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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812124/clozapine-chlorpromazine-and-risperidone-dose-dependently-reduce-emotional-hyperthermia-a-biological-marker-of-salience
#1
William W Blessing, Esther M Blessing, Mazher Mohammed, Youichirou Ootsuka
RATIONALE: We recently introduced a new rat model of emotional hyperthermia in which a salient stimulus activates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and tail artery constriction. Antipsychotic drugs, both classical and second generation, act to reduce excessive assignment of salience to objects and events in the external environment. The close association between salient occurrences and increases in body temperature suggests that antipsychotic drugs may also reduce emotional hyperthermia...
August 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809956/natural-reversal-of-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-and-right-ventricular-remodeling-in-su5416-hypoxia-treated-sprague-dawley-rats
#2
Makhosazane Zungu-Edmondson, Nataliia V Shults, Oleksiy Melnyk, Yuichiro J Suzuki
AIMS: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal disease and improved therapeutic strategies are needed. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure, due to vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, causes right ventricle (RV) failure and death in patients. The treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with SU5416 injection and exposure to chronic hypoxia for three weeks followed by maintenance in normoxia promote progressive and severe PAH with pathologic features that resemble human PAH. At 5-17 weeks after the SU5416 injection, PAH is developed with pulmonary vascular remodeling as well as RV hypertrophy and fibrosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804659/fatal-systemic-vasoconstriction-in-a-case-of-metastatic-small-intestinal-net
#3
Stenzel Jochen, Noe Sebastian, Holzapfel Konstantin, Erlmeier Franziska, Eyer Florian
An increased release of serotonin secreted by ileal NETs is thought to be the major factor causing the carcinoid syndrome. However, in acutely arising carcinoid crisis also other vasoactive factors may lead to hazardous fluctuations in blood pressure and bronchial constriction. In rare cases, systemic vasoconstriction can be observed, probably caused by catecholamines or similar acting substances. Here, we report a fatal case of fulminant systemic vasoconstriction possibly caused by catecholamines in a patient with metastasized ileal NET...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800322/relationship-between-skin-blood-flow-regulation-mechanisms-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#4
E Smirnova, S Shulkina, E Loran, S Podtaev, N Antonova
The focus of this paper is the determination of endothelial dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the establishment of a relationship between the traditional biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and the vascular tone regulation indices obtained from indirect cold tests in MetS patients. Our investigation was conducted on 30 patients aged 45.5±9 years. The control group comprised 14 healthy subjects aged 48.2±2.4 years. The mechanism of vascular tone regulation was investigated using the wavelet analysis of skin temperature oscillations (WAST)...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798201/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-does-not-prevent-acute-mountain-sickness-after-rapid-ascent-to-3450-m
#5
Marc M Berger, Franziska Macholz, Lukas Lehmann, Daniel Dankl, Marcel Hochreiter, Bernhard Bacher, Peter Bärtsch, Heimo Mairbäurl
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been shown to protect remote organs, such as the brain and the lung, from damage induced by subsequent hypoxia or ischemia. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a syndrome of non-specific neurologic symptoms and in high altitude pulmonary edema excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) plays a pivotal role. We hypothesized that RIPC protects the brain from AMS and attenuates the magnitude of HPV after rapid ascent to 3450 m. Forty non-acclimatized volunteers were randomized into 2 groups...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797762/ceramide-enhances-cox-2-expression-and-vsmc-contractile-hyperreactivity-via-er-stress-signal-activation
#6
Huina Zhang, Juanfen Li, Linghai Li, Pingsheng Liu, Yongxiang Wei, Zongjie Qian
Ceramide accumulation in blood vessels has been attributed to vascular dysfunction in progressive vascular complications in metabolic diseases. The present study showed that ceramide pretreatment promoted PE-induced vasoconstriction in rat endothelium-denuded vascular rings in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitors, 4-PBA and TUDCA, COX-2 inhibitors, Celecoxib and NS398, as well as PGE2 receptor antagonist AH-6809 attenuated ceramide-promoted vascular hyperreactivity...
August 7, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796814/hyperoxia-does-not-directly-affect-vascular-tone-in-isolated-arteries-from-mice
#7
B Smit, Y M Smulders, M C de Waard, H M Oudemans-van Straaten, A R J Girbes, E C Eringa, A M E Spoelstra-de Man
Hospitalized patients often receive oxygen supplementation, which can lead to a supraphysiological oxygen tension (hyperoxia). Hyperoxia can have hemodynamic effects, including an increase in systemic vascular resistance. This increase suggests hyperoxia-induced vasoconstriction, yet reported direct effects of hyperoxia on vessel tone have been inconsistent. Furthermore, hyperoxia-induced changes in vessel diameter have not been studied in mice, currently the most used mammal model of disease. In this study we set out to develop a pressure-myograph model using isolated vessels from mice for investigation of pathways involved in hyperoxic vasoconstriction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794110/involvement-of-connexin43-phosphorylation-and-gap-junctional-communication-in-vasopressin-induced-rock-dependent-vasoconstriction-after-hemorrhagic-shock
#8
Guangming Yang, Xiaoyong Peng, Yue Wu, Tao Li, Liangming Liu
We examined the roles played by gap junctions (GJs) and the GJ channel protein connexin43 (Cx43) in arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced vasoconstriction after hemorrhagic shock, and their relationship to Rho kinase (ROCK) and protein kinase C (PKC). The results showed AVP induced an endothelium-independent contraction in rat superior mesenteric arteries (SMAs). Blocking the GJs significantly decreased the contractile response of SMAs and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to AVP after shock and hypoxia. The selective Cx43-mimetic peptide inhibited the vascular contractile effect of AVP after shock and hypoxia...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793270/pancreatic-islet-blood-flow-dynamics-in-primates
#9
Juan A Diez, Rafael Arrojo E Drigo, Xiaofeng Zheng, Olga V Stelmashenko, Minni Chua, Rayner Rodriguez-Diaz, Masahiro Fukuda, Martin Köhler, Ingo Leibiger, Sai Bo Bo Tun, Yusuf Ali, George J Augustine, Veluchamy A Barathi, Per-Olof Berggren
Blood flow regulation in pancreatic islets is critical for function but poorly understood. Here, we establish an in vivo imaging platform in a non-human primate where islets transplanted autologously into the anterior chamber of the eye are monitored non-invasively and longitudinally at single-cell resolution. Engrafted islets were vascularized and innervated and maintained the cytoarchitecture of in situ islets in the pancreas. Blood flow velocity in the engrafted islets was not affected by increasing blood glucose levels and/or the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792278/astrocytic-endfoot-ca-2-correlates-with-parenchymal-vessel-responses-during-4-ap-induced-epilepsy-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-two-photon-lifetime-microscopy-study
#10
Cong Zhang, Maryam Tabatabaei, Samuel Bélanger, Hélène Girouard, Mohammad Moeini, Xuecong Lu, Frédéric Lesage
Neurovascular coupling (NVC) underlying the local increase in blood flow during neural activity forms the basis of functional brain imaging and is altered in epilepsy. Because astrocytic calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling is involved in NVC, this study investigates the role of this pathway in epilepsy. Here, we exploit 4-AP induced epileptic events to show that absolute Ca(2+) concentration in cortical astrocyte endfeet in vivo correlates with the diameter of precapillary arterioles during neural activity. We simultaneously monitored free Ca(2+) concentration in astrocytic endfeet with the Ca(2+)-sensitive indicator OGB-1 and diameter of adjacent arterioles in the somatosensory cortex of adult mice by two-photon fluorescence lifetime measurements following 4-AP injection...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791353/telmisartan-improves-vascular-remodeling-through-ameliorating-prooxidant-and-profibrotic-mechanisms-in-hypertension-via-the-involvement-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1
#11
Peijin Shang, Tianlong Liu, Wenxing Liu, Yuwen Li, Fang Dou, Yikai Zhang, Lijuan Sun, Tiejun Zhang, Zhihui Zhu, Fei Mu, Yi Ding, Aidong Wen
Vascular remodeling is a common complication and pathological basis of hypertension. Transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1)/small mothers against decapentaplegic 3 (Smad3) is considered a potential therapeutic target for vascular remodeling in hypertension. The present study aimed to demonstrate the antifibrotic effects of telmisartan and examined the potential mechanisms associated with its prevention of vascular remodeling. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with telmisartan (20 mg/kg), and vascular contractility, reactivity and oxidative stress were preliminarily evaluated...
August 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790516/the-molecular-basis-of-portal-hypertension
#12
Don C Rockey
Cirrhosis leads to portal hypertension and vascular abnormalities in multiple vascular beds. There is intense vasoconstriction in the liver and the kidneys, but also vasodilation in the other vascular beds, including the periphery, lungs, brain, and mesentery. The derangement in each of these beds leads to specific clinical disease. The vasoconstrictive phenotype in the liver ultimately leads to clinical portal hypertension, and is caused by an imbalance of vasoconstrictive and vasorelaxing molecules, which will be the focus of this review...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789830/sphingosine-kinase-1-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Nigel J Pyne, Susan Pyne
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) knockout mice are protected against pulmonary hypertension and expression levels of the enzyme are increased in the lungs of pulmonary arterial hypertensive (PAH) patients. Moreover, sphingosine 1-phosphate can promote vascular remodeling/vasoconstriction in rodent and human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell models. Therefore, SphK1 might be a novel target for treatment of PAH. However, in our opinion, more refined strategies to target SphK1 are needed because this enzyme is protective against endothelial dysfunction and can become resistant to SphK1 inhibitors in vascular smooth muscle, thereby potentially limiting their effectiveness in PAH...
August 5, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780058/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-cyclooxygenase-are-activated-by-hydrogen-peroxide-in-renal-hypertensive-rat-aorta
#14
B R Silva, L Pernomian, T D De Paula, M D Grando, L M Bendhack
In this work, we hypothesized that cyclooxygenase (COX) activity can be regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In the renal hypertension (2K-1C), phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction was lower than in normotensive (2K) rat aortas. This impaired contraction is due to NO/H2O2- induced vasodilation. We evaluated the effects of H2O2 on the activity of COX and endothelial NO-Synthase (eNOS) in 2K-1C rat aortas stimulated with PE. Responses for PE or H2O2 were evaluated in 2K-1C and 2K rat aortas, without or with inhibitors for COX (Indomethacin) or eNOS (L-NAME)...
August 2, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772037/cardiac-and-peripheral-autonomic-control-in-restrictive-cardiomyopathy
#15
Ana Luiza C Sayegh, Marcelo R Dos Santos, Adriana O Sarmento, Francis R de Souza, Vera M C Salemi, Viviane T Hotta, Akothirene Cristhina D B Marques, Heidrum H Krämer, Ivani C Trombetta, Charles Mady, Maria Janieire de Nazaré Nunes Alves
AIMS: Autonomic dysfunction determines the advance of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and is related to poor outcomes. However, this autonomic imbalance is unknown in patients with restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) even though they have similar symptoms and poor quality of life as DCM patients have. The aim of this study was to evaluate if autonomic and neurovascular controls were altered in RCM patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen RCM patients, 10 DCM patients, and 10 healthy subjects were evaluated...
August 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771848/5-ht-modulates-the-rat-mesenteric-vasopressor-outflow-by-5-ht1d-sympatholytic-receptors
#16
José-Ángel García-Pedraza, Mónica García-Domingo, Miriam Gómez-Roso, Alicia Rodríguez-Barbero, María-Luisa Martín, Asunción Morán
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates noradrenergic activity in different cardiovascular territories, but its effect on the mesenteric vasopressor outflow has not yet been clarified. This study investigated the in vivo serotonergic influence, characterizing 5-HT receptors implicated, in sympathetic innervation of mesenteric vasculature. Wistar rats were anaesthetised and prepared for the in situ autoperfused rat mesentery, monitoring systemic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and mesenteric perfusion pressure (MPP)...
August 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769857/hyperventilation-therapy-for-control-of-posttraumatic-intracranial-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Agustín Godoy, Ali Seifi, David Garza, Santiago Lubillo-Montenegro, Francisco Murillo-Cabezas
During traumatic brain injury, intracranial hypertension (ICH) can become a life-threatening condition if it is not managed quickly and adequately. Physicians use therapeutic hyperventilation to reduce elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) by manipulating autoregulatory functions connected to cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity. Inducing hypocapnia via hyperventilation reduces the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), which incites vasoconstriction in the cerebral resistance arterioles. This constriction decrease cerebral blood flow, which reduces cerebral blood volume and, ultimately, decreases the patient's ICP...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769809/apixaban-enhances-vasodilatation-mediated-by-protease-activated-receptor-2-in-isolated-rat-arteries
#18
Ambra Villari, Giovanni Giurdanella, Claudio Bucolo, Filippo Drago, Salvatore Salomone
Apixaban (APX) is a direct inhibitor of factor X (FXa) approved for prophylaxis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis and atrial fibrillation. Because FXa activates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle, inhibition of FXa by APX may affect vasomotor function. The effect of APX was assessed in vitro, by wire myography, in rat mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs) and basilar arteries challenged with vasoconstrictors [phenylephrine (PE); 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], vasodilators [acetylcholine (ACh); sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] or with the PAR-2 peptide agonist SLIGRL...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769584/the-effect-of-hypnosis-on-pain-and-peripheral-blood-flow-in-sickle-cell-disease-a-pilot-study
#19
Ravi R Bhatt, Sarah R Martin, Subhadra Evans, Kirsten Lung, Thomas D Coates, Lonnie K Zeltzer, Jennie C Tsao
BACKGROUND: Vaso-occlusive pain crises (VOCs) are the "hallmark" of sickle-cell disease (SCD) and can lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. Increased sympathetic nervous system activation during VOCs and/or pain can result in vasoconstriction, which may increase the risk for subsequent VOCs and pain. Hypnosis is a neuromodulatory intervention that may attenuate vascular and pain responsiveness. Due to the lack of laboratory-controlled pain studies in patients with SCD and healthy controls, the specific effects of hypnosis on acute pain-associated vascular responses are unknown...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768971/acute-renal-failure-with-severe-loin-pain-and-patchy-renal-vasoconstriction-in-a-patient-without-hypouricemia-provoked-by-epileptic-seizure
#20
Michitaka Maekawa, Takahiro Imaizumi, Taishi Yamakawa, Yasuhiko Ito
A 26-year-old Japanese man without hypouricemia and with 3 previous episodes of seizures concurrent with acute kidney injury (AKI) was admitted due to an epileptic seizure, lower back pain and AKI. His creatinine kinase levels were slightly elevated. Patchy renal ischemia on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and persistent residual contrast medium was observed, consistent with acute renal failure with severe loin pain and patchy renal ischemia after anaerobic exercise (ALPE). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) demonstrated signal changes in the corresponding area...
2017: Internal Medicine
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