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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332940/cellular-microbiology-many-pathogens-one-host-receptor
#1
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329577/respiratory-explants-as-a-model-to-investigate-early-events-of-contagious-bovine-pleuropneumonia-infection
#2
Giovanni Di Teodoro, Giuseppe Marruchella, Andrea Di Provvido, Gianluca Orsini, Gaetano Federico Ronchi, Anna Rita D'Angelo, Nicola D'Alterio, Flavio Sacchini, Massimo Scacchia
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). Knowledge on CBPP pathogenesis is fragmented and hampered by the limited availability of laboratory animal and in vitro models of investigation. The purpose of the present study is to assess respiratory explants as useful tools to study the early stages of CBPP. Explants were obtained from trachea, bronchi and lungs of slaughtered cattle, tested negative for Mycoplasma spp. and for the major bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens...
January 12, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243909/optimization-of-coad-inhibitors-against-gram-negative-organisms-through-targeted-metabolomics
#3
Christopher M Rath, Bret M Benton, Javier de Vicente, Joseph E Drumm, Mei Geng, Cindy Li, Robert J Moreau, Xiaoyu Shen, Colin K Skepper, Micah Steffek, Kenneth Takeoka, Lisha Wang, Jun-Rong Wei, Wenjian Xu, Qiong Zhang, Brian Y Feng
Drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are of increasing concern worldwide. Novel antibiotics are needed, but their development is complicated by the requirement to simultaneously optimize molecules for target affinity and cellular potency, which can result in divergent structure-activity relationships (SARs). These challenges were exemplified during our attempts to optimize inhibitors of the bacterial enzyme CoaD originally identified through a biochemical screen. To facilitate lead optimization, we developed mass spectroscopy assays based on the hypothesis that levels of CoA metabolites would reflect the cellular enzymatic activity of CoaD...
December 22, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220116/advances-in-microfluidics-applied-to-single-cell-operation
#4
REVIEW
Xudong Zhu, Ju Chu, Yonghong Wang
The field of microbiology has traditionally been concerned with and focused on studies at the population level. Microfluidic platforms have emerged as important tools for biology research at a small scale, even down to a single cell level. The spatial and temporal control of cells and stimuli transported by microfluidic channels in well-designed microsystems realized the studies of specific cells in a controlled microenvironment. The true cellular physiology responses, which were obtained mostly by inference from population-level data, could be revealed in this way...
December 8, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202802/histopathology-microbiology-and-the-inflammatory-process-associated-with-sarcoptes-scabiei-infection-in-the-iberian-ibex-capra-pyrenaica
#5
José Espinosa, Arián Ráez-Bravo, Jorge R López-Olvera, Jesús M Pérez, Santiago Lavín, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Francisco J Cano-Manuel, Paulino Fandos, Ramón C Soriguer, José Enrique Granados, Diego Romero, Roser Velarde
BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange has been identified as the most significant infectious disease affecting the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Despite several studies on the effects of mange on ibex, the pathological and clinical picture derived from sarcoptic mange infestation is still poorly understood. To further knowledge of sarcoptic mange pathology, samples from ibex were evaluated from histological, microbiological and serological perspectives. METHODS: Samples of skin, non-dermal tissues and blood were collected from 54 ibex (25 experimentally infected, 15 naturally infected and 14 healthy)...
December 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199801/relevance-in-biology-and-mechanisms-of-immune-and-treatment-evasion-of-treponema-pallidum-a-review
#6
Francesco Drago, Sanja Javor, Aurora Parodi
INTRODUCTION: During syphilis a compelling fight is engaged between the host's humoral and cellular immune responses that work to eliminate the infection and Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) that manages to evade eradication and cause chronic infection. Different mechanisms are utilized by treponemes to overcome immunological response. Although penicillin (BPG) proved to be effective in quelling the early manifestations of the disease and consequently its contagiousness, questions remain about its ability to prevent the late complications and to provide a microbiological eradication in vivo...
December 1, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197848/challenging-and-uncommon-diagnosis-of-long-evolution-ascites
#7
Marta Gravito-Soares, Elisa Gravito-Soares, João Almeida, João Fraga, Luis Tomé
This is a case report of a 45-year-old Caucasian man with chronic alcoholism. No history of liver disease or asbestos exposure. He complained of ascites during the last 3 years with worsening in the last year with severe ascites development. Diagnostic paracentesis showed SAAG 1.1 and high cellularity with neutrophil count >250 cells/µL. Ascitic fluid cytology revealed reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Thoracoabdominopelvic ultrasonography/CT/MRI and fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT showed 'omental cake' pattern suggesting peritoneal carcinomatosis...
December 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188104/open-source-do-it-yourself-multi-color-fluorescence-smartphone-microscopy
#8
Yulung Sung, Fernando Campa, Wei-Chuan Shih
Fluorescence microscopy is an important technique for cellular and microbiological investigations. Translating this technique onto a smartphone can enable particularly powerful applications such as on-site analysis, on-demand monitoring, and point-of-care diagnostics. Current fluorescence smartphone microscope setups require precise illumination and imaging alignment which altogether limit its broad adoption. We report a multi-color fluorescence smartphone microscope with a single contact lens-like add-on lens and slide-launched total-internal-reflection guided illumination for three common tasks in investigative fluorescence microscopy: autofluorescence, fluorescent stains, and immunofluorescence...
November 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173800/zebrafish-infection-from-pathogenesis-to-cell-biology
#9
REVIEW
Vincenzo Torraca, Serge Mostowy
The study of host-pathogen interactions has illuminated fundamental research avenues in both infection and cell biology. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae are genetically tractable, optically accessible, and present a fully functional innate immune system with macrophages and neutrophils that mimic their mammalian counterparts. A wide variety of pathogenic bacteria have been investigated using zebrafish models, providing unprecedented resolution of the cellular response to infection in vivo. In this review, we illustrate how zebrafish models have contributed to our understanding of cellular microbiology by providing an in vivo platform to study host-pathogen interactions from the single cell to whole animal level...
November 21, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162707/cd4-t-cells-orchestrate-lethal-immune-pathology-despite-fungal-clearance-during-cryptococcus-neoformans-meningoencephalitis
#10
Lori M Neal, Enze Xing, Jintao Xu, Jessica L Kolbe, John J Osterholzer, Benjamin M Segal, Peter R Williamson, Michal A Olszewski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a major fungal pathogen that disseminates to the central nervous system (CNS) to cause fatal meningoencephalitis, but little is known about immune responses within this immune-privileged site. CD4(+) T cells have demonstrated roles in anticryptococcal defenses, but increasing evidence suggests that they may contribute to clinical deterioration and pathology in both HIV-positive (HIV+) and non-HIV patients who develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and post-infectious inflammatory response syndrome (PIIRS), respectively...
November 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118168/use-of-accelerate-pheno%C3%A2-system-for-identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-id-ast-of-pathogens-in-positive-blood-cultures-and-impact-on-time-to-results-and-workflow
#11
Angella Charnot-Katsikas, Vera Tesic, Nedra Love, Brandy Hill, Cindy Bethel, Sue Boonlayangoor, Kathleen G Beavis
The Accelerate Pheno™ system uses automated fluorescence in situ hybridization technology with morphokinetic cellular analysis to provide rapid species identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) results for the most commonly identified organisms in bloodstream infections.Objective was to evaluate the accuracy and workflow of bacterial and yeast ID, and bacterial AST using the Accelerate Pheno™ system in the clinical microbiology laboratory.Consecutive fresh blood cultures received in the laboratory were analyzed by the Accelerate Pheno™ system within 0 - 8 h of growth detection...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101199/antifungal-hsaf-biosynthesis-in-lysobacter-enzymogenes-is-controlled-by-the-interplay-of-two-transcription-factors-and-a-diffusible-molecule
#12
Zhenhe Su, Sen Han, Zhengqing Fu, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu
Lysobacter enzymogenes is a Gram-negative, environmental ubiquitous bacterium that produces a secondary metabolite, called HSAF (Heat-stable antifungal factor), as an antifungal factor against plant and animal fungal pathogens. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) is a newly identified diffusible factor that regulates HSAF synthesis via LysRLe, a LysR-type transcription factor (TF). Here, to identify additional TFs within the 4-HBA regulatory pathway that control HSAF production, we re-analyzed the LenB2-based transcriptomic data, in which LenB2 is the enzyme responsible for 4-HBA production...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074195/presence-of-enteric-viruses-bioaccumulation-and-stability-in-anomalocardia-brasiliana-clams-gmelin-1791
#13
Doris Sobral Marques Souza, Ana Ferreira Ávila Dominot, Vanessa Moresco, Célia Regina Monte Barardi
Bivalve mollusks are filter feeders and may accumulate human pathogens in their tissues. Many studies demonstrated human diseases associated with bivalve consumption, especially oysters. Anomalocardia brasiliana clams are distributed along the Brazilian coastal area and are an exotic ingredient for some typical dishes in Brazil. Even though there are several reports describing the contamination of oysters and mussels with human pathogens, there is a lack of studies reporting contamination of A. brasiliana with human pathogens...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053343/efficiency-of-opuntia-ficus-in-the-phytoremediation-of-a-soil-contaminated-with-used-motor-oil-and-lead-compared-to-that-of-lolium-perenne-and-aloe-barbadendis
#14
Luisa F Escobar-Alvarado, Mabel Vaca-Mier, Raymundo López-Callejas, Ma Neftalí Rojas-Valencia
Industrial pollutants such as heavy metals and hydrocarbons in soils represent a serious concern due to their persistence and negative effects on the environment, affecting cellular processes in living organisms and even causing mutations and cancer. The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the efficiency of Opuntia ficus in the phytoremediation of a soil polluted with used motor oil. Two other species, one with different and one with similar characteristics, relatively, were used for comparison purposes: Lolium perenne and Aloe barbadensis...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043909/british-journal-of-biomedical-science-in-2017-what-have-we-learned
#15
Andrew Blann
In 2017 the British Journal of Biomedical Science published 35 articles in the various disciplines that comprise biomedical science. These were 6 reviews, 22 original articles, 6 'In Brief' short reports and one guideline. Of these, the majority were in clinical chemistry (one review, six data papers), microbiology (one review, four data papers), cellular pathology (four data papers) and virology (one review, two data papers). There were two data papers in transfusion science, whilst haematology, cytopathology and immunology were each represented by one review and one data paper...
October 18, 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032838/next-generation-of-microbiological-risk-assessment-potential-of-omics-data-for-exposure-assessment
#16
Heidy M W den Besten, Alejandro Amézquita, Sara Bover-Cid, Stéphane Dagnas, Mariem Ellouze, Sandrine Guillou, George Nychas, Cian O'Mahony, Fernando Pérez-Rodriguez, Jeanne-Marie Membré
In food safety and public health risk evaluations, microbiological exposure assessment plays a central role as it provides an estimation of both the likelihood and the level of the microbial hazard in a specified consumer portion of food and takes microbial behaviour into account. While until now mostly phenotypic data have been used in exposure assessment, mechanistic cellular information, obtained using omics techniques, will enable the fine tuning of exposure assessments to move towards the next generation of microbiological risk assessment...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029257/beyond-the-bulk-disclosing-the-life-of-single-microbial-cells
#17
Katrin Rosenthal, Verena Oehling, Christian Dusny, Andreas Schmid
Microbial single cell analysis has led to discoveries that are beyond what can be resolved with population-based studies. It provides a pristine view of the mechanisms that organize cellular physiology, unbiased by population heterogeneity or uncontrollable environmental impacts. A holistic description of cellular functions at the single cell level requires analytical concepts beyond the miniaturization of existing technologies, defined but uncontrolled by the biological system itself. This review provides an overview of the latest advances in single cell technologies and demonstrates their potential...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027017/palladium-bionanoparticles-production-from-acidic-pd-ii-solutions-and-spent-catalyst-leachate-using-acidophilic-fe-iii-reducing-bacteria
#18
Naoko Okibe, Daisuke Nakayama, Takahiro Matsumoto
The acidophilic, Fe(III)-reducing heterotrophic bacteria Acidocella aromatica PFBC(T) and Acidiphilium cryptum SJH were utilized to produce palladium (Pd) bionanoparticles via a simple 1-step microbiological reaction. Monosaccharide (or intracellular NADH)-dependent reactions lead to visualization of intra/extra-cellular enzymatic Pd(0) nucleation. Formic acid-dependent reactions proceeded via the first slow Pd(0) nucleation phase and the following autocatalytic Pd(II) reduction phase regardless of the presence or viability of the cells...
November 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994506/inflammatory-cells-in-liquid-based-cytology-smears-classified-as-bacterial-vaginosis
#19
José Eleutério, Renata Mírian Nunes Eleutério, Leonardo Arruda Martins, Paulo César Giraldo, Ana Katherine Silveira Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) remains an enigmatic question. The term "osis" instead of "itis" is used because commonly, there are no inflammatory process associated with BV. However, leukocytes are often observed in it. METHODS: In a transversal study, we evaluated 1178 cases with diagnosis of BV by liquid-based cytology (more than 20% of clue cells), attended in general gynecologic private clinic. Depending of the presence of more than five leukocytes on average per field in immersion objective (1000×), the cases were divided in two groups: few or no leukocytes (< 5 leukocytes per field) (BV) and with leukocytes (≥ 5 leukocytes per field) (BV-L)...
December 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959246/recent-perspectives-on-genome-transmission-clinical-manifestation-diagnosis-therapeutic-strategies-vaccine-developments-and-challenges-of-zika-virus-research
#20
REVIEW
Apoorva Shankar, Amulya A Patil, Sinosh Skariyachan
One of the potential threats to public health microbiology in 21st century is the increased mortality rate caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus. The severity of ZIKV infection urged World Health Organization (WHO) to declare this virus as a global concern. The limited knowledge on the structure, virulent factors, and replication mechanism of the virus posed as hindrance for vaccine development. Several vector and non-vector-borne mode of transmission are observed for spreading the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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