao, V L Kuznetsov, E Liberti, A I Kirkland, M S Alkinani, H A Al-Megren, J M Thomas, P P Edwards
Hydrogen is often described as the fuel of the future, especially for application in hydrogen powered fuel-cell vehicles (HFCV's). However, its widespread implementation in this role has been thwarted by the lack of a lightweight, safe, on-board hydrogen storage material. Here we show that benign, readily-available hydrocarbon wax is capable of rapidly releasing large amounts of hydrogen through microwave-assisted catalytic decomposition. This discovery offers a new material and system for safe and efficient hydrogen storage and could facilitate its application in a HFCV...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Taiala Cristina de Jesus Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira, Jeruzia Vitória Moreira, José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo, Ronan Batista, Vanderlúcia Fonseca de Paula, Brena Santos Oliveira, Edileusa de Jesus Dos Santos
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alkaloid extracts of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D.C. pods obtained by two extraction methods as compared with sodium monensin on the gas production kinetic, mitigation of methane, and rumen fermentation products using wheat bran or Tifton 85 hay as substrates, by the semi-automatic in vitro gas production technique. A completely randomized design was adopted, and two natural additives were tested made from mesquite pod (alkaloid extract I and alkaloid extract II) at three levels (3...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Aram Gragossian, Denis V Seletskiy, Mansoor Sheik-Bahae
The interaction of intense near- and mid-infrared laser pulses with rare gases has produced bursts of radiation with spectral content extending into the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray region of electromagnetic spectrum. On the other end of the spectrum, laser-driven gas plasmas has been shown to produce coherent sub-harmonic optical waveforms, covering from terahertz (THz) to mid- and near-infrared frequency spectral band. Both processes can be enhanced via a combination of a driving field and its second harmonic...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fernando Ibáñez, Luis Wall, Adriana Fabra
Agricultural practices contribute to climate change by releasing greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide that are mainly derived from nitrogen fertilizers. Therefore, understanding biological nitrogen fixation in farming systems is beneficial to agriculture and environmental preservation. In this context, a better grasp of nitrogen-fixing systems and nitrogen-fixing bacteria-plant associations will contribute to the optimization of these biological processes. Legumes and actinorhizal plants can engage in a symbiotic interaction with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia or actinomycetes, resulting in the formation of specialized root nodules...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Daniela Pelclova, Vladimir Zdimal, Petr Kacer, Martin Komarc, Zdenka Fenclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Nadezda Zikova, Jaroslav Schwarz, Otakar Makes, Tomas Navratil, Sergey Zakharov, Dhimiter Bello
Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls...
October 18, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Jasjeet Bhullar, Veena M Bhopale, Ming Yang, Kinjal Sethuraman, Stephen R Thom
This investigation explored the mechanism for microparticles (MPs) production by human and murine platelets exposed to high pressures of inert gases. Results demonstrate that MPs production occurs via an oxidative stress response in a dose-dependent manner and follows the potency series N2 > Ar > He. Gases with higher van der Waals volumes or polarizability such as SF6 and N2O, or hydrostatic pressure, do not cause MPs production. Singlet O2 is generated by N2, Ar and He, which is linked to NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity...
October 14, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Xia Zhu-Barker, Shannon K Bailey, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Martin Burger, William R Horwath
The process of composting is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG) that contribute to climate change. We monitored three field-scale green waste compost windrows over a one-year period to measure the seasonal variance of the GHG fluxes. The compost pile that experienced the wettest and coolest weather had the highest average CH4 emission of 254±76gCday(-1) dry weight (DW) Mg(-1) and lowest average N2O emission of 152±21mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)compared to the other seasonal piles. The highest N2O emissions (342±41mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)) came from the pile that underwent the driest and hottest weather...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management
Marco Sturaro, Enrico Della Gaspera, Niccolò Michieli, Carlo Cantalini, Seyed Mahmoud Emamjomeh, Massimo Guglielmi, Alessandro Martucci
Highly doped wide band gap metal oxides nanocrystals have recently been proposed as building blocks for applications as transparent electrodes, electrochromics, plasmonics, and optoelectronics in general. Here we demonstrate the application of gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) nanocrystals as novel plasmonic and chemiresistive sensors for the detection of hazardous gases including hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). GZO nanocrystals with a tunable surface plasmon resonance in the near infrared are obtained using a colloidal heat-up synthesis...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ugo Corrà
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a specialized subtype of exercise testing that provides a more accurate and objective measure of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). CPET relies on measurement of ventilatory gases during exercise, i.e., a non-invasive procedure that involves the acquisition of expired ventilation and concentrations of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) during progressive exercise. The non-invasive measurement of ventilation and expired gases permits the most accurate and reproducible quantification of CRF, a grading of the etiology and severity of impairment, and an objective assessment of the response to an intervention...
October 14, 2016: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Ali M Mokhtar, Ahmed I Elsakka, Hassan M Ali
BACKGROUND: Anxiety is a concern in obstetrics, especially in preeclamptic mothers. Sedation is not commonly used in parturients for fear of adverse neonatal effect. We investigated maternal and neonatal outcome of midazolam as an adjuvant to spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial, in which eighty preeclamptic parturients received either an intravenous dose of 0.035 mg/kg of midazolam or an equal volume of normal saline, 30 min before spinal anesthesia...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
S Parthasarathy, R Sripriya, N Krishnaveni
Intestinal obstruction is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Scientific assessment of the cause, site of obstruction, appropriate correction of the fluid deficit and electrolyte imbalance with preoperative stabilization of blood gases is ideal as a preoperative workup. Placement of a preoperative epidural catheter especially in the thoracic interspace takes care of perioperative pain and stress reduction. Intraoperative management by controlled general anesthesia administering a relative high inspired fraction of oxygen with invasive monitoring in selected sick cases is mandatory...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Deborah Azrael, Alexander Mukamal, Amy P Cohen, David Gunnell, Catherine Barber, Matthew Miller
INTRODUCTION: Identifying the source and specific type of gas used in suicides is difficult using most data systems owing to limitations in ICD-10 coding. The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), with its rich collection of both coded and free-text variables, has the potential to overcome these limitations. This study used a multipronged approach to identify gas-specific suicides in NVDRS and to track the incidence of these suicides over time. METHODS: Using suicide cases from the 16 NVDRS states that participated throughout 2005-2012, free-text and code searches were conducted for four types of variables-incident narratives, coroner/medical examiner cause-of-death statements, cause-of-death codes, and substance names-to identify suicides by carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen sulfide, and four other gases...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Kiichi Ishiwata, Kunpei Hayashi, Masanari Sakai, Sugio Kawauchi, Hideaki Hasegawa, Jun Toyohara
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the radionuclides and radiochemical impurities included in radiosynthesis processes of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers. METHODS: Target materials and PET tracers were produced using a cyclotron/synthesis system from Sumitomo Heavy Industry. Positron and γ-ray emitting radionuclides were quantified by measuring radioactivity decay and using the high-purity Ge detector, respectively. Radiochemical species in gaseous and aqueous target materials were analyzed by gas and ion chromatography, respectively...
October 15, 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
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