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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118745/biofilm-structures-in-a-mono-associated-mouse-model-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
Anna P Soavelomandroso, Françoise Gaudin, Sandra Hoys, Valérie Nicolas, Gayatri Vedantam, Claire Janoir, Sylvie Bouttier
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated disease with high recurrence rates. Host colonization is critical for the infectious process, both in first episodes and in recurrent disease, with biofilm formation playing a key role. The ability of C. difficile to form a biofilm on abiotic surfaces is established, but has not yet been confirmed in the intestinal tract. Here, four different isolates of C. difficile, which are in vitro biofilm producers, were studied for their ability to colonize germ-free mice...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110754/bacterial-colonization-stimulates-a-complex-physiological-response-in-the-immature-human-intestinal-epithelium
#2
David R Hill, Sha Huang, Melinda S Nagy, Veda K Yadagiri, Courtney Fields, Dishari Mukherjee, Brooke Bons, Priya H Dedhia, Alana M Chin, Yu-Hwai Tsai, Shrikar Thodla, Thomas M Schmidt, Seth Walk, Vincent B Young, Jason R Spence
The human gastrointestinal tract is immature at birth, yet must adapt to dramatic changes such as oral nutrition and microbial colonization. The confluence of these factors can lead to severe inflammatory disease in premature infants; however, investigating complex environment-host interactions is difficult due to limited access to immature human tissue. Here, we demonstrate that the epithelium of human pluripotent stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids is globally similar to the immature human epithelium and we utilize HIOs to investigate complex host-microbe interactions in this naïve epithelium...
November 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106682/insights-into-a-possible-influence-on-gut-microbiota-and-intestinal-barrier-function-during-chronic-exposure-of-mice-to-imazalil
#3
Cuiyuan Jin, Jizhou Xia, Sisheng Wu, Wenqing Tu, Zihong Pan, Zhengwei Fu, Yueyi Wang, Yuanxiang Jin
The fungicide imazalil (IMZ) is widely used to prevent and treat fungal diseases in plants and animals. Here, male adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg body weight IMZ for 2, 5 or 15 weeks. The microbiota in cecal contents and feces changed during chronic IMZ exposure at phylum and genus levels. Sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed a significant change in the richness of microbiota in cecal contents and feces after exposure to 2.5 mg/kg IMZ for 15 weeks...
November 2, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104567/the-skin-mucus-microbial-community-of-farmed-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#4
Giusi Minniti, Live Heldal Hagen, Davide Porcellato, Sven Martin Jørgensen, Phillip B Pope, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad
The skin of the teleost is a flexible and scaled structure that protects the fish toward the external environment. The outermost surface of the skin is coated with mucus, which is believed to be colonized by a diverse bacterial community (commensal and/or opportunistic). Little is known about such communities and their role in fish welfare. In aquaculture, fish seem to be more susceptible to pathogens compared to wild fish. Indeed common fish farming practices may play important roles in promoting their vulnerability, possibly by causing changes to their microbiomes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084077/accumulation-of-hla-dr4-in-colonic-epithelial-cells-causes-severe-colitis-in-homozygous-hla-dr4-transgenic-mice
#5
Atsushi Irie, Takahisa Imamura, Yayoi Michibata, Ttatsuko Kubo, Naoki Takeda, Isao Shibuya, Shinji Sogo, Kimi Araki, Yasuharu Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Homozygous HLA-DR4/I-E transgenic mice (tgm) spontaneously developed colitis similar to human ulcerative colitis. We explored whether endoplasmic reticulum stress in colonic epithelial cells due to overexpression of HLA-DR4/I-E was involved in the pathogenesis of colitis. METHODS: Major histocompatibility complex class II transactivator-knockout (CIITAKO) background tgm were established to test the involvement of HLA-DR4/I-E expression in the pathogenesis of colitis...
December 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073107/spatial-organization-of-a-model-15-member-human-gut-microbiota-established-in-gnotobiotic-mice
#6
Jessica L Mark Welch, Yuko Hasegawa, Nathan P McNulty, Jeffrey I Gordon, Gary G Borisy
Knowledge of the spatial organization of the gut microbiota is important for understanding the physical and molecular interactions among its members. These interactions are thought to influence microbial succession, community stability, syntrophic relationships, and resiliency in the face of perturbations. The complexity and dynamism of the gut microbiota pose considerable challenges for quantitative analysis of its spatial organization. Here, we illustrate an approach for addressing this challenge, using (i) a model, defined 15-member consortium of phylogenetically diverse, sequenced human gut bacterial strains introduced into adult gnotobiotic mice fed a polysaccharide-rich diet, and (ii) in situ hybridization and spectral imaging analysis methods that allow simultaneous detection of multiple bacterial strains at multiple spatial scales...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069103/the-yeast-form-of-the-fungus-candida-albicans-promotes-persistence-in-the-gut-of-gnotobiotic-mice
#7
Lena Böhm, Sanda Torsin, Su Hlaing Tint, Marie Therese Eckstein, Tobias Ludwig, J Christian Pérez
Many microorganisms that cause systemic, life-threatening infections in humans reside as harmless commensals in our digestive tract. Yet little is known about the biology of these microbes in the gut. Here, we visualize the interface between the human commensal and pathogenic fungus Candida albicans and the intestine of mice, a surrogate host. Because the indigenous mouse microbiota restricts C. albicans settlement, we compared the patterns of colonization in the gut of germ free and antibiotic-treated conventionally raised mice...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055387/the-colon-revisited-or-the-key-to-wellness-health-and-disease
#8
C A Gonzalez-Correa, E Mulett-Vásquez, D A Miranda, C H Gonzalez-Correa, P A Gómez-Buitrago
The hypothesis being advanced in this paper is that there is a new medical paradigm emerging from the biomedical research carried out in this century, mainly due to the explosion of the so called "omics" and associated techniques. The main idea is that there is a common pathway from wellbeing and health to chronic disease ("chronopathy") and even to death, which comprises following steps: 1) unhealthy diet, sedentary life style and permanent exposition to xenobiotics and all kinds of noxious stimuli;→2) intestinal dysbiosis;→3) alteration of the intestinal mucus layer (especially that of the colon);→4) disruption of the endothelial tight junctions;→5) metabolic endotoxemia+bacterial translocation;→6) inflammation;→7) exacerbation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and consequent maladaptation and malfunctioning of the colon;→8) epigenetic manifestations;→9) "chronopathy" and premature death...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051788/emerging-oral-targeted-therapies-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-opportunities-and-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Marcel Vetter, Markus F Neurath
To improve quality of life and prevent long-term risks in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), it is essential to suppress inflammatory activity adequately. However, corticosteroids are only suitable for therapy of acute flares and the evidence for positive effects of immunosuppressive substances like azathioprine or 6-mercapropurine is mainly limited to maintenance of remission. In addition, only subgroups of patients benefit from biologicals targeting tumour necrosis factor α or α4β7 integrins...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051063/defining-optimal-permeant-characteristics-for-ultrasound-mediated-gastrointestinal-delivery
#10
Carl M Schoellhammer, Yiyun Chen, Cody Cleveland, Daniel Minahan, Taylor Bensel, June Y Park, Sarah Saxton, Young-Ah Lucy Lee, Lucas Booth, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso
Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a bourgeoning area of study. Localized, low-frequency ultrasound has recently been shown to enable significant enhancement in delivery of a broad set of active pharmaceutical ingredients including small molecules, proteins, and nucleic acids without any formulation or encapsulation of the therapeutic. Traditional chemical formulations are typically required to protect, stabilize, and enable the successful delivery of a given therapeutic...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047391/report-of-a-case-combining%C3%A2-solitary-peutz-jeghers-polyp-colitis-cystica-profunda-and-high-grade-dysplasia-of-the-epithelium%C3%A2-of-the-colon
#11
Alexandros Papalampros, Michail G Vailas, Maria Sotiropoulou, Efstratia Baili, Spiridon Davakis, Demetrios Moris, Evangelos Felekouras, Ioanna Deladetsima
BACKGROUND: Colitis cystica profunda is a rare nonneoplastic disease defined by the presence of intramural cysts that contain mucus, usually situated in the rectosigmoid area, which can mimic various malignant lesions and polyps. Its etiology still remains not fully elucidated, and several mechanisms such as congenital, post-traumatic, and infectious have been implicated in the development of this rare entity. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we describe a unique case of colitis cystica profunda in the setting of Peutz-Jeghers-type polyp of the sigmoid colon, associated with high-grade dysplasia of the overlying epithelium in a 48-year-old female patient, who presented to the emergency room with signs of intestinal obstruction...
October 18, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037916/pfaffia-paniculata-brazilian-ginseng-extract-modulates-mapk-and-mucin-pathways-in-intestinal-inflammation
#12
C A R A Costa, A E V Quaglio, L C Di Stasi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pfaffia paniculata is endemic Brazilian plant traditionally used against fatigue, stress, inflammation and low immune system functioning and with proven intestinal anti-inflammatory activity. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate intestinal anti-inflammatory mechanism of P. paniculata by determination of mRNA abundance of Hsp70, Heparanase, Mapk1, Mapk3, Mapk6, Mapk9, Muc1, Muc2, Muc3, Muc4, and NF-κB, as well as the mucin content in colonic samples...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988395/effect-of-roxithromycin-on-mucosal-damage-oxidative-stress-and-pro-inflammatory-markers-in-experimental-model-of-colitis
#13
Hilal Ahmad, Sneh Verma, Vijay L Kumar
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Roxithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, exhibits anti-inflammatory property. The present study was designed to evaluate its protective effect in a rat model of colitis. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory property of roxithromycin was first validated in rat paw edema model at 5 and 20 mg/kg doses where it produced 19 and 51% inhibition of paw swelling induced by carrageenan. The efficacy of roxithromycin was evaluated at these doses in a rat model where colitis was induced by intra-colonic instillation of acetic acid...
October 7, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985745/mucus-and-mucins-do-they-have-a-role-in-the-inhibition-of-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#14
REVIEW
Anwar Suleman Mall, Habtom Habte, Yolanda Mthembu, Julia Peacocke, Corena de Beer
BACKGROUND: Mucins are large O-linked glycosylated proteins which give mucus their gel-forming properties. There are indications that mucus and mucins in saliva, breast milk and in the cervical plug inhibit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in an in vitro assay. Crude mucus gels form continuous layers on the epithelial surfaces of the major internal tracts of the body and protect these epithelial surfaces against aggressive luminal factors such as hydrochloric acid and pepsin proteolysis in the stomach lumen, the movement of hard faecal pellets in the colon at high pressure, the effects of shear against the vaginal epithelium during intercourse and the presence of foreign substances in the respiratory airways...
October 6, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982977/3-sulfo-galactosyl-dependent-adhesion-of-escherichia-coli-hs-multivalent-adhesion-molecule-is-attenuated-by-sulfatase-activity
#15
Fitua Al-Saedi, Diana Pereira Vaz, Daniel H Stones, Anne Marie Krachler
Bacterial adhesion to host receptors is an early and essential step in bacterial colonization, and the nature of adhesin-receptor interactions determines bacterial localization and thus the outcome of these interactions. Here, we determined the host receptors for the Multivalent Adhesion Molecule (MAM) from the gut commensal E. coli HS (MAMHS), which contains an array of seven mammalian cell entry (MCE) domains. The MAMHS adhesin interacted with a range of host receptors, through recognition of a shared 3-O-sulfo-galactosyl moiety...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982736/an-epoxide-hydrolase-secreted-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-decreases-mucociliary-transport-and-hinders-bacterial-clearance-from-the-lung
#16
Kelli L Hvorecny, Emily Dolben, Sophie Moreau-Marquis, Thomas H Hampton, Tamer B Shabaneh, Becca A Flitter, Christopher D Bahl, Jennifer M Bomberger, Bruce D Levy, Bruce A Stanton, Deborah A Hogan, Dean R Madden
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonizes the lungs of susceptible individuals by deploying virulence factors targeting host defenses. The secreted CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif) dysregulates the endocytic recycling of CFTR and thus reduces CFTR abundance in host epithelial membranes. We have postulated that the decrease in ion secretion mediated by Cif would slow mucociliary transport and decrease bacterial clearance from the lungs. To test this hypothesis, we explored the effects of Cif in cultured epithelia and in the lungs of mice...
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974617/entamoeba-histolytica-induced-mucin-exocytosis-is-mediated-by-vamp8-and-is-critical-in-mucosal-innate-host-defense
#17
Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Herbert Y Gaisano, Kris Chadee
Intestinal mucus secretion is critical in maintaining mucosal host defense against a myriad of pathogens by preventing direct association with the epithelium. Entamoeba histolytica specifically binds colonic MUC2 mucin and also induces potent hypersecretion from goblet cells; however, characterization of the nature of the mechanisms controlling mucus release remains elusive. In this report, we identify vesicle SNARE vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8) present on mucin granules as orchestrating regulated exocytosis in human goblet cells in response to the presence of E...
October 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973871/resistin-like-molecule-%C3%AE-is-a-bactericidal-protein-that-promotes-spatial-segregation-of-the-microbiota-and-the-colonic-epithelium
#18
Daniel C Propheter, Andrew L Chara, Tamia A Harris, Kelly A Ruhn, Lora V Hooper
The mammalian intestine is colonized by trillions of bacteria that perform essential metabolic functions for their hosts. The mutualistic nature of this relationship depends on maintaining spatial segregation between these bacteria and the intestinal epithelial surface. This segregation is achieved in part by the presence of a dense mucus layer at the epithelial surface and by the production of antimicrobial proteins that are secreted by epithelial cells into the mucus layer. Here, we show that resistin-like molecule β (RELMβ) is a bactericidal protein that limits contact between Gram-negative bacteria and the colonic epithelial surface...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958373/expression-of-immunoglobulin-d-is-increased-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#19
Mofiyinfolu Sokoya, Vijay R Ramakrishnan, Daniel N Frank, Jeremy Rahkola, Anne Getz, Todd T Kingdom, Jennifer M Kofonow, Quyen Nguyen, Edward N Janoff
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin (Ig) D is largely localized to the upper airway and reacts with colonizing respiratory pathogens. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is associated with increased IgD expression. METHODS: We performed immunofluorescent staining for cytoplasmic IgD, IgA, IgM, and surface plasma cell marker CD138 (syndecan-1) in sinus tissue of patients with CRS with and without nasal polyps (CRSwNP and CRSsNP, respectively) and control subjects without CRS (n = 6 each)...
October 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943327/a-two-component-system-regulates-bacteroides-fragilis-toxin-to-maintain-intestinal-homeostasis-and-prevent-lethal-disease
#20
Aaron L Hecht, Benjamin W Casterline, Vivian M Choi, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
Intestinal microbes are recognized for their role in human disease. Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer; however, colonization alone is insufficient to cause these illnesses. We hypothesized that homeostasis in healthy carriers is maintained by colonic mucus, the major constituent of which is the glycoprotein Muc2. We found that Muc2-deficient mice succumb to lethal disease from ETBF colonization in a B. fragilis toxin (BFT)-dependent manner...
October 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
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