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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650912/the-effect-of-vasodilator-%C3%AE-blockers-on-renal-function-in-hypertensive-patients
#1
Lawrence H Kwon, Karan Wats, Clive Rosendorff
BACKGROUND: Not only is there a limited number of studies on the effects of vasodilator β-blocker (VBB) therapy on kidney function - specifically, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum creatinine (sCr) and proteinuria - but of those that have been reported, the results are mixed. This meta-analysis seeks to assess the efficacy of VBBs on selected renal parameters in hypertensive patients. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of any prospective trial that provided both baseline and follow-up of at least 4 weeks of VBB therapy - carvedilol, labetalol, dilevalol, nebivolol and celiprolol in patients with hypertension...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649251/cocoa-and-dark-chocolate-polyphenols-from-biology-to-clinical-applications
#2
REVIEW
Thea Magrone, Matteo Antonio Russo, Emilio Jirillo
It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646032/the-human-coronary-vasodilatory-response-to-acute-mental-stress-is-mediated-by-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase
#3
Sitara Gulurkh Khan, Narbeh Melikian, Husain Shabeeh, Ana Rita Cabaco, Katherine Martin, Faisal Khan, Kevin O'Gallagher, Phil Chowienczyk, Ajay M Shah
INTRODUCTION: Mental stress-induced ischemia approximately doubles the risk of cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease, yet the mechanisms underlying changes in coronary blood flow in response to mental stress are poorly characterized. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) regulates basal coronary blood flow in healthy humans and mediates mental stress-induced vasodilation in the forearm. However, its possible role in mental-stress-induced increases in coronary blood flow is unknown...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644845/lipo-pge1-suppresses-collagen-production-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts-via-the-erk-ets-1-signaling-pathway
#4
Yoolhee Yang, Hee Jung Kim, Kyong-Je Woo, Daeho Cho, Sa Ik Bang
Dysregulation of collagen production contributes to various pathological processes, including tissue fibrosis as well as impaired wound healing. Lipo-prostaglandin E1 (Lipo-PGE1), a lipid microsphere-incorporated prostaglandin E1, is used as a vasodilator for the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. Lipo-PGE1 was recently shown to enhance human dermal fibroblast (HDF) migration and in vivo wound healing. No published study has characterized the role of Lipo-PGE1 in collagen regulation in HDFs. Here, we investigated the cellular signaling mechanism by which Lipo-PGE1 regulates collagen in HDFs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643215/relationship-between-instantaneous-wave-free-ratio-and-fractional-flow-reserve-in-patients-receiving-hemodialysis
#5
Yuta Morioka, Hiroyuki Arashi, Hisao Otsuki, Junichi Yamaguchi, Nobuhisa Hagiwara
Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is a vasodilator-free index and is reported to have a good correlation with fractional flow reserve (FFR). Hemodialysis patients exhibit left ventricular hypertrophy, reduced arterial compliance, and impaired microcirculation. Such a coronary flow condition in these patients may influence the relationship between iFR and FFR. This study assessed the impact of hemodialysis on the relationship between iFR and FFR. The study enrolled 196 patients with 265 stenoses who underwent assessment via iFR, FFR assessment, and right heart catheterization...
June 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642014/acute-hemodynamic-effects-of-intravenous-adenosine-in-patients-with-associated-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-comparison-with-intravenous-epoprostenol
#6
Rosario Rossi, Francesca Coppi, Fabio Sgura, Daniel Monopoli, Giuseppe Boriani
Exogenous intravenous (IV) adenosine and epoprostenol are effective vasodilator agents, causing a substantial reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance in patients affected by idiopathic pulmonary arteriolar hypertension (PAH). Their action, in patients with PAH associated with other pathological conditions, is not well defined. In the present paper the authors retrospectively analyzed the acute hemodynamic effects of intravenous adenosine and epoprostenol in 30 consecutive patients (mean age: 58 ± 15 years; 21 females, and 9 males) affected by PAH associated with other pathological conditions, as determined by changes from baseline in systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic parameters...
June 19, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641827/isoflurane-and-the-coronary-steal-controversy-of-the-1980s-origin-resolution-and-legacy
#7
George J Crystal
Isoflurane was introduced for general clinical use in North America in 1981. Shortly thereafter, in 1983, a study suggested that the anesthetic was a potent coronary vasodilator that could cause coronary steal and myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. Myocardial ischemia results from small-vessel dilation which leads to increased blood flow to well-perfused myocardium and decreased blood flow to myocardium with borderline perfusion. This action of isoflurane raised concerns and threatened its use...
April 2017: Journal of Anesthesia History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641786/association-of-apolipoprotein-ciii-apoc-iii-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-and-peripheral-neuropathy-in-a-multi-ethnic-population-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Sharon Li Ting Pek, Chee Fang Sum, Lee Ying Yeoh, Simon Biing Ming Lee, Wern Ee Tang, Su Chi Lim, Subramaniam Tavintharan
BACKGROUND: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Apart from hyperglycemia, its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Apolipoprotein-CIII (apoC-III) associated with triglyceride metabolism, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Its role in DPN is not well-established. We studied the associations of apoC-III, endothelial function and DPN. METHODS: In patients with T2D, anthropometric data, fasting blood, and urine were collected for biochemistry and urine albumin/creatinine measurements (uACR)...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641753/cardiac-dysfunction-in-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-pathophysiology-clinical-assessment-and-management
#9
Neil Patel, Florian Kipfmueller
Cardiac dysfunction is an important consequence of pulmonary hypertension in congenital diaphragmatic hernia and a determinant of disease severity. Increased afterload leads to right ventricular dilatation and diastolic dysfunction. Septal displacement and dysfunction impair left ventricular function, which may also be compromised by fetal hypoplasia. Biventricular failure contributes to systemic hypotension and hypoperfusion. Early and regular echocardiographic assessment of cardiac function and pulmonary artery pressure can guide therapeutic decision-making, including choice and timing of pulmonary vasodilators, cardiotropes, ECMO, and surgery...
June 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641580/marked-regional-endothelial-dysfunction-in-mottled-skin-area-in-patients-with-severe-infections
#10
Simon Bourcier, Jérémie Joffre, Vincent Dubée, Gabriel Preda, Jean-Luc Baudel, Naïke Bigé, Guillaume Leblanc, Bernard I Levy, Bertrand Guidet, Eric Maury, Hafid Ait-Oufella
BACKGROUND: Mottling around the knee, reflecting a reduced skin blood flow, is predictive of mortality in patients with septic shock. However, the causative pathophysiology of mottling remains unknown. We hypothesized that the cutaneous hypoperfusion observed in the mottled area is related to regional endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study in a medical ICU in a tertiary teaching hospital. Consecutive adult patients with sepsis admitted to ICU were included...
June 23, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635124/regular-aerobic-exercise-reduces-endothelin-1-mediated-vasoconstrictor-tone-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#11
Caitlin A Dow, Brian L Stauffer, Danielle L Brunjes, Jared J Greiner, Christopher A DeSouza
Endothelin (ET)-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in overweight and obese adults, contributing to vasomotor dysfunction and increased cardiovascular disease risk. While the effects of habitual aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in overweight/obese adults has been studied, little is known regarding ET-1 vasoconstriction. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were to determine: (1) if regular aerobic exercise training reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults; and, if so (2) whether the reduction in ET-1 vasoconstriction contributes to exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in this population...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632543/stroke-volume-variation-guided-versus-central-venous-pressure-guided-low-central-venous-pressure-with-milrinone-during-living-donor-hepatectomy-a-randomized-double-blinded-clinical-trial
#12
Jiwon Lee, Won Ho Kim, Ho-Geol Ryu, Hyung-Chul Lee, Eun-Jin Chung, Seong-Mi Yang, Chul-Woo Jung
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated the usefulness of milrinone for living donor hepatectomy. However, a less-invasive alternative to central venous catheterization and perioperative contributors to good surgical outcomes remain undetermined. The current study evaluated whether the stroke volume variation (SVV)-guided method can substitute central venous catheterization during milrinone-induced profound vasodilation. METHODS: We randomly assigned 42 living liver donors to receive either SVV guidance or central venous pressure (CVP) guidance to obtain milrinone-induced low CVP...
June 16, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632001/vasodilator-responsiveness-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-identifying-a-distinct-phenotype-with-distinct-physiology-and-distinct-prognosis
#13
David Langleben, Stylianos Orfanos
Within the cohort of patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a group that responds dramatically (VR-PAH) to an acute vasodilator challenge and that has excellent long-term hemodynamic improvement and prognosis on high dose calcium channel blockers compared with vasodilator non-responders (VN-PAH). For the purposes of diagnosing VR-PAH, there is to date no test to replace the acute vasodilator challenge. However, recent studies have identified markers that may aid in the identification of VR-PAH, including peripheral blood lymphocyte RNA expression levels of desmogelin-2 and Ras homolog gene family member Q, and plasma levels of provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus...
June 20, 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629815/resveratrol-suppresses-pulmonary-tumor-metastasis-by-inhibiting-platelet-mediated-angiogenic-responses
#14
Liwei He, Fangtian Fan, Xianbang Hou, Cuixiang Gao, Li Meng, Shu Meng, Shiwen Huang, Hongyan Wu
BACKGROUND: To explore the impact of Resveratrol (RSV) on the angiogenic potential of activated platelets and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Capillary tube formation assay was used to examine the impact of RSV on the angiogenic potential of activated platelets. The levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the supernatant were evaluated using corresponding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#15
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628347/preventive-treatment-with-atorvastatin-ameliorates-endothelial-dysfunction-of-small-pulmonary-arteries-in-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-hypertensive-rats
#16
Zhihong Lin, Zhi Jiang, Xiaodong Huang, Xiaoqi Cai, Huajun Wang, Liangdi Xie
This study examined the effects of preventive atorvastatin (Ator) treatment on vasodilatation of small pulmonary arteries (SPAs) in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats. SD rats were randomly assigned to: normal control (Ctr), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), PAH treated with 5 mg/kg/d Ator (LAtor), or 10 mg/kg/d Ator (HAtor). PAH was induced by MCT injection (40 mg/kg, i.p.). Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI%), endothelium-dependent relaxations (EDdRs), and endothelium-independent relaxations (EDiRs) were determined...
June 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627137/effect-of-sympathetic-nerve-blockade-on-low-frequency-oscillations-of-forearm-and-leg-skin-blood-flow-in-healthy-humans
#17
Gary J Hodges, Matthew M Mallette, Zachary T Martin, Andrew T Del Pozzi
Examine the effect of inhibiting sympathetic function on cutaneous vasomotion in the forearm and leg METHODS: Intradermal microdialysis fibres were placed in the forearm and leg, one as an untreated control (lactated Ringer's) the other perfused with bretylium tosylate to block sympathetic nerves. Skin blood flow was monitored using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Baseline was collected for 10 min before local skin temperature was increased to 42°C. Spectral analysis was performed using a Morlet wavelet RESULTS: Bretylium tosylate increased skin blood flow during baseline in the forearm (d=1...
June 19, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623784/antihypertensive-and-vasodilator-effects-of-methanolic-extract-of-inula-viscosa-biological-evaluation-and-pom-analysis-of-cynarin-chlorogenic-acid-as-potential-hypertensive
#18
Zineb Hakkou, Alexandre Maciuk, Veronique Leblais, Nour Elhouda Bouanani, Hassane Mekhfi, Mohammed Bnouham, Mohammed Aziz, Abderrahime Ziyyat, Abdur Rauf, Taibi Ben Hadda, Usama Shaheen, Seema Patel, Rodolphe Fischmeister, Abdelkhaleq Legssyer
BACKGROUND: Inula viscosa L. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant widely used as a folk medicine in oriental Morocco, to treat hypertension. The antihypertensive effect of the methanolic extract obtained from I. viscosa leaves was evaluated in hypertensive L-NAME rats. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured using a non-invasive indirect tail-cuff plethysmographic method. Four groups of rats were used: a control group; a hypertensive group treated with L-NAME (32mg/kg/day); a positive control group treated with L-NAME plus enalapril (15mg/kg/day) as a reference antihypertensive agent; and a group treated with L-NAME plus MeOH-extract (40mg/kg/day)...
June 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620011/dietary-restriction-but-not-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade-improves-dna-damage-related-vasodilator-dysfunction%C3%A2-in-rapidly-aging-ercc1-%C3%AE-mice
#19
Haiyan Wu, Bibi S van Thiel, Paula Katherine Bautista-Nino, Erwin Reiling, Matej Durik, Frank P J Leijten, Yanto Ridwan, Renata M C Brandt, Harry van Steeg, Martijn E T Dollé, Wilbert P Vermeij, Jan H J Hoeijmakers, Jeroen Essers, Ingrid van der Pluijm, A H Jan Danser, Anton J M Roks
DNA damage is an important contributor to endothelial dysfunction and age-related vascular disease. Recently, we demonstrated in a DNA repair-deficient, prematurely aging mouse model ( Ercc1(∆/-) mice) that dietary restriction (DR) strongly increases life- and health span, including ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, by preserving genomic integrity. In this mouse mutant displaying prominent accelerated, age-dependent endothelial dysfunction we investigated the signaling pathways involved in improved endothelium-mediated vasodilation by DR, and explore the potential role of the renin-angiotensin system ...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613412/myoendothelial-coupling-through-cx40-contributes-to-edh-induced-vasodilation-in-murine-renal-arteries-evidence-from-experiments-and-modelling
#20
Jens Christian Brasen, Cor de Wit, Charlotte Mehlin Sorensen
Regulation of renal vascular resistance plays a major role in controlling arterial blood pressure. The endothelium participates in this regulation as endothelial derived hyperpolarization plays a significant role in smaller renal arteries and arterioles but the exact mechanisms are still unknown AIM: to investigate the role of vascular gap junctions and potassium channels in the renal endothelial derived hyperpolarization. METHODS: in interlobar arteries from wild-type and connexin40 knock-out mice we assessed the role of calcium activated small (SK) and intermediate (IK) conductance potassium channels...
June 14, 2017: Acta Physiologica
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