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Atica Moosa, Dirk A Lamprecht, Kriti Arora, Clifton E Barry, Helena I M Boshoff, Thomas R Ioerger, Adrie J C Steyn, Valerie Mizrahi, Digby F Warner
We deleted subunits I (cydA) and II (cydB) of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytochrome bd menaquinol oxidase. The resulting ΔcydA and ΔcydAB mutants were hypersusceptible to compounds targeting the mycobacterial bc1 menaquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase and exhibited bioenergetic profiles indistinguishable from strains deficient in the ABC-type transporter, CydDC, predicted to be essential for cytochrome bd assembly. These results confirm CydAB and CydDC as potential targets for drugs aimed at inhibiting a terminal respiratory oxidase implicated in pathogenesis...
October 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Yosra I Nagy, Manal M M Hussein, Yasser M Ragab, Ahmed S Attia
Moraxella catarrhalis is becoming an important human respiratory tract pathogen affecting significant proportions from the population. However, still little is known about its physiology and molecular regulation. To this end, the CydDC, which is a heterodimeric ATP binding cassette transporter that has been shown to contribute to the maintenance of the redox homeostasis across the periplasm in other Gram-negative bacteria, is studied here. Amino acids multiple sequence alignments indicated that M. catarrhalis CydC is different from the CydC proteins of the bacterial species in which this system has been previously studied...
September 2017: Microbiological Research
Louise V Holyoake, Stuart Hunt, Guido Sanguinetti, Gregory M Cook, Mark J Howard, Michelle L Rowe, Robert K Poole, Mark Shepherd
The glutathione/cysteine exporter CydDC maintains redox balance in Escherichia coli. A cydD mutant strain was used to probe the influence of CydDC upon reduced thiol export, gene expression, metabolic perturbations, intracellular pH homoeostasis and tolerance to nitric oxide (NO). Loss of CydDC was found to decrease extracytoplasmic thiol levels, whereas overexpression diminished the cytoplasmic thiol content. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a dramatic up-regulation of protein chaperones, protein degradation (via phenylpropionate/phenylacetate catabolism), β-oxidation of fatty acids and genes involved in nitrate/nitrite reduction...
March 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Mark Shepherd
The CydDC complex of Escherichia coli is a heterodimeric ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that exports cysteine and glutathione to the periplasm. These reductants are thought to modulate periplasmic redox poise, impacting upon the disulfide folding of periplasmic and secreted proteins involved in bacterial virulence. Diminished CydDC activity abolishes the assembly of functional bd-type respiratory oxidases and perturbs haem ligation during the assembly of c-type cytochromes. The focus herein is upon a newly-discovered interaction of the CydDC complex with a haem cofactor; haem has recently been shown to modulate CydDC activity and structural modelling reveals a potential haem-binding site on the periplasmic surface of the complex...
October 2015: Biochemical Society Transactions
Galina V Smirnova, Nadezda G Muzyka, Vadim Y Ushakov, Aleksey V Tyulenev, Oleg N Oktyabrsky
The aim of the study was to elucidate a possible relationship between transmembrane cycling of glutathione and changes in levels of external superoxide. Exposure of growing Escherichia coli to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by xanthine and xanthine oxidase (XO) stimulates reversible glutathione (GSH) efflux from the cells that is considerably lowered under phosphate starvation. This GSH efflux is prevented by exogenous SOD, partially inhibited by catalase, and is not dependent on the GSH exporter CydDC...
October 2015: Research in Microbiology
Louise V Holyoake, Robert K Poole, Mark Shepherd
The CydDC complex of Escherichia coli is a heterodimeric ATP-binding cassette type transporter (ABC transporter) that exports the thiol-containing redox-active molecules cysteine and glutathione. These reductants are thought to aid redox homeostasis of the periplasm, permitting correct disulphide folding of periplasmic and secreted proteins. Loss of CydDC results in the periplasm becoming more oxidising and abolishes the assembly of functional bd-type respiratory oxidases that couple the oxidation of ubiquinol to the reduction of oxygen to water...
2015: Advances in Microbial Physiology
Masao Yamashita, Mark Shepherd, Wesley I Booth, Hao Xie, Vincent Postis, Yvonne Nyathi, Svetomir B Tzokov, Robert K Poole, Stephen A Baldwin, Per A Bullough
In Escherichia coli, the biogenesis of both cytochrome bd-type quinol oxidases and periplasmic cytochromes requires the ATP-binding cassette-type cysteine/GSH transporter, CydDC. Recombinant CydDC was purified as a heterodimer and found to be an active ATPase both in soluble form with detergent and when reconstituted into a lipid environment. Two-dimensional crystals of CydDC were analyzed by electron cryomicroscopy, and the protein was shown to be made up of two non-identical domains corresponding to the putative CydD and CydC subunits, with dimensions characteristic of other ATP-binding cassette transporters...
August 15, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Htin Lin Aung, Michael Berney, Gregory M Cook
Mycobacteria are obligate aerobes and respire using two terminal respiratory oxidases, an aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase and a cytochrome bd-type menaquinol oxidase. Cytochrome bd is encoded by cydAB from the cydABDC gene cluster that is conserved throughout the mycobacterial genus. Here we report that cydAB and cydDC in Mycobacterium smegmatis constitute two separate operons under hypoxic growth conditions. The transcriptional start sites of both operons were mapped, and a series of cydA-lacZ and cydD-lacZ transcriptional reporter fusions were made to identify regulatory promoter elements...
September 2014: Journal of Bacteriology
Anders Boysen, Jakob Møller-Jensen, Birgitte Kallipolitis, Poul Valentin-Hansen, Martin Overgaard
Small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) have emerged as important elements of gene regulatory circuits. In enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella many of these sRNAs interact with the Hfq protein, an RNA chaperone similar to mammalian Sm-like proteins and act in the post-transcriptional regulation of many genes. A number of these highly conserved ribo-regulators are stringently regulated at the level of transcription and are part of major regulons that deal with the immediate response to various stress conditions, indicating that every major transcription factor may control the expression of at least one sRNA regulator...
April 2, 2010: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Serdar Turkarslan, Carsten Sanders, Seda Ekici, Fevzi Daldal
During cytochrome c maturation (Ccm), the DsbA-dependent thio-oxidative protein-folding pathway is thought to introduce a disulphide bond into the haem-binding motif of apocytochromes c. This disulphide bond is believed to be reduced through a thio-reductive pathway involving the Ccm components CcdA (DsbD), CcmG and CcmH. Here, we show in Rhodobacter capsulatus that in the absence of DsbA cytochrome c levels were decreased and CcdA or CcmG or the putative glutathione transporter CydDC was not needed for Ccm...
November 2008: Molecular Microbiology
Hideyuki Tamegai, Sayaka Chikuma, Masami Ishii, Kaoru Nakasone, Chiaki Kato
Shewanella violacea DSS12 is facultative piezophile isolated from the deep-sea. The expression of cydDC genes (required for d-type cytochrome maturation) of the organism is regulated by hydrostatic pressure. In this study, we analyzed the nucleotide sequence upstream of cydDC in detail and found that there are putative binding sites for the NarL protein which is part of a two-component regulatory system also containing the sensor protein NarX. Furthermore, we identified the narQP genes (homologues of narXL) from S...
June 2008: DNA Sequence: the Journal of DNA Sequencing and Mapping
Mark Shepherd, Mathew D Heath, Robert K Poole
NikA is a periplasmic binding protein involved in nickel uptake in Escherichia coli. NikA was identified as a heme-binding protein in the periplasm of anaerobically grown cells overexpressing CydDC, an ABC transporter that exports reductant to the periplasm. CydDC-overexpressing cells accumulate a heme biosynthesis-derived pigment, P-574. For further biochemical and spectroscopic analysis, unliganded NikA was overexpressed and purified. NikA was found to comigrate with both hemin and protoporphyrin IX during gel filtration...
May 1, 2007: Biochemistry
Marc S Pittman, Hilary C Robinson, Robert K Poole
Glutathione (GSH), a major biological antioxidant, maintains redox balance in prokaryotes and eukaryotic cells and forms exportable conjugates with compounds of pharmacological and agronomic importance. However, no GSH transporter has been characterized in a prokaryote. We show here that a heterodimeric ATP-binding cassette-type transporter, CydDC, mediates GSH transport across the Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane. In everted membrane vesicles, GSH is imported via an ATP-driven, protonophore-insensitive, orthovanadate-sensitive mechanism, equating with export to the periplasm in intact cells...
September 16, 2005: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hideyuki Tamegai, Hiroaki Kawano, Akihiro Ishii, Sayaka Chikuma, Kaoru Nakasone, Chiaki Kato
The genes of cytochrome bd-encoding cydAB were identified from a deep-sea bacterium Shewanella violacea DSS12. These showed significant homologies with known cydAB gene sequences from various organisms. Additionally, highly conserved regions that are important for the enzymatic function were also conserved in cydA of S. violacea. Based on the results, transcriptional analysis of cydAB operon and cydDC operon (required for assembly of cytochrome bd) of S. violacea in microaerobic condition was performed under the growth condition of various pressures...
June 2005: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Hugo Cruz-Ramos, Gregory M Cook, Guanghui Wu, Michael W Cleeter, Robert K Poole
Cytochrome bd is a respiratory quinol oxidase in Escherichia coli. Besides the structural genes (cydA and cydB) encoding the oxidase complex, the cydD and cydC genes, encoding an ABC-type transporter, are required for assembly of this oxidase. Recently, cysteine has been identified as a substrate (allocrite) that is transported from the cytoplasm by CydDC, but the mechanism of cysteine export to the periplasm and its role there remain unknown. To initiate an understanding of structure-function relationships in CydDC, its membrane topography was analysed by generating protein fusions between random and selected residues in the two polypeptides with both alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase...
October 2004: Microbiology
Marc S Pittman, Hazel Corker, Guanghui Wu, Marie B Binet, Arthur J G Moir, Robert K Poole
Assembly of Escherichia coli cytochrome bd and periplasmic cytochromes requires the ATP-binding cassette transporter CydDC, whose substrate is unknown. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE comparison of periplasm from wild-type and cydD mutant strains revealed that the latter was deficient in several periplasmic transport binding proteins, but no single major protein was missing in the cydD periplasm. Instead, CydDC exports from cytoplasm to periplasm the amino acid cysteine, demonstrated using everted membrane vesicles that transported radiolabeled cysteine inward in an ATP-dependent, uncoupler-independent manner...
December 20, 2002: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Gregory M Cook, Hugo Cruz-Ramos, Arthur J G Moir, Robert K Poole
cydDC genes encode a heterodimeric ABC transporter required for assembly of the membrane-bound cytochrome bd quinol oxidase and periplasmic cytochromes. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of functional cydDC genes on a multicopy plasmid results in elevated levels of cytochromes b and d, but most notably formation in anaerobically grown cells of a novel haem-containing component P-574. The pigment has a distinctive absorbance at 574-579 nm and 448 nm in reduced minus oxidised spectra and renders over-producing cells reddish in colour...
November 2002: Archives of Microbiology
G M Cook, R K Poole
The mechanism(s) that bacteria use to transport haem into and across the cytoplasmic membrane to complete the assembly of periplasmic cytochromes is unknown. The authors have tested directly the role(s) of two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters - the cydDC and ccmAB gene products - in Escherichia coli by measuring haem uptake in everted (inside-out) membrane vesicles. If haem is exported to the periplasm in vivo, the same process should result in active accumulation in such everted vesicles. [14C]Haemin (chloride) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein was accumulated in intact everted membrane vesicles by an energy-independent mechanism...
February 2000: Microbiology
G M Cook, C Loder, B Søballe, G P Stafford, J Membrillo-Hernández, R K Poole
Escherichia coli produces an extracellular factor that inhibits the aerobic growth of Cyd- mutants, defective in the synthesis or assembly of the cytochrome bd-type quinol oxidase. This paper shows that such a factor is the iron-chelating siderophore enterochelin. Mutants in entA or aroB, defective in the production of enterochelin, did not produce the factor that inhibits the growth of cydAB and cydDC mutants; purified enterochelin inhibited the growth of Cyd- mutants, but not that of wild-type cells. Other iron-chelating agents, particularly ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA), whose complex with Fe(III) has a large stability constant (log K = 33...
December 1998: Microbiology
G M Cook, J Membrillo-Hernández, R K Poole
The expression of the cydDC operon was investigated by using a chromosomal phi(cydD-lacZ) transcriptional fusion and primer extension analysis. A single transcriptional start site was found for cydD located 68 bp upstream of the translational start site, and Northern blot analysis confirmed that cydDC is transcribed as a polycistronic message independently of the upstream gene trxB. cydDC was highly expressed under aerobic growth conditions and during anaerobic growth with alternative electron acceptors. Aerobic expression was independent of ArcA and Fnr, but induction of cydDC by nitrate and nitrite was dependent on NarL and Fnr...
October 1997: Journal of Bacteriology
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