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Perivascular space

Hui Zhu, Zhixing Li, Jinglei Lv, Renliang Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) describes a syndrome of neuroimaging, pathological, and associated clinical features caused by small intracranial vascular lesions, which commonly coexists with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and has been identified as a major cause of motor impairment over time. In this review, we aim to summarize the relationship between CSVD and LAA, and discuss the effects of CSVD on the clinical outcome of patients with ischemic stroke caused by LAA...
March 15, 2018: Neurological Research
Yan Liang, Yang-Kun Chen, Vincent Chung-Tong Mok, De-Feng Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Winnie Chiu-Wing Chu, Hee-Ju Kang, Wai-Kwong Tang
Objective: All types of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) markers including lacune, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were found to be associated with poststroke depressive symptoms (PDS). This study explored whether the combination of the four markers constituting an overall SVD burden was associated with PDS. Methods: A cohort of 563 patients with acute ischemic stroke were followed over a 15-month period after the index stroke. A score of ≥7 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale was defined as clinically significant PDS...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sándor Csizmadia, Erika Vörös
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is most commonly recognized by β-amyloid deposition in the small and medium sized vessels of the brain. The 71-year-old female presented with a sudden onset of vertigo and headache. By native computer tomography (CT) examination we found cerebral atrophy and the sign of chronic vascular injury. The complaints of the patient worsened, thus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. The MRI scan revealed a bleeding transformation of an ischemic lesion in the right occipital region...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Bian Liu, Kui Kai Lau, Linxin Li, Caroline Lovelock, Ming Liu, Wilhelm Kuker, Peter M Rothwell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It has been hypothesized that cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and chronic renal impairment may be part of a multisystem small-vessel disorder, but their association may simply be as a result of shared risk factors (eg, hypertension) rather than to a systemic susceptibility to premature SVD. However, most previous studies were hospital based, most had inadequate adjustment for hypertension, many were confined to patients with lacunar stroke, and none stratified by age...
March 9, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Nobuo Yamashiro, Takamura Nagasaka, Naoki Ooishi, Mai Tsuchiya, Ryusuke Takaki, Fumikazu Kobayashi, Kazumasa Shindo, Yoshihisa Takiyama
We report here the clinical presentation and subsequent autopsy of a 90-year-old man who developed small papules with pain and swelling in his right ear. On admission, he exhibited right facial nerve paralysis, neck stiffness and Kernig's sign. The cell count was elevated and the varicella-zoster virus-PCR was positive in the CSF. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions in the left pons and left temporal lobe, in FLAIR images. We diagnosed the patient with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and meningoencephalitis due to varicella-zoster virus...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Chunfeng Lian, Jun Zhang, Mingxia Liu, Xiaopeng Zong, Sheng-Che Hung, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
Accurate segmentation of perivascular spaces (PVSs) is an important step for quantitative study of PVS morphology. However, since PVSs are the thin tubular structures with relatively low contrast and also the number of PVSs is often large, it is challenging and time-consuming for manual delineation of PVSs. Although several automatic/semi-automatic methods, especially the traditional learning-based approaches, have been proposed for segmentation of 3D PVSs, their performance often depends on the hand-crafted image features, as well as sophisticated preprocessing operations prior to segmentation (e...
February 27, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
J Bryan Iorgulescu, Sean Ferris, Ashima Agarwal, Sandro Casavilca Zambrano, D Ashley Hill, Robert Schmidt, Arie Perry
Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare entity characterized by the perivascular spread of meningothelial and fibroblastic cells along the Virchow-Robin spaces of small leptomeningeal and intracortical blood vessels [1,2]. Sporadic cases of MA are thought to represent benign hamartomatous proliferations that are associated with refractory seizures and plaque-like cerebral hemispheric masses, primarily involving the temporal and/or frontal lobes. A distinct subset of MA presents in association with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), where the MA is often multifocal, non-epileptogenic, and accompanied by perilesional glial microhamartomas [3,4]...
March 1, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Matthew MacGregor Sharp, Diederik Bulters, Sebastian Brandner, Janice Holton, Ajay Verma, David J Werring, Roxana O Carare
Aβ, amyloid beta, CAA, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, CT, computed tomographic scanning, IPAD, intramural periarterial drainage, ISF, interstitial fluid, MRI, magnetic resonance imaging, PVS, perivascular spaces, WMH, white matter hyperintensities.Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or low attenuation on computed tomographic scanning (CT), are the most frequent brain imaging finding in patients with small vessel disease or dementia. It has been assumed that WMH are due to arteriosclerosis or blood-brain barrier breakdown, though recently it was demonstrated that WMH have distinct molecular signatures in Alzheimer's disease (AD) where markers of Wallerian degeneration are present, compared to normal ageing [1]...
February 27, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Yang Liu, Yan-Hong Dong, Pei-Yuan Lyu, Wei-Hong Chen, Rui Li
Objective: Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are responsible for more than 80% of dementia cases. These two conditions share common risk factors including hypertension. Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is strongly associated with both hypertension and cognitive impairment. In this review, we identify the pathophysiological changes in CSVD that are caused by hypertension and further explore the relationship between CSVD and cognitive impairment. Data Sources: We searched and scanned the PubMed database for recently published literatures up to December 2017...
March 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera
INTRODUCTION: Recent guidelines suggest that a blood pressure cutoff of 130/80 mmHg should be used to define arterial hypertension. This contrasts with the previously accepted cutoff of 140/90 mmHg. AIM: Using the Atahualpa Project cohort, we aimed to assess the cutoff that better correlates with signatures of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), which are related to arterial hypertension. METHODS: Of 437 Atahualpa residents aged ≥ 60 years, 363 (83%) underwent brain MRI and blood pressure determinations...
February 23, 2018: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Valéria Pereira Ferrer, Vivaldo Moura Neto, Rolf Mentlein
An outstanding characteristic of gliomas is their infiltration into brain parenchyma, a property that impairs complete surgical resection; consequently, these tumors might recur, resulting in a high mortality rate. Gliomas invade along preferential routes, such as those along white matter tracts and in the perineuronal and perivascular spaces. Brain extracellular components and their partners and modulators play a crucial role in glioma cell invasion. This review presents an extensive survey of the literature, showing how the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is modulated during the glioma infiltration process...
February 21, 2018: Glia
T Stravskyy, A Hantimurov, O Halytska-Kharkhalis, N Herasymiuk, R Hovda
Hemodynamic disorders in the testicles cause chronic organ hypoxia with damage of its stroma and seminiferous tubules, which plays a leading role in the pathogenesis of the testicular form of male infertility development. The aim of the work was to establish the features of ultrastructural reorganization of the testicles tissue and its vascular bed under circulatory hypoxia conditions and after restoration of blood flow in the organ. The study was conducted on 84 white adult male rats. The control group consisted of 12 intact animals...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
Tae-Jin Song, Yoonkyung Chang, A-Ram Kim, Yuri Kim, Yong-Jae Kim
Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) are closely associated with stroke. Elevated postprandial blood glucose is also an important risk factor for stroke. Dietary glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) are frequently used as markers of postprandial blood glucose response used as an estimator of the overall glycemic effect of the diet. We hypothesized that high dietary GL or GI will be associated with presence of cerebral SVDs in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We prospectively included 263 patients who had experienced first-ever symptomatic cerebral infarction within 7 days after symptom onset and who submitted a fully filled-in semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire...
December 27, 2017: Nutrition Research
Mohammad Alkhalil, Evan Edmond, Laurienne Edgar, Janet E Digby, Omar Omar, Matthew D Robson, Robin P Choudhury
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Imaging studies have relied on the 'overall' volumetric quantification of perivascular adipose tissue. We sought to assess the relationship of circumferential distribution between perivascular adipose tissue and adjacent wall thickness of carotid and aortic arteries using dedicated magnetic resonance imaging sequences. METHODS: Vessel wall and perivascular adipose tissue were acquired using magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 T). Co-registered images were segmented separately, and measurements of both perivascular adipose tissue and vessel wall were obtained along radii of the vessel spaced at angles of 5° each...
February 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Philip Benjamin, Sarah Trippier, Andrew J Lawrence, Christian Lambert, Eva Zeestraten, Owen A Williams, Bhavini Patel, Robin G Morris, Thomas R Barrick, Andrew D MacKinnon, Hugh S Markus
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small-vessel disease is a major cause of cognitive impairment. Perivascular spaces (PvS) occur in small-vessel disease, but their relationship to cognitive impairment remains uncertain. One reason may be difficulty in distinguishing between lacunes and PvS. We determined the relationship between baseline PvS score and PvS volume with change in cognition over a 5-year follow-up. We compared this to the relationship between baseline lacune count and total lacune volume with cognition...
February 2, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
N Joan Abbott, Michelle E Pizzo, Jane E Preston, Damir Janigro, Robert G Thorne
Brain fluids are rigidly regulated to provide stable environments for neuronal function, e.g., low K+, Ca2+, and protein to optimise signalling and minimise neurotoxicity. At the same time, neuronal and astroglial waste must be promptly removed. The interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bathing the CNS are integral to this homeostasis and the idea of a glia-lymph or 'glymphatic' system for waste clearance from brain has developed over the last 5 years. This links bulk (convective) flow of CSF into brain along the outside of penetrating arteries, glia-mediated convective transport of fluid and solutes through the brain extracellular space (ECS) involving the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, and finally delivery of fluid to venules for clearance along peri-venous spaces...
February 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Xuefeng Yuan, Alexandre Caron, Hua Wu, Laurent Gautron
Past studies have suggested that non-neuronal brain cells express the leptin receptor. However, the identity and distribution of these leptin receptor-expressing non-neuronal brain cells remain debated. This study assessed the distribution of the long form of the leptin receptor (LepRb) in non-neuronal brain cells using a reporter mouse model in which LepRb-expressing cells are permanently marked by tdTomato fluorescent protein (LepRb-CretdTomato ). Double immunohistochemistry revealed that, in agreement with the literature, the vast majority of tdTomato-tagged cells across the mouse brain were neurons (i...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Lucia Ballerini, Ruggiero Lovreglio, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Joel Ramirez, Bradley J MacIntosh, Sandra E Black, Joanna M Wardlaw
Perivascular Spaces (PVS) are a feature of Small Vessel Disease (SVD), and are an important part of the brain's circulation and glymphatic drainage system. Quantitative analysis of PVS on Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is important for understanding their relationship with neurological diseases. In this work, we propose a segmentation technique based on the 3D Frangi filtering for extraction of PVS from MRI. We used ordered logit models and visual rating scales as alternative ground truth for Frangi filter parameter optimization and evaluation...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hissah Al Abdulsalam, Abdullah A Alatar, Sherif Elwatidy
BACKGROUND: Perivascular spaces (PVS) or Virchow-Robin spaces (VRS) are pial-lined, interstitial fluid-filled structures in the brain that accompany cerebral vessels as they penetrate the cerebral substance. In healthy individuals, a PVS diameter of less than 2 mm is considered normal and can typically be seen within the white matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When PVS dilate, they are considered benign lesions and are found to be associated with aging and other risk factors...
January 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Masatsune Ishikawa, Shigeki Yamada, Kazuo Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Dilated perivascular spaces in the centrum semiovale (CSO-PVS) are closely related to small vessel disease. However, recent studies have revealed that cerebral amyloid angiopathy can cause dilation of the CSO-PVS and obstruction of interstitial fluid flow along the intramural periarterial drainage. OBJECTIVE: To examine the severity and age-related prevalence of CSO-PVS through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and investigate their clinically relevant factors...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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