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Perivascular space

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343658/differences-in-signal-intensity-and-enhancement-on-mr-images-of-the-perivascular-spaces-in-the-basal-ganglia-versus-those-in-white-matter
#1
Shinji Naganawa, Toshiki Nakane, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiaki Taoka
PURPOSE: To elucidate differences between the perivascular space (PVS) in the basal ganglia (BG) versus that found in white matter (WM) using heavily T2-weighted FLAIR (hT2-FL) in terms of 1) signal intensity on non-contrast enhanced images, and 2) the degree of contrast enhancement by intravenous single dose administration of gadolinium based contrast agent (IV-SD-GBCA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight healthy men and 13 patients with suspected endolymphatic hydrops were included...
January 18, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332089/gene-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Vivek Sudhakar, R Mark Richardson
Gene therapy is a clinical tool that may eventually provide therapeutic benefit to patients suffering from movement disorders through a few potential mechanisms: direct correction of the pathogenic mechanism, neuroprotection, neurorestoration or symptom control. The therapeutic mechanism is therefore dependent on knowledge of disease pathogenesis and the required temporal and spatial specificities of gene expression. An additional critical challenge is achieving the most complete transduction of the target structure while avoiding leakage into neighboring regions or perivascular spaces...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326289/prevalence-of-hippocampal-enlarged-perivascular-spaces-in-a-sample-of-patients-with-hypertension-and-their-relation-with-vascular-risk-factors-and-cognitive-function
#3
Joan Jiménez-Balado, Iolanda Riba-Llena, Edurne Garde, Marta Valor, Belen Gutiérrez, Francesc Pujadas, Pilar Delgado
OBJECTIVES: The clinical importance of hippocampal enlarged perivascular spaces (H-EPVS) remains uncertain. We aimed to study their association with vascular risk factors, cognitive function and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Data were obtained from the ISSYS (Investigating Silent Strokes in hYpertensives, a magnetic resonance imaging Study) cohort, which is a prospective study of patients with hypertension aged 50-70 with no prior stroke or dementia...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321406/an-acute-case-of-granulomatous-amoebic-encephalitis-balamuthia-mandrillaris-infection
#4
Kentarou Takei, Masaya Toyoshima, Masashi Nakamura, Mineshige Sato, Hiroshi Shimizu, Chihiro Inoue, Yoshio Shimizu, Kenji Yagita
A 74-year-old woman who exhibited drowsiness was referred to our hospital. Enhanced head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple ring-enhancing lesions and lesions showing partial mild hemorrhaging. The patient gradually progressed to a comatose condition with notable brain deterioration of unknown cause on follow-up MRI. On day nine, the patient inexplicably died, although brain herniation was suspected. Autopsy and histopathology revealed numerous amoebic trophozoites in the perivascular spaces and within the necrotic tissue...
January 11, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316559/enlarged-basal-ganglia-perivascular-spaces-are-associated-with-pulsatile-components-of-blood-pressure
#5
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pathogenetic mechanisms involved in enlargement of basal ganglia perivascular spaces (BG-PVSs) are controversial. Here, we assessed whether pulsatile or steady components of blood pressure (BP) are associated with enlarged BG-PVS. METHODS: We evaluated the association between BG-PVS and pulsatile and steady components of BP in Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years, by the use of regression models and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, after taking into account the effect of demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and other signatures of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD)...
January 9, 2018: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311619/in-situ-immune-response-and-mechanisms-of-cell-damage-in-central-nervous-system-of-fatal-cases-microcephaly-by-zika-virus
#6
Raimunda S S Azevedo, Jorge R de Sousa, Marialva T F Araujo, Arnaldo J Martins Filho, Bianca N de Alcantara, Fernanda M C Araujo, Maria G L Queiroz, Ana C R Cruz, Beatriz H Baldez Vasconcelos, Jannifer O Chiang, Lívia C Martins, Livia M N Casseb, Eliana V da Silva, Valéria L Carvalho, Barbara C Baldez Vasconcelos, Sueli G Rodrigues, Consuelo S Oliveira, Juarez A S Quaresma, Pedro F C Vasconcelos
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused a pandemic disease, and many cases of ZIKV infection in pregnant women resulted in abortion, stillbirth, deaths and congenital defects including microcephaly, which now has been proposed as ZIKV congenital syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the in situ immune response profile and mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in fatal Zika microcephaly cases. Brain tissue samples were collected from 15 cases, including 10 microcephalic ZIKV-positive neonates with fatal outcome and five neonatal control flavivirus-negative neonates that died due to other causes, but with preserved central nervous system (CNS) architecture...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311265/burden-of-dilated-perivascular-spaces-an-emerging-marker-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-is-highly-heritable
#7
Marie-Gabrielle Duperron, Christophe Tzourio, Muralidharan Sargurupremraj, Bernard Mazoyer, Aïcha Soumaré, Sabrina Schilling, Philippe Amouyel, Ganesh Chauhan, Yi-Cheng Zhu, Stéphanie Debette
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The genetic contribution to dilated perivascular space (dPVS) burden-an emerging MRI marker of cerebral small vessel disease-is unknown. We measured the heritability of dPVS burden and its shared heritability with other MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease. METHODS: The study sample comprised 1597 participants from the population-based Three City (3C) Dijon Study, with brain MRI and genome-wide genotyping (mean age, 72.8±4.1 years; 61% women)...
January 8, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280227/neuroimaging-of-dilated-perivascular-spaces-from-benign-and-pathologic-causes-to-mimics
#8
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Rudie, Andreas M Rauschecker, Seyed A Nabavizadeh, Suyash Mohan
Perivascular spaces (PVSs), also known as Virchow-Robin spaces, are pial-lined, fluid-filled structures found in characteristic locations throughout the brain. They can become abnormally enlarged or dilated and in rare cases can cause hydrocephalus. Dilated PVSs can pose a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists because of their varied appearance, sometimes mimicking more serious entities such as cystic neoplasms, including dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor, or cystic infections including toxoplasmosis and neurocysticercosis...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273521/the-pathology-and-pathophysiology-of-vascular-dementia
#9
REVIEW
Raj N Kalaria
Vascular dementia (VaD) is widely recognised as the second most common type of dementia. Consensus and accurate diagnosis of clinically suspected VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures in life but more importantly pathological confirmation. Factors defining subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes as well as time after the initial vascular event...
December 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247070/mixed-location-cerebral-hemorrhage-microbleeds-underlying-microangiopathy-and-recurrence-risk
#10
Marco Pasi, Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, Eitan Auriel, Alison Ayres, Kristin M Schwab, Joshua N Goldstein, Jonathan Rosand, Anand Viswanathan, Leonardo Pantoni, Steven M Greenberg, M Edip Gurol
OBJECTIVE: To assess the predominant type of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and recurrence risk in patients who present with a combination of lobar and deep intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)/microbleed locations (mixed ICH). METHODS: Of 391 consecutive patients with primary ICH enrolled in a prospective registry, 75 (19%) had mixed ICH. Their demographics, clinical/laboratory features, and SVD neuroimaging markers were compared to those of 191 patients with probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA-ICH) and 125 with hypertensive strictly deep microbleeds and ICH (HTN-ICH)...
December 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242272/correction-reliability-of-an-automatic-classifier-for-brain-enlarged-perivascular-spaces-burden-and-comparison-with-human-performance
#11
Víctor González-Castro, María Del C Valdés Hernández, Francesca M Chappell, Paul A Armitage, Stephen Makin, Joanna M Wardlaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242055/late-disseminated-lyme-disease-associated-pathology-and-spirochete-persistence-post-treatment-in-rhesus-macaques
#12
Nicholas A Crossland, Xavier Alvarez, Monica E Embers
Non-human primates currently serve as the best experimental model for Lyme disease due to their close genetic homology with humans and demonstration of all three phases of disease following infection with Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi (Bb). We investigated the pathology associated with late disseminated Lyme disease (12 to 13 months following tick inoculation) in doxycycline-treated (28 days; 5mg/kg, oral, 2x/day) and untreated rhesus macaques (Rm). Minimal to moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, with a predilection for perivascular spaces and collagenous tissues, was observed in multiple tissues including the cerebral leptomeninges, brainstem, peripheral nerves from both fore and hind limbs, stifle synovium and perisynovial adipose tissue, urinary bladder, skeletal muscle, myocardium, and visceral pericardium...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233158/etiology-of-isolated-pontine-infarctions-a-study-based-on-high-resolution-mri-and-brain-small-vessel-disease-scores
#13
Cheng Xia, Hui-Sheng Chen, Shi-Wen Wu, Wei-Hai Xu
BACKGROUND: In this retrospective study, we investigated the main pathogenesis of the two types of isolated pontine infarction: paramedian pontine infarcts (PPIs) and small deep pontine infarcts (SDPIs). METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke patients, comprising 117 PPI patients and 40 SDPI patients, were enrolled. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) and routine MRI sequences were performed for each patient, and clinical data were collected. The following brain small vessel disease (SVD) features of the MRI scans were each rated (0 or 1) separately: asymptomatic lacunar infarcts, white matter lesions (WMLs), deep and infratentorial cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and enlarged perivascular spaces in the basal ganglia...
December 12, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230181/calvarial-suture-derived-stem-cells-and-their-contribution-to-cranial-bone-repair
#14
REVIEW
Daniel H Doro, Agamemnon E Grigoriadis, Karen J Liu
In addition to the natural turnover during life, the bones in the skeleton possess the ability to self-repair in response to injury or disease-related bone loss. Based on studies of bone defect models, both processes are largely supported by resident stem cells. In the long bones, the source of skeletal stem cells has been widely investigated over the years, where the major stem cell population is thought to reside in the perivascular niche of the bone marrow. In contrast, we have very limited knowledge about the stem cells contributing to the repair of calvarial bones...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226505/evaluating-the-association-between-enlarged-perivascular-spaces-and-disease-worsening-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Michele Cavallari, Svetlana Egorova, Brian C Healy, Miklos Palotai, Juan Carlos Prieto, Mariann Polgar-Turcsanyi, Shahamat Tauhid, Mark Anderson, Bonnie Glanz, Tanuja Chitnis, Charles R G Guttmann
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVSs) have been associated with relapses and brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the association of EPVS with clinical and MRI features of disease worsening in a well-characterized cohort of relapsing-remitting MS patients prospectively followed for up to 10 years. METHODS: Baseline EPVSs were scored on 1.5T MRI in 30 converters to moderate-severe disability, and 30 nonconverters matched for baseline characteristics...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222823/dominant-role-of-microglial-and-macrophage-innate-immune-responses-in-human-ischemic-infarcts
#16
Tobias Zrzavy, Joana Machado-Santos, Sheren Christine, Christoph Baumgartner, Howard L Weiner, Oleg Butovsky, Hans Lassmann
Inflammatory mechanisms, involving granulocytes, T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and activated microglia, have been suggested to play a pathogenic role in experimental models of stroke and may be targets for therapeutic intervention. However, knowledge on the inflammatory response in human stroke lesions is limited. Here, we performed a quantitative study on the inflammatory reaction in human ischemic infarct lesions. We found increased numbers of T-lymphocytes, mainly CD8+ cells, but not of B-lymphocytes. Their number was very low in comparison to that seen in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system and they did not show signs of activation...
December 8, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212461/widespread-enlarged-perivascular-spaces-associated-with-dementia-and-focal-brain-dysfunction-case-report
#17
Daisuke Taniguchi, Hideki Shimura, Masao Watanabe, Nobutaka Hattori, Takao Urabe
BACKGROUND: Enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) are common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, whereas widespread enlarged PVS are extremely rare. Although most patients with widespread enlarged PVS remain asymptomatic, some develop neurological dysfunctions; however, it remains unclear whether these are the consequence of widespread enlarged PVS. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old female patient developed consciousness disturbance, cognitive dysfunctions, fluent aphasia, agraphia, acalculia, and left-right disorientation after suffering from bronchopneumonia...
December 7, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210074/white-matter-degeneration-in-vascular-and-other-ageing-related-dementias
#18
REVIEW
Yoshika Hase, Karen Horsburgh, Masafumi Ihara, Raj N Kalaria
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled greater understanding of the progression of cerebral degenerative processes associated with ageing-related dementias. Leukoaraiosis or rarefied white matter (WM) originally described on computed tomography is one of the most prominent changes which occurs in older age. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) evident on magnetic resonance imaging have become commonplace to describe WM changes in relation to cognitive dysfunction, types of stroke injury, cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203536/teaching-neuroimages-a-rare-case-of-giant-perivascular-spaces-in-the-midbrain-manifesting-as-atypical-parkinsonism
#19
Pierre Ferrer, Julia Montoya, Pedro J García Ruiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195051/the-glymphatic-system-in-central-nervous-system-health-and-disease-past-present-and-future
#20
Benjamin A Plog, Maiken Nedergaard
The central nervous system (CNS) is unique in being the only organ system lacking lymphatic vessels to assist in the removal of interstitial metabolic waste products. Recent work has led to the discovery of the glymphatic system, a glial-dependent perivascular network that subserves a pseudolymphatic function in the brain. Within the glymphatic pathway, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the brain via periarterial spaces, passes into the interstitium via perivascular astrocytic aquaporin-4, and then drives the perivenous drainage of interstitial fluid (ISF) and its solute...
December 1, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
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