Read by QxMD icon Read


Nazim Boudjada, Gideon Wachtel, Arun Paramekanti
Recent experiments have explored two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at oxide (111) surfaces and interfaces, finding evidence for hexagonal symmetry breaking in SrTiO_{3} at low temperature. We discuss many-body instabilities of such (111) 2DEGs, incorporating multiorbital interactions in the t_{2g} manifold which can induce diverse magnetic and orbital orders. Such broken symmetries may partly account for the observed nematicity, cooperating or competing with phonon mechanisms. We present an effective field theory for the interplay of magnetism and nematic charge order, and discuss implications of the nematicity for transport and superconductivity in (111) 2DEGs...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Xiaoyun Wang, Wanqiang Wang, Qiao Gao, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Fen Zhu
Chrysomya megacephala is a saprophagous fly whose larvae can compost manure and yield biomass and bio-fertilizer simultaneously. However, there are concerns for the safety of the composting system, that is risk of diseases spread by way of manure pathogens, residue of harmful metals and emission of greenhouse gases. Microbiota analysis and heavy metal speciation by European Communities Bureau of Reference were evaluated in raw, C. megacephala-composted and natural stacked swine manure to survey pathogenic bacterial changes and mobility of lead and cadmium in manure after C...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Jennifer Abbasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
S P Rout, L Payne, S Walker, T Scott, P Heard, H Eccles, G Bond, P Shah, P Bills, B R Jackson, S A Boxall, A P Laws, C Charles, S J Williams, P N Humphreys
14 C is an important consideration within safety assessments for proposed geological disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, since it is capable of re-entering the biosphere through the generation of14 C bearing gases. The irradiation of graphite moderators in the UK gas-cooled nuclear power stations has led to the generation of a significant volume of14 C-containing intermediate level wastes. Some of this14 C is present as a carbonaceous deposit on channel wall surfaces. Within this study, the potential of biofilm growth upon irradiated and13 C doped graphite at alkaline pH was investigated...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
V Isoni, D Kumbang, P N Sharratt, H H Khoo
Aligned with Singapore's commitment to sustainable development and investment in renewable resources, cleaner energy and technology (Sustainable Singapore Blueprint), we report a techno-economic analysis of the biorefinery process in Southeast Asia. The considerations in this study provide an overview of the current and future challenges in the biomass-to-chemical processes with life-cycle thinking, linking the land used for agriculture and biomass to the levulinic acid production. 7-8 kg of lignocellulosic feedstock (glucan content 30-35 wt%) from agriculture residues empty fruit bunches (EFB) or rice straw (RS) can be processed to yield 1 kg of levulinic acid...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ina Strauss, Alexander Mundstock, Dominik Hinrichs, Rasmus Himstedt, Alexander Knebel, Carsten Reinhardt, Dirk Dorfs, Jürgen Caro
Co-MOF-74 rod like crystals with a length of several hundred micrometers have been synthesized via a solvothermal procedure and their interaction with different gases has been evaluated in view of selective gas sensing. We show strongly anisotropic absorption behaviour of the Co-MOF-74 crystals when illuminated with polarized light. This study then addresses the interactions of guests (CO2, propane, propene, Ar, MeOH, H2O) with Co-MOF-74, studied by various spectroscopic techniques. Via Vis/NIR measurements, peak shifts of Co-MOF-74 depending on the interaction with the guest molecules were observed and distinguished...
March 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Hao Wang, William P Lustig, Jing Li
Toxic and hazardous chemical species are ubiquitous, predominantly emitted by anthropogenic activities, and pose serious risks to human health and the environment. Thus, the sensing and subsequent capture of these chemicals, especially in the gas or vapor phase, are of extreme importance. To this end, metal-organic frameworks have attracted significant interest, as their high porosity and wide tunability make them ideal for both applications. These tailorable framework materials are particularly promising for the specific sensing and capture of targeted chemicals, as they can be designed to fit a diverse range of required conditions...
March 13, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Stergios Vakalis, Carlo Caligiuri, Konstantinos Moustakas, Dimitris Malamis, Massimiliano Renzi, Marco Baratieri
There is a growing market demand for small-scale biomass gasifiers that is driven by the economic incentives and the legislative framework. Small-scale gasifiers produce a gaseous fuel, commonly referred to as producer gas, with relatively low heating value. Thus, the most common energy conversion systems that are coupled with small-scale gasifiers are internal combustion engines. In order to increase the electrical efficiency, the operators choose dual fuel engines and mix the producer gas with diesel. The Wiebe function has been a valuable tool for assessing the efficiency of dual fuel internal combustion engines...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhiyuan Sun, Dmitry N Basov, Michael M Fogler
A general relation is derived between the linear and second-order nonlinear ac conductivities of an electron system in the hydrodynamic regime of frequencies below the interparticle scattering rate. The magnitude and tensorial structure of the hydrodynamic nonlinear conductivity are shown to differ from their counterparts in the more familiar kinetic regime of higher frequencies. Due to universality of the hydrodynamic equations, the obtained formulas are valid for systems with an arbitrary Dirac-like dispersion, ranging from solid-state electron gases to free-space plasmas, either massive or massless, at any temperature, chemical potential, or space dimension...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Amanda A Pierce, Steven W Chapman, Laura K Zimmerman, Jennifer C Hurley, Ramon Aravena, John A Cherry, Beth L Parker
Plumes of trichloroethene (TCE) with degradation products occur at a large industrial site in California where TCE as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) entered the fractured sandstone bedrock at many locations beginning in the late 1940s. Groundwater flows rapidly in closely spaced fractures but plume fronts are strongly retarded relative to groundwater flow velocities owing largely to matrix diffusion in early decades and degradation processes in later decades and going forward. Multiple data types show field evidence for both biotic and abiotic dechlorination of TCE and its degradation products, resulting in non-chlorinated compounds...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Shawana Tabassum, Liang Dong, Ratnesh Kumar
We present an effective yet simple approach to study the dynamic variations in optical properties (such as the refractive index (RI)) of graphene oxide (GO) when exposed to gases in the visible spectral region, using the thin-film interference method. The dynamic variations in the complex refractive index of GO in response to exposure to a gas is an important factor affecting the performance of GO-based gas sensors. In contrast to the conventional ellipsometry, this method alleviates the need of selecting a dispersion model from among a list of model choices, which is limiting if an applicable model is not known a priori...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
E C Welch, S Ya Tochitsky, J J Pigeon, C Joshi
A new method for a long-wave infrared (LWIR), picosecond difference frequency generation (DFG) source using one near-infrared laser and a Raman shifter is experimentally tested and characterized. The signal seed for DFG is a Stokes pulse generated via transient stimulated Raman scattering in a nonlinear medium with a Raman frequency in the 2-20 µm range. A study of the dynamics of the transient Raman regime in liquid C6 D6 has shown that the efficiency of Stokes production can be increased and the central wavelength can be controlled by chirping the pump pulse in order to compensate for chirping caused by self-phase modulation...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Pierpaolo Baiamonte, Emilia Mazzuca, Claudia I Gruttad'Auria, Alessandra Castrogiovanni, Claudia Marino, Davide Lo Nardo, Marco Basile, Margherita Algeri, Salvatore Battaglia, Oreste Marrone, Andrea Gagliardo, Maria R Bonsignore
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-choice treatment for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. Automatic bilevel ventilation can be used to treat obstructive sleep-disordered breathing when CPAP is ineffective, but clinical experience is still limited. To assess the outcome of titration with CPAP and automatic bilevel ventilation, the charts of 356 outpatients (obstructive sleep apnea, n = 242; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease + obstructive sleep apnea overlap, n = 80; obesity hypoventilation syndrome [OHS], n = 34; 103 females) treated for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing from January 2014 to April 2017 were reviewed...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Maryam Barzegar, Masoud Berahman, Azam Iraji Zad
Recent research interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials has led to an emerging new group of materials known as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), which have significant electrical, optical, and transport properties. MoS2 is one of the well-known 2D materials in this group, which is a semiconductor with controllable band gap based on its structure. The hydrothermal process is known as one of the scalable methods to synthesize MoS2 nanostructures. In this study, the gas sensing properties of flower-shaped MoS2 nanoflakes, which were prepared from molybdenum trioxide (MoO3 ) by a facile hydrothermal method, have been studied...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Ron Dueck, Eric G Wong, G Kim Prisk, Randolph H Hastings
Patients with end-expiratory flow limitation (eEFL) demonstrate a terminal rise in capnography slope. The high slope could represent phase 5, a phenomenon described for single breath N2 tests but previously unreported during capnography. This study evaluated 6 healthy subjects exhaling from total lung capacity to residual volume at several set constant rates. We measured the volumes of flow limitation (VFL ) and phase 5 (VP5 ) for CO2 and N2 . A distinct phase 5 occurred shortly after eEFL for both gases. Increased expiratory flow rate resulted in parallel increases in VFL and VP5 ...
March 8, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Adrien Jacotot, Cyril Marchand, Michel Allenbach
We performed a preliminary study to quantify CO2 and CH4 emissions from the water column within a Rhizophora spp. mangrove forest. Mean CO2 and CH4 emissions during the studied period were 3.35±3.62mmolCm-2 h-1 and 18.30±27.72μmolCm-2 h-1 , respectively. CO2 and CH4 emissions were highly variable and mainly driven by tides (flow/ebb, water column thickness, neap/spring). Indeed, an inverse relationship between the magnitude of the emissions and the thickness of the water column above the mangrove soil was observed...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhao Tan, An Yong Li
A novel type of trivalent BNg five-membered cational species B5 Ngn 3+ (Ng = He~Rn, n = 1~5) has been found and investigated theoretically using the B3LYP and MP2 methods with the def2-QZVPPD and def2-TZVPPD basis sets. The geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, bond energies, charge distribution, bond nature, aromaticity, and energy decomposition analysis of these structures were reported. The calculated B-Ng bond energy is quite large (the averaged bond energy is in the range of 209.2~585.76 kJ mol-1 ) for heavy rare gases and increases with the Ng atomic number...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Davide Pierleoni, Matteo Minelli, Simone Ligi, Meganne Christian, Sebastian Funke, Niklas Reineking, Vittorio Morandi, Ferruccio Doghieri, Vincenzo Palermo
The performance of membranes for gas separation is currently limited by the Robeson limit, stating that it is impossible to have high gas permeability and high gas selectivity at the same time. We describe the production of membranes based on graphene oxide (GO) and poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) multilayers able to overcome such limit. The PEI chains acts as molecular spacers in between the GO sheets, yielding a highly reproducible, periodic multi-layered structure with constant spacing of 3.7 nm, giving a record combination of gas permeability and selectivity...
March 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Liang-Liang Xu, Yong-Kai Liu, Shi-Jie Yang
Attractive Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute alkali gases are unstable against collapse in two- and three-dimensional free space. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the spin-orbit coupling of the two-component condensates counteracts the tendency of collapse and makes the system prefers to an extended spatial distribution in three-dimensional case. Furthermore, stable topological objects can be formed in the condensates which are shown to be the matestable energy states. Two configurations of the density profiles, called three-dimensional skyrmion and three-dimensional dimeron, respectively, are identified depending on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Juan M Reséndiz-Hernández, Ramcés Falfán-Valencia
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are widely documented diseases with an inflammatory component. Asthma is a heterogeneous disorder of the airways that involves chronic inflammation, decline of the airway function and tissue remodeling. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a preventable and treatable disease, which is characterized by persistent limited airflow, and is usually progressive with an increased inflammatory response in the airways. The inflammatory response is evoked by the stimulus of noxious particles and gases...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"