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cellular microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934331/direct-identification-of-microorganisms-from-thioglycolate-broth-by-maldi-tof-ms
#1
Jorge Arca-Suárez, Fátima Galán-Sánchez, Pilar Marin-Casanova, Manuel A Rodríguez-Iglesias
We developed an easy MALDI-TOF MS-based assay to identify microorganisms directly from thioglycolate broth. A total of 101 positive thioglycolate broths inoculated with 15 different kinds of samples were evaluated. In 91 samples (90.1%), direct MALDI-TOF MS identifications were the same as those obtained after conventional laboratory procedures including subcultures. In 10 samples misidentified by direct processing, yeasts or mixed cultures grew in the thioglycolate subcultures, or high cellular debris hampered a correct analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901846/applications-of-nanoflowers-in-biomedicine
#2
Hossein Heli, Masoud Negahdary
BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology has opened new windows for biomedical researches and treatment of diseases. Nanostructures with flower-like shapes (nanoflowers) which have exclusive morphology and properties have been interesting for many researchers. METHODS: In this review, various applications of nanoflowers in biomedical researches and patents from various aspects have been investigated and reviewed. RESULTS: Nanoflowers attracted serious attentions in whole of biomedical fields such as cardiovascular diseases, microbiology, sensors and biosensors, biochemical and cellular studies, cancer therapy, healthcare and etc...
September 11, 2017: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891798/-effect-of-the-cellular-and-humoral-immune-response-in-infertile-couples-and-its-relationship-with-infections
#3
Adriana Brufman, Laura Colombo, Esteban Streiger, Rocío Pusillico
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of different microorganisms isolated from the urogenital tract of infertile men and assess whether there are differences in semen parameters according to the presence or absence of genital infections. METHODS: 280 semen samples from infertile men were studied retrospectively. Semen parameters were analyzed according to the World Health Organization criteria (WHO 2010). Microbiological analysis was performed using the modified method of Stamey and Meares proposed by Santoianni et al...
September 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880030/quantitative-detection-of-isotopically-enriched-e-coli-cells-by-sers
#4
Malama Chisanga, Howbeer Muhamadali, Richard Kimber, Royston Goodacre
It is clear that investigating how bacterial cells work by analysing their functional roles in microbial communities is very important in environmental, clinical and industrial microbiology. The benefits of linking genes to their respective functions include the reliable identification of the causative agents of various diseases, which would permit appropriate and timely treatment in healthcare systems. In industrial and municipal wastewater treatment and management, such knowledge may allow for the manipulation of microbial communities, such as through bioaugmentation, in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of bioremediation processes...
September 7, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838077/the-unique-microbiology-and-molecular-pathogenesis-of-mycoplasma-genitalium
#5
REVIEW
Chris L McGowin, Patricia A Totten
Mycoplasma genitalium is increasingly appreciated as a common cause of sexually transmitted disease syndromes, including urethritis in men and cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and possibly preterm birth, tubal factor infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in women. Despite these disease associations, which parallel those of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the mechanisms by which this pathogen elicits inflammation, causes cellular damage, and persists in its only natural host (humans) are unique and are not fully understood...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830349/prediction-of-bacterial-small-rnas-in-the-rsma-csra-and-toxt-pathways-a-machine-learning-approach
#6
Carl Tony Fakhry, Prajna Kulkarni, Ping Chen, Rahul Kulkarni, Kourosh Zarringhalam
BACKGROUND: Small RNAs (sRNAs) constitute an important class of post-transcriptional regulators that control critical cellular processes in bacteria. Recent research using high-throughput transcriptomic approaches has led to a dramatic increase in the discovery of bacterial sRNAs. However, it is generally believed that the currently identified sRNAs constitute a limited subset of the bacterial sRNA repertoire. In several cases, sRNAs belonging to a specific class are already known and the challenge is to identify additional sRNAs belonging to the same class...
August 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763076/-study-plan-2016-of-the-licentiate-of-medical-surgery-of-the-faculty-of-higher-studies-iztacala
#7
Adolfo René Méndez-Cruz, Xavier de Jesús Novales-Castro, Lilia Isabel Ramírez-García, Eugenio Camarena-Ocampo, Julia Reyes-Reali, Uriel Calderón-Abundes, Dante Amato
The 2016 undergraduate medical degree curriculum at the Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) is presented. It is the result of a long institutional reflection and academic dialog process of approximately three years, which culminated in its approval by UNAM's Academic Council for the Biology, Chemistry, and Health Sciences areas on January 25, 2016. Its most relevant characteristics are: modular organization, four knowledge areas (biomedical, methodological, socio-psychological, and humanistic and medical practice), and new modules such as Seminar of socio-psycho-biological integration; Genetics and molecular biology; Biochemistry and cellular biology; Pharmacological basis of therapeutics; Infectious diseases, microbiology and parasitology; Medical ethics; Public health; and Evidence-based medicine - clinical epidemiology...
May 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740247/inactivation-mechanism-of-escherichia-coli-induced-by-slightly-acidic-electrolyzed-water
#8
Zhangying Ye, Shuo Wang, Tao Chen, Weishan Gao, Songming Zhu, Jinsong He, Zhiying Han
Foodborne disease outbreak caused by food microbiological contamination is a serious public health problem. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), a new ultra-high effect and wide-spectrum disinfectant that is colourless, odourless, and harmless to humans and the environment, is directly used on food surfaces in Japan and America. However, the underlying inactivation mechanism remains unknown. In this study, biochemical and cellular changes were observed to investigate the bactericidal mechanism of SAEW against Escherichia coli (E...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726375/nanoscale-hydrodynamic-film-for-diffusive-mass-transport-control-in-compartmentalized-microfluidic-chambers
#9
Minseok Kim, Ji Won Lim, Sung Kuk Lee, Taesung Kim
A compartmentalized microfluidic chamber array that offers not only separate cell culture environments but also independent control of the diffusion of small molecules provides an extremely useful platform for cell cultivations and versatile cellular assays. However, it is challenging to incorporate both cell compartmentalization and active diffusion control in real-time and precise manners. Here, we present a novel nanoscale hydrodynamic film (NHF) that is formed between a solid substrate and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface...
August 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719265/differences-in-inflammation-patterns-induced-by-african-and-asian-burkholderia-pseudomallei-isolates-in-mice
#10
Tassili A F Weehuizen, Emma Birnie, Bart Ferwerda, Joris J T H Roelofs, Alex F de Vos, Martin P Grobusch, W Joost Wiersinga
AbstractBurkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an emerging tropical disease of high mortality. Sub-Saharan Africa represents potential melioidosis "hotspots"; however, to date, only a few cases have been reported. Here in, we compared the inflammatory patterns induced by a B. pseudomallei strain recently isolated from a fatal Gabonese case with the Thai reference strain B. pseudomallei-1026b and Burkholderia thailandensis-E264. Ex vivo, no differences were observed in terms of cellular responsiveness between strains...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701329/multisubunit-dna-dependent-rna-polymerases-from-vaccinia-virus-and-other-nucleocytoplasmic-large-dna-viruses-impressions-from-the-age-of-structure
#11
REVIEW
Yeva Mirzakhanyan, Paul D Gershon
The past 17 years have been marked by a revolution in our understanding of cellular multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (MSDDRPs) at the structural level. A parallel development over the past 15 years has been the emerging story of the giant viruses, which encode MSDDRPs. Here we link the two in an attempt to understand the specialization of multisubunit RNA polymerases in the domain of life encompassing the large nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses (NCLDV), a superclade that includes the giant viruses and the biochemically well-characterized poxvirus vaccinia virus...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701082/bovine-mastitis-prevention-humoral-and-cellular-response-of-dairy-cows-inoculated-with-lactic-acid-bacteria-at-the-dry-off-period
#12
M Pellegrino, N Berardo, J Giraudo, M E F Nader-Macías, C Bogni
The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in animal feed, constitute an alternative tool for bovine mastitis prevention. Previously, two LAB strains were isolated from bovine milk and selected for their probiotics properties. So far, immune response of inoculating LAB in bovine udders at dry-off period has not been investigated. The immunoglobulin isotype levels and memory cell proliferation in blood and milk of animals inoculated with Lactobacillus lactis subsp. lactis CRL1655 and Lactobacillus perolens CRL1724 at dry-off period was studied...
August 24, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701066/the-cell-wall-of-the-human-fungal-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus-biosynthesis-organization-immune-response-and-virulence
#13
Jean-Paul Latgé, Anne Beauvais, Georgios Chamilos
More than 90% of the cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus comprises polysaccharides. Biosynthesis of the cell wall polysaccharides is under the control of three types of enzymes: transmembrane synthases, which are anchored to the plasma membrane and use nucleotide sugars as substrates, and cell wall-associated transglycosidases and glycosyl hydrolases, which are responsible for remodeling the de novo synthesized polysaccharides and establishing the three-dimensional structure of the cell wall...
July 12, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697669/rewriting-the-genetic-code
#14
Takahito Mukai, Marc J Lajoie, Markus Englert, Dieter Söll
The genetic code-the language used by cells to translate their genomes into proteins that perform many cellular functions-is highly conserved throughout natural life. Rewriting the genetic code could lead to new biological functions such as expanding protein chemistries with noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) and genetically isolating synthetic organisms from natural organisms and viruses. It has long been possible to transiently produce proteins bearing ncAAs, but stabilizing an expanded genetic code for sustained function in vivo requires an integrated approach: creating recoded genomes and introducing new translation machinery that function together without compromising viability or clashing with endogenous pathways...
July 11, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666419/effectiveness-of-atp-bioluminescence-assay-for-presumptive-identification-of-microorganisms-in-hospital-water-sources
#15
Máira Gazzola Arroyo, Adriano Menis Ferreira, Oleci Pereira Frota, Marcelo Alessandro Rigotti, Denise de Andrade, Natalia Seron Brizzotti, Jacqueline Tanury Macruz Peresi, Elza Maria Castilho, Margarete Teresa Gottardo de Almeida
BACKGROUND: Laboratory analysis of organisms in water include arduous methods, such as the multiple tube and membrane filter. The ATP bioluminescence system, proposes a new way of measuring cellular material in water by measuring adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, which are expressed in relative light units (RLU). The ATP bioluminescence assay has been increasingly used to assess the microbiological safety of the hospital environment. However, there are few studies investigating the use of this methodology to evaluate the microbiological quality of water...
June 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665040/multifunctional-enzymes-from-reduced-genomes-model-proteins-for-simple-primordial-metabolism
#16
Burckhard Seelig
Billions of years of evolution have yielded today's complex metabolic networks driven by efficient and highly specialized enzymes. In contrast, the metabolism of the earliest cellular life forms was likely much simpler with only a few enzymes of comparatively low activity. It has been speculated that these early enzymes had low specificities and in turn were able to perform multiple functions. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Ferla et al. describe examples of enzymes that catalyze chemically distinct reactions while using the same active site...
August 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663745/viromes-as-genetic-reservoir-for-the-microbial-communities-in-aquatic-environments-a-focus-on-antimicrobial-resistance-genes
#17
Stefano Colombo, Stefania Arioli, Eros Neri, Giulia Della Scala, Giorgio Gargari, Diego Mora
Despite studies of viromes isolated from aquatic environments are becoming increasingly frequent, most of them are limited to the characterization of viral taxonomy. Bacterial reads in viromes are abundant but the extent to which this genetic material is playing a role in the ecology of aquatic microbiology remains unclear. To this aim, we developed of a useful approach for the characterization of viral and microbial communities of aquatic environments with a particular focus on the identification of microbial genes harbored in the viromes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657883/clostridium-difficile-toxin-biology
#18
Klaus Aktories, Carsten Schwan, Thomas Jank
Clostridium difficile is the cause of antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The pathogen produces three protein toxins: C. difficile toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), and C. difficile transferase toxin (CDT). The single-chain toxins TcdA and TcdB are the main virulence factors. They bind to cell membrane receptors and are internalized. The Nterminal glucosyltransferase and autoprotease domains of the toxins translocate from low-pH endosomes into the cytosol. After activation by inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6), the autoprotease cleaves and releases the glucosyltransferase domain into the cytosol, where GTP-binding proteins of the Rho/Ras family are mono-O-glucosylated and, thereby, inactivated...
June 28, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657470/point-of-care-adipose-derived-stromal-vascular-fraction-cell-isolation-and-expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-graft-sodding
#19
Stuart K Williams, Marvin E Morris, Paul E Kosnik, Kevin D Lye, Gary D Gentzkow, Charles B Ross, Amit J Dwevidi, Leigh B Kleinert
Adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell populations are being evaluated for numerous clinical applications. The current study evaluated a point-of-care technology, the Tissue Genesis "TGI 1000" Cell Isolation System™, to perform an automated isolation of adipose-derived SVF cells to be used in the fabrication of a tissue-engineered vascular graft in the operating room. A total of seven patients were enrolled in this study and received femoral to tibial expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafts to treat peripheral arterial disease...
August 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654596/a-microbiological-and-ultrastructural-comparison-of-aseptic-versus-sterile-acellular-dermal-matrix-as-a-reconstructive-material-and-a-scaffold-for-stem-cell-ingrowth
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shaun D Mendenhall, Ryan W Schmucker, Timothy H F Daugherty, Katherine M Kottwitz, Joel D Reichensperger, Janak Koirala, Paul S Cederna, Michael W Neumeister
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest an increased risk for infection when acellular dermal matrix is used in breast reconstruction. This may be because some acellular dermal matrices are actually not terminally sterilized but are instead "aseptically processed." This study evaluates aseptic and sterile matrices for evidence of bacterial contamination and whether or not terminal sterilization affects matrix collagen architecture and stem cell ingrowth. METHODS: Five separate samples of 14 different matrices were analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization using a bacterial DNA probe to detect bacterial DNA on the matrices...
July 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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