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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144464/haze-heats-pluto-s-atmosphere-yet-explains-its-cold-temperature
#1
Xi Zhang, Darrell F Strobel, Hiroshi Imanaka
Pluto's atmosphere is cold and hazy. Recent observations have shown it to be much colder than predicted theoretically, suggesting an unknown cooling mechanism. Atmospheric gas molecules, particularly water vapour, have been proposed as a coolant; however, because Pluto's thermal structure is expected to be in radiative-conductive equilibrium, the required water vapour would need to be supersaturated by many orders of magnitude under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Here we report that atmospheric hazes, rather than gases, can explain Pluto's temperature profile...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142806/synthesis-and-gas-sensing-properties-of-membrane-template-grown-hollow-zno-nanowires
#2
Jae-Hyoung Lee, Jin-Young Kim, Jae-Hun Kim, Ali Mirzaei, Hyoun Woo Kim, Sang Sub Kim
One-dimensional, hollow nanostructured materials are among the most promising materials for sensing applications owing to their high surface area that facilitates the adsorption of target gases. Accordingly, for gas sensing studies, hollow ZnO nanowires (NWs) with different surface areas were successfully synthesized herein by using polycarbonate membranes with different pore sizes as templates, and deposition of ZnO via the atomic layer deposition technique. The sensing properties of the synthesized hollow ZnO NWs were examined for CO and NO2, revealing their comparative sensing performances with ZnO nanomaterials-based sensors reported in literature...
2017: Nano Convergence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142384/hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-in-case-of-chiari-1-5-malformation-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Viralkumar M Vasani, Subhas Kanti Konar, S Satish
Type 2 respiratory failure is defined as hypercapnia associated with hypoxia. Chiari 1.5 is known as herniation of the cerebellar tonsils along with brain stem and fourth ventricle. We report a 35-year-old male who presented with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (Type 2), without any preexisting neurological or respiratory abnormality. Analysis of blood gases in emergency revealed a pH of 7.12, pCO2 of 132 mmHg, and arterial oxygen tension of 118 mm Hg. He was intubated and ventilated. Magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed herniation of the cerebellar tonsils along with brain stem and fourth ventricle...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142325/origin-of-methane-rich-natural-gas-at-the-west-pacific-convergent-plate-boundary
#4
Yuji Sano, Naoya Kinoshita, Takanori Kagoshima, Naoto Takahata, Susumu Sakata, Tomohiro Toki, Shinsuke Kawagucci, Amane Waseda, Tefang Lan, Hsinyi Wen, Ai-Ti Chen, Hsiaofen Lee, Tsanyao F Yang, Guodong Zheng, Yama Tomonaga, Emilie Roulleau, Daniele L Pinti
Methane emission from the geosphere is generally characterized by a radiocarbon-free signature and might preserve information on the deep carbon cycle on Earth. Here we report a clear relationship between the origin of methane-rich natural gases and the geodynamic setting of the West Pacific convergent plate boundary. Natural gases in the frontal arc basin (South Kanto gas fields, Northeast Japan) show a typical microbial signature with light carbon isotopes, high CH4/C2H6 and CH4/(3)He ratios. In the Akita-Niigata region - which corresponds to the slope stretching from the volcanic-arc to the back-arc -a thermogenic signature characterize the gases, with prevalence of heavy carbon isotopes, low CH4/C2H6 and CH4/(3)He ratios...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142261/selective-blocking-property-of-microporous-polymer-membranes-fabricated-by-chemical-vapor-deposition
#5
Takeshi Shii, Masaru Hatori, Kazuma Yokota, Yoshiyuki Hattori, Mutsumi Kimura
Poly-p-xylylene films have been utilized as protective and barrier layers for gases and solvents on electronic and implantable devices. Here we report a new approach to create highly permeable and selective nanofiltration membranes coated with microporous poly-p-xylylene nanofilms fabricated through a dry chemical vapor deposition process by using [2.2]paracyclophanes derivatives on ultrafiltration membranes. The introduction of crosslinking points into rigid poly-p-xylylenes enhanced microporosity and mechanical strength due to insufficient packing and depression of structural relaxation among polymer chains in three-dimensional networks...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141627/in-vitro-properties-of-concentrated-canine-platelets-stored-in-two-additive-solutions-a-comparative-study
#6
N Hlavac, C S Lasta, M L Dalmolin, L A Lacerda, D de Korte, N A Marcondes, S R Terra, F B Fernandes, F H D González
BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusion therapy poses many challenges in veterinary clinical practice. Lack of readily available blood donors, short shelf-life, and inability to administer a sufficient number of platelets to meet a dog's transfusion need are the major difficulties encountered. Platelet additive solutions are already in use at American and European human blood banks, showing to be a realistic alternative. This study compares the in vitro platelet function in plasma, Composol, or SSP+ during storage for 13 days...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140615/operator-exposure-to-hydrogen-sulfide-from-dairy-manure-storages-containing-gypsum-bedding
#7
Eileen E Fabian-Wheeler, Michael L Hile, Dennis J Murphy, Davis E Hill, Robert Meinen, Robin C Brandt, Hershel A Elliott, Daniel Hofstetter
Dairy manure storages containing gypsum-based bedding have been linked anecdotally with injury and death due to presumed dangerous levels of gases released. Recycled gypsum products are used as a cost-effective bedding alternative to improve animal welfare and provide agronomic benefits to manure recycled back to the land. Sulfur contained in gypsum (calcium sulfate) can contribute to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas formation under the anaerobic storage conditions typical of dairy manure slurry. Disturbance of stored manure during agitation releases a burst of volatile gases...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137795/cerium-substituted-magnetite-fabrication-characterization-and-sonocatalytic-activity-assessment
#8
Alireza Khataee, Ramin Hassandoost, Shima Rahim Pouran
The present paper reports the sonocatalytic activity of cerium-substituted-magnetite for removal of oxytetracycline (OTC). The catalyst was prepared through a chemical route (co-precipitation, Fe3-xCexO4) and a mechanical procedure (CeO2/Fe3O4). Subsequently, the physico-chemical characteristics of both samples were determined using XRD, BET, SEM, EDX, TEM, Dot-mapping, FT-IR, DRS, and VSM analysis and compared to pristine magnetite and ceria. Afterwards, the effects of various operational conditions were assessed on sonocatalytic performance of Fe2...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137785/synthesis-and-characterization-of-polyester-bionanocomposite-membrane-with-ultrasonic-irradiation-process-for-gas-permeation-and-antibacterial-activity
#9
Hashem Ahmadizadegan, Sheida Esmaielzadeh, Mahdi Ranjbar, Zahra Marzban, Fatemeh Ghavas
Optically active bionanocomposite membranes composed of polyester (PE) and cellulose/silica bionanocomposite (BNCs) prepared with simple, green and inexpensive ultrasonic irradiation process. It is a novel method to enhance the gas separation performance. The novel optically active diol containing functional trifluoromethyl groups was prepared in four steps reaction and it was fully characterized by different techniques. Commercially available silica nanoparticles were modified with biodegradable nanocellulose through ultrasonic irradiation technique...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137193/gas-measurement-using-static-fourier-transform-infrared-spectrometers
#10
Michael H Köhler, Michael Schardt, Markus S Rauscher, Alexander W Koch
Online monitoring of gases in industrial processes is an ambitious task due to adverse conditions such as mechanical vibrations and temperature fluctuations. Whereas conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers use rather complex optical and mechanical designs to ensure stable operation, static FTIR spectrometers do not require moving parts and thus offer inherent stability at comparatively low costs. Therefore, we present a novel, compact gas measurement system using a static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer (sSMFTS)...
November 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135942/morphological-transition-in-diamond-thin-films-induced-by-boron-in-a-microwave-plasma-deposition-process
#11
Paul A Baker, David R Goodloe, Yogesh K Vohra
The purpose of this study is to understand the basic mechanisms responsible for the synthesis of nanostructured diamond films in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) process and to identify plasma chemistry suitable for controlling the morphology and electrical properties of deposited films. The nanostructured diamond films were synthesized by MPCVD on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates using H₂/CH₄/N₂ precursor gases and the plasma chemistry was monitored by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES)...
November 14, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135919/acoustic-sensors-based-on-amino-functionalized-nanoparticles-to-detect-volatile-organic-solvents
#12
Daniel Matatagui, Oleg Kolokoltsev, José Manuel Saniger, Isabel Gràcia, María Jesús Fernández, Jose Luis Fontecha, María Del Carmen Horrillo
Love-wave gas sensors based on surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles has been developed in this research. Amino-terminated iron oxide nanoparticles were deposited, by a spin coating technique, onto the surface of Love-wave sensors, as a very reproducible gas-sensing layer. The gases tested were organic solvents, such as butanol, isopropanol, toluene and xylene, for a wide and low concentration range, obtaining great responses, fast response times of a few minutes (the time at which the device produced a signal change equal to 90%), good reproducibilities, and different responses for each detected solvent...
November 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135399/-investigation-of-parameters-related-to-prognosis-in-diffuse-parenchymal-lung-diseases-prognosis-in-interstitial-lung-diseases
#13
Coşkun Canıvar, Züleyha Bingöl, Zeki Kılıçaslan, Tülin Çağatay, N Gülfer Okumuş
Introduction: Parameters related to prognosis in diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) have a decisive influence on treatment and follow-up processes. We aimed to define baseline characteristics and factors that effect the mortality of the group of patients with DPLD and to determine distinctions between subgroups. Materials and Methods: Demographic characteristics, complaints, comorbidity, treatment, pulmonary function tests, echocardiographic findings, six minute walking test (6MWT), arterial blood gases analysis, radiological findings and survival time were collected from outpatient clinics database...
September 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134990/dft-coupled-with-negf-study-of-ultra-sensitive-hcn-and-hnc-gases-detection-and-distinct-i-v-response-based-on-phosphorene
#14
Jiu Pang, Qun Yang, Xiaosong Ma, Liming Wang, Chunjian Tan, Daxi Xiong, Huaiyu Ye, Xianping Chen
The sensing performances of pristine and X-doped phosphorene substrates (X = Al, Si, and S atoms) toward the adsorption of the toxic gases HCN and HNC were systematically investigated by first-principles simulations. The numerical results show that the pristine phosphorene is sensitive to HCN and HNC molecules with moderate adsorption energy, excellent charge transfer, high sensitivity and selectivity, implying its potential applications as excellent HCN and HNC sensors. In addition, the Al-doped phosphorene exhibits extremely high reactive activity toward HCN and HNC gases; thus, it has potential for use as a metal-free catalyst for activating or catalyzing HCN or HNC adsorbates...
November 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133933/photoacoustic-and-modulated-reflectance-studies-of-indirect-and-direct-band-gap-in-van-der-waals-crystals
#15
Szymon J Zelewski, Robert Kudrawiec
Photoacoustic (PA) and modulated reflectance (MR) spectroscopy have been applied to study the indirect and direct band gap for van der Waals (vdW) crystals: dichalcogenides (MoS2, MoSe2, MoTe2, HfS2, HfSe2, WS2, WSe2, ReS2, ReSe2, SnS2 and SnSe2) and monochalcogenides (GaS, GaSe, InSe, GeS, and GeSe). It is shown that the indirect band gap can be determined by PA technique while the direct band gap can be probed by MR spectroscopy which is not sensitive to indirect optical transitions. By measuring PA and MR spectra for a given compound and comparing them with each other it is easy to conclude about the band gap character in the investigated compound and the energy difference between indirect and direct band gap...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132083/fly-ash-classification-efficiency-of-electrostatic-precipitators-in-fluidized-bed-combustion-of-peat-wood-and-forest-residues
#16
Katja Ohenoja, Mika Körkkö, Valter Wigren, Jan Österbacka, Mirja Illikainen
The increasing use of biomasses in the production of electricity and heat results in an increased amount of burning residue, fly ash which disposal is becoming more and more restricted and expensive. Therefore, there is a great interest in utilizing fly ashes instead of just disposing of it. This study aimed to establish whether the utilization of fly ash from the fluidized bed combustion of peat, wood, and forest residues can be improved by electrostatic precipitator separation of sulfate, chloride, and some detrimental metals...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132006/ocean-acidification-dampens-physiological-stress-response-to-warming-and-contamination-in-a-commercially-important-fish-argyrosomus-regius
#17
Eduardo Sampaio, Ana R Lopes, Sofia Francisco, Jose R Paula, Marta Pimentel, Ana L Maulvault, Tiago Repolho, Tiago F Grilo, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, António Marques, Rui Rosa
Increases in carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases emissions are changing ocean temperature and carbonate chemistry (warming and acidification, respectively). Moreover, the simultaneous occurrence of highly toxic and persistent contaminants, such as methylmercury, will play a key role in further shaping the ecophysiology of marine organisms. Despite recent studies reporting mostly additive interactions between contaminant and climate change effects, the consequences of multi-stressor exposure are still largely unknown...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131959/computational-and-experimental-study-of-thermodynamics-of-the-reaction-of-titania-and-water-at-high-temperatures
#18
Quynhgiao N Nguyen, Charles W Bauschlicher, Dwight L Myers, Nathan S Jacobson, Elizabeth J Opila
The volatility of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in water vapor-containing environments at elevated temperatures is studied with both quantum chemical composite methods and the experimental transpiration method. The geometry and harmonic vibrational frequencies of TiO(OH)2(g) and Ti(OH)4(g) were computed using the coupled-cluster singles and doubles method with a perturbative correction for connected triple substitutions [CCSD(T)]. The B3LYP density functional theory was used to compute corrections to the harmonic approximations...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131466/understanding-the-reactive-adsorption-of-h2s-and-co2-in-sodium-exchanged-zeolites
#19
Evgenii O Fetisov, Mansi S Shah, Christopher Knight, Michael Tsapatsis, Joern Ilja Siepmann
Purifying sour natural gas streams containing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide has been a long-standing environmental and economic challenge. In the presence of cation-exchanged zeolites, these two acid gases can react to form carbonyl sulfide and water (H2S + CO2 <=> H2O + COS), but this reaction is rarely accounted for. In this work, we carry out reactive first-principles Monte Carlo (RxFPMC) simulations for mixtures of H2S and CO2 in all-silica and Na- exchanged forms of zeolite beta to understand the governing principles driving the enhanced conversion...
November 13, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129867/a-non-invasive-monitoring-of-propofol-concentration-in-blood-by-a-virtual-surface-acoustic-wave-sensor-array
#20
Fengjiang Zhang, Hao Dong, Xuanlang Zhang, Jin Guo, Yunqing Liu, Cheng Zhou, Xi Zhang, Jun Liu, Min Yan, Xing Chen
Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is widely used in total intravenous anesthesia. An unknown drug concentration in blood always leads to some side effects in patients with propofol injection. However, the drug concentration in the blood is hard to be continuously measured since invasive sampling causes a loss of blood at each measurement. Here, we introduced a virtual surface acoustic wave sensor array (VSAWSA) to non-invasively detect the propofol concentration in blood through exhaled gases. Calibration was conducted by a parallel test using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) for preconcentration...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
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