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colon mucus

Irene D Román, David Cano-Martínez, María Val T Lobo, María Dolores Fernández-Moreno, Borja Hernández-Breijo, Silvia Sacristán, Patricia Sanmartín-Salinas, Jorge Monserrat, Javier P Gisbert, Luis G Guijarro
: Objetive: Our purpose was to study the molecular basis of infliximab (IFX) effect on colon mucosa in a colitis model and to identify new biomarkers of mucosal healing. METHODS: Healthy rats and rats which were subjected to experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium, with or without IFX treatment (in the short- and long-term), were studied along with forty-seven IBD patients. Colon mucosal integrity by Periodic Acid Schiff staining, intestinal damage by immunohistochemistry (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, β-catenin, E-cadherin, phosphotyrosine, p-p38, allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) and colonic mucosal apoptosis by TUNEL staining were evaluated in rats...
October 26, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Adriaan A van Beek, Bruno Sovran, Floor Hugenholtz, Ben Meijer, Joanne A Hoogerland, Violeta Mihailova, Corine van der Ploeg, Clara Belzer, Mark V Boekschoten, Jan H J Hoeijmakers, Wilbert P Vermeij, Paul de Vos, Jerry M Wells, Pieter J M Leenen, Claudio Nicoletti, Rudi W Hendriks, Huub F J Savelkoul
Although it is clear that probiotics improve intestinal barrier function, little is known about the effects of probiotics on the aging intestine. We investigated effects of 10-week bacterial supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus casei BL23, or Bifidobacterium breve DSM20213 on gut barrier and immunity in 16-week-old accelerated aging Ercc1(-/Δ7) mice, which have a median lifespan of ~20 weeks, and their wild-type littermates. The colonic barrier in Ercc1(-/Δ7) mice was characterized by a thin (< 10 μm) mucus layer...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Yaron Niv
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The mucus layer of the intestinal tract is the main barrier between luminal microbes and the mucosa, and has an essential role in the body defense mechanisms. Previous research could not establish consistent results for mucin genes expression in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. In this meta-analysis we looked at the mucin expression in CD patients and compared it with healthy controls. METHOD: English medical literature searches were conducted for mucin expression in the mucosa of the ileum and colon of CD patients and compared it with normal mucosa...
September 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Keita Nishiyama, Makoto Sugiyama, Takao Mukai
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive bacteria that are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of mammals, including humans. Since Mechnikov first proposed that yogurt could prevent intestinal putrefaction and aging, the beneficial effects of LAB have been widely demonstrated. The region between the duodenum and the terminal of the ileum is the primary region colonized by LAB, particularly the Lactobacillus species, and this region is covered by a mucus layer composed mainly of mucin-type glycoproteins...
September 20, 2016: Microorganisms
Janneke P Ouwerkerk, Kees C H van der Ark, Mark Davids, Nico J Claassens, Teresa Robert Finestra, Willem M de Vos, Clara Belzer
: Akkermansia muciniphila colonizes the mucus layer of the gastrointestinal tract where the organism can be exposed to the oxygen that diffuses from epithelial cells. To understand how A. muciniphila is able to survive and grow at this oxic-anoxic interface, its oxygen tolerance, response and reduction capacities were studied. A. muciniphila was found to be oxygen-tolerant. On top of this, under aerated conditions, A. muciniphila showed significant oxygen reduction capacities and its growth rate and yield were increased as compared to strict anaerobic conditions...
September 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Irene Sarosiek, Mohammad Bashashati, Alicia Alvarez, Mark Hall, Nagasri Shankar, Yvette Gomez, Richard W McCallum, Jerzy Sarosiek
BACKGROUND: Lubiprostone is an effective treatment for chronic constipation (CC). The mechanism of action of lubiprostone is through increasing fluid secretion and lubrication of the intestinal lumen. The effects of lubiprostone on gastrointestinal transit and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) have not been adequately explored. The current study was designed to investigate whether lubiprostone (1) alters gastrointestinal transit and (2) affects SIBO in patients with constipation...
September 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Martin Stahl, Emilisa Frirdich, Jenny Vermeulen, Yuliya Badayeva, Xiaoxia Li, Bruce A Vallance, Erin C Gaynor
Campylobacter jejuni is a helical shaped enteric bacterial pathogen and a common cause of gastroenteritis. We recently developed a mouse model for this human pathogen utilizing the SIGIRR-deficient mouse strain, which exhibits significant intestinal inflammation in response to intestinal C. jejuni infection. In the current study, this mouse model was used to define whether C. jejuni's characteristic helical shape plays a role in its ability to colonize and elicit inflammation in the mouse intestine. Mice were infected with the previously characterized straight-rod Δpgp1 and Δpgp2 mutant strains, along with a newly characterized curved-rod mutant Δ1228 We also compared the resultant infections and pathology to that elicited by the helical shaped wild type C...
September 19, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Julie Tomas, Céline Mulet, Azadeh Saffarian, Jean-Baptiste Cavin, Robert Ducroc, Béatrice Regnault, Chek Kun Tan, Kalina Duszka, Rémy Burcelin, Walter Wahli, Philippe J Sansonetti, Thierry Pédron
Diet is among the most important factors contributing to intestinal homeostasis, and basic functions performed by the small intestine need to be tightly preserved to maintain health. Little is known about the direct impact of high-fat (HF) diet on small-intestinal mucosal defenses and spatial distribution of the microbiota during the early phase of its administration. We observed that only 30 d after HF diet initiation, the intervillous zone of the ileum-which is usually described as free of bacteria-became occupied by a dense microbiota...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
S N Hoehne, S P McDonough, M Rishniw, K W Simpson
Persistent bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal mucosa are causally linked to gastric carcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in people and laboratory animals. We examined the relationship of mucosa-associated bacteria to alimentary lymphoma in cats. Intestinal biopsies from 50 cats with alimentary lymphoma (small cell, n = 33; large cell, n = 17) and 38 controls without lymphoma (normal to minimal change on histopathology, n = 18; lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, n = 20) were evaluated...
September 14, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Claire Shortt, Eoin Scanlan, Amber Hilliard, Chiara E Cotroneo, Billy Bourke, Tadhg Ó Cróinín
UNLABELLED: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, but relatively little is known about the global regulation of virulence factors during infection of chickens or humans. This study identified DNA supercoiling as playing a key role in regulating motility and flagellar protein production and found that this supercoiling-controlled regulon is induced by growth in chicken mucus. A direct correlation was observed between motility and resting DNA supercoiling levels in different strains of C...
2016: MBio
Stephane L Benoit, Robert J Maier
Catalase, a conserved and abundant enzyme found in all domains of life, dissipates the oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori undergoes host-mediated oxidant-stress exposure, and its catalase contains oxidizable methionine (Met) residues. We hypothesized catalase may play a large stress-combating role independent of its classical catalytic one, namely quenching of harmful oxidants through its recyclable Met residues, resulting in oxidant protection to the bacterium. Two Helicobacter mutant strains (katAH56A and katAY339A) containing catalase without enzyme activity but that retain all Met residues were created...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Valentina Volynets, Andreas Rings, Gyöngyi Bárdos, Maureen J Ostaff, Jan Wehkamp, Stephan C Bischoff
The intestinal barrier is gaining increasing attention because it is related to intestinal homeostasis and disease. Different parameters have been used in the past to assess intestinal barrier functions in experimental studies; however most of them are poorly defined in healthy mice. Here, we compared a number of barrier markers in healthy mice, established normal values and correlations. In 48 mice (24 C57BL/6J, 24 BALB/cJ background), we measured mucus thickness, and expression of mucin-2, α-defensin-1 and -4, zonula occludens-1, occludin, junctional adhesion molecule-A, claudin-1, 2 and -5...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
Joachim Riethmüller, Gloria Herrmann, Ute Graepler-Mainka, Dorothea Hellwig, Hans-Eberhard Heuer, Susanne Heyder, Holger Köster, Birte Kinder, Kristina Kröger, Klaus Paul, Krystyna Poplawska, Volker O Melichar, Christina Smaczny, Uwe Mellies
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic microbial lung infections are difficult to treat and cause morbidity and increased mortality. METHODS: In a multicentre, open-label, exploratory, non-interventional study, inhaled tobramycin (300 mg twice daily) and colistin (1 million I.U. twice daily) were sequentially combined with the aim to investigate the effect on 41 CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa infections for six months (mean age 24 ± 10.8y). RESULTS: Six patients had adverse events that were assessed as being related to treatment...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Christina Westermann, Marita Gleinser, Sinéad C Corr, Christian U Riedel
Bifidobacteria are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract that, despite a long history of research, have not shown any pathogenic potential whatsoever. By contrast, some bifidobacteria are associated with a number of health-related benefits for the host. The reported beneficial effects of bifidobacteria include competitive exclusion of pathogens, alleviation of symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, and modulation of intestinal and systemic immune responses. Based on these effects, bifidobacteria are widely used as probiotics by pharmaceutical and dairy industries...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhi-Yong Li, Mao-Bing Fan, Sai-Long Zhang, Yi Qu, Si-Li Zheng, Jie Song, Chao-Yu Miao
AIM: Metrnl is a novel secreted protein, but its physiological roles remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the tissue expression pattern of Metrnl in humans and explored its possible physiological role in the tissues with most highly expressed levels. METHODS: A human tissue microarray containing 19 types of tissues from 69 donors was used to examine the tissue expression pattern of Metrnl, and the expression pattern was further verified in fresh human and mouse tissues...
August 22, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Jason Raymond Woloski, Skye Heston, Sheyla Pamela Escobedo Calderon
Allergic asthma refers to a chronic reversible bronchoconstriction influenced by an allergic trigger, leading to symptoms of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a complex hypersensitivity reaction, often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, occurring when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species. The clinical picture is dominated by asthma complicated by recurrent episodes of bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, mucus production, and peripheral blood eosinophilia...
September 2016: Primary Care
Hanaa Zbakh, Elena Talero, Javier Avila, Antonio Alcaide, Carolina de Los Reyes, Eva Zubía, Virginia Motilva
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex class of immune disorders. Unfortunately, a treatment for total remission has not yet been found, while the use of natural product-based therapies has emerged as a promising intervention. The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the algal meroterpene 11-hydroxy-1'-O-methylamentadione (AMT-E) in a murine model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. AMT-E was orally administered daily (1, 10, and 20 mg/kg animal) to DSS treated mice (3% w/v) for 7 days...
2016: Marine Drugs
Noora Ottman, Laura Huuskonen, Justus Reunanen, Sjef Boeren, Judith Klievink, Hauke Smidt, Clara Belzer, Willem M de Vos
Akkermansia muciniphila is a common member of the human gut microbiota and belongs to the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae superphylum. Decreased levels of A. muciniphila have been associated with many diseases, and thus it is considered to be a beneficial resident of the intestinal mucus layer. Surface-exposed molecules produced by this organism likely play important roles in colonization and communication with other microbes and the host, but the protein composition of the outer membrane (OM) has not been characterized thus far...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Clover C M Wong, Lin Zhang, William K K Wu, Jing Shen, Ruby L Y Chan, Lan Lu, Wei Hu, Ming X Li, Long F Li, Shun X Ren, Yi F Li, Jiang Li, Chi H Cho
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The preventive effect of intrarectal administration of mouse cathelicidin (mCRAMP) and oral administration of mCRAMP-encoding Lactococcus lactis (N4I) has been shown in murine experimental colitis. It is pivotal to understand the ability of N4I whether it can promote mucosal repair in existing colitis. METHODS: Mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) were treated orally with L. lactis or its transformed strain with or without nisin induction...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Diana L Lam, Siddhartha G Kapnadak, J David Godwin, Gregory A Kicska, Moira L Aitken, Sudhakar N Pipavath
INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium abscessus infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients can lead to poor outcomes. Early diagnosis is important, but there are no studies outlining specific imaging features of M. abscessus in CF. OBJECTIVES: To describe the computed tomography (CT) findings of early M. abscessus infection in our CF population. METHODS: Thirteen CF patients with sputum cultures positive for M. abscessus from 2006-2013 were identified at our institution...
July 27, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
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