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M Adam, M R Raekallio, T Keskitalo, J M Honkavaara, M Scheinin, M Kajula, S Mölsä, O M Vainio
The effect of MK-467, a peripheral α2 -adrenoceptor antagonist, on plasma drug concentrations, sedation and cardiopulmonary changes induced by intramuscular (IM) medetomidine was investigated in eight sheep. Additionally, the interactions with atipamezole (ATI) used for reversal were also evaluated. Each animal was treated four times in a randomized prospective crossover design with 2-week washout periods. Medetomidine (MED) 30 μg/kg alone or combined in the same syringe with MK-467 300 μg/kg (MMK) was injected intramuscular, followed by ATI 150 μg/kg (MED + ATI and MMK + ATI) or saline intramuscular 30 min later...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Krzysztof Jachymski, Tomasz Wasak, Zbigniew Idziaszek, Paul S Julienne, Antonio Negretti, Tommaso Calarco
Feshbach resonances, which allow for tuning the interactions of ultracold atoms with an external magnetic field, have been widely used to control the properties of quantum gases. We propose a scheme for using scattering resonances as a probe for external fields, showing that by carefully tuning the parameters it is possible to reach a 10^{-5}  G (or nT) level of precision with a single pair of atoms. We show that, for our collisional setup, it is possible to saturate the quantum precision bound with a simple measurement protocol...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Qinke Wu, Joohyun Lee, Sangwoo Park, Hwi Je Woo, Sungjoo Lee, Young Jae Song
In this study, we demonstrate a new method to selectively etch the point defects or the boundaries of as-grown hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) films and flakes in situ on copper substrates using hydrogen and argon gases. The initial quality of the chemical vapor deposition-grown hBN films and flakes was confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Different gas flow ratios of Ar/H2 were then employed to etch the same quality of samples and it was found that etching with hydrogen starts from the point defects and grows epitaxially, which helps in confirming crystalline orientations...
January 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Febrian Hillman, Jordan Brito, Hae-Kwon Jeong
The relatively slow and complex fabrication processes of polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes often times restrict their way to commercialization, despite their potential for molecular separation applications. Herein we report a rapid one-pot microwave synthesis of mixed linker hybrid zeolitic-imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes consisting of 2-methylimidazolate (ZIF-8 linker) and benzimidazolate (ZIF-7 linker) linkers, termed ZIF-7-8 membranes. The fast-volumetric microwave heating in conjunction with unique counter diffusion of metal and linker solutions enabled unprecedented rapid synthesis of well-intergrown ZIF-7-8 membranes in ~ 90 s, the fastest MOF membrane preparation up to date...
January 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
A D Bugarski, J A Hummer, S E Vanderslice
The results of laboratory evaluations were used to compare the potential of two alternative, biomass-derived fuels as a control strategy to reduce the exposure of underground miners to aerosols and gases emitted by diesel-powered equipment. The effects of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil renewable diesel (HVORD) on criteria aerosol and gaseous emissions from an older-technology, naturally aspirated, mechanically controlled engine equipped with a diesel oxidation catalytic converter were compared with those of widely used petroleum-derived, ultralow-sulfur diesels (ULSDs)...
December 2017: Mining Engineering
Jordi Olloquequi, Sergio Jaime, Viviana Parra, Elizabeth Cornejo-Córdova, Gonzalo Valdivia, Àlvar Agustí, Rafael Silva O
BACKGROUND: Exposure to noxious gases and particles contained in both tobacco smoking (TS) and biomass smoke (BS) are well recognized environmental risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is characterized by an abnormal inflammatory response, both in the pulmonary and systemic compartments. The differential effects of TS, BS or their combined exposure have not been well characterized yet. This study sought to compare the lung function characteristics and systemic inflammatory response in COPD patients exposed to TS, BS or their combination...
January 18, 2018: Respiratory Research
Francisco Vega Reyes, Antonio Lasanta, Andrés Santos, Vicente Garzó
The dynamical properties of a tracer or impurity particle immersed in a host gas of inelastic and rough hard spheres in the homogeneous cooling state is studied. Specifically, the breakdown of energy equipartition as characterized by the tracer/host ratios of translational and rotational temperatures is analyzed by exploring a wide spectrum of values of the control parameters of the system (masses, moments of inertia, sizes, and coefficients of restitution). Three complementary approaches are considered. On the theoretical side, the Boltzmann and Boltzmann-Lorentz equations (both assuming the molecular chaos ansatz) are solved by means of a multitemperature Maxwellian approximation for the velocity distribution functions...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Shaghayegh Darjani, Joel Koplik, Vincent Pauchard
An alternative approach for deriving the equation of state for a two-dimensional lattice gas is proposed, based on arguments similar to those used in the derivation of the Langmuir-Szyszkowski equation of state for localized adsorption. The relationship between surface coverage and excluded area is first extracted from random sequential adsorption simulations incorporating surface diffusion (RSAD). The adsorption isotherm is then obtained using kinetic arguments, and the Gibbs equation gives the relation between surface pressure and coverage...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Pietro Rotondo, Alessandro Luigi Sellerio, Pietro Glorioso, Sergio Caracciolo, Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco Gherardi
Driven lattice gases are widely regarded as the paradigm of collective phenomena out of equilibrium. While such models are usually studied with nearest-neighbor interactions, many empirical driven systems are dominated by slowly decaying interactions such as dipole-dipole and Van der Waals forces. Motivated by this gap, we study the nonequilibrium stationary state of a driven lattice gas with slow-decayed repulsive interactions at zero temperature. By numerical and analytical calculations of the particle current as a function of the density and of the driving field, we identify (i) an abrupt breakdown transition between insulating and conducting states, (ii) current quantization into discrete phases where a finite current flows with infinite differential resistivity, and (iii) a fractal hierarchy of excitations, related to the Farey sequences of number theory...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Shahpoor Saeidian, Vladimir S Melezhik
We have developed an efficient computational method for solving the quantum multichannel scattering problem with a nonseparable angular part. The use of the nondirect product discrete-variable representation, suggested and developed by V. Melezhik, gives us an accurate approximation for the angular part of the desired wave function and, eventually, for the scattering parameters. Subsequent reduction of the problem to the boundary-value problem with well-defined block-band matrix of equation coefficients permits us to use efficient standard algorithms for its solution...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Valerio Volpati, Urna Basu, Sergio Caracciolo, Andrea Gambassi
The dynamic and static critical behaviors of driven and equilibrium lattice gas models are studied in two spatial dimensions. We show that in the short-time regime immediately following a critical quench, the dynamics of the transverse anisotropic order parameter, its autocorrelation, and Binder cumulant are consistent with the prediction of a Gaussian, i.e., noninteracting, effective theory, both for the nonequilibrium lattice gases and, to some extent, their equilibrium counterpart. Such a superuniversal behavior is observed only at short times after a critical quench, while the various models display their distinct behaviors in the stationary states, described by the corresponding, known universality classes...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
E S Benilov, M S Benilov
We derive a kinetic equation for rarefied diatomic gases whose molecules have a permanent dipole moment. Estimating typical parameters of such gases, we show that quantum effects cannot be neglected when describing the rotation of molecules, which we thus approximate by quantum rotators. The intermolecular potential is assumed to involve an unspecified short-range repulsive component and a long-range dipole-dipole Coulomb interaction. In the kinetic equation derived, the former and the latter give rise, respectively, to the collision integral and a self-consistent electric field generated collectively by the dipoles (as in the Vlasov model of plasma)...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Takashi Arima, Tommaso Ruggeri, Masaru Sugiyama
We present a more refined version of rational extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases in which molecular rotational and vibrational relaxation processes are treated individually. In this case, we need a triple hierarchy of the moment system and the system of balance equations is closed via the maximum entropy principle. Three different types of the production terms in the system, which are suggested by a generalized BGK-type collision term in the Boltzmann equation, are adopted. In particular, the rational extended thermodynamic theory with seven independent fields (ET_{7}) is analyzed in detail...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Hisao Hayakawa, Satoshi Takada, Vicente Garzó
The Enskog kinetic theory for moderately dense gas-solid suspensions under simple shear flow is considered as a model to analyze the rheological properties of the system. The influence of the environmental fluid on solid particles is modeled via a viscous drag force plus a stochastic Langevin-like term. The Enskog equation is solved by means of two independent but complementary routes: (i) Grad's moment method and (ii) event-driven Langevin simulation of hard spheres. Both approaches clearly show that the flow curve (stress-strain rate relation) depends significantly on the volume fraction of the solid particles...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
A G Magner, M I Gorenstein, U V Grygoriev
The velocity and absorption coefficient for the plane sound waves in a classical gas are obtained by solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation, which describes the reaction of the single-particle distribution function to a periodic external field. Within the linear response theory, the nonperturbative dispersion equation valid for all sound frequencies is derived and solved numerically. The results are in agreement with the approximate analytical solutions found for both the frequent- and rare-collision regimes...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Subhajit Paul, Subir K Das
We study far-from-equilibrium dynamics in models of freely cooling granular gas and ballistically aggregating compact clusters. For both the cases, from event-driven molecular dynamics simulations, we have presented detailed results on structure and dynamics in space dimensions d=1 and 2. Via appropriate analyses it has been confirmed that the ballistic aggregation mechanism applies in d=1 granular gases as well. Aging phenomena for this mechanism, in both the dimensions, have been studied via the two-time density autocorrelation function...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
N Lo Gullo, C V Ambarish, Th Busch, L Dell'Anna, C M Chandrashekar
We investigate the role of different aperiodic sequences in the dynamics of single quantum particles in discrete space and time. For this we consider three aperiodic sequences, namely, the Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and Rudin-Shapiro sequences, as examples of tilings the diffraction spectra of which have pure point, singular continuous, and absolutely continuous support, respectively. Our interest is to understand how the order, intrinsically introduced by the deterministic rule used to generate the aperiodic sequences, is reflected in the dynamical properties of the quantum system...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
L Wang, M T Dove, K Trachenko, Yu D Fomin, V V Brazhkin
We study the thermomechanical properties of matter under extreme conditions deep in the supercritical state, at temperatures exceeding the critical one by up to four orders of magnitude. We calculate the Grüneisen parameter γ and find that on isochores it decreases with temperature from 3 to 1, depending on the density. Our results indicate that from the perspective of thermomechanical properties, the supercritical state is characterized by a wide range of γ's which includes solidlike values-an interesting finding in view of the common perception of the supercritical state as being an intermediate state between gases and liquids...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Hiroki Yamaguchi, Yu Matsuda, Tomohide Niimi
Gas-surface interaction is studied by the molecular dynamics method to investigate qualitatively characteristics of accommodation coefficients. A large number of trajectories of gas molecules colliding to and scattering from a surface are statistically analyzed to calculate the energy (thermal) accommodation coefficient (EAC) and the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC). Considering experimental measurements of the accommodation coefficients, the incident velocities are stochastically sampled to represent a bulk condition...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
M Reza Parsa, Alexander J Wagner
We introduce a lattice gas implementation that is based on coarse-graining a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Such a lattice gas is similar to standard lattice gases, but its collision operator is informed by an underlying MD simulation. This can be considered an optimal lattice gas implementation because it allows for the representation of any system that can be simulated with MD. We show here that equilibrium behavior of the popular lattice Boltzmann algorithm is consistent with this optimal lattice gas...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
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