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Perivascular space

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428977/19th-workshop-of-the-international-stroke-genetics-consortium-april-28-29-2016-boston-massachusetts-usa-2016-001-mri-defined-cerebrovascular-genomics-the-charge-consortium
#1
S Debette, Y Saba, D Vojinovic, X Jian, H Adams, G Chauhan, M Sargurupremraj, S Kaffashian, J Ding, J C Bis, P Nyquist, K Mather, C Van Duijn, L J Launer, M A Ikram, H Schmidt, W T Longstreth, M Fornage, S Seshadri
The CHARGE consortium is an investigator-initiated collaboration to facilitate meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic analyses based on next generation sequencing (NGS), among multiple large and well-phenotyped population-based cohort studies around the world (http://www.chargeconsortium.com). Within the neuro-CHARGE working group, we are presenting an update of ongoing genomic studies on MRI-markers of cerebrovascular disease. Large population-based studies have shown that the burden of cerebrovascular disease extends far beyond that of clinical stroke...
March 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408868/perivascular-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-sheet-rich-proteins-in-offspring-brain-following-maternal-exposure-to-carbon-black-nanoparticles
#2
Atsuto Onoda, Takayasu Kawasaki, Koichi Tsukiyama, Ken Takeda, Masakazu Umezawa
Environmental stimulation during brain development is an important risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. Clinical evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to particulate air pollutants leads to diffuse damage to the neurovascular unit in the developing brain and accelerates neurodegeneration. Maternal exposure to carbon black nanoparticles (CB-NPs), used as a model for particulate air pollution, induces long-lasting diffuse perivascular abnormalities. We aimed to comprehensively characterize the perivascular abnormalities related to maternal NPs exposure using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (in situ FT-IR) and classical staining analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407319/effect-of-intravenous-or-perivascular-injection-of-synthetic-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-on-stimulation-test-results-in-dogs
#3
C M Johnson, P H Kass, T A Cohen, E C Feldman
BACKGROUND: Standard protocols for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation testing (ACTHst) often involve intravenous (IV) injection of corticotropin. ACTH might be unintentionally injected into the perivascular (PV) space. OBJECTIVE: To compare stimulation test results after IV and PV injections of ACTH. ANIMALS: Twenty privately owned dogs were studied: 10 healthy and 10 with trilostane-treated naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism (HAC)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406586/total-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-score-is-associated-with-mortality-during-follow-up-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#4
Tae Jin Song, Jinkwon Kim, Dongbeom Song, Joonsang Yoo, Hye Sun Lee, Yong Jae Kim, Hyo Suk Nam, Ji Hoe Heo, Young Dae Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The recently developed total cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD) score might appropriately reflect the total burden or severity of CSVD. We investigated whether the total CSVD score is associated with long-term outcomes during follow-up in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: In total, 1,096 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging were enrolled. We calculated the total CSVD score for each patient after determining the burden of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), high-grade white-matter hyperintensities (HWHs), high-grade perivascular spaces (HPVSs), and asymptomatic lacunar infarctions (ALIs)...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394432/immunofluorescence-reveals-unusual-patterns-of-labelling-for-connexin43-localized-to-calbindin-d28k-positive-interstitial-cells-in-the-pineal-gland
#5
D D Tsao, S G Wang, B D Lynn, J I Nagy
Gap junctions between cells in the pineal gland have been described ultrastructurally, but their connexin constituents have not been fully characterized. We used immunofluorescence in combination with markers of pineal cells to document the cellular localization of connexin43 (Cx43). Immunofluorescence labelling of Cx43 with several different antibodies was widely distributed throughout the pineal, whereas another connexin examined, connexin26, was not found in pineal but only in surrounding leptomeninges. Labelling apparently associated with plasma membranes was visualized either as fine Cx43-puncta (1-2 μm) or as unusually large pools of Cx43 ranging up to 4-7 μm in diameter or length...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389591/cd11c-expressing-cells-affect-regulatory-t-cell-behavior-in-the-meninges-during-central-nervous-system-infection
#6
Carleigh A O'Brien, Christopher Overall, Christoph Konradt, Aisling C O'Hara Hall, Nikolas W Hayes, Sagie Wagage, Beena John, David A Christian, Christopher A Hunter, Tajie H Harris
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in the CNS during multiple infections, as well as autoimmune inflammation, but the behavior of this cell type in the CNS has not been explored. In mice, infection with Toxoplasma gondii leads to a Th1-polarized parasite-specific effector T cell response in the brain. Similarly, Tregs in the CNS during T. gondii infection are Th1 polarized, as exemplified by their T-bet, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression. Unlike effector CD4(+) T cells, an MHC class II tetramer reagent specific for T...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362579/structured-learning-for-3d-perivascular-spaces-segmentation-using-vascular-features
#7
Jun Zhang, Yaozong Gao, Sang Hyun Park, Xiaopeng Zong, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
The goal of this paper is to automatically segment perivascular spaces (PVSs) in brain from high-resolution 7T MR images. METHODS: We propose a structured-learningbased segmentation framework to extract the PVSs from highresolution 7T MR images. Specifically, we integrate three types of vascular filter responses into a structured random forest for classifying voxels into two categories, i.e., PVS and background. In addition, we propose a novel entropy-based sampling strategy to extract informative samples in the background for training an explicit classification model...
March 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351960/pathogenesis-of-white-matter-changes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-diseases-beyond-vessel-intrinsic-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Anne Joutel, Hugues Chabriat
Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) are a leading cause of age and hypertension-related stroke and dementia. The salient features of SVDs visible on conventional brain magnetic resonance images include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on T2-weighted images, small infarcts, macrohemorrhages, dilated perivascular spaces, microbleeds and brain atrophy. Among these, WMHs are the most common and often the earliest brain tissue changes. Moreover, over the past two decades, large population- and patient-based studies have established the clinical importance of WMHs, notably with respect to cognitive and motor disturbances...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341719/brain-perivascular-spaces-as-biomarkers-of-vascular-risk-results-from-the-northern-manhattan-study
#9
J Gutierrez, M S V Elkind, C Dong, M Di Tullio, T Rundek, R L Sacco, C B Wright
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dilated perivascular spaces in the brain are associated with greater arterial pulsatility. We hypothesized that perivascular spaces identify individuals at higher risk for systemic and cerebral vascular events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stroke-free participants in the population-based Northern Manhattan Study had brain MR imaging performed and were followed for myocardial infarction, any stroke, and death. Imaging analyses distinguished perivascular spaces from lesions presumably ischemic...
March 24, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335021/mri-visible-perivascular-space-location-is-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-independently-of-amyloid-burden
#10
Gargi Banerjee, Hee Jin Kim, Zoe Fox, H Rolf Jäger, Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, Han Kyu Na, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, David J Werring
Perivascular spaces that are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are a neuroimaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease. Their location may relate to the type of underlying small vessel pathology: those in the white matter centrum semi-ovale have been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, while those in the basal ganglia have been associated with deep perforating artery arteriolosclerosis. As cerebral amyloid angiopathy is an almost invariable pathological finding in Alzheimer's disease, we hypothesized that MRI-visible perivascular spaces in the centrum semi-ovale would be associated with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, whereas those in the basal ganglia would be associated with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320715/experimental-models-of-short-courses-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-for-induction-therapy-for-cryptococcal-meningitis
#11
Jodi Lestner, Laura McEntee, Adam Johnson, Joanne Livermore, Sarah Whalley, Julie Schwartz, John R Perfect, Thomas Harrison, William Hope
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is a rapidly lethal infection in immunocompromised patients. Induction regimens are usually administered for 2-weeks. The shortest effective period of induction therapy with liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) is unknown. The pharmacodynamics of LAmB were studied in murine and rabbit models of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. The concentrations of LAmB in plasma and brain of mice were measured using HPLC. Histopathological changes were determined. The penetration of LAmB into the brain was determined by immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed to amphotericin B...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318355/dementia-incidence-and-predictors-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-patients-without-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#12
Li Xiong, Gregoire Boulouis, Andreas Charidimou, Duangnapa Roongpiboonsopit, Michael J Jessel, Marco Pasi, Yael D Reijmer, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Alison Ayres, Emily Merrill, Kristin Schwab, Deborah Blacker, M Edip Gurol, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common cause of cognitive impairment in older individuals. This study aimed to investigate predictors of dementia in CAA patients without intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A total of 158 non-demented patients from the Stroke Service or the Memory Clinic who met the modified Boston Criteria for probable CAA were included. At baseline, neuroimaging markers, including lobar microbleeds (cerebral microbleeds (CMBs)), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible centrum semiovale perivascular spaces (CSO-PVS), lacunes, and medial temporal atrophy (MTA) were assessed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291429/pathophysiological-consideration-of-medullary-streaks-on-flair-imaging-in-pediatric-moyamoya-disease
#13
Hime Suzuki, Takeshi Mikami, Tomoyoshi Kuribara, Kazuhisa Yoshifuji, Katsuya Komatsu, Yukinori Akiyama, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Kiyohiro Houkin, Nobuhiro Mikuni
OBJECTIVE Medullary streaks detected on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging have been considered to be reflected ischemic regions in pediatric moyamoya disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these medullary streaks both clinically and radiologically and to discuss associated pathophysiological concerns. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed data from 14 consecutive pediatric patients with moyamoya disease treated between April 2009 and June 2016. Clinical and radiological features and postoperative imaging changes were analyzed...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288506/hepatic-perivascular-epithelioid-cell-tumor-pecoma-a-case-report-with-a-review-of-literatures
#14
Hyun-Jin Son, Dong Wook Kang, Joo Heon Kim, Hyun Young Han, Min Koo Lee
Hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are very rare. We report a primary hepatic PEComa with a review of the literature. A 56-year-old women presented with a nodular mass detected during the management of chronic renal failure and chronic hepatitis C. Diagnostic imaging studies suggested a nodular hepatocellular carcinoma in segment 5 of the liver. The patient underwent partial hepatectomy. A brown-colored expansile mass measuring 3.2×3.0 cm was relatively demarcated from the surrounding liver parenchyma...
March 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286253/chiari-i-malformation-in-a-child-with-pten-hamartoma-tumor-syndrome-association-or-coincidence
#15
Veronica Saletti, Silvia Esposito, Angelo Maccaro, Sabrina Giglio, Laura Grazia Valentini, Luisa Chiapparini
PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) refers to a group of clinical conditions caused by germline mutations in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene. Increasing evidence has documented that PHTS may be associated with a broader spectrum of structural brain abnormalities, including dysplastic gangliocytoma of the cerebellum, brain tumors, vascular malformations, white matter abnormalities, dilated perivascular spaces and cortical dysplasia. We report a PTEN-mutated child showing macrocephaly, mild intellectual disability and epilepsy symptomatic of right occipital polymicrogyria, who also developed Chiari I Malformation (CIM) that repeatedly required surgical correction...
March 7, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271039/deep-multi-scale-location-aware-3d-convolutional-neural-networks-for-automated-detection-of-lacunes-of-presumed-vascular-origin
#16
Mohsen Ghafoorian, Nico Karssemeijer, Tom Heskes, Mayra Bergkamp, Joost Wissink, Jiri Obels, Karlijn Keizer, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Bram van Ginneken, Elena Marchiori, Bram Platel
Lacunes of presumed vascular origin (lacunes) are associated with an increased risk of stroke, gait impairment, and dementia and are a primary imaging feature of the small vessel disease. Quantification of lacunes may be of great importance to elucidate the mechanisms behind neuro-degenerative disorders and is recommended as part of study standards for small vessel disease research. However, due to the different appearance of lacunes in various brain regions and the existence of other similar-looking structures, such as perivascular spaces, manual annotation is a difficult, elaborative and subjective task, which can potentially be greatly improved by reliable and consistent computer-aided detection (CAD) routines...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254594/the-current-status-of-research-on-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#17
REVIEW
Kenneth Perrine, Jacqueline Helcer, Apostolos John Tsiouris, David J Pisapia, Philip Stieg
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) evolved from the term "dementia pugilistica" describing the dementia found in many boxers to its current use in describing the dementia and depression sometimes found in athletes subjected to multiple concussions or sub-concussive blows to the head. Concurrently, the neuropathology evolved to specify a unique type of tauopathy found in perivascular spaces at the depth of sulci and other features not typically seen in neurodegenerative tauopathies. Four stages of CTE have been proposed, with four corresponding clinical syndromes of Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome...
February 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228568/mri-visible-perivascular-spaces-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-and-hypertensive-arteriopathy
#18
Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, Marco Pasi, Eitan Auriel, Ellis S van Etten, Kellen Haley, Alison Ayres, Kristin M Schwab, Sergi Martinez-Ramirez, Joshua N Goldstein, Jonathan Rosand, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg, M Edip Gurol
OBJECTIVE: To assess MRI-visible enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) burden and different topographical patterns (in the centrum semiovale [CSO] and basal ganglia [BG]) in 2 common microangiopathies: cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and hypertensive arteriopathy (HA). METHODS: Consecutive patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) from a prospective MRI cohort were included. Small vessel disease MRI markers, including cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), and white matter hyperintensities (WMH), were rated...
March 21, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215260/moderate-to-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-associated-with-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#19
Tae-Jin Song, Jung-Hyun Park, Kang Hyun Choi, Yoonkyung Chang, Jangsup Moon, Ju-Hee Kim, Yunseo Choi, Yong-Jae Kim, Hyang Woon Lee
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is associated with increased risk of cerebral infarction and hemorrhage. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the association between cerebral SVD and severity of OSA. METHODS: A total of 170 patients were included from the patient registry at the present Sleep Center; these patients underwent both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and polysomnography (PSG) for suspected OSA...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197821/evaluation-of-glymphatic-system-activity-with-the-diffusion-mr-technique-diffusion-tensor-image-analysis-along-the-perivascular-space-dti-alps-in-alzheimer-s-disease-cases
#20
Toshiaki Taoka, Yoshitaka Masutani, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiki Nakane, Kiwamu Matsuoka, Fumihiko Yasuno, Toshifumi Kishimoto, Shinji Naganawa
PURPOSE: The activity of the glymphatic system is impaired in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the activity of the human glymphatic system in cases of AD with a diffusion-based technique called diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion tensor images were acquired to calculate diffusivities in the x, y, and z axes of the plane of the lateral ventricle body in 31 patients. We evaluated the diffusivity along the perivascular spaces as well as projection fibers and association fibers separately, to acquire an index for diffusivity along the perivascular space (ALPS-index) and correlated them with the mini mental state examinations (MMSE) score...
February 14, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
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