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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377755/production-of-superoxide-in-bacteria-is-stress-and-cell-state-dependent-a-gating-optimized-flow-cytometry-method-that-minimizes-ros-measurement-artifacts-with-fluorescent-dyes
#1
Megan E McBee, Yok H Chionh, Mariam L Sharaf, Peiying Ho, Maggie W L Cai, Peter C Dedon
The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microbial metabolism and stress response has emerged as a major theme in microbiology and infectious disease. Reactive fluorescent dyes have the potential to advance the study of ROS in the complex intracellular environment, especially for high-content and high-throughput analyses. However, current dye-based approaches to measuring intracellular ROS have the potential for significant artifacts. Here, we describe a robust platform for flow cytometric quantification of ROS in bacteria using fluorescent dyes, with ROS measurements in 10s-of-1000s of individual cells under a variety of conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364238/inhibition-of-bacterial-growth-by-peptide-conjugated-morpholino-oligomers
#2
Seth M Daly, Carolyn R Sturge, David E Greenberg
Morpholino oligomers (MOs) are antisense molecules designed for sequence-specific binding of target mRNA. In bacteria, inhibition is hypothesized to occur by preventing translation initiation. Cell-penetrating peptides may be conjugated to the 5'- or 3'-termini of an MO to enhance cellular entry and therefore inhibition. Here we describe the three standard microbiological assays to assess in vitro antibacterial MO efficacy.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346364/new-benzimidazole-1-2-4-triazole-hybrid-compounds-synthesis-anticandidal-activity-and-cytotoxicity-evaluation
#3
Hülya Karaca Gençer, Ulviye Acar Çevik, Serkan Levent, Begüm Nurpelin Sağlık, Büşra Korkut, Yusuf Özkay, Sinem Ilgın, Yusuf Öztürk
Owing to the growing need for antifungal agents, we synthesized a new series 2-((5-(4-(5-substituted-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-4-substituted-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)thio)-1-(substitutedphenyl)ethan-1-one derivatives, which were tested against Candida species. The synthesized compounds were characterized and elucidated by FT-IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and HR-MS spectroscopies. The synthesized compounds were screened in vitro anticandidal activity against Candida species by broth microdiluation methods. In vitro cytotoxic effects of the final compounds were determined by MTT assay...
March 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319015/collection-storage-inspection-and-quality-control-of-platelet-concentrates-obtained-by-apheresis-the-situation-in-spain
#4
Azucena Castrillo, Teresa Jimenez-Marco, José L Arroyo, María L Jurado, Luis Larrea, Rosa M Maymo, Jorge Monge, Carmen Muñoz, Ángel Pajares, Marta Yáñez
BACKGROUND: Diverse variables are involved in apheresis platelet collection, processing and storage. This survey shows how these are realized in Spain. METHOD: An analysis of collected data was performed in a questionnaire completed by ten Transfusion Centers (TC) which perform between 50 and 520 apheresis procedures per month. This information comprises the procedures used to collect, inspect and store apheresis platelet concentrates (PC), and quality control data...
February 22, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318629/machine-learning-algorithms-define-pathogen-specific-local-immune-fingerprints-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-with-bacterial-infections
#5
Jingjing Zhang, Ida M Friberg, Ann Kift-Morgan, Gita Parekh, Matt P Morgan, Anna Rita Liuzzi, Chan-Yu Lin, Kieron L Donovan, Chantal S Colmont, Peter H Morgan, Paul Davis, Ian Weeks, Donald J Fraser, Nicholas Topley, Matthias Eberl
The immune system has evolved to sense invading pathogens, control infection, and restore tissue integrity. Despite symptomatic variability in patients, unequivocal evidence that an individual's immune system distinguishes between different organisms and mounts an appropriate response is lacking. We here used a systematic approach to characterize responses to microbiologically well-defined infection in a total of 83 peritoneal dialysis patients on the day of presentation with acute peritonitis. A broad range of cellular and soluble parameters was determined in peritoneal effluents, covering the majority of local immune cells, inflammatory and regulatory cytokines and chemokines as well as tissue damage-related factors...
March 16, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296035/sepsis-after-renal-transplantation-clinical-immunological-and-microbiological-risk-factors
#6
Thomas Schachtner, Maik Stein, Petra Reinke
BACKGROUND: As immunosuppressive therapy and allograft survival have improved, the increased incidence of sepsis has become a major hurdle of disease-free survival after renal transplantation. METHODS: We identified 112 of 957 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with sepsis. 31 KTRs developed severe sepsis or septic shock, and 30 KTRs died from sepsis. KTRs without sepsis were used for comparison. CMV-specific and alloreactive T-cells were measured using an interferon-γ Elispot-assay...
March 11, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248259/a-proteomic-perspective-on-the-bacterial-adaptation-to-cold-integrating-omics-data-of-the-psychrotrophic-bacterium-exiguobacterium-antarcticum-b7
#7
REVIEW
Rafael A Baraúna, Dhara Y Freitas, Juliana C Pinheiro, Adriana R C Folador, Artur Silva
Since the publication of one of the first studies using 2D gel electrophoresis by Patrick H. O'Farrell in 1975, several other studies have used that method to evaluate cellular responses to different physicochemical variations. In environmental microbiology, bacterial adaptation to cold environments is a "hot topic" because of its application in biotechnological processes. As in other fields, gel-based and gel-free proteomic methods have been used to determine the molecular mechanisms of adaptation to cold of several psychrotrophic and psychrophilic bacterial species...
February 23, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206852/british-journal-of-biomedical-science-in-2016-what-have-we-learned
#8
Andrew Blann
In 2016, the British Journal of Biomedical Science published 36 reports outlining specific advances in each of the various disciplines within biomedical science. These were one review, 25 original articles, 9 'In Brief' reports and one letter to the Editor. Of these, the majority were in blood science (5 in biochemistry, 7 in haematology and 2 in immunology) and infection science (8 in microbiology, 2 in virology) with a smaller number in cellular sciences (6 in cellular pathology and 2 in cytopathology). Three reports considered both biochemistry and immunology, while another reported an advance in the identification of chromosomal abnormalities...
January 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183165/evaluation-of-microbiological-cellular-and-risk-factors-associated-with-subclinical-mastitis-in-female-buffaloes
#9
Emmanuella Oliveira Moura, Adriano Henrique do Nascimento Rangel, Maria Celeste Nunes de Melo, Luiz Henrique Fernandes Borba, Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior, Luciano Patto Novaes, Stela Antas Urbano, Júlio César de Andrade Neto
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological and cellular milk profile for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in female buffaloes and to assess risk factors for predisposition of the disease. Methods: Analyses were carried out by standard plate count (SPC), identification of species and antibiotic resistance, somatic cell count (SCC), electrical conductivity of milk (ECM), and Lactoferrin content in milk (Lfe). Teat cups were swabbed to evaluate risk factors, observing hyperkeratosis, milking vacuum pressure and cleanliness of the site...
February 1, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130271/time-to-credit-gender-inequities-of-first-year-phd-students-in-the-biological-sciences
#10
David F Feldon, James Peugh, Michelle A Maher, Josipa Roksa, Colby Tofel-Grehl
Equitable gender representation is an important aspect of scientific workforce development to secure a sufficient number of individuals and a diversity of perspectives. Biology is the most gender equitable of all scientific fields by the marker of degree attainment, with 52.5% of PhDs awarded to women. However, equitable rates of degree completion do not translate into equitable attainment of faculty or postdoctoral positions, suggesting continued existence of gender inequalities. In a national cohort of 336 first-year PhD students in the biological sciences (i...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109329/what-makes-a-prion-infectious-proteins-from-animals-to-yeast
#11
K S MacLea
While philosophers in ancient times had many ideas for the cause of contagion, the modern study of infective agents began with Fracastoro's 1546 proposal that invisible "spores" spread infectious disease. However, firm categorization of the pathogens of the natural world would need to await a mature germ theory that would not arise for 300 years. In the 19th century, the earliest pathogens described were bacteria and other cellular microbes. By the close of that century, the work of Ivanovsky and Beijerinck introduced the concept of a virus, an infective particle smaller than any known cell...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106736/development-and-sequential-analysis-of-a-new-multi-agent-anti-acne-formulation-based-on-plant-derived-antimicrobial-and-anti-inflammatory-compounds
#12
Crina Saviuc, Bianca Ciubucă, Gabriela Dincă, Coralia Bleotu, Veronica Drumea, Mariana-Carmen Chifiriuc, Marcela Popa, Gratiela Gradisteanu Pircalabioru, Luminita Marutescu, Veronica Lazăr
The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory potential of natural, plant-derived compounds has been reported in many studies. Emerging evidence indicates that plant-derived essential oils and/or their major compounds may represent a plausible alternative treatment for acne, a prevalent skin disorder in both adolescent and adult populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and subsequently analyze the antimicrobial activity of a new multi-agent, synergic formulation based on plant-derived antimicrobial compounds (i...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102241/microbiology-mind-the-gaps-in-cellular-evolution
#13
COMMENT
James O McInerney, Mary J O'Connell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050814/what-orthopaedic-operating-room-surfaces-are-contaminated-with-bioburden-a-study-using-the-atp-bioluminescence-assay
#14
Raveesh Daniel Richard, Thomas R Bowen
BACKGROUND: Contaminated operating room surfaces can increase the risk of orthopaedic infections, particularly after procedures in which hardware implantation and instrumentation are used. The question arises as to how surgeons can measure surface cleanliness to detect increased levels of bioburden. This study aims to highlight the utility of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence technology as a novel technique in detecting the degree of contamination within the sterile operating room environment...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006108/digitoxin-for-airway-inflammation-in-cystic-fibrosis-preliminary-assessment-of-safety-pharmacokinetics-and-dose-finding
#15
Pamela L Zeitlin, Marie Diener-West, Karen A Callahan, Seakwoo Lee, C Conover Talbot, Bette Pollard, Michael P Boyle, Noah Lechtzin
RATIONALE: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease progresses by a combination of airway inflammation, bacterial colonization, and infection. Airway inflammation is predominantly neutrophilic and complicates airway clearance therapies through cellular debris; excessive DNA; excessive and viscous mucus; and high concentrations of neutrophils, IL-8, and related cytokines liberated along the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a preliminary, single-site, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects over 28 days of two dose levels (0...
February 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986597/literature-mining-supports-a-next-generation-modeling-approach-to-predict-cellular-byproduct-secretion
#16
Zachary A King, Edward J O'Brien, Adam M Feist, Bernhard O Palsson
The metabolic byproducts secreted by growing cells can be easily measured and provide a window into the state of a cell; they have been essential to the development of microbiology, cancer biology, and biotechnology. Progress in computational modeling of cells has made it possible to predict metabolic byproduct secretion with bottom-up reconstructions of metabolic networks. However, owing to a lack of data, it has not been possible to validate these predictions across a wide range of strains and conditions...
January 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966037/microbiology-meets-archaeology-soil-microbial-communities-reveal-different-human-activities-at-archaic-monte-iato-sixth-century-bc
#17
Rosa Margesin, José A Siles, Tomas Cajthaml, Birgit Öhlinger, Erich Kistler
Microbial ecology has been recognized as useful in archaeological studies. At Archaic Monte Iato in Western Sicily, a native (indigenous) building was discovered. The objective of this study was the first examination of soil microbial communities related to this building. Soil samples were collected from archaeological layers at a ritual deposit (food waste disposal) in the main room and above the fireplace in the annex. Microbial soil characterization included abundance (cellular phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), viable bacterial counts), activity (physiological profiles, enzyme activities of viable bacteria), diversity, and community structure (bacterial and fungal Illumina amplicon sequencing, identification of viable bacteria)...
May 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935825/microglia-activation-in-a-pediatric-rabbit-model-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#18
Elizabeth W Tucker, Supriya Pokkali, Zhi Zhang, Vincent P DeMarco, Mariah Klunk, Elizabeth S Smith, Alvaro A Ordonez, Marie-France Penet, Zaver Bhujwalla, Sanjay K Jain, Sujatha Kannan
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes...
December 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837352/crossing-boundaries-the-importance-of-cellular-membranes-in-industrial-biotechnology
#19
REVIEW
Sylwia Jezierska, Inge N A Van Bogaert
How small molecules cross cellular membranes is an often overlooked issue in an industrial microbiology and biotechnology context. This is to a large extent governed by the technical difficulties to study these transport systems or by the lack of knowledge on suitable efflux pumps. This review emphasizes the importance of microbial cellular membranes in industrial biotechnology by highlighting successful strategies of membrane engineering towards more resistant and hence better performing microorganisms, as well as transporter and other engineering strategies for increased efflux of primary and secondary metabolites...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832091/impedance-flow-cytometry-a-novel-technique-in-pollen-analysis
#20
Iris Heidmann, Grit Schade-Kampmann, Joep Lambalk, Marcel Ottiger, Marco Di Berardino
INTRODUCTION: An efficient and reliable method to estimate plant cell viability, especially of pollen, is important for plant breeding research and plant production processes. Pollen quality is determined by classical methods, like staining techniques or in vitro pollen germination, each having disadvantages with respect to reliability, analysis speed, and species dependency. Analysing single cells based on their dielectric properties by impedance flow cytometry (IFC) has developed into a common method for cellular characterisation in microbiology and medicine during the last decade...
2016: PloS One
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