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Perivascular space

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515266/total-small-vessel-disease-score-and-risk-of-recurrent-stroke-validation-in-2-large-cohorts
#1
Kui Kai Lau, Linxin Li, Ursula Schulz, Michela Simoni, Koon Ho Chan, Shu Leong Ho, Raymond Tak Fai Cheung, Wilhelm Küker, Henry Ka Fung Mak, Peter M Rothwell
OBJECTIVE: In patients with TIA and ischemic stroke, we validated the total small vessel disease (SVD) score by determining its prognostic value for recurrent stroke. METHODS: Two independent prospective studies were conducted, one comprising predominantly Caucasian patients with TIA/ischemic stroke (Oxford Vascular Study [OXVASC]) and one predominantly Chinese patients with ischemic stroke (University of Hong Kong [HKU]). Cerebral MRI was performed and assessed for lacunes, microbleeds, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and perivascular spaces (PVS)...
May 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515043/brain-perivascular-macrophages-initiate-the-neurovascular-dysfunction-of-alzheimer-a%C3%AE-peptides
#2
Laibaik Park, Ken Uekawa, Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, Kenzo Koizumi, Michelle Murphy, Rose Pitstick, Linda H Younkin, Steven G Younkin, Ping Zhou, Geroge A Carlson, Josef Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
Rationale: Increasing evidence indicates that alterations of the cerebral microcirculation may play a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of late-life dementia. The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a key pathogenic factor in AD, induces profound alterations in neurovascular regulation through the innate immunity receptor CD36, which, in turn, activates a Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase leading to cerebrovascular oxidative stress. Brain perivascular macrophages (PVM) located in the perivascular space, a major site of brain Aβ collection and clearance, are juxtaposed to the wall of intracerebral resistance vessels and are a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
May 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501949/relationship-between-intracranial-internal-carotid-artery-calcification-and-enlarged-cerebral-perivascular-space
#3
Xiao-Xiao Tao, Ge-Fei Li, Yi-Lan Wu, Yi-Sheng Liu, Ying Zhao, Yan-Hui Shi, Mei-Ting Zhuang, Tian-Yu Hou, Rong Zhao, Feng-Di Liu, Xue-Mei Wang, Ying Shen, Guo-Hong Cui, Jing-Jing Su, Wei Chen, Xue-Mei Tang, Ji Sun, Jian-Ren Liu
PURPOSE: The association between intracranial internal carotid artery (IICA) calcification and lacunes, white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) has been well researched. However, enlarged cerebral perivascular space (PVS) has not yet been reported to correlate with intracranial internal carotid artery calcification. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. METHODS: A total of 189 patients with ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory who presented within 7 days of ictus from 2012 to 2015 were enrolled respectively...
May 13, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496038/methylmercury-induces-hyaluronan-synthesis-in-cultured-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-and-pericytes-via-different-mechanisms
#4
Takashi Hirooka, Eiko Yoshida, Komyo Eto, Toshiyuki Kaji
In a cerebrum damaged by methylmercury, where neuropathological lesions tend to localize along deep sulci and fissures, edematous changes in white matter have been proposed as the cause of such localization. Since hyaluronan has a high water-retention capability and can contribute to the progression of edematous changes, we hypothesize that methylmercury increases hyaluronan in brain microvascular cells. Our experimental results indicate that methylmercury induces the expression of hyaluronan in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes through the induction of expressed UDP-glucose dehydrogenase and hyaluronan synthase 2, respectively...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495831/clinical-correlates-ethnic-differences-and-prognostic-implications-of-perivascular-spaces-in-transient-ischemic-attack-and-ischemic-stroke
#5
Kui-Kai Lau, Linxin Li, Caroline E Lovelock, Giovanna Zamboni, Tsz-Tai Chan, Man-Fung Chiang, Kin-Ting Lo, Wilhelm Küker, Henry Ka-Fung Mak, Peter M Rothwell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perivascular spaces (PVSs) are considered markers of small vessel disease. However, their long-term prognostic implications in transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke patients are unknown. Ethnic differences in PVS prevalence are also unknown. METHODS: Two independent prospective studies were conducted, 1 comprising predominantly whites with transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke (OXVASC [Oxford Vascular] study) and 1 comprising predominantly Chinese with ischemic stroke (University of Hong Kong)...
May 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476614/a-strategy-for-bypassing-the-blood-brain-barrier-facial-intradermal-brain-targeted-delivery-via-the-trigeminal-nerve
#6
Xi-Chong Yu, Jing-Jing Yang, Bing-Hui Jin, He-Lin Xu, Hong-Yu Zhang, Jian Xiao, Cui-Tao Lu, Ying-Zheng Zhao, Wei Yang
Although intranasal delivery bypasses the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the anatomical location of the olfactory mucosa and respiratory airflow interference lead to less brain-targeted drug delivery. In addition to intranasal delivery, evidence indicates that facial intradermal injection might be a novel strategy for bypassing the BBB via the trigeminal nerve (TN). The hypothesis was verified by pharmacokinetic evaluation, nasal injury, lymphatic vessels inhibition and immunohistochemistry. Intradermal injection into the rat mystacial pad (i...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475469/higher-ambulatory-systolic-blood-pressure-independently-associated-with-enlarged-perivascular-spaces-in-basal-ganglia
#7
Shuna Yang, Junliang Yuan, Xiaoyu Zhang, Huimin Fan, Yue Li, Jiangmei Yin, Wenli Hu
BACKGROUNDS: Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) have been identified as a marker of cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD). Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is the strongest predictor of hypertension-related brain damage. However, the relationship between ABP levels and EPVS is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the association between ABP levels and EPVS by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). METHODS: We prospectively recruited inpatients for physical examinations in our hospital from May 2013 to Jun 2016...
May 5, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468952/reliability-of-an-automatic-classifier-for-brain-enlarged-perivascular-spaces-burden-and-comparison-with-human-performance
#8
Victor Gonzalez-Castro, Maria Del Carmen Valdes-Hernandez, Francesca Chappell, Paul A Armitage, Stephen Makin, Joanna Wardlaw
In the brain, enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) relate to cerebral small vessel disease, poor cognition, inflammation and hypertension. We propose a fully automatic scheme that uses a support vector machine(SVM) to classify the burden of PVS in the basal ganglia(BG) region as low or high. We assess the performance of three different types of descriptors extracted from the BG region in T2-weighted MRI images: 1)statistics obtained from Wavelet transform's coefficients, 2)local binary patterns and 3)bag of visual words (BoW)-based descriptors characterising local keypoints obtained from a dense grid with the scale-invariant feature transform characteristics...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459117/the-human-thymus-perivascular-space-is-a-functional-niche-for-viral-specific-plasma-cells
#9
Sarah Nuñez, Carolina Moore, Baoshan Gao, Kortney Rogers, Yessia Hidalgo, Pedro J Del Nido, Susan Restaino, Yoshifumi Naka, Govind Bhagat, Joren C Madsen, María Rosa Bono, Emmanuel Zorn
The human thymus is susceptible to viral infections that can severely alter thymopoiesis and compromise the mechanisms of acquired tolerance to self-antigens. In humans, plasma cells residing primarily in the bone marrow confer long-lasting protection to common viruses by secreting antigen-specific antibodies. Since the thymus also houses B cells, we examined the phenotypic complexity of these thymic resident cells and their possible protective role against viral infections. Using tissue specimens collected from subjects ranging in age from 5 days to 71 years, we found that starting during the first year of life, CD138(+) plasma cells (PC) begin accumulating in the thymic perivascular space (PVS) where they constitutively produce IgG without the need for additional stimulation...
December 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428977/19th-workshop-of-the-international-stroke-genetics-consortium-april-28-29-2016-boston-massachusetts-usa-2016-001-mri-defined-cerebrovascular-genomics-the-charge-consortium
#10
S Debette, Y Saba, D Vojinovic, X Jian, H Adams, G Chauhan, M Sargurupremraj, S Kaffashian, J Ding, J C Bis, P Nyquist, K Mather, C Van Duijn, L J Launer, M A Ikram, H Schmidt, W T Longstreth, M Fornage, S Seshadri
The CHARGE consortium is an investigator-initiated collaboration to facilitate meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic analyses based on next generation sequencing (NGS), among multiple large and well-phenotyped population-based cohort studies around the world (http://www.chargeconsortium.com). Within the neuro-CHARGE working group, we are presenting an update of ongoing genomic studies on MRI-markers of cerebrovascular disease. Large population-based studies have shown that the burden of cerebrovascular disease extends far beyond that of clinical stroke...
March 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408868/perivascular-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-sheet-rich-proteins-in-offspring-brain-following-maternal-exposure-to-carbon-black-nanoparticles
#11
Atsuto Onoda, Takayasu Kawasaki, Koichi Tsukiyama, Ken Takeda, Masakazu Umezawa
Environmental stimulation during brain development is an important risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. Clinical evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to particulate air pollutants leads to diffuse damage to the neurovascular unit in the developing brain and accelerates neurodegeneration. Maternal exposure to carbon black nanoparticles (CB-NPs), used as a model for particulate air pollution, induces long-lasting diffuse perivascular abnormalities. We aimed to comprehensively characterize the perivascular abnormalities related to maternal NPs exposure using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (in situ FT-IR) and classical staining analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407319/effect-of-intravenous-or-perivascular-injection-of-synthetic-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-on-stimulation-test-results-in-dogs
#12
C M Johnson, P H Kass, T A Cohen, E C Feldman
BACKGROUND: Standard protocols for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation testing (ACTHst) often involve intravenous (IV) injection of corticotropin. ACTH might be unintentionally injected into the perivascular (PV) space. OBJECTIVE: To compare stimulation test results after IV and PV injections of ACTH. ANIMALS: Twenty privately owned dogs were studied: 10 healthy and 10 with trilostane-treated naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism (HAC)...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406586/total-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-score-is-associated-with-mortality-during-follow-up-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#13
Tae Jin Song, Jinkwon Kim, Dongbeom Song, Joonsang Yoo, Hye Sun Lee, Yong Jae Kim, Hyo Suk Nam, Ji Hoe Heo, Young Dae Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The recently developed total cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD) score might appropriately reflect the total burden or severity of CSVD. We investigated whether the total CSVD score is associated with long-term outcomes during follow-up in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: In total, 1,096 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging were enrolled. We calculated the total CSVD score for each patient after determining the burden of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), high-grade white-matter hyperintensities (HWHs), high-grade perivascular spaces (HPVSs), and asymptomatic lacunar infarctions (ALIs)...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394432/immunofluorescence-reveals-unusual-patterns-of-labelling-for-connexin43-localized-to-calbindin-d28k-positive-interstitial-cells-in-the-pineal-gland
#14
D D Tsao, S G Wang, B D Lynn, J I Nagy
Gap junctions between cells in the pineal gland have been described ultrastructurally, but their connexin constituents have not been fully characterized. We used immunofluorescence in combination with markers of pineal cells to document the cellular localization of connexin43 (Cx43). Immunofluorescence labelling of Cx43 with several different antibodies was widely distributed throughout the pineal, whereas another connexin examined, connexin26, was not found in pineal but only in surrounding leptomeninges. Labelling apparently associated with plasma membranes was visualized either as fine Cx43-puncta (1-2 μm) or as unusually large pools of Cx43 ranging up to 4-7 μm in diameter or length...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389591/cd11c-expressing-cells-affect-regulatory-t-cell-behavior-in-the-meninges-during-central-nervous-system-infection
#15
Carleigh A O'Brien, Christopher Overall, Christoph Konradt, Aisling C O'Hara Hall, Nikolas W Hayes, Sagie Wagage, Beena John, David A Christian, Christopher A Hunter, Tajie H Harris
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in the CNS during multiple infections, as well as autoimmune inflammation, but the behavior of this cell type in the CNS has not been explored. In mice, infection with Toxoplasma gondii leads to a Th1-polarized parasite-specific effector T cell response in the brain. Similarly, Tregs in the CNS during T. gondii infection are Th1 polarized, as exemplified by their T-bet, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression. Unlike effector CD4(+) T cells, an MHC class II tetramer reagent specific for T...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362579/structured-learning-for-3d-perivascular-spaces-segmentation-using-vascular-features
#16
Jun Zhang, Yaozong Gao, Sang Hyun Park, Xiaopeng Zong, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
The goal of this paper is to automatically segment perivascular spaces (PVSs) in brain from high-resolution 7T MR images. METHODS: We propose a structured-learningbased segmentation framework to extract the PVSs from highresolution 7T MR images. Specifically, we integrate three types of vascular filter responses into a structured random forest for classifying voxels into two categories, i.e., PVS and background. In addition, we propose a novel entropy-based sampling strategy to extract informative samples in the background for training an explicit classification model...
March 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351960/pathogenesis-of-white-matter-changes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-diseases-beyond-vessel-intrinsic-mechanisms
#17
REVIEW
Anne Joutel, Hugues Chabriat
Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) are a leading cause of age and hypertension-related stroke and dementia. The salient features of SVDs visible on conventional brain magnetic resonance images include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on T2-weighted images, small infarcts, macrohemorrhages, dilated perivascular spaces, microbleeds and brain atrophy. Among these, WMHs are the most common and often the earliest brain tissue changes. Moreover, over the past two decades, large population- and patient-based studies have established the clinical importance of WMHs, notably with respect to cognitive and motor disturbances...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341719/brain-perivascular-spaces-as-biomarkers-of-vascular-risk-results-from-the-northern-manhattan-study
#18
J Gutierrez, M S V Elkind, C Dong, M Di Tullio, T Rundek, R L Sacco, C B Wright
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dilated perivascular spaces in the brain are associated with greater arterial pulsatility. We hypothesized that perivascular spaces identify individuals at higher risk for systemic and cerebral vascular events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stroke-free participants in the population-based Northern Manhattan Study had brain MR imaging performed and were followed for myocardial infarction, any stroke, and death. Imaging analyses distinguished perivascular spaces from lesions presumably ischemic...
May 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335021/mri-visible-perivascular-space-location-is-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-independently-of-amyloid-burden
#19
Gargi Banerjee, Hee Jin Kim, Zoe Fox, H Rolf Jäger, Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, Han Kyu Na, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, David J Werring
Perivascular spaces that are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are a neuroimaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease. Their location may relate to the type of underlying small vessel pathology: those in the white matter centrum semi-ovale have been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, while those in the basal ganglia have been associated with deep perforating artery arteriolosclerosis. As cerebral amyloid angiopathy is an almost invariable pathological finding in Alzheimer's disease, we hypothesized that MRI-visible perivascular spaces in the centrum semi-ovale would be associated with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, whereas those in the basal ganglia would be associated with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320715/experimental-models-of-short-courses-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-for-induction-therapy-for-cryptococcal-meningitis
#20
Jodi Lestner, Laura McEntee, Adam Johnson, Joanne Livermore, Sarah Whalley, Julie Schwartz, John R Perfect, Thomas Harrison, William Hope
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is a rapidly lethal infection in immunocompromised patients. Induction regimens are usually administered for 2-weeks. The shortest effective period of induction therapy with liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) is unknown. The pharmacodynamics of LAmB were studied in murine and rabbit models of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. The concentrations of LAmB in plasma and brain of mice were measured using HPLC. Histopathological changes were determined. The penetration of LAmB into the brain was determined by immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed to amphotericin B...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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