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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931052/improvement-of-dyspnea-after-bariatric-surgery-is-associated-with-increased-expiratory-reserve-volume-a-prospective-follow-up-study-of-45-patients
#1
Louis Boissière, Jeanne-Marie Perotin-Collard, Eric Bertin, Isabelle Gaubil, Ana Diaz Cives, Coralie Barbe, Sandra Dury, Julie Nardi, François Lebargy, Gaëtan Deslée, Claire Launois
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of bariatric surgery in patients with obesity on dyspnea and to analyze the relationships between improvement of dyspnea after bariatric surgery and changes in pulmonary function, especially Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) which is the lung volume abnormality most frequently associated with obesity. METHODS: Forty-five patients (5 males/40 females, mean Body Mass Index = 46.2 ± 6.8 kg/m2) were evaluated before and 6 to 12 months after bariatric surgery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930815/variability-in-usual-care-mechanical-ventilation-for-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-time-for-a-decision-support-protocol
#2
Christopher J L Newth, Katherine A Sward, Robinder G Khemani, Kent Page, Kathleen L Meert, Joseph A Carcillo, Thomas P Shanley, Frank W Moler, Murray M Pollack, Heidi J Dalton, David L Wessel, John T Berger, Robert A Berg, Rick E Harrison, Richard Holubkov, Allan Doctor, J Michael Dean, Tammara L Jenkins, Carol E Nicholson
OBJECTIVES: Although pediatric intensivists philosophically embrace lung protective ventilation for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, we hypothesized that ventilator management varies. We assessed ventilator management by evaluating changes to ventilator settings in response to blood gases, pulse oximetry, or end-tidal CO2. We also assessed the potential impact that a pediatric mechanical ventilation protocol adapted from National Heart Lung and Blood Institute acute respiratory distress syndrome network protocols could have on reducing variability by comparing actual changes in ventilator settings to those recommended by the protocol...
September 19, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930617/genetic-manipulation-of-microalgae-for-the-production-of-bioproducts
#3
Patricia Vazquez-Villegas, Mario A Torres-Acosta, Sergio A Garcia-Echauri, Jose M Aguilar-Yanez, Marco Rito-Palomares, Federico Ruiz-Ruiz
Microalgae have been used during the past four decades in the Bio-industries for the production of high added value products and development of useful approaches with environmental applications. The fast growing rate, simple growth requirements and using sunlight as the major source of energy are the key factors for usage of algae. In the past 15 years, a considerable progress has been made regarding the use of microalgae for production of proteins, nutraceuticals, food supplements, molecular tags for diagnostics and fixation of greenhouse gases...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929752/speciation-and-sources-of-brown-carbon-in-precipitation-at-seoul-korea-insights-from-excitation-emission-matrix-spectroscopy-and-carbon-isotopic-analysis
#4
Ge Yan, Guebuem Kim
Brown carbon (BrC) plays a significant role in the Earth's radiative balance, yet its sources and chemical composition remain poorly understood. In this work, we investigated BrC in the atmospheric environment of Seoul by characterizing dissolved organic matter in precipitation using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The two independent fluorescent components identified by PARAFAC were attributed to humic-like substance (HULIS) and biologically-derived material based on their significant correlations with measured HULIS isolated using solid-phase extraction and total hydrolyzable tyrosine...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929304/embryonic-body-culturing-in-an-all-glass-microfluidic-device-with-laser-processed-4%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-thick-ultra-thin-glass-sheet-filter
#5
Y Yalikun, N Tanaka, Y Hosokawa, T Iino, Y Tanaka
In this paper, we report the development and demonstration of a method to fabricate an all-glass microfluidic cell culturing device without circulation flow. On-chip microfluidic cell culturing is an indispensable technique for cellular replacement therapies and experimental cell biology. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have become a popular material for fabricating microfluidic cell culture devices because it is a transparent, biocompatible, deformable, easy-to-mold, and gas-permeable. However, PDMS is also a chemically and physically unstable material...
September 19, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928583/single-minute-of-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-at-the-time-of-induction-effect-on-arterial-blood-gases-and-hemodynamics-in-morbidly-obese-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-bariatric-surgery
#6
Dipti Saxena, Priyank Singh, Atul Dixit, Bipin Arya, Mohit Bhandari, Sadhana Sanwatsarkar
BACKGROUND: The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has been studied in detail after induction of general anesthesia especially in obese individuals. However, sparse information can be gathered from the literature regarding its effect when applied at the time of induction and the time of onset of its effect. Thus, this study was planned to assess the effect of PEEP when applied for a single minute in morbidly obese patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized prospective study comprising seven morbidly obese patients (body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2))...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926724/in-situ-grafting-to-improve-polarity-of-polyacrylonitrile-hollow-fiber-supported-polydimethylsiloxane-membranes-for-co2-separation
#7
Leiqing Hu, Jun Cheng, Yannan Li, Jianzhong Liu, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen
Surface grafting modification was proposed to improve the surface polarity of polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber-supported polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The initiator 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane containing one amine group was integrated into PDMS, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) with strong polarity was connected to the surface by reacting with amine groups. Surface grafting modification was proven on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sharp decrease (from ∼98° to ∼28°) in water contact angle of the PDMS membrane indicated the significant improvement in surface polarity after the modification...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925883/novel-therapeutics-in-glaucoma-management
#8
Claudio Bucolo, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Filippo Drago, Michele Reibaldi, Vincenza Bonfiglio, Teresio Avitabile, Maurizio Uva
Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death and alterations of visual field. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered the main risk factor of glaucoma, even though other factors cannot be ruled out, such as epigenetic mechanisms. An overview of the ultimate promising experimental drugs to manage glaucoma has been provided. In particular, we have focused on purinergic ligands, KATP channel activators, gases (nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide), non-glucocorticoid steroidal compounds, neurotrophic factors, PI3K/Akt activators, citicoline, histone deacetylase inhibitors, cannabinoids, dopamine and serotonin receptors ligands, small interference RNA, and Rho kinase inhibitors...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925870/pollution-and-sun-exposure-a-deleterious-synergy-mechanisms-and-opportunities-for-skin-protection
#9
Laurent Marrot
Pollutants are highly diverse chemical entities, including gases such as ozone or nitrogen and sulphur oxides and particulate matter of different sizes and with different chemical constituents. PM2.5 is composed of particles that are sometimes about ten nanometres or so in size (ultrafine particles) which can be deposited in lung alveoli, translocated into capillaries and then distributed to all organs through blood circulation. PM2.5 is often associated with toxic chemicals such as heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some photo-reactive PAHs can induce strong oxidative stress under UVA exposure...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924728/a-review-on-the-mechanism-risk-evaluation-and-prevention-of-coal-spontaneous-combustion-in-china
#10
Biao Kong, Zenghua Li, Yongliang Yang, Zhen Liu, Daocheng Yan
In recent years, the ecology, security, and sustainable development of modern mines have become the theme of coal mine development worldwide. However, spontaneous combustion of coal under conditions of oxygen supply and automatic exothermic heating during coal mining lead to coalfield fires. Coal spontaneous combustion (CSC) causes huge economic losses and casualties, with the toxic and harmful gases produced during coal combustion not only polluting the working environment, but also causing great damage to the ecological environment...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922528/mass-production-and-pore-size-control-of-holey-carbon-microcages
#11
Lei Zhang, Xiaoxiao Liu, Yuhai Dou, Binwei Zhang, Huiling Yang, Shixue Dou, Huakun Liu, Yunhui Huang, Xianluo Hu
Architectural control of porous solids, such as porous carbon cages, has received considerable attention for versatile applications because of their attractive ability to interact with liquids and gases not only at the surface, but throughout the bulk. Here we report a scalable, facile spray-pyrolysis route to synthesize holey carbon microcages with mosquito-net-like shells. Using the surfaces of water droplets as the growth templates, styrene-butadiene rubber macromolecules are controllably cross-linked, and size-tunable holes on the carbon shells are generated...
September 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918273/volatile-and-semivolatile-emissions-from-the-pyrolysis-of-almond-shell-loaded-with-heavy-metals
#12
M A Martín-Lara, N Ortuño, J A Conesa
Heavy metal-loaded almond shell was subjected to pyrolysis to understand the effect of the presence of different heavy metals on its thermal degradation. Pyrolysis behavior of native and metal-loaded samples was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Similar shapes of thermogravimetric curves indicate that the presence of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) did not change the main degradation pathways of almond shell. However, the temperature at which the decomposition in each stage takes place at a higher rate and char yield was considerably modified by the presence of Cr and Ni...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917825/fugitive-halocarbon-emissions-from-working-face-of-municipal-solid-waste-landfills-in-china
#13
Yanjun Liu, Wenjing Lu, Wafa Dastyar, Yanting Liu, Hanwen Guo, Xindi Fu, Hao Li, Ruihong Meng, Ming Zhao, Hongtao Wang
Halocarbons are important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to their long lifetime and large characteristic factors. The present study for the first time assessed the global warming potential (GWP) of fugitive halocarbon emissions from the working face of landfills in China. The national emissions of five major halocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-113, CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and CCl4) from the working face of municipal solid waste landfills in China were provided through observation-based estimations. The fluxes of halocarbons from working face of landfills were observed much higher than covered cells in landfills hence representing the hot spots of landfill emissions...
September 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915758/co-adsorption-of-water-and-oxygen-on-gan-effects-of-charge-transfer-and-formation-of-electron-depletion-layer
#14
Qi Wang, Ajinkya Puntambekar, Vidhya Chakrapani
Species from ambient atmosphere such as water and oxygen are known to affect electronic and optical properties of GaN, but the underlying mechanism is not clearly known. In this work, we show through careful measurement of electrical resistivity and photoluminescence intensity under various adsorbates that the presence of oxygen or water vapor alone is not sufficient to induce electron transfer to these species. Rather, the presence of both water and oxygen is necessary to induce electron transfer from GaN that leads to the formation of an electron depletion region on the surface...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915755/defects-and-oxidation-of-group-iii-monochalcogenide-monolayers
#15
Yu Guo, Si Zhou, Yizhen Bai, Jijun Zhao
Among various two-dimensional (2D) materials, monolayer group-III monochalcogenides (GaS, GaSe, InS, and InSe) stand out owing to their potential applications in microelectronics and optoelectronics. Devices made of these novel 2D materials are sensitive to environmental gases, especially O2 molecules. To address this critical issue, here we systematically investigate the oxidization behaviors of perfect and defective group-III monochalcogenide monolayers by first-principles calculations. The perfect monolayers show superior oxidation resistance with large barriers of 3...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915730/adsorption-and-diffusion-of-fluids-in-defective-carbon-nanotubes-insights-from-molecular-simulations
#16
Benjamin J Bucior, German V Kolmakov, JoAnna M Male, Jinchen Liu, De-Li Chen, Prashant Kumar, J Karl Johnson
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been shown from both simulations and experiments to have remarkably low resistance to gas and liquid transport. This has been attributed to the remarkably smooth interior surface of pristine SWNTs. However, real SWNTs are known to have various defects that depend on the synthesis method and procedure used to activate the SWNTs. In this paper we study adsorption and transport properties of atomic and molecular gases and fluids in SWNTs having vacancy point defects...
September 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915726/a-thermodynamic-route-to-efficient-prediction-of-gas-diffusivity-in-nanoporous-materials
#17
Yun Tian, Xiaofei Xu, Jianzhong Wu
We report an efficient computational procedure for rapid and accurate prediction of the self-diffusivity of gas molecules in nanoporous materials by implementing the transitional-state theory for inter-cage hopping at infinite dilution with the string method in conjunction with the excess-entropy scaling for predicting gas diffusion at finite loadings. The theoretical procedure has been calibrated with molecular dynamics simulations for the diffusion coefficients of methane and hydrogen gases in representative nanoporous materials including metal organic frameworks and zeolites...
September 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915399/climate-change-impact-of-livestock-ch4-emission-in-india-global-temperature-change-potential-gtp-and-surface-temperature-response
#18
Shilpi Kumari, Moonmoon Hiloidhari, Nisha Kumari, S N Naik, R P Dahiya
Two climate metrics, Global surface Temperature Change Potential (GTP) and the Absolute GTP (AGTP) are used for studying the global surface temperature impact of CH4 emission from livestock in India. The impact on global surface temperature is estimated for 20 and 100 year time frames due to CH4 emission. The results show that the CH4 emission from livestock, worked out to 15.3 Tg in 2012. In terms of climate metrics GTP of livestock-related CH4 emission in India in 2012 were 1030 Tg CO2e (GTP20) and 62 Tg CO2e (GTP100) at the 20 and 100 year time horizon, respectively...
September 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915219/intrabronchial-catheter-resuscitation-for-respiratory-and-cardiorespiratory-arrest
#19
Jeffrey S Wolf, Andrea Hebert, Pablo Sanchez, Marniker Wijesinha, Scott Shapiro, Robert Morales, Aldo T Iacono
INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine whether intrabronchial oxygenation would provide adequate gas exchange during both anesthesia induced apneic and cardiopulmonary arrest and cardiac massage (CPR). METHODS: Ten pigs underwent general anesthesia with mechanical ventilation. Blood gases were measured in each animal at 4 min intervals for up to 28 min. An intrabronchial catheter (4 L/min O2) was inserted through an endotracheal tube after respirator cessation. Group A animals (6) were resuscitated with the catheter but without CPR...
September 14, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914524/templated-and-catalytic-fabrication-of-n-doped-hierarchical-porous-carbon-carbon-nanotubes-hybrids-as-host-for-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#20
Junjie Cai, Chun Wu, Shaoran Yang, Ying Zhu, Pei Kang Shen, Kaili Zhang
Nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon and carbon nanotube hybrids (N-HPC-CNTs) are fabricated by simple pyrolysis of the N-rich raw material melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin in the presence of nano-CaCO3 and bimetallic combination of Fe-Co catalyst. During carbonization, nano-CaCO3 acts as template for creating a hierarchical porous carbon and the N atoms originated from MF resin are in-situ doped into the carbon matrix simultaneously. Meanwhile, volatile gases generated by the thermal decomposition of MF resin could serve as carbon and nitrogen sources to grow nitrogen doped CNTs on HPC...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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