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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915390/navy-and-black-bean-supplementation-primes-the-colonic-mucosal-microenvironment-to-improve-gut-health
#1
Jennifer M Monk, Dion Lepp, Wenqing Wu, K Peter Pauls, Lindsay E Robinson, Krista A Power
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are enriched in non-digestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds that can modulate the colonic microenvironment (microbiota and host epithelial barrier) to improve gut health. In a comprehensive assessment of the impact of two commonly consumed bean varieties (differing in levels and types of phenolic compounds) within the colonic microenvironment, C57Bl/6 mice were fed diets supplemented with 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) flours or an isocaloric basal diet control (BD) for 3 weeks...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912798/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-reveals-a-broad-distribution-of-metabolic-pathways-for-the-degradation-of-host-synthetized-mucin-glycans-and-utilization-of-mucin-derived-monosaccharides
#2
Dmitry A Ravcheev, Ines Thiele
The colonic mucus layer is a dynamic and complex structure formed by secreted and transmembrane mucins, which are high-molecular-weight and heavily glycosylated proteins. Colonic mucus consists of a loose outer layer and a dense epithelium-attached layer. The outer layer is inhabited by various representatives of the human gut microbiota (HGM). Glycans of the colonic mucus can be used by the HGM as a source of carbon and energy when dietary fibers are not sufficiently available. Both commensals and pathogens can utilize mucin glycans...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904372/butyrate-producing-bacteria-supplemented-in-vitro-to-crohn-s-disease-patient-microbiota-increased-butyrate-production-and-enhanced-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-integrity
#3
Annelies Geirnaert, Marta Calatayud, Charlotte Grootaert, Debby Laukens, Sarah Devriese, Guy Smagghe, Martine De Vos, Nico Boon, Tom Van de Wiele
The management of the dysbiosed gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is gaining more attention as a novel target to control this disease. Probiotic treatment with butyrate-producing bacteria has therapeutic potential since these bacteria are depleted in IBD patients and butyrate has beneficial effects on epithelial barrier function and overall gut health. However, studies assessing the effect of probiotic supplementation on microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions are rare. In this study, butyrate-producing bacteria (three mono-species and one multispecies mix) were supplemented to the fecal microbial communities of ten Crohn's disease (CD) patients in an in vitro system simulating the mucus- and lumen-associated microbiota...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898292/the-effect-of-age-on-the-intestinal-mucus-thickness-microbiota-composition-and-immunity-in-relation-to-sex-in-mice
#4
Marlies Elderman, Bruno Sovran, Floor Hugenholtz, Katrine Graversen, Myrte Huijskes, Eva Houtsma, Clara Belzer, Mark Boekschoten, Paul de Vos, Jan Dekker, Jerry Wells, Marijke Faas
A mucus layer covers and protects the intestinal epithelial cells from direct contact with microbes. This mucus layer not only prevents inflammation but also plays an essential role in microbiota colonization, indicating the complex interplay between mucus composition-microbiota and intestinal health. However, it is unknown whether the mucus layer is influenced by age or sex and whether this contributes to reported differences in intestinal diseases in males and females or with ageing. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effect of age on mucus thickness, intestinal microbiota composition and immune composition in relation to sex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885228/genetic-and-transcriptomic-bases-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Maaike Vancamelbeke, Tim Vanuytsel, Ricard Farré, Sare Verstockt, Marc Ferrante, Gert Van Assche, Paul Rutgeerts, Frans Schuit, Séverine Vermeire, Ingrid Arijs, Isabelle Cleynen
BACKGROUND: Intestinal barrier defects are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To identify which components could underlie these changes, we performed an in-depth analysis of epithelial barrier genes in IBD. METHODS: A set of 128 intestinal barrier genes was selected. Polygenic risk scores were generated based on selected barrier gene variants that were associated with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) in our study. Gene expression was analyzed using microarray and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
September 6, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876387/assessment-of-cow-and-farm-level-risk-factors-associated-with-ureaplasma-diversum-in-pasture-based-dairy-systems-a-field-study
#6
Josefa M Nascimento-Rocha, Benedito D DE Oliveira, Emannuel Arnhold, Regiani N G Pôrto, Svetlana F Lima, Maria Lucia Gambarini
Potential risk factors for Ureaplasma diversum in the vaginal mucus of 1,238 dairy cows were included in a multivariate logistic regression model, based on the cow level (i.e., granular vulvovaginitis [+GVV], yearly milk production [4500 kg or more], pregnancy, predominance of Bos taurus [+Bos Taurus], score of corporal condition [at least 2.5], concomitant positivity for Escherichia coli [+E.coli]), and farm level i.e., milking room hygiene (-Milking room), dunghill location, and replacement female). Ureaplasma diversum was present in 41...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862530/exercise-training-induced-modification-of-the-gut-microbiota-persists-after-microbiota-colonization-and-attenuates-the-response-to-chemically-induced-colitis-in-gnotobiotic-mice
#7
J M Allen, L J Mailing, J Cohrs, C Salmonson, J Fryer, V Nehra, V L Hale, P Kashyap, B A White, J A Woods
Exercise reduces the risk of inflammatory disease by modulating a variety of tissue and cell types, including those within the gastrointestinal tract. Recent data indicates that exercise can also alter the gut microbiota, but little is known as to whether these changes affect host function. Here, we use a germ-free (GF) animal model to test whether exercise-induced modifications in the gut microbiota can directly affect host responses to microbiota colonization and chemically-induced colitis. Donor mice (n = 19) received access to a running wheel (n = 10) or remained without access (n = 9) for a period of six weeks...
September 1, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861518/butyrate-supplementation-at-high-concentrations-alters-enteric-bacterial-communities-and-reduces-intestinal-inflammation-in-mice-infected-with-citrobacter-rodentium
#8
Janelle A Jiminez, Trina C Uwiera, D Wade Abbott, Richard R E Uwiera, G Douglas Inglis
Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid by-product of the microbial fermentation of dietary fermentable materials in the large intestine; it is the main energy source for enterocyte regeneration, modulates the enteric microbial community, and contributes to increasing host health via mechanisms that are relatively poorly defined. Limited research has examined the therapeutic potential of butyrate using models of enteric inflammation incited by pathogenic organisms. We used Citrobacter rodentium to incite acute Th1/Th17 inflammation to ascertain the impact of butyrate on the host-microbiota relationship...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859498/influence-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-on-adherence-of-bifidobacteria-and-clostridia-to-cell-lines
#9
Sarka Musilova, Nikol Modrackova, Ivo Doskocil, Roman Svejstil, Vojtech Rada
Adhesion of gut bacteria to the intestinal epithelium is the first step in their colonization of the neonatal immature gut. Bacterial colonization of the infant gut is influenced by several factors, of which the most important are the mode of delivery and breast-feeding. Breast-fed infants ingest several grams of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) per day, which can become receptor decoys for intestinal bacteria. The most abundant intestinal bacteria in vaginally delivered infants are bifidobacteria, whereas infants born by cesarean section are colonized by clostridia...
September 1, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856821/the-proteome-of-ulcerative-colitis-in-colon-biopsies-from-adults-optimized-sample-preparation-and-comparison-with-healthy-controls
#10
Armin Schniers, Endre Anderssen, Christopher Graham Fenton, Rasmus Goll, Yvonne Pasing, Ruth Hracky Paulssen, Jon Florholmen, Terkel Hansen
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to optimize the sample preparation and to further use an improved sample preparation to identify proteome differences between inflamed ulcerative colitis tissue from untreated adults and healthy controls. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To optimize the sample preparation, we studied the effect of adding different detergents to a urea containing lysis buffer for a Lys-C/trypsin tandem digestion. With the optimized method, we prepared clinical samples from six ulcerative colitis patients and six healthy controls and analysed them by LC-MS/MS...
August 30, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852861/analysis-of-endoscopic-brush-samples-identified-mucosa-associated-dysbiosis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Kyohei Nishino, Atsushi Nishida, Ryo Inoue, Yuki Kawada, Masashi Ohno, Shigeki Sakai, Osamu Inatomi, Shigeki Bamba, Mitsushige Sugimoto, Masahiro Kawahara, Yuji Naito, Akira Andoh
BACKGROUND: The mucosa-associated gut microbiota directly modulates epithelial and mucosal function. In this study, we investigated the mucosa-associated microbial community in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), using endoscopic brush samples. METHODS: A total of 174 mucus samples from 43 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 26 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 14 non-IBD controls were obtained by gentle brushing of mucosal surfaces using endoscopic cytology brushes...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843904/regulation-of-epithelial-cell-expressed-c3-in-the-intestine-relevance-for-the-pathophysiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Annika Sünderhauf, Kerstin Skibbe, Sophie Preisker, Karen Ebbert, Admar Verschoor, Christian M Karsten, Claudia Kemper, Markus Huber-Lang, Marijana Basic, André Bleich, Jürgen Büning, Klaus Fellermann, Christian Sina, Stefanie Derer
The complement system not only plays a critical role in efficient detection and clearance of bacteria, but also in intestinal immune homeostasis as mice deficient for key complement components display enhanced intestinal inflammation upon experimental colitis. Because underlying molecular mechanisms for this observation are unclear, we investigated the crosstalk between intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), bacteria and the complement system in the course of chronic colitis. Surprisingly, mouse intestinal epithelial cell lines constitutively express high mRNA levels of complement component 3 (C3), Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and Tlr4...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834731/passive-and-active-microrheology-of-the-intestinal-fluid-of-the-larval-zebrafish
#13
Michael J Taormina, Edouard A Hay, Raghuveer Parthasarathy
The fluids of the intestine serve as a physical barrier to pathogens, a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and metabolites, and an environment for commensal microbes. The rheological properties of intestinal mucus have therefore been the subject of many investigations, thus far limited to in vitro studies due to the difficulty of measurement in the natural context of the gut. This limitation especially hinders our understanding of how the gut microbiota interact with the intestinal space, since examination of this calls not only for in vivo measurement techniques, but for techniques that can be applied to model organisms in which the microbial state of the gut can be controlled...
August 22, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834011/protective-efficacy-of-a-hydroxy-fatty-acid-against-gastric-helicobacter-infections
#14
Hidenori Matsui, Tetsufumi Takahashi, Somay Y Murayama, Marina Kawaguchi, Koichi Matsuo, Masahiko Nakamura
BACKGROUND: We have previously revealed that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can prevent Helicobacter pylori infection by blocking the futalosine pathway, an alternative route for menaquinone (MK) biosynthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1, Different H. pylori strains were grown in liquid media supplemented with linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, or its 10-hydroxy derivative, 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid (HYA), in the presence or absence of MK. The bacterial numbers in the media were estimated by plating; 2, C57BL/6NCrl mice received drinking water supplemented with different fatty acids starting from 1 week before infection with H...
August 22, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830943/capsule-type-and-amount-affect-shedding-and-transmission-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#15
M Ammar Zafar, Shigeto Hamaguchi, Tonia Zangari, Michael Cammer, Jeffrey N Weiser
The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is characterized by its diversity, as it has over 95 known serotypes, and the variation in its thickness as it surrounds an organism. While within-host effects of CPS have been studied in detail, there is no information about its contribution to host-to-host transmission. In this study, we used an infant mouse model of intralitter transmission, together with isogenic capsule switch and cps promoter switch constructs, to explore the effects of CPS type and amount...
August 22, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819121/mucus-organisation-is-shaped-by-colonic-content-a-new-view
#16
J B J Kamphuis, M Mercier-Bonin, H Eutamène, V Theodorou
The colonic mucus barrier is commonly described as a continuous double layer covering the epithelium, separating the microbiota from the intestinal tissue. This model is currently considered valid throughout the colon. The colon is characterised by regional anatomo-functional specificities such as presence and consistency of contents and location. In this study, we characterised the organisation of the colonic mucus barrier in proximal and distal colon of rodents by histological and FISH staining, taking into account aforementioned specificities...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817707/microbiome-mediated-neutrophil-recruitment-via-cxcr2-and-protection-from-amebic-colitis
#17
Koji Watanabe, Carol A Gilchrist, Md Jashim Uddin, Stacey L Burgess, Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Shannon N Moonah, Zannatun Noor, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Brittany N Schneider, Tuhinur Arju, Emtiaz Ahmed, Mamun Kabir, Masud Alam, Rashidul Haque, Patcharin Pramoonjago, Borna Mehrad, William A Petri
The disease severity of Entamoeba histolytica infection ranges from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Recent human and animal data implicate the gut microbiome as a modifier of E. histolytica virulence. Here we have explored the association of the microbiome with susceptibility to amebiasis in infants and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Dysbiosis occurred symptomatic E. histolytica infection in children, as evidenced by a lower Shannon diversity index of the gut microbiota. To test if dysbiosis was a cause of susceptibility, wild type C57BL/6 mice (which are innately resistant to E...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812548/bacteroidales-recruit-il-6-producing-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-the-colon-to-promote-barrier-integrity
#18
K A Kuhn, H M Schulz, E H Regner, E L Severs, J D Hendrickson, G Mehta, A K Whitney, D Ir, N Ohri, C E Robertson, D N Frank, E L Campbell, S P Colgan
Interactions between the microbiota and distal gut are important for the maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier; dysbiosis of intestinal microbial communities has emerged as a likely contributor to diseases that arise at the level of the mucosa. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are positioned within the epithelial barrier, and in the small intestine they function to maintain epithelial homeostasis. We hypothesized that colon IELs promote epithelial barrier function through the expression of cytokines in response to interactions with commensal bacteria...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751521/the-third-pathway-of-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Carlos A Rubio, Giacomo Puppa, Giovanni de Petris, Lorand Kis, Peter T Schmidt
AIMS: The majority of the colorectal carcinomas (CRC) arise in a vast mucosal area built with columnar cells and mucus-producing goblet cells. These carcinomas evolve via the conventional (tubular/villous) adenoma-carcinoma pathway, or the serrated adenoma-carcinoma pathway. Much less frequently CRC arise in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mucosal domain via the third pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: All publications on human colorectal GALT carcinomas in the literature were reviewed...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738073/the-n-terminal-region-of-serum-amyloid-a3-protein-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-up-regulates-muc2-mucin-mrna-expression-in-mouse-colonic-epithelial-cells
#20
Manami Tashiro, Ami Iwata, Marika Yamauchi, Kaori Shimizu, Ayaka Okada, Naotaka Ishiguro, Yasuo Inoshima
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is the major acute-phase protein and a precursor of amyloid A (AA) in AA amyloidosis in humans and animals. SAA isoforms have been identified in a wide variety of animals, such as SAA1, SAA2, SAA3, and SAA4 in mouse. Although the biological functions of SAA isoforms are not completely understood, recent studies have suggested that SAA3 plays a role in host defense. Expression of SAA3 is increased on the mouse colon surface in the presence of microbiota in vivo, and it increases mRNA expression of mucin 2 (MUC2) in murine colonic epithelial cells in vitro, which constitutes a protective mucus barrier in the intestinal tract...
2017: PloS One
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