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Perivascular space

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859259/vessel-co-option-is-common-in-human-lung-metastases-and-mediates-resistance-to-anti-angiogenic-therapy-in-preclinical-lung-metastasis-models
#1
Victoria L Bridgeman, Peter B Vermeulen, Shane Foo, Agnes Bilecz, Frances Daley, Eleftherios Kostaras, Mark R Nathan, Elaine Wan, Sophia Frentzas, Thomas Schweiger, Balazs Hegedus, Konrad Hoetzenecker, Ferenc Renyi-Vamos, Elizabeth A Kuczynski, Naveen S Vasudev, James Larkin, Martin Gore, Harold F Dvorak, Sandor Paku, Robert S Kerbel, Balazs Dome, Andrew R Reynolds
Anti-angiogenic therapies have shown limited efficacy in the clinical management of metastatic disease, including lung metastases. Moreover, the mechanisms via which tumours resist anti-angiogenic therapies are poorly understood. Importantly, rather than utilising angiogenesis, some metastases may instead incorporate pre-existing vessels from surrounding tissue (vessel co-option). Since anti-angiogenic therapies were designed to target only new blood vessel growth, vessel co-option has been proposed as a mechanism that could drive resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834748/early-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cognitive-markers-of-hereditary-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#2
Sanneke van Rooden, Anna M van Opstal, Gerda Labadie, Gisela M Terwindt, Marieke J H Wermer, Andrew G Webb, Huub A M Middelkoop, Steven M Greenberg, Jeroen van der Grond, Mark A van Buchem
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early markers for cerebral amyloid angiopathy are largely unknown. We aimed to identify which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (performed at 7 and 3T) and cognitive markers are an early sign in (pre) symptomatic subjects with hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type. METHODS: Twenty-seven DNA-proven Dutch-type mutation carriers (15 symptomatic and 12 presymptomatic) (mean age of 45.9 years) and 33 controls (mean age of 45...
December 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821230/-primary-central-nervous-system-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-a-clinicopathologic-and-molecular-study
#3
Z P Ma, Babayi Ainiwaer, Z Y Liu, X L Shi, W L Cui, W Zhang, X X Li
Objective: To investigate clinicopathologic characteristics, immunophenotype and EB virus-related molecular genetic alterations in primary central nervous system diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) along with correlation with clinical prognosis. Methods: A total of 30 cases of primary central nervous system DLBCL were retrospectively studied by retrieving clinical data, histological evaluation and immunophenotyping by EnVision two steps methods. The expression of EBER mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization and bcl-2, bcl-6 and C-MYC gene abnormalities were analyzed by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization...
November 8, 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796315/three-dimensional-ultrastructural-analyses-of-anterior-pituitary-gland-expose-spatial-relationships-between-endocrine-cell-secretory-granule-localization-and-capillary-distribution
#4
Munetake Yoshitomi, Keisuke Ohta, Tomonoshin Kanazawa, Akinobu Togo, Shingo Hirashima, Kei-Ichiro Uemura, Satoko Okayama, Motohiro Morioka, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura
Endocrine and endothelial cells of the anterior pituitary gland frequently make close appositions or contacts, and the secretory granules of each endocrine cell tend to accumulate at the perivascular regions, which is generally considered to facilitate secretory functions of these cells. However, three-dimensional relationships between the localization pattern of secretory granules and blood vessels are not fully understood. To define and characterize these spatial relationships, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) three-dimensional reconstruction method based on focused ion-beam slicing and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM)...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750279/t-cell-acute-leukaemia-exhibits-dynamic-interactions-with-bone-marrow-microenvironments
#5
Edwin D Hawkins, Delfim Duarte, Olufolake Akinduro, Reema A Khorshed, Diana Passaro, Malgorzata Nowicka, Lenny Straszkowski, Mark K Scott, Steve Rothery, Nicola Ruivo, Katie Foster, Michaela Waibel, Ricky W Johnstone, Simon J Harrison, David A Westerman, Hang Quach, John Gribben, Mark D Robinson, Louise E Purton, Dominique Bonnet, Cristina Lo Celso
It is widely accepted that complex interactions between cancer cells and their surrounding microenvironment contribute to disease development, chemo-resistance and disease relapse. In light of this observed interdependency, novel therapeutic interventions that target specific cancer stroma cell lineages and their interactions are being sought. Here we studied a mouse model of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) and used intravital microscopy to monitor the progression of disease within the bone marrow at both the tissue-wide and single-cell level over time, from bone marrow seeding to development/selection of chemo-resistance...
October 17, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727072/association-between-serum-cystatin-c-level-and-total-magnetic-resonance-imaging-burden-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-patients-with-acute-lacunar-stroke
#6
Song Yang, Jing Cai, Rulan Lu, Jian Wu, Min Zhang, Xianju Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD). However, the relationship between serum cystatin C (CysC) level, a highly sensitive marker of impaired kidney function, and cSVD has not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the association between serum CysC level and total burden of cSVD on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute lacunar stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 210 patients with first-ever acute lacunar stroke occurring within 1 week after onset were included in this study...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722828/structural-brain-anomalies-in-healthy-adolescents-in-the-ncanda-cohort-relation-to-neuropsychological-test-performance-sex-and-ethnicity
#7
Edith V Sullivan, Barton Lane, Dongjin Kwon, M J Meloy, Susan F Tapert, Sandra A Brown, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker, Michael D De Bellis, Duncan B Clark, Bonnie J Nagel, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Structural MRI of volunteers deemed "normal" following clinical interview provides a window into normal brain developmental morphology but also reveals unexpected dysmorphology, commonly known as "incidental findings." Although unanticipated, these anatomical findings raise questions regarding possible treatment that could even ultimately require neurosurgical intervention, which itself carries significant risk but may not be indicated if the anomaly is nonprogressive or of no functional consequence. Neuroradiological readings of 833 structural MRI from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) cohort found an 11...
October 8, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721239/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-confers-pericyte-properties-on-cancer-cells
#8
Anitha K Shenoy, Yue Jin, Huacheng Luo, Ming Tang, Christine Pampo, Rong Shao, Dietmar W Siemann, Lizi Wu, Coy D Heldermon, Brian K Law, Lung-Ji Chang, Jianrong Lu
Carcinoma cells can acquire increased motility and invasiveness through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the significance of EMT in cancer metastasis has been controversial, and the exact fates and functions of EMT cancer cells in vivo remain inadequately understood. Here, we tracked epithelial cancer cells that underwent inducible or spontaneous EMT in various tumor transplantation models. Unlike epithelial cells, the majority of EMT cancer cells were specifically located in the perivascular space and closely associated with blood vessels...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712091/sustained-high-pressure-in-the-spinal-subarachnoid-space-while-arterial-expansion-is-low-may-be-linked-to-syrinx-development
#9
Elizabeth C Clarke, David F Fletcher, Lynne E Bilston
Syringomyelia (a spinal cord cyst) usually develops as a result of conditions that cause cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obstruction. The mechanism of syrinx formation and enlargement remains unclear, though previous studies suggest that the fluid enters via the perivascular spaces (PVS) of the penetrating arteries of the spinal cord, and that alterations in the CSF pulse timing and pressure could contribute to enhanced PVS inflow. This study uses an idealised computational model of the PVS to investigate the factors that influence peri-arterial fluid flow...
October 7, 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703087/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-burden-is-increased-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#10
Stewart J Wiseman, Mark E Bastin, Charlotte L Jardine, Gayle Barclay, Iona F Hamilton, Elaine Sandeman, David Hunt, E Nicole Amft, Susan Thomson, Jill F F Belch, Stuart H Ralston, Joanna M Wardlaw
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) increases stroke risk, but the mechanism is uncertain. This study aimed to determine the association between SLE and features on neuroimaging of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), a risk factor for stroke. METHODS: Consecutive patients attending a clinic for SLE were recruited. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging; had blood samples taken for markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, cholesterol, and autoantibodies; and underwent cognitive and psychiatric testing...
November 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702398/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-pericytes-to-what-extent-are-they-related
#11
Lucas Eduardo Botelho de Souza, Tathiane Maistro Malta, Simone Kashima Haddad, Dimas Tadeu Covas
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were initially identified as progenitors of skeletal tissues within mammalian bone marrow and cells with similar properties were also obtained from other tissues such as adipose and dental pulp. Although MSCs have been extensively investigated, their native behavior and in vivo identity remain poorly defined. Uncovering the in vivo identity of MSCs has been challenging due to the lack of exclusive cell markers, cellular alterations caused by culture methods, and extensive focus on in vitro properties for characterization...
November 3, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692763/a-transapical-to-aorta-double-lumen-cannula-based-neonate-left-ventricular-assist-device-efficiently-unloads-the-left-ventricle-in-neonate-lambs
#12
Cheng Zhou, Dongfang Wang, Cherry Ballard-Croft, Guangfeng Zhao, Hassan K Reda, Stephen Topaz, Joseph Zwischenberger
OBJECTIVE: We are developing a transapical-to-aorta double lumen cannula (TAA DLC) for a less-invasive/more dependable neonatal left ventricular assist device. METHODS: The 18-Fr TAA DLC prototypes were bench tested and evaluated for 6 hours in neonate lambs (n = 6, 7.7-10 kg). The cardiac apex was exposed through a left anterolateral thoracotomy through the sixth intercostal space. The TAA DLC was inserted through a mattress stitch on apex, passing LV-aortic valve, into the ascending aorta with insertion/deployment guided by pressure waveform...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658544/activated-gl7-b-cells-are-maintained-within-the-inflamed-cns-in-the-absence-of-follicle-formation-during-viral-encephalomyelitis
#13
Krista D DiSano, Stephen A Stohlman, Cornelia C Bergmann
Central nervous system (CNS) inflammation associated with viral infection and autoimmune disease results in the accumulation of B cells in various differentiation stages. However, the contribution between peripheral and CNS activation remains unclear. During gliatropic coronavirus induced encephalomyelitis, accumulation of protective antibody secreting cells is preceded by infiltration of B cells with a naïve and early differentiation phenotype (Phares et al., 2014). Investigation of the temporal dynamics of B cell activation in draining cervical lymph nodes (CLN) and the CNS revealed that peak CNS infiltration of early activated, unswitched IgD(+) and IgM(+) B cells coincided with polyclonal activation in CLN...
September 19, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620364/correlation-between-morphological-mri-findings-and-specific-diagnostic-categories-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#14
S Boronat, A Sánchez-Montañez, N Gómez-Barros, C Jacas, L Martínez-Ribot, E Vázquez, M Del Campo
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include physical and neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to prenatal alcohol exposure. Some neuroimaging findings have been clearly related to FASD, including corpus callosum and cerebellar anomalies. However, detailed studies correlating with specific FASD categories, that is, the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (pFAS) and alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARND), are lacking. We prospectively performed clinical assessment and brain MR imaging to 72 patients with suspected FASD, and diagnosis was confirmed in 62...
September 9, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618324/neuroimaging-findings-in-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-what-you-really-need-to-know
#15
Roberta Reichert, Lillian Gonçalves Campos, Filippo Vairo, Carolina Fischinger Moura de Souza, Juliano Adams Pérez, Juliana Ávila Duarte, Fernando Araujo Leiria, Maurício Anés, Leonardo Modesti Vedolin
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is an inherited metabolic disease and a member of the group of lysosomal storage disorders. Its hallmark is a deficiency of lysosomal enzymes involved in the degradation of mucopolysaccharides, also known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The products of GAG degradation accumulate within lysosomes and in the extracellular space, thereby interfering with the degradation of other macromolecules. This process leads to chronic degeneration of cells, which in turn affects multiple organs and systems...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617710/a-poroelastic-fluid-structure-interaction-model-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-dynamics-in-the-cord-with-syringomyelia-and-adjacent-subarachnoid-space-stenosis
#16
C D Bertram, Matthias Heil
An existing axisymmetric fluid/structure-interaction model of the spinal cord, pia mater, subarachnoid space and dura mater in the presence of syringomyelia and subarachnoid space stenosis was modified to include porous solids. This allowed investigation of a hypothesis for syrinx fluid ingress from cerebrospinal fluid. Gross model deformation was unchanged by the addition of porosity, but pressure oscillated more in the syrinx and the subarachnoid space below the stenosis. The poroelastic model still exhibited elevated mean pressure in the subarachnoid space below the stenosis, and in the syrinx...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613583/microbleeds-on-mri-are-associated-with-microinfarcts-on-autopsy-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#17
Arne Lauer, Susanne J van Veluw, Christopher M William, Andreas Charidimou, Duangnapa Roongpiboonsopit, Anastasia Vashkevich, Alison Ayres, Sergi Martinez-Ramirez, Edip M Gurol, Geert Jan Biessels, Matthew Frosch, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
OBJECTIVES: To identify in vivo MRI markers that might correlate with cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) on autopsy in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). METHODS: We included patients with neuropathologic evidence of CAA on autopsy and available antemortem brain MRI. Clinical characteristics and in vivo MRI markers of CAA-related small vessel disease were recorded, including white matter hyperintensities, cerebral microbleeds, cortical superficial siderosis, and centrum semiovale perivascular spaces...
October 4, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591113/vascular-cognitive-impairment-neuropathology-guidelines-vcing-the-contribution-of-cerebrovascular-pathology-to-cognitive-impairment
#18
Olivia A Skrobot, Johannes Attems, Margaret Esiri, Tibor Hortobágyi, James W Ironside, Rajesh N Kalaria, Andrew King, George A Lammie, David Mann, James Neal, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Patrick G Kehoe, Seth Love
There are no generally accepted protocols for post-mortem assessment in cases of suspected vascular cognitive impairment. Neuropathologists from seven UK centres have collaborated in the development of a set of vascular cognitive impairment neuropathology guidelines (VCING), representing a validated consensus approach to the post-mortem assessment and scoring of cerebrovascular disease in relation to vascular cognitive impairment. The development had three stages: (i) agreement on a sampling protocol and scoring criteria, through a series of Delphi method surveys; (ii) determination of inter-rater reliability for each type of pathology in each region sampled (Gwet's AC2 coefficient); and (iii) empirical testing and validation of the criteria, by blinded post-mortem assessment of brain tissue from 113 individuals (55 to 100 years) without significant neurodegenerative disease who had had formal cognitive assessments within 12 months of death...
September 2, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576214/endothelial-function-inflammation-thrombosis-and-basal-ganglia-perivascular-spaces-in-patients-with-stroke
#19
Xin Wang, Francesca M Chappell, Maria Valdes Hernandez, Gordon Lowe, Ann Rumley, Kirsten Shuler, Fergus Doubal, Joanna M Wardlaw
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest perivascular spaces are a marker of small vessel disease, blood-brain barrier permeability, and inflammation, but little is known about their risk factors and associations with peripheral blood markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In prospectively recruited patients with recent minor ischemic stroke, we investigated the influence of age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking on the severity of perivascular spaces in the basal ganglia seen on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567812/shear-induced-amyloid-formation-in-the-brain-i-potential-vascular-and-parenchymal-processes
#20
Conrad N Trumbore
Shear distortion of amyloid-beta (Aβ) solutions accelerates amyloid cascade reactions that may yield different toxic oligomers than those formed in quiescent solutions. Recent experiments indicate that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) containing Aβ flow through narrow brain perivascular pathways and brain parenchyma. This paper suggests that such flow causes shear distortion of Aβ molecules involving conformation changes that may be one of the initiating events in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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