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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683004/metabolomics-assisted-metabolic-network-modeling-and-network-wide-analysis-of-metabolites-in-microbiology
#1
Junhua Wang, Cheng Wang, Huanhuan Liu, Haishan Qi, Hong Chen, Jianping Wen
Metabolomics is the science of qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing low molecular weight metabolites occur in a given biological system. It provides valuable information to elucidate the functional roles and relations of different metabolites in a metabolic pathway. In recent years, a large amount of research on microbial metabolomics has been conducted. It has become a useful tool for achieving highly efficient synthesis of target metabolites. At the same time, many studies have been conducted over the years in order to integrate metabolomics data into metabolic network modeling, which has yielded many exciting results...
April 22, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679784/a-swinging-seesaw-as-a-novel-model-mechanism-for-time-dependent-hormesis-under-dose-dependent-stimulatory-and-inhibitory-effects-a-case-study-on-the-toxicity-of-antibacterial-chemicals-to-aliivibrio-fischeri
#2
Haoyu Sun, Edward J Calabrese, Min Zheng, Dali Wang, Yongzheng Pan, Zhifen Lin, Ying Liu
Hormesis occurs frequently in broadly ranging biological areas (e.g. plant biology, microbiology, biogerontology), toxicology, pharmacology and medicine. While numerous mechanisms (e.g. receptor and pathway mediated pathway responses) account for stimulatory and inhibitory features of hormetic dose responses, the vast majority emphasizes the inclusion of many doses but only one timepoint or use of a single optimized dose that is assessed over a broad range of timepoints. In this paper, a toxicity study was designed using a large number of properly spaced doses with responses determined over a large number of timepoints, which could help us reveal the underlying mechanism of hormesis...
April 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661123/pathological-and-microbiological-study-of-mortality-in-a-captive-breeding-colony-of-the-endangered-lord-howe-island-stick-insect-dryococelus-australis
#3
Christine Bayley, Christina Cheng, Michael Lynch
The authors describe pathological and microbiological features of mortalities in a captive breeding colony of Lord Howe Island stick insects ( Dryococelus australis) over a period of 18 months. There were 2 peaks of mortality in this period. In the first, insects presented dead with minimal premonitory signs of illness. In the second, affected insects were ataxic with contracted limbs and inability to climb or right themselves. Gross lesions were uncommon but included pigmented plaques on the gut and cloacal prolapse...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624768/gnat-toxins-of-bacterial-toxin-antitoxin-systems-acetylation-of-charged-trnas-to-inhibit-translation
#4
Chew Chieng Yeo
GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) is a huge superfamily of proteins spanning the prokaryotic and eukaryotic domains of life. GNAT proteins usually transfer an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to a wide variety of substrates ranging from aminoglycoside antibiotics to large macromolecules. Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are typically bicistronic and widespread in bacterial and archael genomes with diverse cellular functions. Recently, a novel family of type II TA toxins was described which presents a GNAT-fold and functions by acetylating charged tRNA thereby precluding translation...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616009/application-of-microfluidics-in-experimental-ecology-the-importance-of-being-spatial
#5
REVIEW
Krisztina Nagy, Ágnes Ábrahám, Juan E Keymer, Péter Galajda
Microfluidics is an emerging technology that is used more and more in biology experiments. Its capabilities of creating precisely controlled conditions in cellular dimensions make it ideal to explore cell-cell and cell-environment interactions. Thus, a wide spectrum of problems in microbial ecology can be studied using engineered microbial habitats. Moreover, artificial microfluidic ecosystems can serve as model systems to test ecology theories and principles that apply on a higher level in the hierarchy of biological organization...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608805/rebuilding-the-bridge-between-transcription-and-translation
#6
Irina Artsimovitch
In Bacteria, ribosomes may bind to the nascent RNA emerging from the transcribing RNA polymerase and initiate translation. Transcription-translation coupling plays diverse roles in cellular physiology, including attenuation control, mRNA surveillance, and maintenance of genome integrity. While the existence of coupling is broadly accepted, its mechanism and ubiquity are debated. Structural evidence supports mutually exclusive modes of RNA polymerase-ribosome contacts. In a model based on nuclear magnetic resonance data, NusG binds to a ribosomal protein S10 and acts as an adapter between RNA polymerase and the 30S subunit...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573441/contemporary-microbiology-and-identification-of-corynebacteria-spp-causing-infections-in-human
#7
REVIEW
Aleksandra Anna Zasada, Ewa Mosiej
The Corynebacterium genus are bacteria of growing clinical importance. It is because of progress in medicine that result in growing population of immunocompromised patients and growing number of infections caused by opportunistic pathogens. A new infections caused by Corynebacterium species regarded previously as commensal microorganisms as well as infections caused by new Corynebacterium species are described. Parallel with changes in Corynebacteria infections the microbiological laboratory diagnostic possibilities are changing...
March 24, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556098/whole-organism-phenotypic-screening-for-anti-infectives-promoting-host-health
#8
REVIEW
Anne E Clatworthy, Keith P Romano, Deborah T Hung
To date, antibiotics have been identified on the basis of their ability to kill bacteria or inhibit their growth rather than directly for their capacity to improve clinical outcomes of infected patients. Although historically successful, this approach has led to the development of an antibiotic armamentarium that suffers from a number of shortcomings, including the inevitable emergence of resistance and, in certain infections, suboptimal efficacy leading to long treatment durations, infection recurrence, or high mortality and morbidity rates despite apparent bacterial sterilization...
March 19, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555326/metabolic-profiling-of-moulds-with-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-on-gold-nanoparticle-enhanced-target
#9
Adrian Arendowski, Justyna Szulc, Joanna Nizioł, Beata Gutarowska, Tomasz Ruman
Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry on gold nanoparticle enhanced target (AuNPET) technique was used for metabolomic analysis and secondary metabolites detection of two mould strains - Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium chrysogenum in model conditions on microbiological malt extract agar medium. Results obtained with the use of AuNPET-based mass spectrometry technique were compared with traditional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method based on α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) matrices...
March 16, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550185/in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-cellular-features-of-host-and-organism-in-bacterial-fungal-and-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#10
Jaya D Chidambaram, Namperumalsamy V Prajna, Srikanthi Palepu, Shruti Lanjewar, Manisha Shah, Shanmugam Elakkiya, David Macleod, Prajna Lalitha, Matthew J Burton
PURPOSE: To determine cellular features of fungal (FK), Acanthamoeba (AK) and bacterial keratitis (BK) using HRT3 in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). DESIGN: Prospective observational cross-sectional study. METHODS: Eligible participants were adults with microbiologically-positive FK, AK or BK, of size ≥3mm attending Aravind Eye Hospital from Feb 2012 to Feb 2013. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: descemetocele, perforation. At presentation, IVCM imaging was performed, then corneal scrapes obtained for culture/light microscopy...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544124/resource-allocation-and-metabolism-the-search-for-governing-principles
#11
REVIEW
Markus Basan
Elucidating strategies of resource allocation and metabolism is crucial for a better understanding of microbial phenotypes. In particular, uncovering the governing principles underlying these processes would be a crucial step for achieving a central aim of systems microbiology, which is to quantitatively predict phenotypes of microbial cells or entire populations in diverse conditions. Here, some of the key concepts for understanding cellular resource allocation and metabolism that have been suggested over the past years are reviewed...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513380/infectious-disease-risks-in-xenotransplantation
#12
REVIEW
Jay A Fishman
Hurdles exist to clinical xenotransplantation including potential infectious transmission from nonhuman species to xenograft recipients. In anticipation of clinical trials of xenotransplantation, the associated infectious risks have been investigated. Swine and immunocompromised humans share some potential pathogens. Swine herpesviruses including porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV) are largely species-specific and do not, generally, infect human cells. Human cellular receptors exist for porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), which infects certain human-derived cell lines in vitro...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479074/cellular-microbiology-lysozyme-protects-bacteria-from-%C3%AE-lactams
#13
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473964/waking-the-neighbours-disruption-of-h-ns-repression-by-overlapping-transcription
#14
Joseph T Wade, David C Grainger
The histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) protein and its analogues bind large stretches of horizontally acquired AT-rich DNA in a broad range of bacterial species. Binding by H-NS silences the promoters within such DNA that would otherwise deplete the cellular pool of RNA polymerase. Selective de-repression can occur when sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins locally disrupt H-NS function; this mechanism is important for the regulation of many virulence genes. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Rangarajan and Schnetz show that when transcription from a neighbouring region invades an H-NS-bound locus, it can disrupt local H-NS repression...
May 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447029/nanosilver-and-the-microbiological-activity-of-the-particulate-solids-versus-the-leached-soluble-silver
#15
Merisa B Faiz, Rose Amal, Christopher P Marquis, Elizabeth J Harry, Georgios A Sotiriou, Scott A Rice, Cindy Gunawan
Nanosilver (Ag NPs) is currently one of the most commercialized antimicrobial nanoparticles with as yet, still unresolved cytotoxicity origins. To date, research efforts have mostly described the antimicrobial contribution from the leaching of soluble silver, while the undissolved solid Ag particulates are often considered as being microbiologically inert, serving only as source of the cytotoxic Ag ions. Here, we show the rapid stimulation of lethal cellular oxidative stress in bacteria by the presence of the undissolved Ag particulates...
April 2018: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443042/single-cell-microfluidic-analysis-of-bacillus-subtilis
#16
Matthew T Cabeen, Richard Losick
Microfluidic technology overcomes many of the limitations to traditional analytical methods in microbiology. Unlike bulk-culture methods, it offers single-cell resolution and long observation times spanning hundreds of generations; unlike agarose pad-based microscopy, it has uniform growth conditions that can be tightly controlled. Because the continuous flow of growth medium isolates the cells in a microfluidic device from unpredictable variations in the local chemical environment caused by cell growth and metabolism, authentic changes in gene expression and cell growth in response to specific stimuli can be more confidently observed...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442488/biological-properties-and-pathogenicity-factors-of-helicobacter-pylori
#17
Guzel S Isaeva, Sharmila Fagoonee
The unexpected discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has revolutionised the history of microbiology as well as of gastroenterology in the last 30 years, with an invaluable benefit for millions of persons worldwide. The confirmation that this Gram-negative spiral bacterium could live in the stomach has rendered out-of-date the concept of inhospitality of micro-organisms in the gastric environment, after a long history of unheard reports on the presence of spiral bacteria in the stomach. The pathogenicity of H...
February 14, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429664/removal-of-bacteria-legionella-pneumophila-escherichia-coli-and-bacillus-subtilis-by-super-cavitation
#18
Andrej Šarc, Janez Kosel, David Stopar, Martina Oder, Matevž Dular
In sufficient concentrations, the pathogenic bacteria L. pneumophila can cause a respiratory illness that is known as the "Legionnaires" disease. Moreover, toxic Shiga strains of bacteria E. coli can cause life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Because of the recent restrictions imposed on the usage of chlorine, outbreaks of these two bacterial species have become more common. In this study we have developed a novel rotation generator and its effectiveness against bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli was tested for various types of hydrodynamic cavitation (attached steady cavitation, developed unsteady cavitation and supercavitation)...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405664/comparison-of-bronchoscopy-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-findings-in-three-types-of-suppurative-lung-disease
#19
Jorrit J V de Vries, Anne B Chang, Julie M Marchant
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial suppuration is present in children with protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB), bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis (CF). However, no studies have directly compared bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings across these conditions within a single center using the same techniques and with shared community pathogens. AIM: To determine; (i) the bronchoscopic findings and BAL microbiology and cellularity among children with these conditions and; (ii) the relationship between bacterial pathogens, airway cellularity and aberrant macroscopic bronchoscopic findings...
April 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382730/translation-stress-positively-regulates-mscl-dependent-excretion-of-cytoplasmic-proteins
#20
Rosa Morra, Francesco Del Carratore, Howbeer Muhamadali, Luminita Gabriela Horga, Samantha Halliwell, Royston Goodacre, Rainer Breitling, Neil Dixon
The apparent mislocalization or excretion of cytoplasmic proteins is a commonly observed phenomenon in both bacteria and eukaryotes. However, reports on the mechanistic basis and the cellular function of this so-called "nonclassical protein secretion" are limited. Here we report that protein overexpression in recombinant cells and antibiotic-induced translation stress in wild-type Escherichia coli cells both lead to excretion of cytoplasmic protein (ECP). Condition-specific metabolomic and proteomic analyses, combined with genetic knockouts, indicate a role for both the large mechanosensitive channel (MscL) and the alternative ribosome rescue factor A (ArfA) in ECP...
January 30, 2018: MBio
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