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Metabolic changes with psychiatric medication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271424/a-randomized-controlled-multisite-study-of-behavioral-interventions-for-veterans-with-mental-illness-and-antipsychotic-medication-associated-obesity
#1
Zachary D Erickson, Crystal L Kwan, Hollie A Gelberg, Irina Y Arnold, Valery Chamberlin, Jennifer A Rosen, Chandresh Shah, Charles T Nguyen, Gerhard Hellemann, Dixie R Aragaki, Charles F Kunkel, Melissa M Lewis, Neena Sachinvala, Patrick A Sonza, Joseph M Pierre, Donna Ames
BACKGROUND: Weight gain and other metabolic sequelae of antipsychotic medications can lead to medication non-adherence, reduced quality of life, increased costs, and premature mortality. Of the approaches to address this, behavioral interventions are less invasive, cost less, and can result in sustained long-term benefits. OBJECTIVE: We investigated behavioral weight management interventions for veterans with mental illness across four medical centers within the Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System...
March 7, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141725/acute-agitation-and-self-injury-in-a-5-year-old-with-autism
#2
Jason Schweitzer, Christine James, Willough Jenkins, Michael I Reiff, Martin T Stein
A 5-year-old nonverbal child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was admitted to inpatient pediatrics with new onset agitation and self-injurious behavior. His parents described him as a pleasant child without previous episodes of self-injury. Four days before admission, the parents noted new irritability followed by 2 days of self-injury to the face without clear precipitant. His hitting intensified with closed fist to face, and he required parental physical restraint to prevent further injury. Car rides and ibuprofen provided only temporary relief...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138119/the-normalization-of-brain-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-fluorodeoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-hypometabolism-following-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-a-55-year-old-woman-with-treatment-resistant-late-onset-depression-a-case-report
#3
Jeongjae Bak, Sang Mi Lee, Young-Joon Kwon, Se-Hoon Shim, Joong Il Kim
Major depressive disorder, especially in later life, has heterogeneous clinical characteristics and treatment responses. Symptomatically, psychomotor retardation, lack of energy, and apathy tends to be more common in people with late-onset depression (LOD). Despite recent advances in psychopharmacologic treatments, 20% to 30% of patients with mood disorders experience inadequate responses to medication, often resulting in a trial of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, the therapeutic mechanism of ECT is still unclear...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131442/the-human-gut-microbiome-as-source-of-innovation-for-health-which-physiological-and-therapeutic-outcomes-could-we-expect
#4
Joël Doré, Marie-Christine Multon, Jehan-Michel Béhier
From the moment of birth, each human being builds a microbe-host symbiosis which is key for the preservation of its health and well-being. This personal symbiotic coexistence is the result of progressive enrichments in microorganism diversity through external supplies. This diversity is nowadays massively overthrown by drastic changes related to clinical practice in birth management, environmental exposure, nutrition and healthcare behaviors. The last two generations have been the frame of massive modifications in life and food habits, with people being more and more sedentary, overfed and permeated with drugs and pollutants...
January 3, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108057/bani-polymorphism-of-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2-gene-and-somatic-symptoms-in-medication-free-acute-depressed-patients
#5
Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Ta-Wei Guu, Yi-Chih Chen, Piotr Gałecki, Anna Walczewska, Kuan-Pin Su
Somatic symptoms are commonly seen in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and might be associated with inflammatory activation. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) are the key enzymes in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which in turn may play an important role in inflammation and somatic symptoms in depression. This study investigated the effects of BanI polymorphism of cPLA2 gene and COX-2 rs4648308 genotypes on somatic symptoms and inflammatory marker in patients with MDD...
January 4, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898073/proteomic-analysis-of-the-postsynaptic-density-implicates-synaptic-function-and-energy-pathways-in-bipolar-disorder
#6
M Föcking, P Dicker, L M Lopez, M Hryniewiecka, K Wynne, J A English, G Cagney, D R Cotter
The postsynaptic density (PSD) contains a complex set of proteins of known relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We enriched for this anatomical structure in the anterior cingulate cortex of 16 bipolar disorder samples and 20 controls from the Stanley Medical Research Institute. Unbiased shotgun proteomics incorporating label-free quantitation was used to identify differentially expressed proteins. Quantitative investigation of the PSD identified 2033 proteins, among which 288 were found to be differentially expressed...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780338/a-longitudinal-study-of-the-relationships-between-mood-symptoms-body-mass-index-and-serum-adipokines-in-bipolar-disorder
#7
David J Bond, Ana C Andreazza, John Hughes, Taj Dhanoa, Ivan J Torres, Jan-Marie Kozicky, L Trevor Young, Raymond W Lam, Lakshmi N Yatham
OBJECTIVE: There is a bidirectional relationship between obesity and mood disorders, with each increasing the risk of developing the other. This relationship suggests that they have overlapping pathophysiologic mechanisms. Adipose tissue-derived hormones, or adipokines, regulate appetite and metabolism and have activity in limbic brain regions, making them potential shared etiologic factors between elevated body mass index (BMI) and mood disorders. However, the precise relationships between BMI, mood, and adipokines are unknown...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599617/polysubstance-induced-relapse-of-schizoaffective-disorder-refractory-to-high-dose-antipsychotic-medications-a-case-report
#8
Murray G Tucker, Sebastian Kekulawala, Michelle Kent, Sam Mostafa, Richard Harvey
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of comorbid illicit drug use in persons with chronic psychotic illness represents a strong determinant of psychotic relapse and rehospitalization. Epidemiological studies indicate changing patterns of illicit drug use in Australia, which are concerning because of increased use of crystal methamphetamine, also known as "ice." An important complication of habitual use of crystal methamphetamine is the development of a dose-dependent acute psychotic reaction...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597832/the-genetic-intersection-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-and-shared-medical-comorbidities-relations-that-translate-from-bench-to-bedside
#9
Jasmine T Plummer, Alexis J Gordon, Pat Levitt
Most psychiatric disorders are considered neurodevelopmental, and the associated genes often are expressed in tissues outside of the brain. This suggests a biological relatedness with medical co-occurrences that could have broad clinical implications for diagnosis and patient management over a lifetime. A qualitative integration of public data from genetic consortia of psychiatric disorders and medical comorbidities explores the question of whether genetically associated psychiatric illnesses present with co-occurring disturbances can be used to define specific mental-physical health relations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358029/tryptophan-and-kynurenines-continuing-to-court-controversy
#10
Trevor W Stone
The role of the amino acid tryptophan in the generation of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) has been expanded over the past 30 years with recognition that its oxidation by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) results in the formation of kynurenine and metabolites which regulate neuronal excitability, psychiatric status, immune cell activity and balance, and probably implantation and the development of embryos. While the amount of work on this kynurenine pathway continues to accelerate, it is important that disagreements about results, differences of interpretation or problems with technical issues are presented openly and discussed thoroughly so that new research is not mis-led in ways that could have been foreseen...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355884/acute-agitation-and-self-injury-in-a-5-year-old-with-autism
#11
Jason Schweitzer, Christine James, Willough Jenkins, Michael I Reiff, Martin T Stein
A 5-year-old nonverbal child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was admitted to inpatient pediatrics with new onset agitation and self-injurious behavior. His parents described him as a pleasant child without previous episodes of self-injury. Four days before admission, the parents noted new irritability followed by 2 days of self-injury to the face without clear precipitant. His hitting intensified with closed fist to face, and he required parental physical restraint to prevent further injury. Car rides and ibuprofen provided only temporary relief...
September 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302677/deep-brain-stimulation-improves-behavior-and-modulates-neural-circuits-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia
#12
Lior Bikovsky, Ravit Hadar, María Luisa Soto-Montenegro, Julia Klein, Ina Weiner, Manuel Desco, Javier Pascau, Christine Winter, Clement Hamani
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with a significant number of patients not adequately responding to treatment. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical technique currently investigated for medically-refractory psychiatric disorders. Here, we use the poly I:C rat model of schizophrenia to study the effects of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (Nacc) DBS on two behavioral schizophrenia-like deficits, i.e. sensorimotor gating, as reflected by disrupted prepulse inhibition (PPI), and attentional selectivity, as reflected by disrupted latent inhibition (LI)...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247842/is-metabolic-syndrome-on-the-radar-improving-real-time-detection-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-physician-response-by-computerized-scan-of-the-electronic-medical-record
#13
Kingwai Lui, Gagandeep Randhawa, Vicken Totten, Adam E Smith, Joachim Raese
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome is a common underdiagnosed condition among psychiatric patients exacerbated by second-generation antipsychotics, with the exception of aripiprazole and ziprasidone. This study evaluated the prescribing and treating behavior with regard to antipsychotics and metabolic syndrome of psychiatrists before and after implementation of a mandatory admission order set and electronic notification of results. METHOD: Baseline data from 9,100 consecutive psychiatric admissions to a mental health hospital (July 2013-July 2014) were compared to postintervention data (July 2014-January 2015), which included 1,499 consecutive patient records...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27086601/endocannabinoid-system-a-multi-facet-therapeutic-target
#14
REVIEW
Rimplejeet Kaur, Sneha R Ambwani, Surjit Singh
Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It has been cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes since many centuries. Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries. The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and downs in the recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve "protective role" in many medical conditions...
2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944172/liver-function-in-huntington-s-disease-assessed-by-blood-biochemical-analyses-in-a-clinical-setting
#15
Signe Marie Borch Nielsen, Tua Vinther-Jensen, Jørgen E Nielsen, Anne Nørremølle, Lis Hasholt, Lena E Hjermind, Knud Josefsen
Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited, progressive neurological disorder caused by a CAG repeat elongation in the huntingtin gene. In addition to motor-, psychiatric- and cognitive dysfunction, peripheral disease manifestations in the form of metabolic changes and cellular dysfunction are seen. Blood levels of a wide range of hormones, metabolites and proteins have been analyzed in HD patients, identifying several changes associated with the disease. However, a comprehensive panel of liver function tests (LFT) has not been performed...
March 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26919449/persistence-of-metabolic-monitoring-for-psychiatry-inpatients-treated-with-second-generation-antipsychotics-utilizing-a-computer-based-intervention
#16
J Lee, G W Dalack, M I Casher, S A Eappen, J R Bostwick
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Monitoring and intervention for metabolic abnormalities secondary to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) remain weak areas of performance in mental health care. This study evaluated the sustained impact of a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) pop-up alert designed to improve rates of laboratory metabolic monitoring of patients treated with SGAs in an inpatient psychiatry unit. Interventions carried out by the psychiatry team to manage metabolic abnormalities found on screening were also identified...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26556069/effects-of-exercise-on-physical-and-mental-health-and-cognitive-and-brain-functions-in-schizophrenia-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Ridson Rosa Rimes, Antonio Marcos de Souza Moura, Murilo Khede Lamego, Alberto Souza de Sá Filho, João Manochio, Flávia Paes, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Gioia Mura, Mirko Wegner, Henning Budde, Nuno Barbosa Ferreira Rocha, Joana Rocha, João Manuel R S Tavares, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Antonio Egidio Nardi, Ti-Fei Yuan, Sergio Machado
Exercise promotes several health benefits, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory improvements. It is believed that the practice of exercise in individuals with psychiatric disorders, e.g. schizophrenia, can cause significant changes. Schizophrenic patients have problematic lifestyle habits compared with general population; this may cause a high mortality rate, mainly caused by cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate changes in physical and mental health, cognitive and brain functioning due to the practice of exercise in patients with schizophrenia...
2015: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26491495/characterization-of-older-emergency-department-patients-admitted-to-psychiatric-units
#18
Kirk A Stiffler, Erol Kohli, Oriana Chen, Jennifer A Frey
BACKGROUND: Many older patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with psychiatric complaints require admission to geropsychiatric units (GPUs). The medical evaluation needed prior to this is not understood. Our goal was to understand ED evaluation practices for patients admitted to the GPU through the ED and understand the medical problems identified after admission. METHODS: Via retrospective chart review, we abstracted demographics, medical history, ED complaint, evaluation, length of stay, and diagnosis...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26447642/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-fibrosis-in-youth-taking-psychotropic-medications-literature-review-case-reports-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Barbara L Gracious, Ramona Bhatt, Carol Potter
OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a worldwide epidemic because of the greater prevalence of obesity. Despite implications for youth with severe mental disorders, little has been published in the psychiatric literature about this increasingly common medical comorbidity. The goals of this article are to: 1) provide an overview of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of NAFLD, including progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); 2) describe two clinical cases illustrating difficulties faced in management; and 3) review screening recommendations, differential diagnosis, and monitoring and intervention approaches...
October 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26428329/screening-for-the-metabolic-side-effects-of-antipsychotic-medication-findings-of-a-6-year-quality-improvement-programme-in-the-uk
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
T R E Barnes, S F Bhatti, R Adroer, C Paton
OBJECTIVES: To increase the frequency and quality of screening for the metabolic syndrome in people prescribed continuing antipsychotic medication. DESIGN: An audit-based, quality improvement programme (QIP) with customised feedback to participating mental health services after each audit, including benchmarked data on their relative and absolute performance against an evidence-based practice standard and the provision of bespoke change interventions. SETTING: Adult, assertive outreach, community psychiatric services in the UK...
October 1, 2015: BMJ Open
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