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cellular microbiology

Anthony L Cunningham, Nathalie Garçon, Oberdan Leo, Leonard R Friedland, Richard Strugnell, Béatrice Laupèze, Mark Doherty, Peter Stern
In the 21st century, an array of microbiological and molecular allow antigens for new vaccines to be specifically identified, designed, produced and delivered with the aim of optimising the induction of a protective immune response against a well-defined immunogen. New knowledge about the functioning of the immune system and host pathogen interactions has stimulated the rational design of vaccines. The design toolbox includes vaccines made from whole pathogens, protein subunits, polysaccharides, pathogen-like particles, use of viral/bacterial vectors, plus adjuvants and conjugation technology to increase and broaden the immune response...
October 18, 2016: Vaccine
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Anne Spichler Moffarah, Mayar Al Mohajer, Bonnie L Hurwitz, David G Armstrong
The skin is colonized by a diverse collection of microorganisms which, for the most part, peacefully coexist with their hosts. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) encompass a variety of conditions; in immunocompromised hosts, SSTIs can be caused by diverse microorganisms-most commonly bacteria, but also fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and protozoa. The diagnosis of SSTIs is difficult because they may commonly masquerade as other clinical syndromes or can be a manifestation of systemic disease. In immunocompromised hosts, SSTI poses a major diagnostic challenge, and clinical dermatological assessment should be initially performed; to better identify the pathogen and to lead to appropriate treatment, etiology should include cultures of lesions and blood, biopsy with histology, specific microbiological analysis with special stains, molecular techniques, and antigen-detection methodologies...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Thierry Pédron, Giulia Nigro, Philippe J Sansonetti
Metagenomic analysis of the human intestinal microbiome has provided a wealth of information that allowed an exceptionally detailed description of its microbial content and physiological potential. It also set the basis for studies allowing correlation of alterations in the balance of this microbiota and the occurrence of a certain number of emerging diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, obesity and diabetes, and possibly colorectal cancer. The time has come to give the intestinal microbiota in symbiosis with its host an experimental dimension...
November 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi, Amir Hossein Jafari, Abbas Bahador, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Reihaneh Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse lung diseases (DLD) in children involve a group of heterogeneous, rare disorders. In spite of the low diagnostic yield in pediatric DLD, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can be used to diagnose specific disorders. There are few studies about microbial and cellular profiles of BAL samples in these patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical, cytological and microbiological evaluation of BAL in children with DLD. METHODS: The clinical, cytological and microbiological profiles of BAL samples of all patients with DLD who underwent the fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) at Children's Medical Center, an Iranian referral pediatrics Hospital during a year were evaluated...
September 22, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Pallawi Upadhyaya, Kamal Tyagi, Supriya Sarma, Vajir Tamboli, Yellamaraju Sreelakshmi, Rameshwar Sharma
Folate content was estimated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions using microbiological assay (MA) and by LC-MS. The MA revealed that in red-ripe fruits folate levels ranged from 4 to 60μg/100g fresh weight. The LC-MS estimation of red-ripe fruits detected three folate forms, 5-CH3-THF, 5-CHO-THF, 5,10-CH(+)THF and folate levels ranged from 14 to 46μg/100g fresh weight. In mature green and red ripe fruit, 5-CH3-THF was the most abundant folate form. Comparison of LC-MS with MA revealed that MA inaccurately estimates folate levels...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Avrum Spira, Mary L Disis, John T Schiller, Eduardo Vilar, Timothy R Rebbeck, Rafael Bejar, Trey Ideker, Janine Arts, Matthew B Yurgelun, Jill P Mesirov, Anjana Rao, Judy Garber, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Scott M Lippman
Prevention is an essential component of cancer eradication. Next-generation sequencing of cancer genomes and epigenomes has defined large numbers of driver mutations and molecular subgroups, leading to therapeutic advances. By comparison, there is a relative paucity of such knowledge in premalignant neoplasia, which inherently limits the potential to develop precision prevention strategies. Studies on the interplay between germ-line and somatic events have elucidated genetic processes underlying premalignant progression and preventive targets...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Pablo Granda Araujo, Anna Gras, Marta Ginovart
Modelling cellular metabolism is a strategic factor in investigating microbial behaviour and interactions, especially for bio-technological processes. A key factor for modelling microbial activity is the calculation of nutrient amounts and products generated as a result of the microbial metabolism. Representing metabolic pathways through balanced reactions is a complex and time-consuming task for biologists, ecologists, modellers and engineers. A new computational tool to represent microbial pathways through microbial metabolic reactions (MMRs) using the approach of the Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model has been designed and implemented in the open-access framework NetLogo...
2016: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Dhruv Parekh, Jaimin M Patel, Aaron Scott, Sian Lax, Rachel C A Dancer, Vijay D'Souza, Hannah Greenwood, William D Fraser, Fang Gao, Elizabeth Sapey, Gavin D Perkins, David R Thickett
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in sepsis and ICU mortality but causality of these associations has not been demonstrated. To determine whether sepsis and severe sepsis are associated with vitamin D deficiency and to determine whether vitamin D deficiency influences the severity of sepsis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Sixty-one patients with sepsis and severe sepsis from two large U.K. hospitals and 20 healthy controls were recruited...
September 14, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Giulia Nigro, Melissa Hanson, Cindy Fevre, Marc Lecuit, Philippe J Sansonetti
The gut, particularly the colon, is the host of approximately 1000 bacterial species, the so-called gut microbiota. The relationship between the gut microbiota and the host is symbiotic and mutualistic, influencing many aspects of the biology of the host. This homeostatic balance can be disrupted by enteric pathogens, such as Shigella flexneri or Listeria monocytogenes, which are able to invade the epithelial layer and consequently subvert physiological functions. To study the host-microbe interactions in vitro, the crypt culture model, known as intestinal organoids, is a powerful tool...
September 15, 2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anna Lucia Gallo, Federica Paladini, Alessandro Romano, Tiziano Verri, Angelo Quattrini, Alessandro Sannino, Mauro Pollini
The resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms towards conventional antibiotics has stimulated the interest in alternative antimicrobial agents and in novel approaches for prevention of infections. Silver, a natural braod-spectrum antimicrobial agent known since antiquity, has been widely employed in biomedical field due to its recognized antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. In this work, antibacterial silver coatings were deposited on absorbable surgical sutures through the in situ photo-chemical deposition of silver clusters...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
J H Tapia-Pérez, D Karagianis, R Zilke, V Koufuglou, I Bondar, T Schneider
OBJECTIVE: After spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) a local and systemic inflammatory response is activated. Interleukin-6 (IL) is one of most relevant orchestrators of inflammatory responses in the brain and is released from multiple immune cells, including neutrophils. Herby we assessed the relevance of systemic inflammation in patients suffering ICH. METHODS: From October 2010 to October 2011 we included in our routine of laboratory investigations besides to C-reactive protein (CRP), the addition of IL-6 and an analysis of the subpopulation of circulating blood cells...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Naomi Attar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Cristina Becerra-Castro, Gonçalo Macedo, Adrian M T Silva, Célia M Manaia, Olga C Nunes
Disinfection processes aim at reducing the number of viable cells through the generation of damages in different cellular structures and molecules. Since disinfection involves unspecific mechanisms, some microbial populations may be selected due to resilience to treatment and/or to high post-treatment fitness. In this study, the bacterial community composition of secondarily treated urban wastewater and of surface water collected in the intake area of a drinking water treatment plant was compared before and 3-days after disinfection with ultraviolet radiation, ozonation or photocatalytic ozonation...
August 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Philipp Warnke, Friederike Pola Johanna Pohl, Guenther Kundt, Andreas Podbielski
Screening recommendations for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria comprise microbiological analyses from rectal swabs. However, essential specifications of the preanalytic steps of such screenings, i.e. the sampling technique, sampling devices and sampling site, are lacking. For standardized and optimum screening conditions these parameters are indispensable. Here, the optimum parameters were examined irrespective of the antibiotic resistance patterns of the target bacteria in order to establish a general basis for this type of screening...
2016: Scientific Reports
Charles L Larson, Eric Martinez, Paul A Beare, Brendan Jeffrey, Robert A Heinzen, Matteo Bonazzi
Invasion of macrophages and replication within an acidic and degradative phagolysosome-like vacuole are essential for disease pathogenesis by Coxiella burnetii, the bacterial agent of human Q fever. Previous experimental constraints imposed by the obligate intracellular nature of Coxiella limited knowledge of pathogen strategies that promote infection. Fortunately, new genetic tools facilitated by axenic culture now allow allelic exchange and transposon mutagenesis approaches for virulence gene discovery. Phenotypic screens have illuminated the critical importance of Coxiella's type 4B secretion system in host cell subversion and discovered genes encoding translocated effector proteins that manipulate critical infection events...
July 2016: Future Microbiology
Daniel A Cuevas, Janaka Edirisinghe, Chris S Henry, Ross Overbeek, Taylor G O'Connell, Robert A Edwards
Microbiological studies are increasingly relying on in silico methods to perform exploration and rapid analysis of genomic data, and functional genomics studies are supplemented by the new perspectives that genome-scale metabolic models offer. A mathematical model consisting of a microbe's entire metabolic map can be rapidly determined from whole-genome sequencing and annotating the genomic material encoded in its DNA. Flux-balance analysis (FBA), a linear programming technique that uses metabolic models to predict the phenotypic responses imposed by environmental elements and factors, is the leading method to simulate and manipulate cellular growth in silico...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Koreaki Ito
For more than four decades now, I have been studying how genetic information is transformed into protein-based cellular functions. This has included investigations into the mechanisms supporting cellular localization of proteins, disulfide bond formation, quality control of membranes, and translation. I tried to extract new principles and concepts that are universal among living organisms from our observations of Escherichia coli. While I wanted to distill complex phenomena into basic principles, I also tried not to overlook any serendipitous observations...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
Wishwas Abhyankar, Sacha Stelder, Leo de Koning, Chris de Koster, Stanley Brul
Bacterial spores are ubiquitous in nature. They are stress resistant entities that are a concern to microbiological food stability due to their environmental stress resistance. In addition germinating and outgrowing spores at undesired times and places pose a significant health burden. The challenge is amplified due to the heterogeneous germination and outgrowth behaviour of isogenic spore populations. We discuss the role of different 'omics' techniques, proteomics in particular, to study spore biology in detail...
May 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Bruna Martins Dellagnezze, Suzan Pantaroto de Vasconcellos, Itamar Soares de Melo, Eugênio Vaz Dos Santos Neto, Valéria Maia de Oliveira
Unraveling the microbial diversity and its complexity in petroleum reservoir environments has been a challenge throughout the years. Despite the techniques developed in order to improve methodologies involving DNA extraction from crude oil, microbial enrichments using different culture conditions can be applied as a way to increase the recovery of DNA from environments with low cellular density for further microbiological analyses. This work aimed at the evaluation of different matrices (arenite, shale and polyurethane foam) as support materials for microbial growth and biofilm formation in enrichments using a biodegraded petroleum sample as inoculum in sulfate reducing condition...
July 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
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