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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152668/the-role-of-astrocytic-calcium-and-trpv4-channels-in-neurovascular-coupling
#1
Allanah Kenny, Michael J Plank, Tim David
Neuronal activity evokes a localised change in cerebral blood flow in a response known as neurovascular coupling (NVC). Although NVC has been widely studied the exact mechanisms that mediate this response remain unclear; in particular the role of astrocytic calcium is controversial. Mathematical modelling can be a useful tool for investigating the contribution of various signalling pathways towards NVC and for analysing the underlying cellular mechanisms. The lumped parameter model of a neurovascular unit with both potassium and nitric oxide (NO) signalling pathways and comprised of neurons, astrocytes, and vascular cells has been extended to include the glutamate induced astrocytic calcium pathway with epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) signalling and the stretch dependent TRPV4 calcium channel on the astrocytic endfoot...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150269/potential-role-of-the-virchow-robin-space-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-meningitis
#2
Patrick Chan, Denis J Meerdink, James A Uchizono
Meningitis is an infectious disease commonly arising from a bacterial etiology. The rapid progression of morbidity and mortality due to bacterial meningitis requires critical and imminent time-dependent clinical intervention. Although it is unambiguously clear that bacteria must infiltrate the cerebrospinal fluid, the sequence of events in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis has not been fully elucidated. Most reviews of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis do not specify the anatomical location of bacteria following BBB traversal...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135607/targeting-the-perivascular-niche-in-brain-tumors
#3
Giorgio Seano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brain tumors are composed of primary tumors of the central nervous system, such us glioblastoma (GBM), and secondary metastatic tumors, such as melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as lung and breast cancers. Brain tumors are highly deadly, and unfortunately not many improvements have been achieved to improve the survival of patients with brain tumors. Chemoradiation resistance is one of the most clinically relevant challenges faced in patients with brain tumors. The perivascular niche is one of the most relevant microenvironment hubs in brain tumors...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128541/a-pegylated-platelet-free-plasma-hydrogel-based-composite-scaffold-enables-stable-vascularization-and-targeted-cell-delivery-for-volumetric-muscle-loss
#4
Amit Aurora, Nicole Wrice, Thomas J Walters, Robert J Christy, Shanmugasundaram Natesan
Extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds are being used for the clinical repair of soft tissue injuries. Although improved functional outcomes have been reported, ECM scaffolds show limited tissue specific remodeling response with concomitant deposition of fibrotic tissue. One plausible explanation is the regression of blood vessels which may be limiting the diffusion of oxygen and nutrients across the scaffold. Herein we develop a composite scaffold as a vasculo-inductive platform by integrating PEGylated platelet free plasma (PFP) hydrogel with a muscle derived ECM scaffold (m-ECM)...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127695/management-of-the-other-retroperitoneal-sarcomas
#5
REVIEW
Piotr L Rutkowski, John T Mullen
The focus of this review is on the management of the less common sarcomas occurring in the retroperitoneal space, including solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) of the psoas muscle. As for other retroperitoneal sarcomas, surgical resection is the mainstay of curative therapy, and multidisciplinary preoperative assessment, including percutaneous needle biopsy for histologic confirmation, is the basis for personalized management, as the surgical management, and the integration of systemic therapy and radiation therapy is unique to each histologic subtype...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120920/the-growing-clinical-spectrum-of-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#6
Marieke J H Wermer, Steven M Greenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is diagnosed primarily as a cause of lobar intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) in elderly patients. With improving MRI techniques, however, the role of CAA in causing other symptoms has become clear. Recognizing the full clinical spectrum of CAA is important for diagnosis and treatment. In this review we summarize recent insights in clinical CAA features, MRI biomarkers, and management. RECENT FINDINGS: The rate of ICH recurrence in CAA is among the highest of all stroke subtypes...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113105/the-molecular-and-phenotypic-basis-of-the-glioma-invasive-perivascular-niche
#7
REVIEW
Mohammed Diksin, Stuart J Smith, Ruman Rahman
Gliomas are devastating brain cancers that have poor prognostic outcomes for their patients. Short overall patient survival is due to a lack of durable, efficacious treatment options. Such therapeutic difficulties exist, in part, due to several glioma survival adaptations and mechanisms, which allow glioma cells to repurpose paracrine signalling pathways and ion channels within discreet microenvironments. These Darwinian adaptations facilitate invasion into brain parenchyma and perivascular space or promote evasion from anti-cancer defence mechanisms...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110998/total-small-vessel-disease-burden-and-brain-network-efficiency-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#8
Raffaella Valenti, Yael D Reijmer, Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, Sergi Ramirez Martinez, Li Xiong, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Michael Jessel, Alison Ayres, Grace Riley, Leonardo Pantoni, M Edip Gurol, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
BACKGROUND: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is associated with hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic markers small vessel disease (SVD). A composite score to quantify the total burden of SVD on MRI specifically for CAA patients was recently developed. Brain network alterations related to individual MRI markers of SVD in CAA were demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: Considering diffusion based network measures sensitive to detect different relevant SVD-related brain injury, we investigated if increased overall SVD injury on MRI corresponds to worse global brain connectivity in CAA...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100059/enlarged-perivascular-spaces-in-the-basal-ganglia-are-independently-associated-with-intracranial-atherosclerosis-in-the-elderly
#9
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Enlarged basal ganglia perivascular spaces (BG-PVS) are a marker of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). The association between enlarged BG-PVS and atherosclerosis has been explored, but knowledge is limited to extracranial vessels. We aimed to assess whether enlarged BG-PVS correlate with carotid siphon calcifications (CSC), used as a surrogate of intracranial atherosclerosis. METHODS: Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years underwent head computed tomography (CT) for assessment of CSC, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluation of BG-PVS and other imaging markers of SVD...
October 20, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096983/chiari-malformation-may-increase-perivascular-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-into-the-spinal-cord-a-subject-specific-computational-modelling-study
#10
Robert A Lloyd, David F Fletcher, Elizabeth C Clarke, Lynne E Bilston
Syringomyelia is associated with Chiari I malformation, although the mechanistic link is unclear. Studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid enters the spinal cord via the perivascular spaces, and that changes in the timing of the subarachnoid pressures may increase flow into the spinal cord. This study aims to determine how Chiari malformation and syringomyelia alter the subarachnoid space pressures and hence perivascular flow. Subject-specific models of healthy controls (N = 9), Chiari patients with (N = 7) and without (N = 8) syringomyelia, were developed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to simulate the subarachnoid pressures...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089925/advances-in-understanding-of-structural-reorganization-in-the-hypothalamic-neurosecretory-system
#11
REVIEW
Seiji Miyata
The hypothalamic neurosecretory system synthesizes neuropeptides in hypothalamic nuclei and releases them from axonal terminals into the circulation in the neurohypophysis (NH) and median eminence (ME). This system plays a crucial role in regulating body fluid homeostasis and social behaviors as well as reproduction, growth, metabolism, and stress responses, and activity-dependent structural reorganization has been reported. Current knowledge on dynamic structural reorganization in the NH and ME, in which the axonal terminals of neurosecretory neurons directly contact the basement membrane (BM) of a fenestrated vasculature, is discussed herein...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070774/bone-marrow-endothelial-cells-induce-immature-and-mature-b-cell-egress-in-response-to-erythropoietin
#12
Takeshi Ito, Yoko Hamazaki, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Nagahiro Minato
Bone marrow stromal cells, including endothelial cells and mesenchymal stromal cells, support the maintenance, differentiation, and retention of hematopoietic stem and precursor cells under steady state conditions. At the onset of an emergency, such as severe blood loss or infection, the status of hematopoiesis in the bone marrow changes rapidly to ensure efficient production of cells of specific lineages; however, the function of stromal cells in emergency hematopoiesis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we unexpectedly found that B precursor, mature B, and T cells were released from the bone marrow into the blood circulation in the early phase of hemorrhagic anemia and phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia...
October 25, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061396/increased-level-of-procalcitonin-is-associated-with-total-mri-burden-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-patients-with-ischemic-stroke
#13
Guangzong Li, Chen Zhu, Jing Li, Xiangming Wang, Qingbin Zhang, Hongjia Zheng, Cheng Zhan
BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin (PCT) has been found to be associated with subclinical cerebrovascular damage. The relationship between PCT levels and cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), especially cSVD burden, has not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the association between PCT levels and cSVD in patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-eight consecutive patients were prospectively recruited during Jan 2016 to Jun 2017...
October 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052954/enlarged-perivascular-spaces-are-associated-with-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#14
Yan Liang, Min Deng, Yang-Kun Chen, Vincent Mok, De-Feng Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chiu-Wing Winnie Chu, Eivind Berge, Wai-Kwong Tang
AIMS: This study explored the association between enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: This was an observational study of consecutively screened patients with acute ischemic stroke from March 2010 to March 2015. EPVS were rated in the basal ganglia and the centrum semiovale with a validated scale. The HRQoL was assessed 3 months after the stroke onset using the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQoL)...
October 20, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033410/total-small-vessel-disease-score-in-neurologically-healthy-japanese-adults-in-the-kashima-scan-study
#15
Yusuke Yakushiji, Andreas Charidimou, Tomoyuki Noguchi, Masashi Nishihara, Makoto Eriguchi, Yusuke Nanri, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Tatsumi Hirotsu, David J Werring, Hideo Hara
Objective We explored the association between the total small vessel disease (SVD) score obtained with magnetic resonance imaging and risk factors and outcomes in the Japanese population. Methods The presence of SVD features, including lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, white matter changes, and basal ganglia perivascular spaces on MRI, was summed to obtain a "total SVD score" (range 0-4). Ordinal and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association of higher total SVD scores with vascular risk factors, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, and cerebral atrophy...
October 16, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030904/development-and-maintenance-of-the-brain-s-immune-toolkit-microglia-and-non-parenchymal-brain-macrophages
#16
REVIEW
Jose P Lopez-Atalaya, Katharine E Askew K, Amanda Sierra, Diego Gomez-Nicola
Microglia and non-parenchymal macrophages located in the perivascular space, the meninges and the choroid plexus are independent immune populations that play vital roles in brain development, homeostasis, and tissue healing. Resident macrophages account for a significant proportion of cells in the brain and their density remains stable throughout the lifespan thanks to constant turnover. Microglia develop from yolk sac progenitors, later evolving through intermediate progenitors in a fine-tuned process in which intrinsic factors and external stimuli combine to progressively sculpt their cell-type specific transcriptional profiles...
October 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023798/intrathecal-antibody-distribution-in-the-rat-brain-surface-diffusion-perivascular-transport-and-osmotic-enhancement-of-delivery
#17
Michelle E Pizzo, Daniel J Wolak, Niyanta N Kumar, Eric Brunette, Christina L Brunnquell, Melanie-Jane Hannocks, N Joan Abbott, M Elizabeth Meyerand, Lydia Sorokin, Danica B Stanimirovic, Robert G Thorne
The precise mechanisms governing the central distribution of macromolecules from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the brain and spinal cord remain poorly understood, despite their importance for physiological processes such as antibody trafficking for central immune surveillance as well as several ongoing intrathecal clinical trials. Here, we clarify how immunoglobulin G (IgG) and smaller single-domain antibodies (sdAb) distribute throughout the whole brain in a size-dependent manner after intrathecal infusion in rats using ex vivo fluorescence and in vivo 3D magnetic resonance imaging...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021757/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-burden-is-associated-with-motor-performance-of-lower-and-upper-extremities-in-community-dwelling-populations
#18
Ning Su, Fei-Fei Zhai, Li-Xin Zhou, Jun Ni, Ming Yao, Ming-Li Li, Zheng-Yu Jin, Gao-Lang Gong, Shu-Yang Zhang, Li-Ying Cui, Feng Tian, Yi-Cheng Zhu
Objective: To investigate the correlation between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) burden and motor performance of lower and upper extremities in community-dwelling populations. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis on 770 participants enrolled in the Shunyi study, which is a population-based cohort study. CSVD burden, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), perivascular spaces (PVS), and brain atrophy were measured using 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021222/the-perivascular-pathways-for-influx-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-are-most-efficient-in-the-midbrain
#19
Howard Dobson, Matthew MacGregor Sharp, Richard Cumpsty, Theodore P Criswell, Tyler Wellman, Ciara Finucane, Jenna M Sullivan, Roy O Weller, Ajay Verma, Roxana O Carare
Although there are no conventional lymphatic vessels in the brain, fluid and solutes drain along basement membranes of cerebral capillaries and arteries towards the subarachnoid space and cervical lymph nodes. Convective influx/glymphatic entry of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the brain parenchyma occurs along the pial-glial basement membranes of arteries. This project tested the hypotheses that pial-glial basement membranes of arteries are thicker in the midbrain, allowing more glymphatic entry of CSF...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019093/triptans-and-cgrp-blockade-impact-on-the-cranial-vasculature
#20
REVIEW
Silvia Benemei, Francesca Cortese, Alejandro Labastida-Ramírez, Francesca Marchese, Lanfranco Pellesi, Michele Romoli, Anne Luise Vollesen, Christian Lampl, Messoud Ashina
The trigeminovascular system plays a key role in the pathophysiology of migraine. The activation of the trigeminovascular system causes release of various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, including serotonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which modulate pain transmission and vascular tone. Thirty years after discovery of agonists for serotonin 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors (triptans) and less than fifteen after the proof of concept of the gepant class of CGRP receptor antagonists, we are still a long way from understanding their precise site and mode of action in migraine...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
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