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vasoconstriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791923/inhaled-treprostinil-prodrug-lipid-nanoparticle-formulations-provide-long-acting-pulmonary-vasodilation
#1
Franziska G Leifer, Donna M Konicek, Kuan-Ju Chen, Adam J Plaunt, Dany Salvail, Charles E Laurent, Michel R Corboz, Zhili Li, Richard W Chapman, Walter R Perkins, Vladimir S Malinin
Treprostinil (TRE), a prostanoid analogue approved in the USA for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, requires continuous infusion or multiple dosing sessions per day for inhaled and oral routes of administration due to its short half-life. The inhaled drug is known to induce adverse systemic and local effects including headache, nausea, cough, and throat irritation which may be due at least in part to transiently high drug concentrations in the lungs and plasma immediately following administration [1]...
May 23, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790692/serum-concentrations-of-vegf-and-bfgf-in-the-course-of-propranolol-therapy-of-infantile-hemangioma-in-children-are-we-closer-to-understand-the-mechanism-of-action-of-propranolol-on-hemangiomas
#2
Lidia Babiak-Choroszczak, Kaja Giżewska-Kacprzak, Elżbieta Gawrych, Katarzyna Fischer, Anna Walecka, Lidia Puchalska-Niedbał, Justyna Rajewska-Majchrzak, Maciej Bagłaj
BACKGROUND: Propranolol has become the treatment of choice for infantile hemangiomas (IH). Neither the pathogenesis of IH nor the mechanism of action of propranolol on them are well understood. Possible explanations include the inhibition of angiogenesis by decreasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), induction of vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and vasoconstriction. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess serum concentrations of VEGF and bFGF in the course of propranolol therapy of IH in children, and to assess their clinical implications...
May 16, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790164/purinergic-receptor-stimulation-induces-calcium-oscillations-and-smooth-muscle-contraction-in-small-pulmonary-veins
#3
Mauricio Henriquez, Marcelo Fonseca, Jose F Perez-Zoghbi
KEY POINTS: We investigated the excitation-contraction coupling mechanisms in small pulmonary veins (SPVs) in rat precision-cut lung slices. We found that SPVs contract strongly and reversibly in response to extracellular ATP and other vasoconstrictors, including angiotensin-II and endothelin-1. ATP-induced vasoconstriction in SPVs was associated with the stimulation of purinergic P2Y2 receptors in vascular smooth muscle cell, activation of phospholipase C-β and the generation of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations mediated by cyclic Ca2+ release events via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787366/parasympathetic-activity-increases-with-digital-microvascular-damage-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-systemic-sclerosis
#4
Antonietta Gigante, Domenico Margiotta, Luca Navarini, Marta Liberatori, Biagio Barbano, Luigi Tubani, Antonella Afeltra, Edoardo Rosato
OBJECTIVES: The imbalance between angiogenic and angiostatic factors with derangement of the microvasculature are hallmarks of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Raynaud's phenomenon in SSc probably is due to the impaired neuroendothelial control mechanisms between vasoconstriction and vasodilatation. The aim of this study is to evaluate autonomic nervous system function using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis and to correlate with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). METHODS: Twenty-seven SSc patients were enrolled...
May 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785049/involvement-of-inhibitor-kappa-b-kinase-2-ikk2-in-the-regulation-of-vascular-tone
#5
Youngin Kwon, Soo-Kyoung Choi, Seonhee Byeon, Young-Ho Lee
Inhibitor kappa B kinase 2 (IKK2) plays an essential role in the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). Recently, it has been suggested that IKK2 acts as a myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and contributes to vasoconstriction in mouse aorta. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether IKK2 acts as a MLCK or regulates the activity of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). Pressure myograph was used to measure vascular tone in rat mesenteric arteries. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to identify phosphorylation levels of MLC (ser19), MYPT1 (thr853 and thr696) and CPI-17 (thr38)...
May 21, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780000/the-effects-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-on-hepatic-vascular-responsiveness-and-hemodynamics-in-cirrhotic-rats
#6
I-Fang Hsin, Shao-Jung Hsu, Chiao-Lin Chuang, Teh-Ia Huo, Hui-Chun Huang, Fa-Yauh Lee, Hsin-Ling Ho, Shu-Yu Chang, Shou-Dong Lee
BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is associated with increased intrahepatic resistance due to hepatic fibrosis and exaggerated vasoconstriction. Recent studies have indicated that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), in addition to acid suppression, modulate vasoactive substances and vasoresponsiveness. PPIs are frequently prescribed in patients with cirrhosis due to a higher prevalence of peptic ulcers, however other impacts are unknown. METHODS: Liver cirrhosis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with common bile duct ligation (BDL)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778690/vasopressin-during-laparoscopic-myomectomy-does-it-really-extend-its-limits-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#7
Athanasios Protopapas, George Giannoulis, Ioannis Chatzipapas, Stavros Athanasiou, Themistoklis Grigoriadis, Nikolaos Kathopoulis, Dimitrios Vlachos, Dimitrios Zaharakis, Dimitrios Loutradis
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Τo investigate whether the use of vasopressin played an important role in the safe expansion of the indications of laparoscopic myomectomy in our practice. DESIGN: A retrospective comparison of prospectively collected data (Canadian Task Force Classification II2) SETTING: A Gynecologic Endoscopy Unit in a Tertiary University Hospital PATIENTS: 150 cases undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy (-ies), of whom 50 treated without the use of any vasoconstrictive agent (group1), and 100 treated with intraoperative intramyometrial injection of dilute vasopressin (20 IU/100mL normal saline) (group 2)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775408/lack-of-tone-in-mouse-small-mesenteric-arteries-leads-to-outward-remodeling-which-can-be-prevented-by-prolonged-agonist-induced-vasoconstriction
#8
Anika Klein, Philomeena Daphne Joseph, Vibeke Grøsfjeld Christensen, Lars Jørn Jensen, Jens Christian Brings Jacobsen
Inward remodeling of resistance vessels is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Thus far, the remodeling process remains incompletely elucidated, but the activation level of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) appears to play a central role. Accordingly, previous data suggest that an antagonistic and, supposedly beneficial, response - outward remodeling - may follow prolonged vasodilatation. This study aims to determine if 1) outward remodeling follows 3 days of vessel culture without tone, 2) a similar response can be elicited in a much shorter 4-hour time frame and finally 3) a 4-hour response can be prevented or reversed by the presence of vasoconstrictors in the medium...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773686/drivers-of-the-dive-response-in-pinnipeds-apnea-submergence-or-temperature
#9
Jeppe Kaczmarek, Colleen Reichmuth, Birgitte I McDonald, Jakob H Kristensen, Josefin Larson, Fredrik Johansson, Jenna L Sullivan, Peter T Madsen
Long and deep dives in marine mammals are enabled by high mass-specific oxygen stores and the dive response (DR), which reduces oxygen consumption in concert with increased peripheral vasoconstriction and a lowered heart rate during dives. Diving heart rates of pinnipeds are highly variable and modulated by many factors, such as breath holding (apnea), pressure, swimming activity, temperature, and even cognitive control. However, the individual effects of these factors on diving heart rate are poorly understood due to the difficulty of parsing their relative contributions in diving pinnipeds...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771821/the-effects-of-exercise-aspirin-and-celecoxib-in-an-atherogenic-environment
#10
Heather Grimm, Jan Kretzschmar, Marc D Cook, Michael D Brown
INTRODUCTION: Optimal vascular function is a hallmark of cardiovascular health. Specifically, the balance of vasoconstricting and vasodilating substances is recognized as a marker of vascular health. One of the greatest challenges to vascular health and vasodilatory balance is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) mediated inflammation. Uncovering effective strategies that maintain a vascular environment that is more vasodilatory and anti-thrombotic in the face of an inflammatory challenge is favorable...
April 30, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770118/neuroinflammation-as-a-target-for-intervention-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#11
REVIEW
Airton Leonardo de Oliveira Manoel, R Loch Macdonald
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a sub-type of hemorrhagic stroke associated with the highest rates of mortality and long-term neurological disabilities. Despite the improvement in the management of SAH patients and the reduction in case fatality in the last decades, disability and mortality remain high in this population. Brain injury can occur immediately and in the first days after SAH. This early brain injury can be due to physical effects on the brain such as increased intracranial pressure, herniations, intracerebral, intraventricular hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764373/a-subclinical-high-tricuspid-regurgitation-pressure-gradient-independent-of-the-mean-pulmonary-artery-pressure-is-a-risk-factor-for-the-survival-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#12
Yosuke Saragai, Akinobu Takaki, Yuzo Umeda, Takashi Matsusaki, Tetsuya Yasunaka, Atsushi Oyama, Ryuji Kaku, Kazufumi Nakamura, Ryuichi Yoshida, Daisuke Nobuoka, Takashi Kuise, Kosei Takagi, Takuya Adachi, Nozomu Wada, Yasuto Takeuchi, Kazuko Koike, Fusao Ikeda, Hideki Onishi, Hidenori Shiraha, Shinichiro Nakamura, Hiroshi Morimatsu, Hiroshi Ito, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara, Takahito Yagi, Hiroyuki Okada
BACKGROUND: Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) is characterized by pulmonary vasoconstriction, while hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by vasodilation. Definite POPH is a risk factor for the survival after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), as the congestive pressure affects the grafted liver, while subclinical pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been acknowledged as a non-risk factor for deceased donor OLT. Given that PH measurement requires cardiac catheterization, the tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient (TRPG) measured by echocardiography is used to screen for PH and congestive pressure to the liver...
May 15, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763373/oral-glucose-challenge-impairs-skeletal-muscle-microvascular-blood-flow-in-healthy-people
#13
Ryan D Russell, Donghua Hu, Timothy Greenaway, James E Sharman, Stephen Rattigan, Stephen M Richards, Michelle A Keske
Skeletal muscle microvascular (capillary) blood flow increases in the post-prandial state or during insulin infusion due to dilation of pre-capillary arterioles to augment glucose disposal. This effect occurs independent of changes in large artery function. However, acute hyperglycemia impairs vascular function, causes insulin to vasoconstrict pre-capillary arterioles, and causes muscle insulin resistance in vivo. We hypothesize that acute hyperglycemia impairs post-prandial muscle microvascular perfusion, without disrupting normal large artery hemodynamics, in healthy humans...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762050/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-attenuates-ischemic-reperfusion-injury-by-improving-the-function-of-cerebral-artery-and-circulation
#14
Chuan Qin, Panting Zhou, Liping Wang, Muyassar Mamtilahun, Wanlu Li, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
Dl-3-N-butylphthalide (NBP) is approved in China for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Previous studies have shown that NBP promotes recovery after stroke via multiple mechanisms. However, the effect of NBP on vascular function and thrombosis remains unclear. Here, we aim to study the effect of NBP on vascular function using a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and a state-of-the-art high-resolution synchrotron radiation angiography. Eighty SD rats underwent MCAO surgery. NBP (90 mg/kg) was administrated daily by gavage...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756401/alpha-1-adrenergic-stimulation-selectively-enhances-endothelium-mediated-vasodilation-in-rat-cremaster-arteries
#15
Ramesh C Mishra, Mohammad M Rahman, Michael J Davis, Heike Wulff, Michael A Hill, Andrew P Braun
We have systematically investigated how vascular smooth muscle α1 -adrenoceptor activation impacts endothelium-mediated vasodilation in isolated, myogenically active, rat cremaster muscle 1A arteries. Cannulated cremaster arteries were pressurized intraluminally to 70 mmHg to induce myogenic tone, and exposed to vasoactive agents via bath superfusion at 34°C. Smooth muscle membrane potential was measured via sharp microelectrode recordings in pressurized, myogenic arteries. The α1 -adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (25-100 nmol/L) produced further constriction of myogenic arteries, but did not alter the vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine (0...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755343/bilirubin-oxidation-products-and-cerebral-vasoconstriction
#16
Robert M Rapoport
Key evidence in support of the hypothesis that bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes) contribute to the vasoconstriction associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are the (1) presence of BOXes in cerebral spinal fluid from SAH patients and (2) ability of one or more BOXes to elicit vasoconstriction. We critically evaluate this key evidence, detail where gaps remain, and describe recent approaches that will address these gaps.
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754503/hesperidin-suppresses-renin-angiotensin-system-mediated-nox2-over-expression-and-sympathoexcitation-in-2k-1c-hypertensive-rats
#17
Chutamas Wunpathe, Prapassorn Potue, Putcharawipa Maneesai, Sarawoot Bunbupha, Parichat Prachaney, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan, Poungrat Pakdeechote
Hesperidin, a flavonoid derived from citrus fruits, possesses several beneficial effects including anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hesperidin on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) cascade that mediated oxidative stress and sympathoexcitation in two-kidney, one-clipped (2K-1C) hypertensive rats. 2K-1C hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypertensive rats were treated with hesperidin at 20[Formula: see text]mg/kg or 40[Formula: see text]mg/kg or losartan at 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg beginning at three weeks after surgery and then continued for four weeks ([Formula: see text]/group)...
May 13, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753567/junctional-adhesion-molecules-jam-b-and-jam-c-promote-autoimmune-mediated-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#18
Edith Hintermann, Monika Bayer, Clara Benedetta Conti, Sina Fuchs, Michel Fausther, Patrick S Leung, Michel Aurrand-Lions, Richard Taubert, Josef M Pfeilschifter, Mireen Friedrich-Rust, Detlef Schuppan, Jonathan A Dranoff, M Eric Gershwin, Michael P Manns, Beat A Imhof, Urs Christen
Fibrosis remains a serious health concern in patients with chronic liver disease. We recently reported that chemically induced chronic murine liver injury triggers increased expression of junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) JAM-B and JAM-C by endothelial cells and de novo synthesis of JAM-C by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Here, we demonstrate that biopsies of patients suffering from primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) display elevated levels of JAM-C on portal fibroblasts (PFs), HSCs, endothelial cells and cholangiocytes, whereas smooth muscle cells expressed JAM-C constitutively...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753556/pharmacotherapy-for-postural-tachycardia-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Amanda J Miller, Satish R Raj
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a disorder characterized by the presence of orthostatic symptoms (including lightheadedness, palpitations, nausea, dyspnea, and tremulousness) as well as excessive upright tachycardia. POTS predominantly affects women of childbearing age. Treating POTS involves a multi-faceted approach using non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. There are no pharmacological treatments that are currently United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for POTS due to lack of randomized controlled trials...
May 4, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753043/ska-31-an-activator-of-endothelial-ca-2-activated-k-channels-evokes-robust-vasodilation-in-rat-mesenteric-arteries
#20
Rayan Khaddaj-Mallat, Cini Mathew John, Andrew P Braun
It is now well recognized that endothelial KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel activities contribute to dilation of resistance arteries via endothelium-mediated hyperpolarization and vascular smooth muscle relaxation. In this study, we have investigated the functional effect of the KCa channel activator SKA-31 in third order rat mesenteric arteries using arterial pressure myography. Isolated arteries were cannulated, pressurized intraluminally to 70mmHg at 36°C and then constricted with 1μM phenylephrine. Acute bath exposure to SKA-31 evoked a robust and reversible inhibition of developed tone (IC50 = 0...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
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