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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738557/multielemental-analysis-of-18-essential-and-toxic-elements-in-amniotic-fluid-samples-by-icp-ms-full-procedure-validation-and-estimation-of-measurement-uncertainty
#1
B Markiewicz, A Sajnóg, W Lorenc, A Hanć, I Komorowicz, J Suliburska, R Kocyłowski, D Barałkiewicz
Amniotic fluid is the substantial factor in the development of an embryo and fetus due to the fact that water and solutes contained in it penetrate the fetal membranes in an hydrostatic and osmotic way as well as being swallowed by the fetus. Elemental composition of amniotic fluid influences the growth and health of the fetus, therefore, an analysis of amniotic fluid is important because the results would indicate abnormal levels of minerals or toxic elements. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) is often used for determination of trace and ultra-trace level elements in a wide range of matrices including biological samples because of its unique analytical capabilities...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737907/in-situ-solid-gas-reactivity-of-nanoscaled-metal-borides-from-molten-salt-synthesis
#2
Guillaume Gouget, Damien P Debecker, Ara Kim, Giorgia Olivieri, Jean-Jacques Gallet, Fabrice Bournel, Cyril Thomas, Ovidiu Ersen, Simona Moldovan, Clément Sanchez, Sophie Carenco, David Portehault
Metal borides have mostly been studied as bulk materials. The nanoscale provides new opportunities to investigate the properties of these materials, e.g., nanoscale hardening and surface reactivity. Metal borides are often considered stable solids because of their covalent character, but little is known on their behavior under a reactive atmosphere, especially reductive gases. We use molten salt synthesis at 750 °C to provide cobalt monoboride (CoB) nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous layer of cobalt(II) and partially oxidized boron as a model platform to study morphological, chemical, and structural evolutions of the boride and the superficial layer exposed to argon, dihydrogen (H2), and a mixture of H2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) through a multiscale in situ approach: environmental transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron-based near-ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy...
July 24, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736054/low-sensitivity-of-anion-gap-to-detect-clinically-significant-lactic-acidosis-in-the-emergency-department
#3
Q Xu, S HowlettClyne, A Fuezery, G S Cembrowski
INTRODUCTION: Lactic acidosis represents the pathologic accumulation of lactate and hydrogen ions. It is important to efficiently diagnose lactic acidosis as delayed treatment will lead to poor patient outcomes. As plasma lactate levels may not be rapidly available, some physicians may use elevated anion gaps to test for the need to measure lactate. All Edmonton metropolitan hospitals have Radiometer blood gas/electrolyte instruments in the ED or close by. As lactate is measured for each set of electrolytes, we were able to determine the effectiveness of a screening anion gap for lactic acidosis...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735316/biochar-rhizosphere-interactions-a-review
#4
Sławomir Głuszek, Lidia Sas Paszt, Beata Sumorok, Ryszard Kozera
Biochar is a solid material of biological origin obtained from the biomass carbonization, designed as a mean to reduce greenhouse gases emission and carbon sequestration in soils for a long time. Biochar has a wide spectrum of practical utilization and is applied as a promising soil improver or fertilizer in agriculture, or as a medium for soil or water remediation. Preparations of biochar increase plant growth and yielding when applied into soil and also improve plant growth conditions, mainly bio, physical and chemical properties of soil...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734570/spatial-and-temporal-variations-of-heavy-metals-in-marine-sediments-from-liaodong-bay-bohai-sea-in-china
#5
Liang Liu, Lijun Wang, Zhengxian Yang, Yingying Hu, Minghui Ma
An integrated analysis has been carried out using surface sediment monitoring data in order to characterize the spatial distributions and temporal trends of heavy metals within ten years from 2004 to 2013 in the entire Liaodong Bay. Hg, Cd and As were predominant contaminants with their median concentrations of 0.04-0.15, 0.01-0.65, and 1.80-30.3mg/kg respectively. Both areas and levels of Cu and Pb contamination were low. Cd contents exhibited an obvious decreasing trend and As presented a similar law during these 10years...
July 19, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734357/ysz-based-sensor-using-cr-fe-based-spinel-oxide-electrodes-for-selective-detection-of-co
#6
Sri Ayu Anggraini, Yuki Fujio, Hiroshi Ikeda, Norio Miura
A selective carbon monoxide (CO) sensor was developed by the use of both of CuCrFeO4 and CoCrFeO4 as the sensing electrode (SE) for yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based potentiometric sensor. The sensing-characteristic examinations of the YSZ-based sensors using each of spinel oxides as the single-SE sensor showed that CuCrFeO4-SE had the ability to detect CO, hydrocarbons and NOx gases, while CoCrFeO4-SE was sensitive to hydrocarbons and NOx gases. Thus, when both SEs were paired as a combined-SEs sensor, the resulting sensor could generate a selective response to CO at 450 °C under humid conditions...
August 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733867/gaseous-mediators-in-gastrointestinal-mucosal-defense-and-injury
#7
REVIEW
John L Wallace, Angela Ianaro, Gilberto de Nucci
Of the numerous gaseous substances that can act as signaling molecules, the best characterized are nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide. Contributions of each of these low molecular weight substances, alone or in combination, to maintenance of gastrointestinal mucosal integrity have been established. There is considerable overlap in the actions of these gases in modulating mucosal defense and responses to injury, and in some instances they act in a cooperative manner. Each also play important roles in regulating inflammatory and repair processes throughout the gastrointestinal tract...
July 21, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732168/inland-sea-spray-aerosol-transport-and-incomplete-chloride-depletion-varying-degrees-of-reactive-processing-observed-during-soas
#8
Amy Lynne Bondy, Bingbing Wang, Alexander Laskin, Rebecca Lynn Craig, Manelisi Victor Nhliziyo, Steven Bertman, Kerri A Pratt, Paul B Shepson, Andrew P Ault
Multiphase reactions involving sea spray aerosol (SSA) impact trace gas budgets in coastal regions by acting as a reservoir for oxidized nitrogen and sulfur species, as well as a source of halogen gases (HCl, ClNO2, etc.). While most studies of multiphase reactions on SSA have focused on marine environments, far less is known about SSA transported inland. Herein, single particle measurements of SSA are reported at a site > 320 km from the Gulf of Mexico, with transport times of 7-68 h. Samples were collected during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in June-July 2013 near Centreville, Alabama...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732014/association-of-time-serial-changes-in-ambient-particulate-matters-pms-with-respiratory-emergency-cases-in-taipei-s-wenshan-district
#9
Jer-Hwa Chang, Shih-Chang Hsu, Kuan-Jen Bai, Shau-Ku Huang, Chin-Wang Hsu
Ambient air pollution poses a significant risk for a group of common and often debilitating respiratory diseases, but its direct impact on cause-specific respiratory diseases using emergency room visit (ERV) as an indicator remains to be fully explored. In this study, we conducted a time-series study of ambient PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and their association with ERV for asthma, COPD and pneumonia in a four-year time span. Relative risks for ERV as per log increase in the level of ambient pollutants with time lags of up to 10 days were calculated, using a generalized additive model of Poisson regression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729510/tailored-semiconductors-for-high-harmonic-optoelectronics
#10
Murat Sivis, Marco Taucer, Giulio Vampa, Kyle Johnston, André Staudte, Andrei Yu Naumov, D M Villeneuve, Claus Ropers, P B Corkum
The advent of high-harmonic generation in gases 30 years ago set the foundation for attosecond science and facilitated ultrafast spectroscopy in atoms, molecules, and solids. We explore high-harmonic generation in the solid state by means of nanostructured and ion-implanted semiconductors. We use wavelength-selective microscopic imaging to map enhanced harmonic emission and show that the generation medium and the driving field can be locally tailored in solids by modifying the chemical composition and morphology...
July 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729347/lethal-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-virus-induces-ataxic-breathing-in-mice-with-apoptosis-of-pre-botzinger-complex-neurons-expressing-neurokinin-1-receptor
#11
Jianguo Zhuang, Na Zang, Chunyan Ye, Fadi Xu
BACKGROUND: Lethal influenza A (H5N1) induces respiratory failure in humans. Although it also causes death at 7 day postinfection (dpi) in mice, the development of the respiratory failure and the viral impact on pre-Botzinger complex (PBC) neurons expressing neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), the respiratory rhythm-generator, have not been explored. METHODS: Body temperature, weight, ventilation, arterial blood pH and gases were measured at 0, 2, 4, and 6 dpi in control, lethal HK483 and non-lethal HK486 viral infected mice...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728409/heterogeneous-reactions-between-toluene-and-no2-on-mineral-particles-under-simulated-atmospheric-conditions
#12
Hejingying Niu, Kezhi Li, Biwu Chu, Wenkang Su, Junhua Li
Heterogeneous reactions between organic and inorganic gases with aerosols are important to the study of smog occurrence and development. In this study, heterogeneous reactions between toluene and NO2 with three atmospheric mineral particles in the presence or absence of UV light were investigated. The three mineral particles were SiO2, α-Fe2O3 and BS (butlerite and szmolnokite). In a dark environment, benzaldehyde was produced on α-Fe2O3. For BS, nitrotoluene and benzaldehyde were obtained. No aromatic products were produced in the absence of NO2 in the system...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728308/methane-uptake-in-global-forest-and-grassland-soils-from-1981-to-2010
#13
Lijun Yu, Yao Huang, Wen Zhang, Tingting Li, Wenjuan Sun
Methane (CH4) is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. Although forest and grassland soils generally consume atmospheric CH4, the quantities and spatiotemporal changes in CH4 uptake remain largely uncertain for these ecosystems at the global scale. In this study, we developed an empirical model to estimate the CH4 uptake in global forest and grassland soils during the period 1981-2010. We estimated that the mean values of CH4 uptake were 9.16 (± 3.84) Tg yr(-1) in forest soils and 3.73 (± 1.41) Tg yr(-1) in grassland soils during the study period...
July 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727812/electrically-controlled-cloud-of-bulk-nanobubbles-in-water-solutions
#14
Alexander V Postnikov, Ilia V Uvarov, Mikhail V Lokhanin, Vitaly B Svetovoy
Using different experimental techniques we visualize a cloud of gas in water that is produced electrochemically by the alternating polarity process. Liquid enriched with gas does not contain bubbles strongly scattering visible light but its refractive index changes significantly near the electrodes. The change of the refractive index is a collective effect of bulk nanobubbles with a diameter smaller than 200 nm. Any alternative explanation fails to explain the magnitude of the effect. Spatial structure of the cloud is investigated with the optical lever method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727744/climate-change-and-sugarcane-expansion-increase-hantavirus-infection-risk
#15
Paula Ribeiro Prist, María Uriarte, Katia Fernandes, Jean Paul Metzger
Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727429/elliptic-cylinder-airborne-sampling-and-geostatistical-mass-balance-approach-for-quantifying-local-greenhouse-gas-emissions
#16
Jovan M Tadić, Anna M Michalak, Laura T Iraci, Velibor Ilic, Sébastien C Biraud, Daniel R Feldman, Thaopaul V Bui, Matthew S Johnson, Max Loewenstein, Seongeun Jeong, Marc L Fischer, Emma L Yates, Ju-Mee Ryoo
In this study, we explore observational, experimental, methodological and practical aspects of the flux quantification of greenhouse gases from local point sources by using in-situ airborne observations, and suggest a series of conceptual changes to improve flux estimates. We address the major sources of uncertainty reported in previous studies by modifying (1) the shape of the typical flight path, (2) the modeling of covariance and anisotropy, and (3) the type of interpolation tools used. We show that a cylindrical flight profile offers considerable advantages compared to traditional profiles collected as curtains, although this new approach brings with it the need for a more comprehensive subsequent analysis...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724090/transformation-of-organic-matter-and-the-emissions-of-methane-and-ammonia-during-storage-of-liquid-manure-as-affected-by-acidification
#17
Sven G Sommer, Timothy J Clough, Nimlesh Balaine, Sasha D Hafner, Keith C Cameron
Acidification of livestock manure can reduce emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH) and nitrous oxide (NO), as well as ammonia (NH). We examined the relation between emission of these gases and transformation of organic matter as affected by acidification. Liquid cattle manure was acidified with sulfuric acid to pH 5.5 at a pilot scale (100 L), and we measured effects on CH, NO, CO and NH emissions and on transformation of pH buffer components and organic matter. Acidification reduced NH emissions by 62% (47 d) and emission of CH by 68% (57 d)...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723109/fast-surface-acoustic-wave-based-sensors-to-investigate-the-kinetics-of-gas-uptake-in-ultra-microporous-frameworks
#18
Benjamin Paschke, Achim Wixforth, Dmytro Denysenko, Dirk Volkmer
Observation of the kinetics and measurement of the activation energies for gas diffusion in porous materials requires very fast and sensitive sensors. In this work, thin films of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with different pore sizes are grown on a surface acoustic wave (SAW) substrate, resulting in very sensitive and specific sensor systems for the detection of various gases at very short time scales. Using specially designed SAW delay lines for the detection, up to 200-nm-wide cubic MOF crystals were grown directly from a solution on the sensitive sensor chip area...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723091/protomer-specific-photochemistry-investigated-using-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry
#19
James N Bull, Neville J A Coughlan, Evan John Bieske
The utility of tandem ion mobility mass spectrometry coupled with electronic spectroscopy to investigate protomer-specific photochemistry is demonstrated by measuring the photoisomerization response for protomers of protonated 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-para-dimethylaminostyryl-4H-pyran (DCM) molecules. The target DCMH(+) species, has three protomers that are distinguished by their different collision cross-sections with He, N2, and CO2 buffer gases, trends in abundance with ion source conditions, and from their photoisomerization responses...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722121/the-importance-of-species-identity-and-interactions-on-multifunctionality-depends-on-how-ecosystem-functions-are-valued
#20
Eleanor M Slade, Laura Kirwan, Thomas Bell, Christopher Philipson, Owen T Lewis, Tomas Roslin
Studies investigating how biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning increasingly focus on multiple functions measured simultaneously ('multifunctionality'). However, few such studies assess the role of species interactions, particularly under alternative environmental scenarios, despite interactions being key to ecosystem functioning. Here we address five questions of central importance to ecosystem multifunctionality using a terrestrial animal system: 1) Does the contribution of individual species differ for different ecosystem functions?; 2) Do inter-species interactions affect the delivery of single functions and multiple functions?; 3) Does the community composition which maximises individual functions also maximise multifunctionality?; 4) Is the functional role of individual species, and the effect of interspecific interactions, modified by changing environmental conditions?; and 5) How do these roles and interactions change under varying scenarios where ecosystem services are weighted to reflect different societal preferences? We manipulated species' relative abundance in dung beetle communities and measured 16 functions contributing to dung decomposition, plant productivity, nutrient recycling, reduction of greenhouse gases, and microbial activity...
July 19, 2017: Ecology
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