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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334162/biparental-transmission-of-verminephrobacter-symbionts-in-the-earthworm-aporrectodea-tuberculata-lumbricidae
#1
Laura-Carlota Paz, Andreas Schramm, Marie Braad Lund
Most lumbricid earthworms harbor species-specific Verminephrobacter symbionts in their excretory organs (nephridia). These symbionts are vertically transmitted via the cocoon, where they colonize the embryos. Despite cospeciation for >100 million years with their hosts, Verminephrobacter lack genome reduction and AT bias typical of evolutionary old, vertically transmitted symbionts, caused by recurring bottlenecks. We hypothesized that biparental symbiont transmission into the cocoon enabled genetic mixing and relieved the bottleneck, and tested biparental transmission experimentally for V...
February 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323213/oral-delivery-of-bacillus-subtilis-spores-expressing-cysteine-protease-of-clonorchis-sinensis-to-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus-induces-immune-responses-and-has-no-damage-on-liver-and-intestine-function
#2
Zeli Tang, Hengchang Sun, TingJin Chen, Zhipeng Lin, Hongye Jiang, Xinyi Zhou, Cunbin Shi, Houjun Pan, Ouqin Chang, Pengli Ren, Jinyun Yu, Xuerong Li, Jin Xu, Yan Huang, Xinbing Yu
Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is a fish-borne trematode. Human can be infected by ingestion of C. sinensis metacercariae parasitized in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For induction of effective oral immune responses, spores of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) WB600 were utilized as vehicle to delivery CsCP (cysteine protease of C. sinensis) cooperated with CotC (B.s-CotC-CP), one of coat proteins, to the gastrointestinal tract. After routine culture of 8-12 h in LB medium, B. subtilis containing CotC-CsCP was transferred into the sporulation culture medium...
March 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301166/brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-infection-regulates-mucin-glycosylation-synthesis-inducing-an-increased-expression-of-core-2-o-glycans-in-porcine-colon
#3
Vignesh Venkatakrishnan, Macarena Paz Quintana-Hayashi, Maxime Mahu, Freddy Haesebrouck, Frank Pasmans, Sara K Lindén
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae causes swine dysentery (SD), leading to global financial losses to the pig industry. Infection with this pathogen results in an increase of B. hyodysenteriae binding sites on mucins, along with increased colonic mucin secretion. We here predict that B. hyodysenteriae modifies the glycosylation pattern of the porcine intestinal mucus layer to optimize its host niche. We characterized the swine colonic mucin O-glycome and identified the differences in glycosylation between B. hyodysenteriae infected and non-infected pigs...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277780/development-validation-and-field-evaluation-of-a-quantitative-real-time-pcr-able-to-differentiate-between-field-mycoplasma-synoviae-and-the-ms-h-live-vaccine-strain
#4
R Dijkman, A Feberwee, W J M Landman
A quantitative PCR (qPCR) able to differentiate between field M. synoviae and MS-H vaccine strain was developed, validated and evaluated. It was developed using nucleotide differences in the obg gene. Analytical specificity and sensitivity was assessed using DNA from 194 M. synoviae field samples, three different batches of MS-H vaccine and from 43 other mycoplasma species and both proved to be 100%. The detection limit for field M. synoviae and MS-H vaccine strain was 10(2-3) and 10(2) colony forming units PCR equivalents/g trachea mucus, respectively...
February 20, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252966/metabolic-in-vivo-labeling-highlights-differences-of-metabolically-active-microbes-from-the-mucosal-gastrointestinal-microbiome-between-high-fat-and-normal-chow-diet
#5
Andreas Oberbach, Sven-Bastiaan Haange, Nadine Schlichting, Marco Heinrich, Stefanie Lehmann, Holger Till, Floor Hugenholtz, Yvonne Kullnick, Hauke Smidt, Karin Frank, Jana Seifert, Nico Jehmlich, Martin von Bergen
The gastrointestinal microbiota in the gut interacts metabolically and immunologically with the host tissue in the contact zone of the mucus layer. For understanding the details of these interactions and especially their dynamics it is crucial to identify the metabolically active subset of the microbiome. This became possible by the development of stable isotope probing techniques, which have only sparsely been applied to microbiome research. We applied the in vivo stable isotope approach using (15)N-labeled diet with subsequent identification of metabolically active bacterial species...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250440/postnatal-development-of-the-small-intestinal-mucosa-drives-age-dependent-regio-selective-susceptibility-to-escherichia-coli-k1-infection
#6
George M H Birchenough, Fatma Dalgakiran, Luci A Witcomb, Malin E V Johansson, Alex J McCarthy, Gunnar C Hansson, Peter W Taylor
The strong age dependency of neonatal systemic infection with Escherichia coli K1 can be replicated in the neonatal rat. Gastrointestinal (GI) colonization of two-day-old (P2) rats leads to invasion of the blood within 48 h of initiation of colonization; pups become progressively less susceptible to infection over the P2-P9 period. We show that, in animals colonized at P2 but not at P9, E. coli K1 bacteria gain access to the enterocyte surface in the mid-region of the small intestine and translocate through the epithelial cell monolayer by an intracellular pathway to the submucosa...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240194/brain-and-gut-crf-signaling-biological-actions-and-role-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#7
Yvette Taché, Mulugeta Million, Muriel Larauche, Pu-Qing Yuan
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling pathways coordinate the behavioral, endocrine, autonomic and visceral responses to stress. Convergent anatomical, molecular, pharmacological and functional experimental evidence supports an important role of brain CRF receptor signaling in stress-related alterations of gastrointestinal functions. These include the inhibition of gastric acid secretion and gastro-small intestinal transit, the stimulation of colonic enteric nervous system and secretory-motor function, enhanced intestinal permeability, and visceral hypersensitivity...
February 23, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214380/application-of-the-mechpeff-model-to-predict-passive-effective-intestinal-permeability-in-the-different-regions-of-the-rodent-small-intestine-and-colon
#8
D Pade, M Jamei, A Rostami-Hodjegan, D B Turner
A major component of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models is prediction of the rate and extent of absorption of orally dosed drugs for which knowledge of effective passive intestinal permeability (Peff ) is essential. Single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) studies are used to establish effective permeability in vivo but are difficult to perform in rodents while mechanistic models to predict drug Peff in rat and mouse have not been published. This work evaluates the predictive performance of the 'MechPeff' model to predict Peff in the rodent intestine based upon knowledge of regional gut physiology and drug-specific physicochemical parameters...
February 18, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214100/nlrp6-a-multifaceted-innate-immune-sensor
#9
REVIEW
Maayan Levy, Hagit Shapiro, Christoph A Thaiss, Eran Elinav
NLRP6, a member of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) innate immune receptor family, regulates inflammation and host defense against microorganisms. Similar to other NLRs, NLRP6 not only participates in inflammasome formation, but is also involved in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling regulation and facilitation of gastrointestinal antiviral effector functions. Additionally, NLRP6 contributes to the regulation of mucus secretion and antimicrobial peptide production, thereby impacting intestinal microbial colonization and associated microbiome-related infectious, autoinflammatory, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212861/accumulation-of-phosphatidylcholine-on-gut-mucosal-surface-is-not-dominated-by-electrostatic-interactions
#10
Agatha Korytowski, Wasim Abuillan, Federico Amadei, Ali Makky, Andrea Gumiero, Irmgard Sinning, Annika Gauss, Wolfgang Stremmel, Motomu Tanaka
The accumulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the intestinal mucus layer is crucial for the protection of colon epithelia from the bacterial attack. It has been reported that the depletion of PC is a distinct feature of ulcerative colitis. Here we addressed the question how PC interacts with its binding proteins, the mucins, which may establish the hydrophobic barrier against colonic microbiota. In the first step, the interactions of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) with two mucin preparations from porcine stomach, have been studied using dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurement, and Langmuir isotherms, suggesting that mucin binds to the surface of DOPC vesicles...
February 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206729/gut-microbiota-and-gastric-disease
#11
Dolores Sgambato, Agnese Miranda, Lorenzo Romano, Marco Romano
The gut microbiota may be considered a crucial "organ" of human body because of its role in the maintenance of the balance between health as well as disease. It is mainly located in the small bowel and colon, while, the stomach was long thought to be sterile in particular for its high acid production. In particular, stomach was considered "an hostile place" for bacterial growth until the identification of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Now, the stomach and its microbiota can be considered as two different "organs" that share the same place and they have an impact on each other...
February 15, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195642/functional-mucous-layer-and-healing-of-proximal-colonic-anastomoses-in-an-experimental-model
#12
J W A M Bosmans, A C H M Jongen, G M H Birchenough, E E L Nyström, M J J Gijbels, J P M Derikx, N D Bouvy, G C Hansson
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is the most dreaded complication after colorectal surgery, causing high morbidity and mortality. Mucus is a first line of defence against external factors in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the structural mucus protein Muc2 was depleted in genetically engineered mice and the effect on healing of colonic anastomoses studied in an experimental model. METHODS: Mice of different Muc2 genotypes were used in a proximal colonic AL model...
February 13, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167669/mucosal-antibodies-to-the-c-terminus-of-toxin-a-prevent-colonization-of-clostridium-difficile
#13
Huynh A Hong, Krisztina Hitri, Siamand Hosseini, Natalia Kotowicz, Donna Bryan, Fatme Mawas, Anthony J Wilkinson, Annie van Broekhoven, Jonathan Kearsey, Simon M Cutting
Mucosal immunity is considered important for protection to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We show that in hamsters immunized with Bacillus subtilis spores expressing a carboxy-terminal segment (TcdA26-39) of C. difficile toxin A no colonization occurs in protected animals when challenged with C. difficile strain 630. By contrast, animals immunized with toxoids showed no protection and remained fully colonized. As well as neutralizing toxins, antibodies to TcdA26-39 (but not to toxoids), whether raised to the recombinant protein, or to TcdA26-39 expressed on the B...
February 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147355/improvement-of-a-leaky-intestinal-barrier
#14
REVIEW
Eduard F Stange
In Crohn's disease, the mucus layer appears to be defective in terms of low defensin levels and lack of antibacterial activity. These deficiencies actually explain the Montreal phenotypes and the stable localization of disease in the terminal ileum with low α-defensins from Paneth cells and/or low β-defensins in colonic disease, respectively. Conversely, in ulcerative colitis (UC) the defensin production is normal or even induced, but the mucus layer is thinner and patchy, more in the liquid form and also chemically altered so that antibacterial peptides are not retained and lost into the luminal bacterial bulk...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133201/-long-term-survival-in-response-to-multimodality-therapy-in-a-patient-with-invasive-pancreatic-cancer-with-cyst-formation
#15
Hironobu Makino, Hisashi Kametaka, Tadaomi Fukada, Kazuhiro Seike, Akio Hasegawa, Masaru Isozaki
The patient was a 61-year-old man. Computed tomography(CT)in April 2007 revealed a pancreatic cyst in the tail of the pancreas. Rapid enlargement was noted in November 2007, and the patient was referred to the surgery department. CT showed a cystic lesion containing a nodular shadow in the pancreatic tail. Tumor marker measurements yielded normal carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA)and carbohydrate antigen 19-9(CA19-9)levels, but the duke pancreatic monoclonal antigen type 2(DUPAN-2)level was elevated. A diagnosis of mucinous cystic neoplasm(MCN)of the pancreas was made in December 2007, and distal pancreatectomy and partial colectomy were performed...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122822/intestinal-muc2-mucin-o-glycosylation-is-affected-by-microbiota-and-regulated-by-differential-expression-of-glycosyltranferases
#16
Liisa Arike, Jessica Holmén-Larsson, Gunnar C Hansson
Intestinal cells are covered by mucus. In the small intestine, a single unattached mucus is present whereas the colon has both an inner attached mucus layer and an outer loose mucus. The attached mucus of the colon is impenetrable to bacteria while the loose mucus acts as a habitat for commensal bacteria. In germ-free (GF) mice, small intestinal mucus is attached to the epithelium and the inner colon mucus is penetrable. O-glycosylation plays an important role in the host-microbiota interactions as the commensal bacteria use glycans as nutrient sources and attachment sites...
January 24, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120846/cortactin-deficiency-causes-increased-rhoa-rock1-dependent-actomyosin-contractility-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-and-disproportionately-severe-dss-induced-colitis
#17
A F Citalán-Madrid, H Vargas-Robles, A García-Ponce, M Shibayama, A Betanzos, P Nava, C Salinas-Lara, K Rottner, R Mennigen, M Schnoor
The intestinal epithelium constitutes a first line of defense of the innate immune system. Epithelial dysfunction is a hallmark of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The actin cytoskeleton controls epithelial barrier integrity but the function of actin regulators such as cortactin is poorly understood. Given that cortactin controls endothelial permeability, we hypothesized that cortactin is also important for epithelial barrier regulation. We found increased permeability in the colon of cortactin-KO mice that was accompanied by reduced levels of ZO-1, claudin-1, and E-cadherin...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093882/the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-farmed-mink-neovison-vison-maintains-a-diverse-mucosa-associated-microbiota-following-a-3-day-fasting-period
#18
Martin I Bahl, Anne S Hammer, Tove Clausen, Anabelle Jakobsen, Søren Skov, Lars Andresen
Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times the length of the body and a transit time of approximately 4-5 hr...
January 16, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069817/quorum-sensing-regulators-are-required-for-metabolic-fitness-in-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#19
Sai Siddarth Kalburge, Megan R Carpenter, Sharon Rozovsky, E Fidelma Boyd
Quorum sensing (QS) is a process by which bacteria alter gene expression in response to cell density changes. In Vibrio species, at low cell density, the sigma 54-dependent response regulator LuxO is active and regulates the two QS master regulators AphA, which is induced, and OpaR, which is repressed. At high cell density the opposite occurs: LuxO is inactive, and therefore OpaR is induced while AphA is repressed. In Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a significant enteric pathogen of humans, the roles of these regulators in pathogenesis are less known...
March 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069814/muc2-mucin-and-butyrate-contribute-to-the-synthesis-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-cathelicidin-in-response-to-entamoeba-histolytica-and-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis
#20
Eduardo R Cobo, Vanessa Kissoon-Singh, France Moreau, Ravi Holani, Kris Chadee
Embedded in the colonic mucus are cathelicidins, small cationic peptides secreted by colonic epithelial cells. Humans and mice have one cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) each, LL-37/hCAP-18 and Cramp, respectively, with related structure and functions. Altered production of MUC2 mucin and antimicrobial peptides is characteristic of intestinal amebiasis. The interactions between MUC2 mucin and cathelicidins in conferring innate immunity against Entamoeba histolytica are not well characterized...
March 2017: Infection and Immunity
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