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colon mucus

Carsten Schwarz, Patrick Vandeputte, Amandine Rougeron, Sandrine Giraud, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Ludovic Duvaux, Amandine Gastebois, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Maria Teresa Martín-Gomez, Estrella Martin Mazuelos, Amparo Sole, Josep Cano, Javier Pemán, Guillermo Quindos, Françoise Botterel, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Sharon Chen, Laurence Delhaès, Loïc Favennec, Stéphane Ranque, Ludwig Sedlacek, Joerg Steinmann, Jose Vazquez, Craig Williams, Wieland Meyer, Solène Le Gal, Gilles Nevez, Maxime Fleury, Nicolas Papon, Françoise Symoens, Jean-Philippe Bouchara
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the major genetic inherited disease in Caucasian populations. The respiratory tract of CF patients displays a sticky viscous mucus, which allows for the entrapment of airborne bacteria and fungal spores and provides a suitable environment for growth of microorganisms, including numerous yeast and filamentous fungal species. As a consequence, respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this clinical context. Although bacteria remain the most common agents of these infections, fungal respiratory infections have emerged as an important cause of disease...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Tyler B Draeger, Usman Aslam, Nassim Mokraoui, Eric Seitelman, Rajiv Datta, Robert C Amajoyi
In patients who have undergone a colonic resection with creation of an end colostomy, drainage of mucus secreted by the mucosa of the rectal stump may not be possible if there is an outlet obstruction. With an outlet obstruction, formation of a rectal mucocele occurs. A rectal mucocele is a rare condition which has only been reported sporadically in case reports. We present here the utility of an intersphincteric proctectomy for treatment of a rectal mucocele in a 47 year old male Crohn's patient resulting in negligible post-operative or long-term morbidities...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Daisaku Fujimoto, Naoki Muguruma, Koichi Okamoto, Yasuteru Fujino, Kaizo Kagemoto, Yasuyuki Okada, Yoshifumi Takaoka, Yasuhiro Mitsui, Shinji Kitamura, Tetsuo Kimura, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Yoshimi Bando, Tomoko Sonoda, Tetsuji Takayama
Background and study aims:  Although new image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) technologies such as blue laser imaging (BLI), BLI-bright, and linked color imaging (LCI) have been developed, their utility for the detection of sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of BLI, BLI-bright, and LCI for SSA/P detection in still image examinations and in a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT). Patients and methods:  A group of 6 expert and non-expert endoscopists read 200 endoscopic still images containing SSA/P lesions using white light image (WLI), BLI, BLI-bright, and LCI...
March 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Dan Zhang, Yan-Bo Ren, Huan-Gan Wu, Yan-Ting Yang, Li-Jie Wu, Ji Zhang, Zheng Shi, Xiao-Peng Ma
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different-doses of herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion (Moxi) on histopathological changes of the damaged colon tissue in rats with ulcerative colitis (UC), so as to select an optimal dosage of Moxi in the treatment of UC. METHODS: Sixty-three male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into 7 groups: normal control, model, medication, and 1, 2, 3 and 4 moxa-cone Moxi ( n =9 rats per group). The UC model was developed by subcutaneous injection of emulsion (1 mL) containing colon mucosa-prepared protein suspension and complete Freund's adjuvant into the toes, groin and back...
February 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Gwladys Sevrin, Sébastien Massier, Benoit Chassaing, Allison Agus, Julien Delmas, Jérémy Denizot, Elisabeth Billard, Nicolas Barnich
The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) is multifactorial and involves genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers and intestinal microbiota. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are flagellated bacteria more prevalent in CD patients than in healthy subjects and promote chronic intestinal inflammation. We aim at deciphering the role of flagella and flagellin modulation by intestinal conditions. AIEC flagellum expression is required for optimal adhesion to and invasion of intestinal epithelial cells...
March 1, 2018: Gut Microbes
Antoni P A Hendrickx, Denise van de Kamer, Rob J L Willems
Hospitalized patients are often administered antibiotics that perturb the gastrointestinal commensal microbiota, leading to outgrowth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, like multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium, subsequent spread, and eventually infections. However, the events that occur at the initial stage of intestinal colonization and outgrowth by multidrug-resistant E. faecium within the antibiotic-treated host have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we describe and visualize that only 6 hr after cephalosporin treatment of mice, the Muc-2 mucus layer is reduced and E-cadherin junctions were altered...
February 27, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Helen T Groves, Leah Cuthbertson, Phillip James, Miriam F Moffatt, Michael J Cox, John S Tregoning
Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have profound effects on human health. Consequently, there is great interest in identifying, characterizing, and understanding factors that initiate these changes. Despite their high prevalence, studies have only recently begun to investigate how viral lung infections have an impact on the gut microbiota. There is also considerable interest in whether the gut microbiota could be manipulated during vaccination to improve efficacy. In this highly controlled study, we aimed to establish the effect of viral lung infection on gut microbiota composition and the gut environment using mouse models of common respiratory pathogens respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sohinee Sarkar, Melanie L Hutton, Dimitrios Vagenas, Rinaldo Ruter, Stephanie Schüller, Dena Lyras, Mark A Schembri, Makrina Totsika
Background: Epidemiological studies point to the gut as a key reservoir of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli multilocus sequence type 131 (ST131), a globally dominant pathogenic clone causing urinary tract and bloodstream infections. Here we report a detailed investigation of its intestinal lifestyle. Methods: Clinical ST131 isolates and type 1 fimbriae null mutants were assessed for colonization of human intestinal epithelia and in mouse intestinal colonization models...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Natali Vega-Magaña, Vidal Delgado-Rizo, Leonel García-Benavides, Susana Del Toro-Arreola, Jorge Segura-Ortega, Adelaida Sara M Zepeda Morales, José Sergio Zepeda-Nuño, Marta Escarra-Senmarti, Jorge Gutiérrez-Franco, Jesse Haramati, Miriam R Bueno-Topete
Background and rationale for the study. Bacterial translocation is an important triggering factor of infection and mortality in cirrhosis. In a rat model using bile duct ligation (BDL), bacterial translocation appears within 24 h after ligation. The dynamic between TH1/TH2/TH17 cytokines and the integrity of the colonic mucosa in the context of cirrhosis is little known. This study aims to determine the link between bacterial translocation and intestinal inflammation in a cholestasis model. Additionally, alterations of the colonic mucus layer and the bacterial load were also addressed...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Bin Chang, Masatomo Morita, Ken-Ichi Lee, Makoto Ohnishi
Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharyngeal mucus in healthy individuals and can cause otitis media, pneumonia, and invasive pneumococcal diseases. In this study, we analyzed the S. pneumoniae strains that caused 19 pneumonia episodes in long-term inpatients with severe underlying disease in a hospital during a period of 14 months (from January 2014 to February 2015). Serotyping and whole genome sequencing analyses revealed that 18 of the 19 pneumonia cases were caused by S. pneumoniae strains belonging to 3 genetically distinct groups: clonal complex (CC) 9999, sequence type (ST) 282, and ST166...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Jason Powell, James Garnett, Michael W Mather, Faye A H Cooles, Andrew Nelson, Bernard Verdon, Jon Scott, Kasim Jiwa, Marie-Hélène Ruchaud-Sparagano, Stephen P Cummings, John D Perry, Stephen E Wright, Janet A Wilson, Jeffrey Pearson, Chris Ward, A John Simpson
RATIONALE: Aspiration of infective subglottic secretions causes ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. Mechanisms underlying subglottic colonization in critical illness have not been defined, limiting strategies for targeted prevention of VAP. OBJECTIVES: To characterize subglottic host defense dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). To determine whether subglottic mucin contributes to neutrophil phagocytic impairment and bacterial growth...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Mayumi Hidaka, Mai Nishihara, Akira Tokumura
AIM: The intestinal mucus layer helps maintain intestinal homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the effects of lysophosphatidic acids (LPA) on differentiation of human colon carcinoma cell line, HT-29, to goblet cells with and without sodium butyrate, a known differentiation factor for intestinal cells. MAIN METHODS: Number and average size of cells with goblet-like morphology in five photographs per dish were measured for assessment of differentiation of HT-29 cells to goblet cells as well as their relative portion of surface of to whole surface area of the photograph...
February 2, 2018: Life Sciences
Yasunori Iwao, Izumi Tomiguchi, Ayaka Domura, Yusuke Mantaira, Akira Minami, Takashi Suzuki, Takashi Ikawa, Shin-Ichiro Kimura, Shigeru Itai
To develop a new strategy for inflamed site-specific drug delivery in the colon for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), we leveraged on the interaction between myeloperoxidase (MPO) and human serum albumin (HSA) and prepared nanoparticles (HSA NPs) conjugated with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). The 5-ASA-HSA NPs (nine molecules of 5-ASA per HSA molecule) were uniform particles with an average particle size of 190 nm, a zeta potential of -11.8 mV, and a polydispersity index of 0.35. This was considered a suitable particle characteristic to pass through the mucus layer and accumulate into the mucosa...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Hiroki Nakamura, Christian Tomuschat, David Coyle, Anne-Marie O'Donnel, Tristan Lim, Prem Puri
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Hirschsprung's disease-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is the most serious complication of Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). HAEC occurs in 17-50% of patients with HSCR and may occur before or after a properly performed pull-through operation. The pathogenesis of HAEC is poorly understood. It is well recognized that a complex mucosal barrier protects, as the first line of defense, the surface of healthy intestinal tract from adhesion and invasion by luminal micro-organisms...
February 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Carlos A Rubio, Giovanni DE Petris, Giacomo Puppa
BACKGROUND: In ulcerative colitis (UC), the majority of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) arise in the vast colorectal mucosal domain built with mucus-producing goblet cells and columnar cells. Conversely, CRC in UC rarely evolve in the tiny, spotty gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mucosal domain. Here we review the four reported cases of colonic carcinoma developing in GALT mucosa in UC, searching for possible precursor lesions connected with the evolution of these tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical history, age, gender, endoscopic descriptions, and the pathology (localization, gross and histological descriptions of the luminal surface) of the four UC-GALT carcinomas reported in the literature were reviewed...
February 2018: Anticancer Research
Kumaraguruparan Ramasamy, Sowmya Balasubramanian, Krishnan Manickam, Lavanya Pandranki, Alexander B Taylor, P John Hart, Joel B Baseman, T R Kannan
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterium that causes respiratory illnesses in humans, including pharyngitis, tracheobronchitis, and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It has also been directly linked to reactive airway disease, asthma, and extrapulmonary pathologies. During its colonization, M. pneumoniae expresses a unique ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin designated community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin. CARDS toxin persists and localizes in the airway in CAP patients, asthmatics, and trauma patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 23, 2018: MBio
Hisham Hussan, Steven K Clinton, Kristen Roberts, Michael T Bailey
AIM: To critically evaluate previous scientific evidence on Fusobacterium's role in colorectal neoplasia development. METHODS: Two independent investigators systematically reviewed all original scientific articles published between January, 2000, and July, 2017, using PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE. A total of 355 articles were screened at the abstract level. Of these, only original scientific human, animal, and in vitro studies investigating Fusobacterium and its relationship with colorectal cancer (CRC) were included in the analysis...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
M C C Canesso, L Lemos, T C Neves, F M Marim, T B R Castro, É S Veloso, C P Queiroz, J Ahn, H C Santiago, F S Martins, J Alves-Silva, E Ferreira, D C Cara, A T Vieira, G N Barber, S C Oliveira, A M C Faria
STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is a cytosolic sensor for cyclic dinucleotides and also an adaptor molecule for intracellular DNA receptors. Although STING has important functions in the host defense against pathogens and in autoimmune diseases, its physiological relevance in intestinal homeostasis is largely unknown. In this study, we show that STING-/- mice presented defective protective mechanisms of intestinal mucosa, including decreased number of goblet cells, diminished mucus production, and lower levels of secretory IgA, when compared with wild-type (WT) mice...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
Yvan Bettarel, Sébastien Halary, Jean-Christophe Auguet, Thanh Chi Mai, Ngoc Van Bui, Thierry Bouvier, Patrice Got, Corinne Bouvier, Sonia Monteil-Bouchard, Desnues Christelle
The grazing activity by specific marine organisms represents a growing threat to the survival of many scleractinian species. For example, the recent proliferation of the corallivorous gastropod Drupella now constitutes a critical case in all South-East Asian waters. If the damaging effects caused by this marine snail on coral polyps are relatively well known, the indirect incidence of predation on coral microbial associates is still obscure and might also potentially impair coral health. In this study, we compared the main ecological traits of coral-associated bacterial and viral communities living in the mucus layer of Acropora formosa and Acropora millepora, of healthy and predated individuals (i...
January 16, 2018: ISME Journal
Xiangming Ding, Dongxiao Li, Mengke Li, Han Wang, Qin He, Yunwu Wang, Hongbing Yu, Dean Tian, Qin Yu
SLC26A3 encodes a Cl-/HCO3- ion transporter that is also known as downregulated in adenoma (DRA) and is involved in HCO3-/mucus formation. The role of DRA in the epithelial barrier has not been previously established. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro mechanisms of DRA in the colon epithelial barrier. Immunofluorescence (IF) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) studies reveal that DRA binds directly to tight junction (TJ) proteins and affects the expression of TJ proteins in polarized Caco-2BBe cells...
January 12, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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