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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102241/microbiology-mind-the-gaps-in-cellular-evolution
#1
James O McInerney, Mary J O'Connell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050814/what-orthopaedic-operating-room-surfaces-are-contaminated-with-bioburden-a-study-using-the-atp-bioluminescence-assay
#2
Raveesh Daniel Richard, Thomas R Bowen
BACKGROUND: Contaminated operating room surfaces can increase the risk of orthopaedic infections, particularly after procedures in which hardware implantation and instrumentation are used. The question arises as to how surgeons can measure surface cleanliness to detect increased levels of bioburden. This study aims to highlight the utility of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence technology as a novel technique in detecting the degree of contamination within the sterile operating room environment...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006108/preliminary-assessment-of-safety-pharmacokinetics-and-dose-finding-for-digitoxin-for-airway-inflammation-in-cystic-fibrosis
#3
Pamela L Zeitlin, Marie Diener-West, Karen A Callahan, Seakwoo Lee, C Conover Talbot, Bette Pollard, Michael P Boyle, Noah Lechtzin
RATIONALE: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease progresses by a combination of airways inflammation, bacterial colonization, and infection. Airways inflammation is predominantly neutrophilic and complicates airway clearance therapies through cellular debris, excessive DNA, excessive and viscous mucous, and high concentrations of neutrophils, Il-8 and related cytokines liberated along the NFkB signaling pathway. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a single site, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, preliminary study in which we evaluated the effects of 28 days of two dose levels (0...
December 22, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986597/literature-mining-supports-a-next-generation-modeling-approach-to-predict-cellular-byproduct-secretion
#4
Zachary A King, Edward J O'Brien, Adam M Feist, Bernhard O Palsson
The metabolic byproducts secreted by growing cells can be easily measured and provide a window into the state of a cell; they have been essential to the development of microbiology, cancer biology, and biotechnology. Progress in computational modeling of cells has made it possible to predict metabolic byproduct secretion with bottom-up reconstructions of metabolic networks. However, owing to a lack of data, it has not been possible to validate these predictions across a wide range of strains and conditions...
January 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966037/microbiology-meets-archaeology-soil-microbial-communities-reveal-different-human-activities-at-archaic-monte-iato-sixth-century-bc
#5
Rosa Margesin, José A Siles, Tomas Cajthaml, Birgit Öhlinger, Erich Kistler
Microbial ecology has been recognized as useful in archaeological studies. At Archaic Monte Iato in Western Sicily, a native (indigenous) building was discovered. The objective of this study was the first examination of soil microbial communities related to this building. Soil samples were collected from archaeological layers at a ritual deposit (food waste disposal) in the main room and above the fireplace in the annex. Microbial soil characterization included abundance (cellular phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), viable bacterial counts), activity (physiological profiles, enzyme activities of viable bacteria), diversity, and community structure (bacterial and fungal Illumina amplicon sequencing, identification of viable bacteria)...
December 13, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935825/microglia-activation-in-a-pediatric-rabbit-model-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#6
Elizabeth W Tucker, Supriya Pokkali, Zhi Zhang, Vincent P DeMarco, Mariah Klunk, Elizabeth S Smith, Alvaro A Ordonez, Marie-France Penet, Zaver Bhujwalla, Sanjay K Jain, Sujatha Kannan
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes...
December 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837352/crossing-boundaries-the-importance-of-cellular-membranes-in-industrial-biotechnology
#7
REVIEW
Sylwia Jezierska, Inge N A Van Bogaert
How small molecules cross cellular membranes is an often overlooked issue in an industrial microbiology and biotechnology context. This is to a large extent governed by the technical difficulties to study these transport systems or by the lack of knowledge on suitable efflux pumps. This review emphasizes the importance of microbial cellular membranes in industrial biotechnology by highlighting successful strategies of membrane engineering towards more resistant and hence better performing microorganisms, as well as transporter and other engineering strategies for increased efflux of primary and secondary metabolites...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832091/impedance-flow-cytometry-a-novel-technique-in-pollen-analysis
#8
Iris Heidmann, Grit Schade-Kampmann, Joep Lambalk, Marcel Ottiger, Marco Di Berardino
INTRODUCTION: An efficient and reliable method to estimate plant cell viability, especially of pollen, is important for plant breeding research and plant production processes. Pollen quality is determined by classical methods, like staining techniques or in vitro pollen germination, each having disadvantages with respect to reliability, analysis speed, and species dependency. Analysing single cells based on their dielectric properties by impedance flow cytometry (IFC) has developed into a common method for cellular characterisation in microbiology and medicine during the last decade...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796326/shedding-light-on-cell-compartmentation-in-the-candidate-phylum-poribacteria-by-high-resolution-visualisation-and-transcriptional-profiling
#9
Martin T Jahn, Sebastian M Markert, Taewoo Ryu, Timothy Ravasi, Christian Stigloher, Ute Hentschel, Lucas Moitinho-Silva
Assigning functions to uncultivated environmental microorganisms continues to be a challenging endeavour. Here, we present a new microscopy protocol for fluorescence in situ hybridisation-correlative light and electron microscopy (FISH-CLEM) that enabled, to our knowledge for the first time, the identification of single cells within their complex microenvironment at electron microscopy resolution. Members of the candidate phylum Poribacteria, common and uncultivated symbionts of marine sponges, were used towards this goal...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782138/optical-and-force-nanoscopy-in-microbiology
#10
REVIEW
Jie Xiao, Yves F Dufrêne
Microbial cells have developed sophisticated multicomponent structures and machineries to govern basic cellular processes, such as chromosome segregation, gene expression, cell division, mechanosensing, cell adhesion and biofilm formation. Because of the small cell sizes, subcellular structures have long been difficult to visualize using diffraction-limited light microscopy. During the last three decades, optical and force nanoscopy techniques have been developed to probe intracellular and extracellular structures with unprecedented resolutions, enabling researchers to study their organization, dynamics and interactions in individual cells, at the single-molecule level, from the inside out, and all the way up to cell-cell interactions in microbial communities...
October 26, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769596/vaccine-development-from-concept-to-early-clinical-testing
#11
Anthony L Cunningham, Nathalie Garçon, Oberdan Leo, Leonard R Friedland, Richard Strugnell, Béatrice Laupèze, Mark Doherty, Peter Stern
In the 21st century, an array of microbiological and molecular allow antigens for new vaccines to be specifically identified, designed, produced and delivered with the aim of optimising the induction of a protective immune response against a well-defined immunogen. New knowledge about the functioning of the immune system and host pathogen interactions has stimulated the rational design of vaccines. The design toolbox includes vaccines made from whole pathogens, protein subunits, polysaccharides, pathogen-like particles, use of viral/bacterial vectors, plus adjuvants and conjugation technology to increase and broaden the immune response...
December 20, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748368/cellular-microbiology-tagging-proteins-for-the-clp-protease
#12
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726817/skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#13
Anne Spichler Moffarah, Mayar Al Mohajer, Bonnie L Hurwitz, David G Armstrong
The skin is colonized by a diverse collection of microorganisms which, for the most part, peacefully coexist with their hosts. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) encompass a variety of conditions; in immunocompromised hosts, SSTIs can be caused by diverse microorganisms-most commonly bacteria, but also fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and protozoa. The diagnosis of SSTIs is difficult because they may commonly masquerade as other clinical syndromes or can be a manifestation of systemic disease. In immunocompromised hosts, SSTI poses a major diagnostic challenge, and clinical dermatological assessment should be initially performed; to better identify the pathogen and to lead to appropriate treatment, etiology should include cultures of lesions and blood, biopsy with histology, specific microbiological analysis with special stains, molecular techniques, and antigen-detection methodologies...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672151/from-homeostasis-to-pathology-decrypting-microbe-host-symbiotic-signals-in-the-intestinal-crypt
#14
REVIEW
Thierry Pédron, Giulia Nigro, Philippe J Sansonetti
Metagenomic analysis of the human intestinal microbiome has provided a wealth of information that allowed an exceptionally detailed description of its microbial content and physiological potential. It also set the basis for studies allowing correlation of alterations in the balance of this microbiota and the occurrence of a certain number of emerging diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, obesity and diabetes, and possibly colorectal cancer. The time has come to give the intestinal microbiota in symbiosis with its host an experimental dimension...
November 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666511/clinical-cytological-and-microbiological-evaluation-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-in-children-a-referral-hospital-based-study
#15
Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi, Amir Hossein Jafari, Abbas Bahador, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Reihaneh Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse lung diseases (DLD) in children involve a group of heterogeneous, rare disorders. In spite of the low diagnostic yield in pediatric DLD, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can be used to diagnose specific disorders. There are few studies about microbial and cellular profiles of BAL samples in these patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical, cytological and microbiological evaluation of BAL in children with DLD. METHODS: The clinical, cytological and microbiological profiles of BAL samples of all patients with DLD who underwent the fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) at Children's Medical Center, an Iranian referral pediatrics Hospital during a year were evaluated...
November 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664678/natural-variation-in-folate-levels-among-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-accessions
#16
Pallawi Upadhyaya, Kamal Tyagi, Supriya Sarma, Vajir Tamboli, Yellamaraju Sreelakshmi, Rameshwar Sharma
Folate content was estimated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions using microbiological assay (MA) and by LC-MS. The MA revealed that in red-ripe fruits folate levels ranged from 4 to 60μg/100g fresh weight. The LC-MS estimation of red-ripe fruits detected three folate forms, 5-CH3-THF, 5-CHO-THF, 5,10-CH(+)THF and folate levels ranged from 14 to 46μg/100g fresh weight. In mature green and red ripe fruit, 5-CH3-THF was the most abundant folate form. Comparison of LC-MS with MA revealed that MA inaccurately estimates folate levels...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638202/leveraging-premalignant-biology-for-immune-based-cancer-prevention
#17
Avrum Spira, Mary L Disis, John T Schiller, Eduardo Vilar, Timothy R Rebbeck, Rafael Bejar, Trey Ideker, Janine Arts, Matthew B Yurgelun, Jill P Mesirov, Anjana Rao, Judy Garber, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Scott M Lippman
Prevention is an essential component of cancer eradication. Next-generation sequencing of cancer genomes and epigenomes has defined large numbers of driver mutations and molecular subgroups, leading to therapeutic advances. By comparison, there is a relative paucity of such knowledge in premalignant neoplasia, which inherently limits the potential to develop precision prevention strategies. Studies on the interplay between germ-line and somatic events have elucidated genetic processes underlying premalignant progression and preventive targets...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635191/mbt-tool-an-open-access-tool-based-on-thermodynamic-electron-equivalents-model-to-obtain-microbial-metabolic-reactions-to-be-used-in-biotechnological-process
#18
Pablo Granda Araujo, Anna Gras, Marta Ginovart
Modelling cellular metabolism is a strategic factor in investigating microbial behaviour and interactions, especially for bio-technological processes. A key factor for modelling microbial activity is the calculation of nutrient amounts and products generated as a result of the microbial metabolism. Representing metabolic pathways through balanced reactions is a complex and time-consuming task for biologists, ecologists, modellers and engineers. A new computational tool to represent microbial pathways through microbial metabolic reactions (MMRs) using the approach of the Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model has been designed and implemented in the open-access framework NetLogo...
2016: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632669/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-human-and-murine-sepsis
#19
Dhruv Parekh, Jaimin M Patel, Aaron Scott, Sian Lax, Rachel C A Dancer, Vijay D'Souza, Hannah Greenwood, William D Fraser, Fang Gao, Elizabeth Sapey, Gavin D Perkins, David R Thickett
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in sepsis and ICU mortality but causality of these associations has not been demonstrated. To determine whether sepsis and severe sepsis are associated with vitamin D deficiency and to determine whether vitamin D deficiency influences the severity of sepsis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Sixty-one patients with sepsis and severe sepsis from two large U.K. hospitals and 20 healthy controls were recruited...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628134/intestinal-organoids-as-a-novel-tool-to-study-microbes-epithelium-interactions
#20
Giulia Nigro, Melissa Hanson, Cindy Fevre, Marc Lecuit, Philippe J Sansonetti
The gut, particularly the colon, is the host of approximately 1000 bacterial species, the so-called gut microbiota. The relationship between the gut microbiota and the host is symbiotic and mutualistic, influencing many aspects of the biology of the host. This homeostatic balance can be disrupted by enteric pathogens, such as Shigella flexneri or Listeria monocytogenes, which are able to invade the epithelial layer and consequently subvert physiological functions. To study the host-microbe interactions in vitro, the crypt culture model, known as intestinal organoids, is a powerful tool...
September 15, 2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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