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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575164/genetic-mouse-models-with-intestinal-specific-tight-junction-deletion-resemble-an-ulcerative-colitis-phenotype
#1
Wolfgang Stremmel, Simone Staffer, Mathias Jochen Schneider, Hongying Gan-Schreier, Andreas Wannhoff, Nicole Stuhrmann, Annika Gauss, Hartwig Wolburg, Anne Mahringer, Alexander Swidsinski, Thomas Efferth
Background and Aims: A key pathogenetic feature of ulcerative colitis(UC) is an intrinsic low mucus phosphatidylcholine(PC) content. Recently, a paracellular transport for PC across tight junctions(TJ) was described, suggesting TJ disturbance as cause of diminished luminal PC transport. Therefore we aimed to generate mutant mice with TJ deletion to evaluate whether an UC phenotype developed. Methods: CL57BL/6 control wild-type mice were compared to mutant mice with tamoxifen-induced villin-Cre dependent intestinal deletion of kindlin 1 and 2...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559407/neutrophil-elastase-and-il17-expressed-in-the-pig-colon-during-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-infection-synergistically-with-the-pathogen-induce-increased-mucus-transport-speed-and-production-via-mapk3
#2
Macarena P Quintana-Hayashi, Nazanin Navabi, Maxime Mahu, Vignesh Venkatakrishnan, Harvey R Fernandez, Freddy Haesebrouck, Frank Pasmans, Sara K Lindén
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonizes the pig colon resulting in mucoid hemorragic diarrhea and mucus layer changes. These changes are characterized by a disorganized mucus structure and a massive mucus induction with de novo expression of MUC5AC and increased production of MUC2. To investigate the mechanisms behind this altered mucin environment, we quantified the mRNA levels of mucin pathway genes and factors from the immune system in the colon of infected and control pigs, revealing upregulation of neutrophil elastase, SPDEF, FOXA3, MAPK3/ERK1, IL-17A, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 expression...
May 30, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552099/bacteriology-and-treatment-of-infections-in-the-upper-and-lower-airways-in-patients-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-adressing-the-paranasal-sinuses
#3
Mikkel Christian Alanin
The respiratory tract is lined with motile cilia that transport respiratory mucus. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a chronic genetic disease caused by mutations in genes responsible for ciliary structure and function. Non-functional airway cilia impair the mucociliary clearance (MCC), causing mucostasis, lung infections and destruction, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and hearing impairment. It is of paramount importance to postpone chronic lung infection mainly with Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in patients with an impaired MCC...
May 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533470/aeromonas-salmonicida-growth-in-response-to-atlantic-salmon-mucins-differ-between-epithelial-sites-is-governed-by-sialylated-and-n-acetylhexosamine-containing-o-glycans-and-is-affected-by-ca-2
#4
János Tamás Padra, Henrik Sundh, Kristina Sundell, Vignesh Venkatakrishnan, Chunsheng Jin, Tore Samuelsson, Niclas G Karlsson, Sara K Lindén
Aeromonas salmonicida cause furunculosis in salmonids and is a threat to Atlantic salmon aquaculture. The epithelial surfaces that the pathogen colonizes are covered by a mucus layer, predominantly comprised of secreted mucins. Using mass spectrometry to identify mucin glycan structures with and without enzymatic removal of glycan residues, coupled to measurements of bacterial growth, we here show that the complex Atlantic salmon intestinal mucin glycans enhance A. salmonicida growth, whereas the more simple skin mucin glycans do not...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526748/the-sialate-o-acetylesterase-esta-from-gut-bacteroidetes-species-enables-sialidase-mediated-cross-species-foraging-of-9-o-acetylated-sialoglycans
#5
Lloyd S Robinson, Warren G Lewis, Amanda L Lewis
The gut harbors many symbiotic, commensal, and pathogenic microbes that engage in the breakdown and metabolism of host carbohydrates. Sialic acids are prominent outermost carbohydrates on mucins and protect underlying glycan chains from enzymatic degradation. Sialidases produced by some members of the colonic microbiota have been shown to promote the expansion of several potential pathogens (e.g. Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, Escherichia coli) that do not produce sialidases. O-acetyl ester modifications of sialic acids help resist the action of many sialidases and are found at high levels in the mammalian colon...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518116/the-wincf-model-an-inexpensive-and-tractable-microcosm-of-a-mucus-plugged-bronchiole-to-study-the-microbiology-of-lung-infections
#6
William J Comstock, Edwin Huh, Reiley Weekes, Connor Watson, Tianyang Xu, Pieter C Dorrestein, Robert A Quinn
Many chronic airway diseases result in mucus plugging of the airways. Lungs of an individual with cystic fibrosis are an exemplary case where their mucus-plugged bronchioles create a favorable habitat for microbial colonization. Various pathogens thrive in this environment interacting with each other and driving many of the symptoms associated with CF disease. Like any microbial community, the chemical conditions of their habitat have a significant impact on the community structure and dynamics. For example, different microorganisms thrive in differing levels of oxygen or other solute concentrations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498157/compositional-changes-in-the-gut-mucus-microbiota-precede-the-onset-of-colitis-induced-inflammation
#7
Maria Glymenaki, Gurdeep Singh, Andrew Brass, Geoffrey Warhurst, Andrew J McBain, Kathryn J Else, Sheena M Cruickshank
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an inappropriate immune response to the gut microbiota. Notably, patients with IBD reportedly have alterations in fecal microbiota. However, the colonic microbiota occupies both the gut lumen and the mucus covering the epithelium. Thus, information about mucus-resident microbiota fails to be conveyed in the routine microbiota analyses of stool samples. Further, studies analyzing microbiota in IBD have mainly focused on stool samples taken after onset of inflammation...
May 11, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484432/rice-bran-and-probiotics-alter-the-porcine-large-intestine-and-serum-metabolomes-for-protection-against-human-rotavirus-diarrhea
#8
Nora Jean Nealon, Lijuan Yuan, Xingdong Yang, Elizabeth P Ryan
Human rotavirus (HRV) is a leading cause of severe childhood diarrhea, and there is limited vaccine efficacy in the developing world. Neonatal gnotobiotic pigs consuming a prophylactic synbiotic combination of probiotics and rice bran (Pro+RB) did not exhibit HRV diarrhea after challenge. Multiple immune, gut barrier protective, and anti-diarrheal mechanisms contributed to the prophylactic efficacy of Pro+RB when compared to probiotics (Pro) alone. In order to understand the molecular signature associated with diarrheal protection by Pro+RB, a global non-targeted metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the large intestinal contents and serum of neonatal gnotobiotic pigs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473809/inll-from-listeria-monocytogenes-is-involved-in-biofilm-formation-and-adhesion-to-mucin
#9
Magdalena Popowska, Agata Krawczyk-Balska, Rafał Ostrowski, Mickaël Desvaux
The bacterial etiological agent of listeriosis, Listeria monocytogenes, is an opportunistic intracellular foodborne pathogen. The infection cycle of L. monocytogenes is well-characterized and involves several key virulence factors, including internalins A and B. While 35 genes encoding internalins have been identified in L. monocytogenes, less than half of them have been characterized as yet. Focusing on lmo2026, it was shown this gene encodes a class I internalin, InlL, exhibiting domains potentially involved in adhesion...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470247/hydrodynamics-of-defecation
#10
Patricia J Yang, Morgan LaMarca, Candice Kaminski, Daniel I Chu, David L Hu
Animals discharge feces within a range of sizes and shapes. Such variation has long been used to track animals as well as to diagnose illnesses in both humans and animals. However, the physics by which feces are discharged remain poorly understood. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the defecation of mammals from cats to elephants using the dimensions of large intestines and feces, videography at Zoo Atlanta, cone-on-plate rheological measurements of feces and mucus, and a mathematical model of defecation...
May 4, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468928/sildenafil-suppresses-inflammation-driven-colorectal-cancer-in-mice
#11
Bianca N Islam, Sarah K Sharman, Yali Hou, Allison E Bridges, Nagendra Singh, Sangmi Kim, Ravindra Kolhe, Jimena Trillo-Tinoco, Paulo C Rodriguez, Franklin G Berger, Subbaramiah Sridhar, Darren D Browning
Intestinal cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling regulates epithelial homeostasis and has been implicated in the suppression of colitis and colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the cGMP-elevating ability of the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil to prevent disease in the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) inflammation-driven colorectal cancer model. Treatment of mice with sildenafil activated cGMP signaling in the colon mucosa and protected against DSS-induced barrier dysfunction...
May 3, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452682/entamoeba-histolytica-host-parasite-interactions-at-the-colonic-epithelium
#12
Steve Cornick, Kris Chadee
Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is the protozoan parasite responsible for intestinal amebiasis and interacts dynamically with the host intestinal epithelium during disease pathogenesis. A multifaceted pathogenesis profile accounts for why 90% of individuals infected with Eh are largely asymptomatic. For 100 millions individuals that are infected each year, key interactions within the intestinal mucosa dictate disease susceptibility. The ability for Eh to induce amebic colitis and disseminate into extraintestinal organs depends on the parasite competing with indigenous bacteria and overcoming the mucus barrier, binding to host cells inducing their cell death, invasion through the mucosa and outsmarting the immune system...
January 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408479/how-do-they-stick-together-bacterial-adhesins-implicated-in-the-binding-of-bacteria-to-the-human-gastrointestinal-mucins
#13
REVIEW
Bélinda Ringot-Destrez, Nicolas Kalach, Adriana Mihalache, Pierre Gosset, Jean-Claude Michalski, Renaud Léonard, Catherine Robbe-Masselot
The gastrointestinal mucosal surface is the primary interface between internal host tissues and the vast microbiota. Mucins, key components of mucus, are high-molecular-weight glycoproteins characterized by the presence of many O-linked oligosaccharides to the core polypeptide. They play many biological functions, helping to maintain cellular homeostasis and to establish symbiotic relationships with complex microbiota. Mucin O-glycans exhibit a huge variety of peripheral sequences implicated in the binding of bacteria to the mucosal tissues, thereby playing a key role in the selection of specific species and in the tissue tropism displayed by commensal and pathogenic bacteria...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407432/diagnosis-of-biofilm-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#14
REVIEW
Niels Høiby, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Claus Moser, Peter Østrup Jensen, Mette Kolpen, Tavs Qvist, Kasper Aanaes, Tanja Pressler, Marianne Skov, Oana Ciofu
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients is the best described biofilm infection in medicine. The initial focus can be the paranasal sinuses and then follows repeated colonization and infection of the lungs by aspiration. The matrix of the biofilms is dominated by alginate and the pathogenesis of tissue damage is immune complex-mediated chronic inflammation dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and their products (DNA, oxygen radicals and proteases). The P. aeruginosa biofilm infection can be diagnosed by microscopy of lung tissue, sputum and mucus from the paranasal sinuses, where aggregates of the bacteria are found surrounded by the abundant alginate matrix...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404634/mucosal-igm-antibody-with-d-mannose-affinity-in-fugu-takifugu-rubripes-is-utilized-by-a-monogenean-parasite-heterobothrium-okamotoi-for-host-recognition
#15
Kento Igarashi, Ryohei Matsunaga, Sachi Hirakawa, Sho Hosoya, Hiroaki Suetake, Kiyoshi Kikuchi, Yuzuru Suzuki, Osamu Nakamura, Toshiaki Miyadai, Satoshi Tasumi, Shigeyuki Tsutsui
How parasites recognize their definitive hosts is a mystery; however, parasitism is reportedly initiated by recognition of certain molecules on host surfaces. Fish ectoparasites make initial contact with their hosts at body surfaces, such as skin and gills, which are covered with mucosa that are similar to those of mammalian guts. Fish are among the most primitive vertebrates with immune systems that are equivalent to those in mammals, and they produce and secrete IgM into mucus. In this study, we showed that the monogenean parasite Heterobothrium okamotoi utilizes IgM to recognize its host, fugu Takifugu rubripes Oncomiracidia are infective larvae of H...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386253/current-and-potential-treatments-for-reducing-campylobacter-colonization-in-animal-hosts-and-disease-in-humans
#16
REVIEW
Tylor J Johnson, Janette M Shank, Jeremiah G Johnson
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377314/clarithromycin-and-n-acetylcysteine-co-spray-dried-powders-for-pulmonary-drug-delivery-a-focus-on-drug-solubility
#17
Michele Dario Manniello, Pasquale Del Gaudio, Rita P Aquino, Paola Russo
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs are usually susceptible to Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization and this bacterium is resistant to immune system clearance and drug control. Particularly, the biofilm mode of growth protects several microorganisms from host defenses and antibacterial drugs, mainly due to a delayed penetration of the drug through the biofilm matrix. Biofilm, together with lung mucus viscosity and tenacity, reduces, therefore, the effectiveness of conventional antibiotic therapy in CF. The aim of this research was to design and develop a stable, portable, easy to use dry powder inhaler (DPI) for CF patients, able to release directly to the lung an association of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin) and a mucolytic agent (N-Acetyl-Cysteine)...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373355/the-rhomboid-protease-glpg-promotes-the-persistence-of-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-within-the-gut
#18
Colin W Russell, Amanda C Richards, Alexander S Chang, Matthew A Mulvey
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains are typically benign within the mammalian gut but can disperse to extraintestinal sites to cause diseases like urinary tract infections and sepsis. As occupation of the intestinal tract is often a prerequisite for ExPEC-mediated pathogenesis, we set out to understand how ExPEC colonizes this niche. A screen using transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) was performed to search for genes within ExPEC isolate F11 that are important for growth in intestinal mucus, which is thought to be a major source of nutrients for E...
June 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369531/infection-of-porcine-colon-explants-with-brachyspira-hampsonii-leads-to-increased-epithelial-necrosis-and-catarrhal-exudate
#19
Matheus O Costa, Champika Fernando, Roman Nosach, John C S Harding, Janet E Hill
Mucohemorrhagic diarrhea in pigs caused by Brachyspira spp. has a global distribution, and an economic impact on affected farms due to poor performance of animals. Demonstrations that "Brachyspira hampsonii" is pathogenic have been achieved using in vivo animal models, but a critical knowledge gap exists regarding the pathogenic mechanisms employed by Brachyspira. Here, we used in vitro organ culture of porcine colon to investigate interactions between "B. hampsonii" and explants during the first 12 h of contact...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363494/clinical-and-endoscopic-features-in-patients-with-hospital-acquired-diarrhea-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
J A Velarde Ruiz-Velasco, J M Aldana-Ledesma, M A Ibarra-Estrada, S A Aguirre Díaz, J A Fernández-Ramírez, F Cárdenas-Lara, F Álvarez López, L E Rodríguez-Noriega, H R Pérez-Gómez, M R Morfín-Otero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clostridium difficile (CD) is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea. Clinical and endoscopic findings are poorly described in our country. The aim of this study is to depict those findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study, which included patients with CD associated hospital-acquired diarrhea, diagnosed by means of fecal PCR and testing for the presence of hypervirulent strain NAP027. We analyzed clinical and endoscopic features, as well as the variables associated with severe disease...
March 28, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
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