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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885604/assays-to-study-the-interaction-of-campylobacter-jejuni-with-the-mucosal-surface
#1
Marguerite Clyne, Gina Duggan, Ciara Dunne, Brendan Dolan, Luis Alverez, Billy Bourke
Mucosal colonization and overcoming the mucosal barrier are essential steps in the establishment of infection by Campylobacter jejuni. The interaction between C. jejuni and host cells, including binding and invasion, is thought to be the key virulence factor important for pathogenesis of C. jejuni infections in animals or humans. The intestinal mucosal barrier is composed of a polarized epithelium covered by a thick adherent mucus gel layer. There is a requirement for cell culture assays of infection to accurately represent the in vivo mucosal surface...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881419/oral-administration-of-a-select-mixture-of-bacillus-probiotics-affects-the-gut-microbiota-and-goblet-cell-function-in-newly-weaned-muc4-resistant-pigs-following-escherichia-coli-challenge
#2
Wei Zhang, Yao-Hong Zhu, Dong Zhou, Qiong Wu, Dan Song, Johan Dicksved, Jiu-Feng Wang
: Structural disruption of the gut microbiota and impaired goblet cell function are collateral etiologic factors in enteric diseases. Low, moderate, or high doses of a Bacillus licheniformis-B. subtilis mixture (BLS-mix) were orally administered to MUC4 resistant piglets for 1 week before the F4-expressing ETEC strain (F4(+) ETEC) challenge. The luminal contents were collected from the mucosa of colon on day 8 after F4(+) ETEC challenge. BLS-mix attenuated E. coli-induced expansion of Bacteroides uniformis, Eubacterium eligens, Acetanaerobacterium and Sporobacter populations...
November 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870227/aspergillosis-and-the-role-of-mucins-in-cystic-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Abigail C Cowley, David J Thornton, David W Denning, Alexander Horsley
The prevalence of aspergillosis in CF patients has until recently been underestimated, but increasing evidence suggests that it may play an important role in the progression of CF lung disease. In healthy airways, Aspergillus fumigatus can be efficiently removed from the lung by mechanisms such as mucociliary clearance and cough. However, these mechanisms are defective in CF, allowing pathogens such as A. fumigatus to germinate and establish chronic infections within the airways. The precise means by which A...
November 21, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863247/a-dietary-fiber-deprived-gut-microbiota-degrades-the-colonic-mucus-barrier-and-enhances-pathogen-susceptibility
#4
Mahesh S Desai, Anna M Seekatz, Nicole M Koropatkin, Nobuhiko Kamada, Christina A Hickey, Mathis Wolter, Nicholas A Pudlo, Sho Kitamoto, Nicolas Terrapon, Arnaud Muller, Vincent B Young, Bernard Henrissat, Paul Wilmes, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Gabriel Núñez, Eric C Martens
Despite the accepted health benefits of consuming dietary fiber, little is known about the mechanisms by which fiber deprivation impacts the gut microbiota and alters disease risk. Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, in which animals were colonized with a synthetic human gut microbiota composed of fully sequenced commensal bacteria, we elucidated the functional interactions between dietary fiber, the gut microbiota, and the colonic mucus barrier, which serves as a primary defense against enteric pathogens. We show that during chronic or intermittent dietary fiber deficiency, the gut microbiota resorts to host-secreted mucus glycoproteins as a nutrient source, leading to erosion of the colonic mucus barrier...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856417/the-probiotic-mixture-vsl-3-reduces-colonic-inflammation-and-improves-intestinal-barrier-function-in-muc2-mucin-deficient-mice
#5
Manish Kumar, Vanessa Kissoon-Singh, Aralia Leon Coria, France Moreau, Kris Chadee
MUC2 mucin is the major glycoprotein in colonic mucus that separates intestinal microbiota from underlying host cells and serves as a food source for some eubacteria. MUC2 deficiency results in impaired epithelial barrier function, imbalance in gut microbiota and spontaneous colitis. Use of probiotics has been shown to have protective effect against colitis. In this study we tested whether the probiotic mixture VSL#3 required an intact mucin barrier to exert its beneficial effect using Muc2 mucin deficient (Muc2(-/-)) and Muc2(+/+) littermates...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849619/gram-positive-bacteria-are-held-at-a-distance-in-the-colon-mucus-by-the-lectin-like-protein-zg16
#6
Joakim H Bergström, George M H Birchenough, Gergely Katona, Bjoern O Schroeder, André Schütte, Anna Ermund, Malin E V Johansson, Gunnar C Hansson
The distal colon functions as a bioreactor and harbors an enormous amount of bacteria in a mutualistic relationship with the host. The microbiota have to be kept at a safe distance to prevent inflammation, something that is achieved by a dense inner mucus layer that lines the epithelial cells. The large polymeric nets made up by the heavily O-glycosylated MUC2 mucin forms this physical barrier. Proteomic analyses of mucus have identified the lectin-like protein ZG16 (zymogen granulae protein 16) as an abundant mucus component...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833600/mucosal-prevalence-and-interactions-with-the-epithelium-indicate-commensalism-of-sutterella-spp
#7
Kaisa Hiippala, Veera Kainulainen, Marko Kalliomäki, Perttu Arkkila, Reetta Satokari
Sutterella species have been frequently associated with human diseases, such as autism, Down syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the impact of these bacteria on health still remains unclear. Especially the interactions of Sutterella spp. with the host are largely unknown, despite of the species being highly prevalent. In this study, we addressed the interaction of three known species of Sutterella with the intestinal epithelium and examined their adhesion properties, the effect on intestinal barrier function and the pro-inflammatory capacity in vitro...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829577/chronic-early-life-stress-in-rat-pups-alters-basal-corticosterone-intestinal-permeability-and-fecal-microbiota-at-weaning-influence-of-sex
#8
Nabila Moussaoui, Jonathan P Jacobs, Muriel Larauche, Mandy Biraud, Mulugeta Million, Emeran Mayer, Yvette Taché
Background/Aims: Wistar rat dams exposed to limited nesting stress (LNS) from postnatal days (PND) 2 to 10 display erratic maternal behavior and their pups show delayed maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and impaired epithelial barrier at PND10 and a visceral hypersensitivity at adulthood. Little is known about the impact of early life stress on the offspring before adulthood and the influence of sex. We investigated whether male and female rats previously exposed to LNS displays at weaning altered corticosterone, intestinal permeability and microbiota...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824274/in-vitro-colonisation-of-the-distal-colon-by-akkermansia-muciniphila-is-largely-mucin-and-ph-dependent
#9
F Van Herreweghen, P Van den Abbeele, T De Mulder, R De Weirdt, A Geirnaert, E Hernandez-Sanabria, R Vilchez-Vargas, R Jauregui, D H Pieper, C Belzer, W M De Vos, T Van de Wiele
Host mucin is the main constituent of the mucus layer that covers the gut epithelium of the host, and an important source of glycans for the bacteria colonising the intestine. Akkermansia muciniphila is a mucin-degrading bacterium, abundant in the human gut, that is able to produce acetate and propionate during this degradation process. A. muciniphila has been correlated with human health in previous studies, but a mechanistic explanation is lacking. In this study, the main site of colonisation was characterised alongside additional conditions, such as differences in colon pH, prebiotic supplementation and variable mucin supply...
November 8, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796724/effects-of-methanolic-extract-from-leaves-of-rubus-imperialis-in-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice
#10
Luisa Mota da Silva, Lincon Bordignon Somensi, Thaise Boeing, Cristiane Barp, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Rivaldo Niero, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
This study investigated the effects of Rubus imperialis, a berry known as "amora-branca", in colitis dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced in mice. Animals were treated orally with vehicle (water), 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) or methanolic extract from leaves of R. imperialis (MERI, 100 mg/kg), once a day during seven days. The disease activity index (DAI) was observed daily. Colons were collected for histological, histochemical and biochemical analysis. The administration of MERI exacerbated colitis, as indicated by DAI heightened weight loss and increased histological colonic injury...
October 31, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793087/lipoproteins-attenuate-tlr2-and-tlr4-activation-by-bacteria-and-bacterial-ligands-with-differences-in-affinity-and-kinetics
#11
Jeroen van Bergenhenegouwen, Aletta D Kraneveld, Lieke Rutten, Johan Garssen, Arjan P Vos, Anita Hartog
BACKGROUND: The small intestine is a specialized compartment were close interactions take place between host, microbes, food antigens and dietary fatty acids. Dietary fats get absorbed by epithelial cells and processed into a range of lipoprotein particles after which they are basolaterally secreted and collected in the lymphatics. In contrast to the colon, the small intestine is covered only by a thin mucus coat that allows for intimate interactions between host-cells and microbes. Lipoproteins have long been recognized as protective factors in infectious diseases via the neutralization of bacterial toxins like lipopolysaccharides...
October 28, 2016: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781498/infliximab-therapy-reverses-the-increase-of-allograft-inflammatory-factor-1-in-serum-and-colonic-mucosa-of-rats-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Irene D Román, David Cano-Martínez, María Val T Lobo, María Dolores Fernández-Moreno, Borja Hernández-Breijo, Silvia Sacristán, Patricia Sanmartín-Salinas, Jorge Monserrat, Javier P Gisbert, Luis G Guijarro
: Objetive: Our purpose was to study the molecular basis of infliximab (IFX) effect on colon mucosa in a colitis model and to identify new biomarkers of mucosal healing. METHODS: Healthy rats and rats which were subjected to experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium, with or without IFX treatment (in the short- and long-term), were studied along with forty-seven IBD patients. Colon mucosal integrity by Periodic Acid Schiff staining, intestinal damage by immunohistochemistry (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, β-catenin, E-cadherin, phosphotyrosine, p-p38, allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) and colonic mucosal apoptosis by TUNEL staining were evaluated in rats...
October 26, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774093/supplementation-with-lactobacillus-plantarum-wcfs1-prevents-decline-of-mucus-barrier-in-colon-of-accelerated-aging-ercc1-%C3%AE-7-mice
#13
Adriaan A van Beek, Bruno Sovran, Floor Hugenholtz, Ben Meijer, Joanne A Hoogerland, Violeta Mihailova, Corine van der Ploeg, Clara Belzer, Mark V Boekschoten, Jan H J Hoeijmakers, Wilbert P Vermeij, Paul de Vos, Jerry M Wells, Pieter J M Leenen, Claudio Nicoletti, Rudi W Hendriks, Huub F J Savelkoul
Although it is clear that probiotics improve intestinal barrier function, little is known about the effects of probiotics on the aging intestine. We investigated effects of 10-week bacterial supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus casei BL23, or Bifidobacterium breve DSM20213 on gut barrier and immunity in 16-week-old accelerated aging Ercc1(-/Δ7) mice, which have a median lifespan of ~20 weeks, and their wild-type littermates. The colonic barrier in Ercc1(-/Δ7) mice was characterized by a thin (< 10 μm) mucus layer...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689200/mucin-genes-expression-in-the-intestine-of-crohn-s-disease-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Yaron Niv
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The mucus layer of the intestinal tract is the main barrier between luminal microbes and the mucosa, and has an essential role in the body defense mechanisms. Previous research could not establish consistent results for mucin genes expression in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. In this meta-analysis we looked at the mucin expression in CD patients and compared it with healthy controls. METHOD: English medical literature searches were conducted for mucin expression in the mucosa of the ileum and colon of CD patients and compared it with normal mucosa...
September 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681930/adhesion-properties-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-on-intestinal-mucin
#15
REVIEW
Keita Nishiyama, Makoto Sugiyama, Takao Mukai
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive bacteria that are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of mammals, including humans. Since Mechnikov first proposed that yogurt could prevent intestinal putrefaction and aging, the beneficial effects of LAB have been widely demonstrated. The region between the duodenum and the terminal of the ileum is the primary region colonized by LAB, particularly the Lactobacillus species, and this region is covered by a mucus layer composed mainly of mucin-type glycoproteins...
September 20, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663027/adaptation-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-to-the-oxic-anoxic-interface-of-the-mucus-layer
#16
Janneke P Ouwerkerk, Kees C H van der Ark, Mark Davids, Nico J Claassens, Teresa Robert Finestra, Willem M de Vos, Clara Belzer
: Akkermansia muciniphila colonizes the mucus layer of the gastrointestinal tract where the organism can be exposed to the oxygen that diffuses from epithelial cells. To understand how A. muciniphila is able to survive and grow at this oxic-anoxic interface, its oxygen tolerance, response and reduction capacities were studied. A. muciniphila was found to be oxygen-tolerant. On top of this, under aerated conditions, A. muciniphila showed significant oxygen reduction capacities and its growth rate and yield were increased as compared to strict anaerobic conditions...
September 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650225/lubiprostone-accelerates-intestinal-transit-and-alleviates-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-in-patients-with-chronic-constipation
#17
Irene Sarosiek, Mohammad Bashashati, Alicia Alvarez, Mark Hall, Nagasri Shankar, Yvette Gomez, Richard W McCallum, Jerzy Sarosiek
BACKGROUND: Lubiprostone is an effective treatment for chronic constipation (CC). The mechanism of action of lubiprostone is through increasing fluid secretion and lubrication of the intestinal lumen. The effects of lubiprostone on gastrointestinal transit and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) have not been adequately explored. The current study was designed to investigate whether lubiprostone (1) alters gastrointestinal transit and (2) affects SIBO in patients with constipation...
September 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647867/the-helical-shape-of-campylobacter-jejuni-promotes-in-vivo-pathogenesis-by-aiding-its-transit-through-intestinal-mucus-and-colonization-of-crypts
#18
Martin Stahl, Emilisa Frirdich, Jenny Vermeulen, Yuliya Badayeva, Xiaoxia Li, Bruce A Vallance, Erin C Gaynor
Campylobacter jejuni is a helical shaped enteric bacterial pathogen and a common cause of gastroenteritis. We recently developed a mouse model for this human pathogen utilizing the SIGIRR-deficient mouse strain, which exhibits significant intestinal inflammation in response to intestinal C. jejuni infection. In the current study, this mouse model was used to define whether C. jejuni's characteristic helical shape plays a role in its ability to colonize and elicit inflammation in the mouse intestine. Mice were infected with the previously characterized straight-rod Δpgp1 and Δpgp2 mutant strains, along with a newly characterized curved-rod mutant Δ1228 We also compared the resultant infections and pathology to that elicited by the helical shaped wild type C...
September 19, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638207/high-fat-diet-modifies-the-ppar-%C3%AE-pathway-leading-to-disruption-of-microbial-and-physiological-ecosystem-in-murine-small-intestine
#19
Julie Tomas, Céline Mulet, Azadeh Saffarian, Jean-Baptiste Cavin, Robert Ducroc, Béatrice Regnault, Chek Kun Tan, Kalina Duszka, Rémy Burcelin, Walter Wahli, Philippe J Sansonetti, Thierry Pédron
Diet is among the most important factors contributing to intestinal homeostasis, and basic functions performed by the small intestine need to be tightly preserved to maintain health. Little is known about the direct impact of high-fat (HF) diet on small-intestinal mucosal defenses and spatial distribution of the microbiota during the early phase of its administration. We observed that only 30 d after HF diet initiation, the intervillous zone of the ileum-which is usually described as free of bacteria-became occupied by a dense microbiota...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627983/identification-of-mucosa-invading-and-intravascular-bacteria-in-feline-small-intestinal-lymphoma
#20
S N Hoehne, S P McDonough, M Rishniw, K W Simpson
Persistent bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal mucosa are causally linked to gastric carcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in people and laboratory animals. We examined the relationship of mucosa-associated bacteria to alimentary lymphoma in cats. Intestinal biopsies from 50 cats with alimentary lymphoma (small cell, n = 33; large cell, n = 17) and 38 controls without lymphoma (normal to minimal change on histopathology, n = 18; lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, n = 20) were evaluated...
September 14, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
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