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immunology of food allergy

Ana Brotons-Canto, Nekane Martín-Arbella, Carlos Gamazo, Juan M Irache
Allergic diseases constitute one of the most common causes of chronic illness in developed countries. The main mechanism determining allergy is an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 response towards Th2. Areas covered: This review describes the mechanisms underlying the natural tolerance to food components and the development of an allergic response in sensitized individuals. Furthermore, therapeutic approaches proposed to manage these abnormal immunologic responses food are also presented and discussed. Expert opinion: In the past, management of food allergies has consisted of the education of patients to avoid the ingestion of the culprit food and to initiate the therapy (e...
October 12, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Jean-Christoph Caubet, Hania Szajewska, Raanan Shamir, Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn
Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergic disorders (non-IgE-GI-FA) including food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced enteropathy (FPE) and food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP) are relatively uncommon in infants and young children, but are likely under-diagnosed. Non-IgE-GI-FA have a favorable prognosis, with majority resolving by age 3-5 years. Diagnosis relies on the recognition of symptoms pattern in FPIAP and FPIES and biopsy in FPE. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the pathomechanism, which will lead eventually to the development of diagnostic tests and treatments...
September 17, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Monika Stoma, Beata Ślaska-Grzywna, Wioletta A Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Małgorzata Kostecka, Monika Bojanowska, Agnieszka Dudziak, Agnieszka Kuna-Broniowska, Piotr Adamczuk, Paweł Sobczak, Dariusz Andrejko
INTRODUCTION: A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. AIM: To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies...
August 2016: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Jacek Gocki, Zbigniew Bartuzi
This paper presents current views on the role of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the reactions with food antigens in the digestive tract and their role in the diagnosis of food allergy based on the assays of specific IgG class antibodies, with a special focus on contemporary practice guidelines. In the light of current scientific knowledge, the IgG-specific antibody-mediated reactions are a body's natural and normal defensive reactions to infiltrating food antigens, which are considered as pathogens. On the other hand, specific IgG antibodies against food allergens play a crucial role in the induction and maintaining of immunological tolerance to food antigens...
August 2016: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Giuseppe di Mauro, Roberto Bernardini, Salvatore Barberi, Annalisa Capuano, Antonio Correra, Gian Luigi De' Angelis, Iride Dello Iacono, Maurizio de Martino, Daniele Ghiglioni, Dora Di Mauro, Marcello Giovannini, Massimo Landi, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Alberto Martelli, Vito Leonardo Miniello, Diego Peroni, Lucilla Ricottini Maria Giuseppa Sullo, Luigi Terracciano, Cristina Vascone, Elvira Verduci, Maria Carmen Verga, Elena Chiappini
BACKGROUND: Allergic sensitization in children and allergic diseases arising therefrom are increasing for decades. Several interventions, functional foods, pro- and prebiotics, vitamins are proposed for the prevention of allergies and they can't be uncritically adopted. OBJECTIVE: This Consensus document was developed by the Italian Society of Preventive and Social Paediatrics and the Italian Society of Paediatric Allergy and Immunology. The aim is to provide updated recommendations regarding allergy prevention in children...
2016: World Allergy Organization Journal
Jee-Boong Lee
Due to the increasing prevalence and number of life-threatening cases, food allergy has emerged as a major health concern. The classic immune response seen during food allergy is allergen-specific IgE sensitization and hypersensitivity reactions to foods occur in the effector phase with often severe and deleterious outcomes. Recent research has advanced understanding of the immunological mechanisms occurring during the effector phase of allergic reactions to ingested food. Therefore, this review will not only cover the mucosal immune system of the gastrointestinal tract and the immunological mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated food allergy, but will also introduce cells recently identified to have a role in the hypersensitivity reaction to food allergens...
August 2016: Immune Network
M Y Zeng, N Inohara, G Nuñez
The gut microbiota has diverse and essential roles in host metabolism, development of the immune system and as resistance to pathogen colonization. Perturbations of the gut microbiota, termed gut dysbiosis, are commonly observed in diseases involving inflammation in the gut, including inflammatory bowel disease, infection, colorectal cancer and food allergies. Importantly, the inflamed microenvironment in the gut is particularly conducive to blooms of Enterobacteriaceae, which acquire fitness benefits while other families of symbiotic bacteria succumb to environmental changes inflicted by inflammation...
August 24, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
J H Fine, G S Bondy, L Coady, B Pearce, N Ross, A F Tayabali, S Halappanavar, D Caldwell, I Curran, D E Lefebvre
Humans could become exposed to carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) in consumer products or an occupational setting. In rodent models, acute respiratory, subcutaneous, and direct immune cell exposure to CBNPs has been shown to enhance allergic sensitization to co-administered ovalbumin (OVA) protein from chicken egg. However, little is known about the effects of ingested CBNPs on immunological responses and oral tolerance to food antigens. We hypothesized that ingestion of CBNPs would enhance the development of food allergy to OVA...
August 18, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Lara Utsch, Adrian Logiantara, Ronald van Ree, Leonie S van Rijt
BACKGROUND: Food allergy has been associated with an increased risk for the development of allergic asthma. Asthma is a risk factor for the development of an anaphylactic response to food allergens. An immunological interplay between sensitization to different allergens in different compartments of the body might be involved. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunological interplay between intragastrical peanut (PE) sensitization and respiratory sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) allergens...
August 17, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Brian P Vickery, Jelena P Berglund, Caitlin M Burk, Jason P Fine, Edwin H Kim, Jung In Kim, Corinne A Keet, Michael Kulis, Kelly G Orgel, Rishu Guo, Pamela H Steele, Yamini V Virkud, Ping Ye, Benjamin L Wright, Robert A Wood, A Wesley Burks
BACKGROUND: Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an effective experimental food allergy treatment that is limited by treatment withdrawal and the frequent reversibility of desensitization if interrupted. Newly diagnosed preschool children may have clinical and immunological characteristics more amenable to treatment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to test the safety, effectiveness, and feasibility of early OIT (E-OIT) in the treatment of peanut allergy. METHODS: We enrolled 40 children aged 9 to 36 months with suspected or known peanut allergy...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Scott P Commins
The syndrome of delayed allergic reactions to the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose ("alpha-gal") has become increasingly recognized in allergy and immunology clinics regionally throughout the southeastern USA. Due to the increasing awareness of this unique food allergy, cases have been identified in the northeastern and central USA as well as in Central and South America, Europe, Asia, Scandinavia, and Australia. Clinically, alpha-gal allergy is characterized by reactions to non-primate mammalian meat (e...
September 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Fiona J Baird, Xiaopei Su, Ibukun Aibinu, Matthew J Nolan, Hiromu Sugiyama, Domenico Otranto, Andreas L Lopata, Cinzia Cantacessi
BACKGROUND: Food-borne nematodes of the genus Anisakis are responsible for a wide range of illnesses (= anisakiasis), from self-limiting gastrointestinal forms to severe systemic allergic reactions, which are often misdiagnosed and under-reported. In order to enhance and refine current diagnostic tools for anisakiasis, knowledge of the whole spectrum of parasite molecules transcribed and expressed by this parasite, including those acting as potential allergens, is necessary. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we employ high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing and bioinformatics to characterise the transcriptomes of two Anisakis species, A...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
C Bittner, Marcial Velasco Garrido, L H Krach, V Harth
The use of natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves in many occupations may lead to latex sensitization, allergic asthma, and skin reactions. Due to their good properties and environmental safety NRL gloves are still being used in the healthcare setting, but also in the food industry, by hairdressers, cleaners, etc. The aim of our study was to assess the protein and NRL allergen content in commercial gloves by different methods, including a new assay. Twenty commercially available NRL gloves were analyzed. Protein extraction was performed according to the international standard ASTM D-5712...
July 29, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Oliver T Burton, Amanda J Stranks, Jaciel M Tamayo, Kyle J Koleoglou, Lawrence B Schwartz, Hans C Oettgen
BACKGROUND: Food allergy is a growing health problem with very limited treatment options. Investigation of the immunologic pathways underlying allergic sensitization to foods in humans has been greatly constrained by the limited availability of intestinal tissue and gut-resident immune cells. Although mouse models have offered insights into pathways of food sensitization, differences between rodent and human immune physiology limit the extension of these findings to our understanding of human disease...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Sangeeta Dhami, Ulugbek Nurmatov, Giovanni Battista Pajno, Montserrat Fernandez-Rivas, Antonella Muraro, Graham Roberts, Cezmi Akdis, Montserrat Alvaro-Lozano, Kirsten Beyer, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Wesley Burks, George du Toit, Motohiro Ebisawa, Philippe Eigenmann, Edward Knol, Mika Makela, Kari Christine Nadeau, Liam O'Mahony, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Lars Poulsen, Cansin Sackesen, Hugh Sampson, Alexandra Santos, Ronald van Ree, Frans Timmermans, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated food allergy. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in IgE-mediated food allergy. METHODS: We will undertake a systematic review, which will involve searching international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence...
2016: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Claire Nogic, Julie Belousoff, David Krieser
AIM: To investigate the diagnosis and management of children with anaphylaxis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED). We compared the management with the Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA) guidelines to gauge compliance. METHODS: A retrospective case series was developed from children aged from birth to 16 years presenting to the ED at Sunshine Hospital (SH) in Melbourne, Australia over a 2-year period from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013...
May 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Martin Raithel, Anna Katharina Kluger, Birgit Dietz, Urban Hetterich
The avoidance of wheat, gluten and other cereal products is a growing phenomenon in industrialized countries. The diagnostic criteria of celiac disease and of food allergy to wheat flour and/or other cereals are clearly defined. Only about 0.5-25 % of the population are affected from both of these immunological diseases.Nevertheless, there exists a significantly greater proportion of people reporting at least subjectively significant complaints and quality of life improvements after switching to a wheat- or gluten-free diet...
July 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Ioana Agache, Cezmi A Akdis
Discoveries from basic science research in the last decade have brought significant progress in knowledge of pathophysiologic processes of allergic diseases, with a compelling impact on understanding of the natural history, risk prediction, treatment selection or mechanism-specific prevention strategies. The view of the pathophysiology of allergic diseases developed from a mechanistic approach, with a focus on symptoms and organ function, to the recognition of a complex network of immunological pathways. Several subtypes of inflammation and complex immune-regulatory networks and the reasons for their failure are now described, that open the way for the development of new diagnostic tools and innovative targeted-treatments...
July 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Thomas A E Platts-Mills, Alexander J Schuyler, Elizabeth A Erwin, Scott P Commins, Judith A Woodfolk
Traditionally, the concept of allergy implied an abnormal response to an otherwise benign agent (eg, pollen or food), with an easily identifiable relationship between exposure and disease. However, there are syndromes in which the relationship between exposure to the relevant allergen and the "allergic" disease is not clear. In these cases the presence of specific IgE antibodies can play an important role in identifying the relevant allergen and provide a guide to therapy. Good examples include chronic asthma and exposure to perennial indoor allergens and asthma related to fungal infection...
June 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
C Bittner, M V Garrido, L H Krach, V Harth
The use of natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves in many occupations may lead to latex sensitization, allergic asthma, and skin reactions. Due to their good properties and environmental safety NRL gloves are still being used in the healthcare setting, but also in the food industry, by hairdressers, cleaners, etc. The aim of our study was to assess the protein and NRL allergen content in commercial gloves by different methods, including a new assay. Twenty commercially available NRL gloves were analyzed. Protein extraction was performed according to the international standard ASTM D-5712...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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