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Premature birth

Caner Kara, Emre Hekimoğlu, İkbal Seza Petriçli, Handan Akıl
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in case of treatment failure with laser photocoagulation in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods: A retrospective review of infants treated with IVB injection due to treatment failure with laser photocoagulation was performed. The anatomical results and complications were evaluated after treatment. Results: 9 eyes of 6 premature infants with a mean gestational age of 26...
March 2018: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
Ravishankar Suryanarayana, Muninarayana Chandrappa, Anil Navale Santhuram, S Prathima, S R Sheela
Background: Anemia is one of the most common nutritional deficiency disorders affecting the pregnant women in the developing countries. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly associated with poor pregnancy outcome and can result in complications that threaten the life of both mother and fetus. Objective: The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women and to determine its association with maternal and fetal outcomes. Settings and Design: This study design was a prospective, observational, community-based study...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Ashish A Ahuja, Yerahaia C V Reddy, Olukorede O Adenuga, Dheeraj Kewlani, Meenakshi Ravindran, Rengappa Ramakrishnan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, severity, and associated risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a district in South India. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational, cohort study involving babies at risk of ROP conducted in five Neonatal Intensive Care Units in a district in Tamil Nadu, South India. All babies with gestational age at birth of ≤36 weeks and a birth weight (BW) of ≤1900 g with a follow-up period of at least 6 months were enrolled for the study...
January 2018: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Joseph Ting, Ashley Roberts, Anne Synnes, Roderick Canning, Jaya Bodani, Luis Monterossa, Prakesh S Shah
BACKGROUND: Neonatal fungaemia is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes and higher overall healthcare expenditure. Our objective is to review the epidemiology of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in neonates in Canada. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using data collected by the Canadian Neonatal Network (CNN) was conducted. Using a nested matched cohort study design, risk factors and outcomes of neonates born <33 weeks gestation (n=39,305) during 2003-2013 were compared between neonates diagnosed with an IFI during their stay to infection-free controls...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Raquel González, Clara Pons-Duran, Mireia Piqueras, John J Aponte, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy...
March 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Junichi Sugawara, Noriyuki Iwama, Tetsuro Hoshiai, Hideki Tokunaga, Hidekazu Nishigori, Hirohito Metoki, Kunihiro Okamura, Nobuo Yaegashi
OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to analyze post-disaster birth outcomes in coastal and inland regions of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. METHODS: Primary data sets were compiled from birth records of obstetric facilities and 12,808 patients were analyzed for baseline birth outcomes by region. Regional risk analysis of the low-birth-weight rate and premature birth rate were conducted using multi-level logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: From overall baseline birth outcomes, a preterm birth rate was 4...
March 21, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Mariana Chiaradia Dominguez, Beatriz Regina Alvares
Objective: To analyze the radiological aspects of pulmonary atelectasis in newborns on mechanical ventilation and treated in an intensive care unit, associating the characteristics of atelectasis with the positioning of the head and endotracheal tube seen on the chest X-ray, as well as with the clinical variables. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of 60 newborns treated between 1985 and 2015. Data were collected from medical records and radiology reports...
January 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
Robert Freedman, Sharon K Hunter, M Camille Hoffman
Genes, infection, malnutrition, and other factors affecting fetal brain development are a major component of risk for a child's emotional development and later mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Prenatal interventions to ameliorate that risk have yet to be established for clinical use. A systematic review of prenatal nutrients and childhood emotional development and later mental illness was performed. Randomized trials of folic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements assess effects of doses beyond those adequate to remedy deficiencies to promote normal fetal development despite genetic and environmental risks...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Ajay P Anvekar, Piyush S Shah, Elizabeth A Nathan, Dorota A Doherty, Sanjay K Patole, Karen N Simmer
OBJECTIVE: To assess if high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is associated with reduced odds of death or discharge home on oxygen in preterm infants. METHODS: A case control study (1 February 2010 - 1 June 2014) comparing the primary outcome as "death or discharge home on oxygen" in preterm infants who needed HFJV (Cases) versus those who did not (Controls). Controls were matched to cases (1:1) on gestation, birthweight, gender, place of birth, growth status, antenatal glucocorticoids, and dexamethasone as treatment for severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Hala Abdelaal, Mohamed A Mohamed, Hany Aly
Objectives To examine the risk of premature delivery (PD) and small for gestational age (SGA) among pregnant teens with depressive disorders (DD), and the impact of race/ethnicity on these birth outcomes. Design/Methods We examined the hospital discharge records of pregnant mothers between the age of 13-18 year old who gave birth in the years 1994, 2000, 2006, and 2012 in the National Inpatient Sample database. We calculated the risk for PD and SGA among pregnant teens with and without DD in the overall population and within each race/ethnicity...
March 20, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Shruti Shambhavi, Rashmi Bagga, Pallavi Bansal, Jasvinder Kalra, Praveen Kumar
For prevention of a recurrent preterm birth (PTB), intramuscular 17-α-hydroxy progesterone caproate (IM 17 OHPC) weekly is recommended. Vaginal progesterone is preferred for women at risk for PTB due to a short cervical length, but may be useful in women with a prior PTB. However, there is no consensus about the optimal vaginal formulation or its efficacy as compared to 17 OHPC to prevent recurrent PTB. We randomised 100 women with a singleton pregnancy between 16 and 24 weeks of gestation and ≥ one prior spontaneous PTB, of a singleton (>16 to <37 weeks of gestation) to receive the 200 mg vaginal progesterone effervescent tablet daily (Group A) or IM 17-OHPC, 250 mg weekly (Group B) till 37 weeks of gestation or delivery...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Vander Borght Mélodie, Wyns Christine
Infertility is a disease characterized by the failure to establish a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular and unprotected sexual intercourse. It is estimated to affect between 8 and 12% of reproductive-aged couples worldwide. Males are found to be solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases but contribute to 50% of cases overall. Secondary infertility is the most common form of female infertility around the globe, often due to reproductive tract infections. The three major factors influencing the spontaneous probability of conception are the time of unwanted non-conception, the age of the female partner and the disease-related infertility...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
John R Weinstein, Lisa M Thompson, Anaité Díaz Artiga, Joe P Bryan, William E Arriaga, Saad B Omer, John P McCracken
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of death among children <5 years of age. Accurate determination of prematurity is necessary to provide appropriate neonatal care and guide preventive measures. To estimate the most accurate method to identify infants at risk for adverse outcomes, we assessed the validity of two widely available methods-last menstrual period (LMP) and the New Ballard (NB) neonatal assessment-against ultrasound in determining gestational age and preterm birth in highland Guatemala...
2018: PloS One
Filiz Mine Çizmecioğlu, Jeremy Huw Jones, Wendy Forsyth Paterson, Sakina Kherra, Mariam Kourime, Ruth McGowan, M Guftar Shaikh, Malcolm Donaldson
OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis is of proven benefit in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We therefore examined key perinatal features to aid early recognition. METHODS: Data were collected from case records of subjects attending a multi-disciplinary clinic and from a retrospective birth questionnaire. RESULTS: Ninety patients (54 male: 36 female) were seen between 1991-2015, most with paternal deletion (n=56) or maternal isodisomy (n=26). Features included cryptorchidism in 94% males, preterm birth (26%), birthweight <2500g (24%), polyhydramnios (23%), breech presentation (23%) and need for nasogastric feeding (83%)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Kay D Beharry, Charles L Cai, Taimur Ahmad, Sibel Guzel, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda
Neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) followed by re-oxygenation in normoxia or supplemental oxygen (IHR) increases the risk for severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The exact timing for the onset of retinal damage which may guide strategic interventions during retinal development, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure of the immature retina to neonatal IH induces early manifestations of retinal damage that can be utilized as key time points for strategic pharmacologic intervention. Newborn rats were exposed to IH within 2 hours of birth (P0) until P14, or allowed to recover in room air (RA) from P14 to P21 (IHR)...
2018: Journal of Nature and Science
Anna Clara F Vieira, Cláudia M Alves, Vandilson P Rodrigues, Cecília C Ribeiro, Isaac S Gomes-Filho, Fernanda F Lopes
BACKGROUND: The rates of preterm births have been increasing worldwide. Complications related to preterm births are associated with increased costs of care, and have a direct impact on the health system of the countries. Therefore, it is important to address factors associated with preterm birth in order to provide prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: This case-control study investigated oral, systemic, and socioeconomic factors associated with preterm birth in postpartum women...
March 15, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Kana R Jat, Dinesh K Walia, Anju Khairwa
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with an approximate prevalence of 1 in 3500 live births. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a lung disease caused by aspergillus-induced hypersensitivity with a prevalence of 2% to 15% in people with cystic fibrosis. The mainstay of treatment includes corticosteroids and itraconazole. The treatment with corticosteroids for prolonged periods of time, or repeatedly for exacerbations of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, may lead to many adverse effects...
March 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M Kotowski, Z Litwinska, P Klos, E Pius-Sadowska, E Zagrodnik-Ulan, P Ustianowski, J Rudnicki, B Machalinski
Umbilical cord blood (UCB), rich in stem/progenitor cells, is partially eliminated from the bloodstream during childbirth because the cord is immediately clamped. We hypothesize that transfusion of autologous UCB to premature infants after delivery could serve as an adjuvant modality for preventing the development of prematurity-related complications. We randomly enrolled 20 preterm infants born before 32 weeks of gestational age (GA), all of whom developed anemia, necessitating transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs)...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Katie A Hunt, Yosuke Yamada, Vadivelam Murthy, Prashanth Srihari Bhat, Morag Campbell, Grenville F Fox, Anthony D Milner, Anne Greenough
OBJECTIVES: End tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 ) monitoring can facilitate identification of successful intubation. The aims of this study were to determine the time to detect ETCO2 following intubation during resuscitation of infants born prematurely and whether it differed according to maturity at birth or the Apgar scores (as a measure of the infant's condition after birth). DESIGN: Analysis of recordings of respiratory function monitoring. SETTING: Two tertiary perinatal centres...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
J Edy Siswanto, Nani H Widodo, Pieter J J Sauer
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a well-known complication in preterm infants. Data on the incidence of ROP in Indonesia, in relation to birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA), are limited. OBJECTIVE: To report the incidence of ROP in one of the oldest and largest neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Indonesia. METHODS: We studied the incidence and severity of ROP in inborn infants with a BW of ≤1500 g and/or GA of ≤32 weeks, who were admitted to the NICU of Harapan Kita Women and Children Hospital, Jakarta...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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