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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774357/peyer-s-patch-specific-lactobacillus-reuteri-strains-increase-extracellular-microbial-dna-and-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-in-the-mouse-small-intestine
#1
Ce Qi, Jin Sun, Ya Li, Min Gu, Tim Goulette, Xiaomeng You, David A Sela, Xingguo Wang, Hang Xiao
Specific Lactobacillus reuteri is autochthonous Lactobacillus species in humans with potential application in food production as a probiotic. The difference in colonizing Peyer's patches (PP) might decide their health-promoting properties. We aimed to investigate the difference between PP- and lumen-specific L. reuteri on antimicrobial peptide expression in this study. L. reuteri strains were isolated from PP and the lumen of C57BL/6J mice, which were used to treat mice. PP-specific L. reuteri cells stimulate RegIIIγ mRNA expression of the crypt epithelial sample...
May 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767719/the-ups-and-downs-of-s-aureus-nasal-carriage
#2
Angela M Jarrett, Nicholas G Cogan
Staphylococcus aureus infections are a growing concern worldwide due to the increasing number of strains that exhibit antibiotic resistance. Recent studies have indicated that some percentage of people carry the bacteria in the nasal cavity and therefore are at a higher risk of subsequent, and more serious, infections in other parts of the body. However, individuals carrying the infection can be classified as only intermittent carriers versus persistent carriers, being able to eliminate the bacteria and later colonized again...
May 15, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756575/effects-of-stress-on-the-mucus-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut
#3
Jianwen He, Huiduo Guo, Weijiang Zheng, Wen Yao
Stress shows both direct- and indirect-effects on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular on the mucus physiology and the composition of microbiota. Mucus mainly consists of heavily glycosylated proteins called mucins, which are secreted by goblet cells. The gut mucus layer is a pivotal part of the intestinal protection and colonized by commensal microbes, essential for the development and health of the host. There is a symbiotic interaction between intestinal microbiota and the host cells...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740401/predicted-bacterial-interactions-affect-in-vivo-microbial-colonization-dynamics-in-nematostella
#4
Hanna Domin, Yazmín H Zurita-Gutiérrez, Marco Scotti, Jann Buttlar, Ute Hentschel Humeida, Sebastian Fraune
The maintenance and resilience of host-associated microbiota during development is a fundamental process influencing the fitness of many organisms. Several host properties were identified as influencing factors on bacterial colonization, including the innate immune system, mucus composition, and diet. In contrast, the importance of bacteria-bacteria interactions on host colonization is less understood. Here, we use bacterial abundance data of the marine model organism Nematostella vectensis to reconstruct potential bacteria-bacteria interactions through co-occurrence networks...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732561/small-rna-and-transcriptome-sequencing-reveal-the-role-of-mir-199a-3p-in-inflammatory-processes-in-cystic-fibrosis-airways
#5
Pauline Bardin, Emmeline Marchal-Duval, Florence Sonneville, Sabine Blouquit-Laye, Nathalie Rousselet, Philippe Le Rouzic, Harriet Corvol, Olivier Tabary
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal genetic disease, caused by CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene mutations. CF is characterized by an ionic imbalance and thickened mucus, which impair mucociliary clearance, promote bacterial colonization, and the establishment of infection/inflammation cycles. However, the origin of this inflammation remains unclear, although microRNA (miRNA) are suspected to be involved. MiRNA are small non-coding RNA that bind to the 3'-untranslated regions (UTR) of target gene mRNA, thereby repressing their translation and/or inducing their degradation...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710467/antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-plumieride-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-in-mice
#6
Thaise Boeing, Priscila de Souza, Tiago José Bonomini, Luísa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Lincon Bordignon Somensi, Ruth Meri Lucinda, Angela Malheiros, Luísa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of plumieride, an iridoid glycoside isolated from Alamanda cathartica L. flowers, against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Colitis was induced in female swiss mice by adding DSS 3% to the drinking water. The animals were treated with vehicle (water), 5-aminosalicylic acid (100?mg/kg) or plumieride (10, 30 and 100?mg/kg) once a day, during 7 days. The body weight progression and the disease activity index was evaluated daily. On the eighth day, colons were collected for the measurement of the size, histological, histochemical, biochemical and inflammatory analysis...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702174/beneficial-effects-of-extracellular-polysaccharide-from-rhizopus-nigricans-on-the-intestinal-immunity-of-colorectal-cancer-mice
#7
Zhidan Yu, Ge Song, Jing Liu, Jiayue Wang, Pengying Zhang, Kaoshan Chen
An extracellular polysaccharide (EPS1-1) extracted from the fermentation broth of Rhizopus nigricans has been proved to enhance the immunity of immunosuppressed mice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of EPS1-1 on the intestinal immunity of mice with colorectal cancer induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The results showed that EPS1-1 could resist hydrolysis in an artificial stomach. Oral EPS1-1 modulated gut microbiota and increased the concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the feces of colorectal cancer mice compared with the AOM/DSS only-treated mice...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685982/-entamoeba-histolytica-alters-ileal-paneth-cell-functions-in-intact-and-muc2-mucin-deficiency
#8
Eduardo R Cobo, Ravi Holani, France Moreau, Kiminori Nakamura, Tokiyoshi Ayabe, Jennifer R Mastroianni, Andre Ouellette, Kris Chadee
Enteric α-defensins, termed cryptdins (Crps) in mice, and lysozymes secreted by Paneth cells contribute to innate host defense in the ileum. Antimicrobial factors including lysozymes and β-defensins are often embedded in luminal glycosylated colonic Muc2 mucin secreted by goblet cells that form the protective mucus layer critical in gut homeostasis and pathogen invasion. In this study we investigated ileal innate immunity against Entamoeba histolytica (Eh ), the causative agent of intestinal amebiasis, by inoculating parasites in closed ileal loops in Muc2+/+ and Muc2-/- littermates and quantifying Paneth cell localization (lysozyme expression) and function (Crps secretion)...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624892/antibiotic-mediated-bacteriome-depletion-in-apc-min-mice-is-associated-with-reduction-in-mucus-producing-goblet-cells-and-increased-colorectal-cancer-progression
#9
Kamaljeet Kaur, Arpit Saxena, Irina Debnath, Jacqueline L O'Brien, Nadim J Ajami, Thomas A Auchtung, Joseph F Petrosino, Alexander-Jacques Sougiannis, Sarah Depaep, Alexander Chumanevich, Phani M Gummadidala, Mayomi H Omebeyinje, Sourav Banerjee, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Paramita Chakraborty, Raja Fayad, Franklin G Berger, James A Carson, Anindya Chanda
Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to antibiotics in early-to-middle adulthood is associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. However, mechanistic studies in established preclinical cancer to examine these claims are extremely limited. Therefore, we investigated the effect of long-term exposure of an antibiotic cocktail composed of Vancomycin, Neomycin, and Streptomycin, on tumor development and progression in the ApcMin/+ mouse, an established genetic model for familial adenomatous polyposis...
April 6, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614018/in-vitro-influence-of-extracts-from-snail-helix-aspersa-m%C3%A3-ller-on-the-colon-cancer-cell-line-caco-2
#10
Magdalena Matusiewicz, Iwona Kosieradzka, Tomasz Niemiec, Marta Grodzik, Hanna Antushevich, Barbara Strojny, Małgorzata Gołębiewska
Colorectal cancer is the third most widely diagnosed cancer. Extracts from snails may modulate growth and development of colorectal cancer cells. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of tissues derived from Helix aspersa Müller and red-ox properties of tissue extracts. Then, the influence of extracts and their fractions of different molecular weights on viability of Caco-2 cells was examined. Tissue lyophilisates contained antioxidants that could be important in the prevention of colorectal cancer...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610259/the-host-antimicrobial-protein-calgranulin-c-participates-in-the-control-of-campylobacter-jejuni-growth-via-zinc-sequestration
#11
Janette M Shank, Brittni R Kelley, Joseph W Jackson, Jessica L Tweedie, Dana Franklin, Steven M Damo, Jennifer A Gaddy, Caitlin N Murphy, Jeremiah G Johnson
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter is most commonly acquired through the consumption of undercooked poultry meat or through drinking contaminated water. Following ingestion, Campylobacter adheres to the intestinal epithelium and mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inflammation and inhibition of fluid reabsorption. Currently, the human response to infection is relatively unknown and animal hosts that model those responses are rare. As such, we examined patient fecal samples for the accumulation of the neutrophil protein, calgranulin C, during infection with Campylobacter jejuni...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569874/comparison-of-different-histological-protocols-for-the-preservation-and-quantification-of-the-intestinal-mucus-layer-in-pigs
#12
Ilen Röhe, Friedrich Joseph Hüttner, Johanna Plendl, Barbara Drewes, Jürgen Zentek
The histological characterization of the intestinal mucus layer is important for many scientific experiments investigating the interaction between intestinal microbiota, mucosal immune response and intestinal mucus production. The aim of this study was to examine and compare different fixation protocols for displaying and quantifying the intestinal mucus layer in piglets and to test which histomorphological parameters may correlate with the determined mucus layer thickness. Jejunal and colonal tissue samples of weaned piglets (n=10) were either frozen in liquid nitrogen or chemically fixed using methacarn solution...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566906/action-and-function-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-in-microbiome-ecology-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Noora Ottman, Sharon Y Geerlings, Steven Aalvink, Willem M de Vos, Clara Belzer
The discovery of Akkermansia muciniphila has opened new avenues for the use of this abundant intestinal symbiont in next generation therapeutic products, as well as targeting microbiota dynamics. A. muciniphila is known to colonize the mucosal layer of the human intestine where it triggers both host metabolic and immune responses. A. muciniphila is particularly effective in increasing mucus thickness and increasing gut barrier function. As a result host metabolic markers ameliorate. The mechanism of host regulation is thought to involve the outer membrane composition, including the type IV pili of A...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555697/the-influence-of-chemotaxis-and-swimming-patterns-on-the-virulence-of-the-coral-pathogen-vibrio-coralliilyticus
#14
Blake Ushijima, Claudia C Häse
Chemotaxis, the directed movement towards or away from a chemical signal, can be essential to bacterial pathogens for locating hosts or avoiding hostile environments. The coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus chemotaxes towards coral mucus; however, chemotaxis has not been experimentally demonstrated to be important for virulence. To further examine this, in-frame mutations were constructed in genes predicted to be important for V. coralliilyticus chemotaxis. Most Vibrio genomes encode multiple homologs of various chemotaxis-related genes and two paralogs of each for cheB , cheR , and cheA were identified...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538733/developing-collaborative-works-for-faster-progress-on-fungal-respiratory-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#15
Carsten Schwarz, Patrick Vandeputte, Amandine Rougeron, Sandrine Giraud, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Ludovic Duvaux, Amandine Gastebois, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Maria Teresa Martín-Gomez, Estrella Martin Mazuelos, Amparo Sole, Josep Cano, Javier Pemán, Guillermo Quindos, Françoise Botterel, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Sharon Chen, Laurence Delhaès, Loïc Favennec, Stéphane Ranque, Ludwig Sedlacek, Joerg Steinmann, Jose Vazquez, Craig Williams, Wieland Meyer, Solène Le Gal, Gilles Nevez, Maxime Fleury, Nicolas Papon, Françoise Symoens, Jean-Philippe Bouchara
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the major genetic inherited disease in Caucasian populations. The respiratory tract of CF patients displays a sticky viscous mucus, which allows for the entrapment of airborne bacteria and fungal spores and provides a suitable environment for growth of microorganisms, including numerous yeast and filamentous fungal species. As a consequence, respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this clinical context. Although bacteria remain the most common agents of these infections, fungal respiratory infections have emerged as an important cause of disease...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529537/intersphincteric-proctectomy-for-rectal-mucocele-in-a-crohn-s-patient-with-anal-stenosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Tyler B Draeger, Usman Aslam, Nassim Mokraoui, Eric Seitelman, Rajiv Datta, Robert C Amajoyi
In patients who have undergone a colonic resection with creation of an end colostomy, drainage of mucus secreted by the mucosa of the rectal stump may not be possible if there is an outlet obstruction. With an outlet obstruction, formation of a rectal mucocele occurs. A rectal mucocele is a rare condition which has only been reported sporadically in case reports. We present here the utility of an intersphincteric proctectomy for treatment of a rectal mucocele in a 47 year old male Crohn's patient resulting in negligible post-operative or long-term morbidities...
2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527554/linked-color-imaging-enhances-endoscopic-detection-of-sessile-serrated-adenoma-polyps
#17
Daisaku Fujimoto, Naoki Muguruma, Koichi Okamoto, Yasuteru Fujino, Kaizo Kagemoto, Yasuyuki Okada, Yoshifumi Takaoka, Yasuhiro Mitsui, Shinji Kitamura, Tetsuo Kimura, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Yoshimi Bando, Tomoko Sonoda, Tetsuji Takayama
Background and study aims:  Although new image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) technologies such as blue laser imaging (BLI), BLI-bright, and linked color imaging (LCI) have been developed, their utility for the detection of sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of BLI, BLI-bright, and LCI for SSA/P detection in still image examinations and in a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT). Patients and methods:  A group of 6 expert and non-expert endoscopists read 200 endoscopic still images containing SSA/P lesions using white light image (WLI), BLI, BLI-bright, and LCI...
March 2018: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516692/-effect-of-different-doses-of-herbal-cake-partitioned-moxibustion-on-histopathological-changes-of-colon-tissue-in-ulcerative-colitis-rats
#18
Dan Zhang, Yan-Bo Ren, Huan-Gan Wu, Yan-Ting Yang, Li-Jie Wu, Ji Zhang, Zheng Shi, Xiao-Peng Ma
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different-doses of herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion (Moxi) on histopathological changes of the damaged colon tissue in rats with ulcerative colitis (UC), so as to select an optimal dosage of Moxi in the treatment of UC. METHODS: Sixty-three male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into 7 groups: normal control, model, medication, and 1, 2, 3 and 4 moxa-cone Moxi ( n =9 rats per group). The UC model was developed by subcutaneous injection of emulsion (1 mL) containing colon mucosa-prepared protein suspension and complete Freund's adjuvant into the toes, groin and back...
February 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494278/adaptation-of-adherent-invasive-e-coli-to-gut-environment-impact-on-flagellum-expression-and-bacterial-colonization-ability
#19
Gwladys Sevrin, Sébastien Massier, Benoit Chassaing, Allison Agus, Julien Delmas, Jérémy Denizot, Elisabeth Billard, Nicolas Barnich
The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) is multifactorial and involves genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers and intestinal microbiota. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are flagellated bacteria more prevalent in CD patients than in healthy subjects and promote chronic intestinal inflammation. We aim at deciphering the role of flagella and flagellin modulation by intestinal conditions. AIEC flagellum expression is required for optimal adhesion to and invasion of intestinal epithelial cells...
March 1, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484836/primary-murine-mucosal-response-during-cephalosporin-induced-intestinal-colonization-by-enterococcus-faecium
#20
Antoni P A Hendrickx, Denise van de Kamer, Rob J L Willems
Hospitalized patients are often administered antibiotics that perturb the gastrointestinal commensal microbiota, leading to outgrowth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, like multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium, subsequent spread, and eventually infections. However, the events that occur at the initial stage of intestinal colonization and outgrowth by multidrug-resistant E. faecium within the antibiotic-treated host have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we describe and visualize that only 6 hr after cephalosporin treatment of mice, the Muc-2 mucus layer is reduced and E-cadherin junctions were altered...
February 27, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
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