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Jeremy Gingrich, Yong Pu, Jennifer Roberts, Rajendiran Karthikraj, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Richard Ehrhardt, Almudena Veiga-Lopez
Exposure to bisphenolic chemicals during pregnancy occurs in > 90% of pregnancies. Bisphenolic compounds can cross the placental barrier reaching fetal circulation. However, the effects of emerging bisphenolic compounds, such as bisphenol S (BPS), on placental function remain untested. The aim was to determine if bisphenol A (BPA) or BPS, at an environmentally relevant dose, impairs placental function. Pregnant sheep were randomly distributed into three treatment groups (n = 7-8/group): control, BPA, and BPS...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Lyubov A Suldina, Ksenia N Morozova, Aleksei G Menzorov, Elena A Kizilova, Elena Kiseleva
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are widely used in developmental biology and transgenic research. Despite numerous studies, ultrastructural reorganization of inner cell mass (ICM) cells during in vitro culture has not yet been described in detail. Here, we for the first time performed comparative morphological and morphometric analyses of three ES cell lines during their derivation in vitro. We compared morphological characteristics of blastocyst ICM cells at 3.5 and 4.5 days post coitum on feeder cells (day 6, passage 0) with those of ES cells at different passages (day 19, passage 2; day 25, passage 4; and passage 15)...
March 16, 2018: Protoplasma
T Arthur Chang, Gennadiy I Bondarenko, Behzad Gerami-Naini, Jessica G Drenzek, Maureen Durning, Mark A Garthwaite, Jenna Kropp Schmidt, Thaddeus G Golos
BACKGROUND: The initiation of primate embryo invasion into the endometrium and the formation of the placenta from trophoblasts, fetal mesenchyme, and vascular components are essential for the establishment of a successful pregnancy. The mechanisms which direct morphogenesis of the chorionic villi, and the interactions between trophectoderm-derived trophoblasts and the fetal mesenchyme to direct these processes during placentation are not well understood due to a dearth of systems to examine and manipulate real-time primate implantation...
March 16, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Steve Taylor, Kimberly Eisenstein, Vanessa Gildenstern, Harper Price, Pooja Hingorani, Apurvi Patel, Nathan Page, Smita Bailey, David Carpentieri
Infantile choriocarcinoma (ICC) is a rare, highly malignant form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Rapid diagnosis and initiation of treatment are paramount in reaching a successful outcome. Patients with these tumors typically present with a triad of anemia, hepatomegaly, and precocious puberty. Cutaneous manifestations of ICC are extraordinarily rare with few documented cases. Here, we describe a male neonate who presented to our Dermatology clinic with a rapidly growing, markedly vascular glabellar mass associated with abnormal laboratory values suggestive of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Sribalasubashini Muralimanoharan, Youn-Tae Kwak, Carole R Mendelson
Dysregulation of human trophoblast invasion and differentiation with placental hypoxia can result in preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Herein, we characterized the role and regulation of miR-1246, which is markedly induced during human syncytiotrophoblast differentiation. miR-1246 is known to target GSK3β and AXIN2, inhibitors of WNT/β-catenin signaling, which is crucial for placental development, and is predicted to target JARID2, which promotes silencing of developmentally regulated genes...
March 13, 2018: Endocrinology
Haiying Rao, Yuxiang Bai, Qingshu Li, Baimei Zhuang, Yu Yuan, Yamin Liu, Wei Peng, Philip N Baker, Chao Tong, Xin Luo, Hongbo Qi
Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by abnormal placentation in the early stages of pregnancy. Adequate migration and invasion of trophoblasts into the uterine wall and spiral arteries to form a functional maternal-fetal interface are pivotal for normal placentation, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. Growing evidence has revealed that special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a tumor promoter that participates in cancer cell migration and invasion. However, the expression and function of SATB1 in trophoblasts is unknown...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Jinming Zhu, Miao He, Chunling Ma, Fengyun Peng, Yuli Su, Lei Huang
BACKGROUND In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and caspase-1 in fetal membrane and placental tissues of patients with premature rupture of membrane (PROM), and to explore their role in PROM. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety women participated in this study: a control group of 30 healthy pregnant women, 30 with PPROM, and 30 with TPROM. Immunohistochemistry streptavidin-peroxidase (SP) assay was used to detect the protein expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in the fetal membrane and placental tissues...
March 16, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Cheryl Q E Lee, Margherita Turco, Lucy Gardner, Benjamin Simons, Myriam Hemberger, Ashley Moffett
During pregnancy the trophoblast cells of the placenta are the only fetal cells in direct contact with maternal blood and decidua. Their functions include transport of nutrients and oxygen, secretion of pregnancy hormones, remodelling the uterine arteries, and communicating with maternal cells. Despite the importance of trophoblast cells in placental development and successful pregnancy, little is known about the identity, location and differentiation of human trophoblast progenitors. We identify a proliferative trophoblast niche at the base of the cytotrophoblast cell columns in first trimester placentas that is characterised by integrin α2 (ITGA2) expression...
March 14, 2018: Development
Vicente Perez-Garcia, Elena Fineberg, Robert Wilson, Alexander Murray, Cecilia Icoresi Mazzeo, Catherine Tudor, Arnold Sienerth, Jacqueline K White, Elizabeth Tuck, Edward J Ryder, Diane Gleeson, Emma Siragher, Hannah Wardle-Jones, Nicole Staudt, Neha Wali, John Collins, Stefan Geyer, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, Antonella Galli, James C Smith, Elizabeth Robertson, David J Adams, Wolfgang J Weninger, Timothy Mohun, Myriam Hemberger
Large-scale phenotyping efforts have demonstrated that approximately 25-30% of mouse gene knockouts cause intrauterine lethality. Analysis of these mutants has largely focused on the embryo and not the placenta, despite the crucial role of this extraembryonic organ for developmental progression. Here we screened 103 embryonic lethal and sub-viable mouse knockout lines from the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders program for placental phenotypes. We found that 68% of knockout lines that are lethal at or after mid-gestation exhibited placental dysmorphologies...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Tan Ming Ngan Aloysius, Vishalkumar G Shelat
Gestational choriocarcinoma is a rare and aggressive type of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, which is characterized by early vascular invasion and widespread metastases. Choriocarcinoma metastasizes hematogenously, and bleeding from metastases is common. Splenic rupture from a metastatic tumour is exceedingly rare, with only a few reports. We report a case of a 41-year-old female presenting with acute abdomen and haemorrhagic shock secondary to splenic rupture from metastatic choriocarcinoma, which was managed with emergency laparoscopic splenectomy...
February 2018: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
C L Depoix, F Haegemann, F Debiève, C Hubinont
STUDY QUESTION: Is 8% O2 a better percentage of atmospheric oxygen for long-term cultures of human primary term cytotrophoblasts than the conventional 21% O2 traditionally used in cell culture? SUMMARY ANSWER: Human primary term cytotrophoblasts are able to differentiate into syncytiotrophoblasts under both atmospheric oxygen levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cell culture is traditionally done under 21% O2, which is equal to a pO2 of ~160 mm Hg...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Xiaoli Qin, Yan Liang, Yuna Guo, Xiaorui Liu, Weihong Zeng, Fan Wu, Yi Lin, Yan Zhang
PROBLEM: Trophoblast cells regulate embryo implantation and placental development. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is an initiator of translation involved in cellular processes, such as migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, the function of eIF5A in trophoblast cells is unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: We inhibited eIF5A and Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1D (CAMK1D) expression in HTR8 cells using RNA interference. The effects of eIF5A and CAMK1D on HTR8 cells were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, flow cytometry, cell transfection assays, cell migration assays, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Shuangbo Kong, Guixian Liang, Zhaowei Tu, Dunjin Chen, Haibin Wang, Jinhua Lu
Placental development is a complex and highly controlled process during which trophoblast stem cells differentiate to various trophoblast subtypes. The early embryonic death of systemic gene knockout models hampers the investigation of these genes that might play important roles during placentation. A trophoblast specific Cre mouse model would be of great help for dissecting out the potential roles of these genes during placental development. For this purpose, we generate a transgenic mouse with the Cre recombinase inserted into the endogenous locus of Elf5 gene that is expressed specifically in placental trophoblast cells...
March 13, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Lilian Padrón, Jorge Rezende Filho, Joffre Amim Junior, Sue Yazaki Sun, Rafael Cortés Charry, Izildinha Maestá, Kevin M Elias, Neil Horowitz, Antonio Braga, Ross S Berkowitz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate uterine evacuation of patients with molar pregnancy, comparing manual with electric vacuum aspiration. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with molar pregnancy followed at the Rio de Janeiro Trophoblastic Disease Center from January 2007 to December 2016. The individual primary study outcomes were incomplete uterine evacuation, uterine perforation, development of uterine synechia, and development of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia...
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Adel Sedrati, Amal Drizi, Bruno van Herendael, Dusan Djokovic
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To present and discuss the hysteroscopic aspects of incarcerated omentum through uterine perforation caused by previous dilatation and curettage (D&C) for incomplete first-trimester abortion. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Constantine University Hospital, Constantine, Algeria. PATIENT: A 40-year-old, G3P2 patient, with a history of an incomplete first-trimester spontaneous abortion, treated 6 months before by D&C, requiring medical assistance due to moderate, chronic pelvic pain...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Kevin Doello
Cancer tissues and placental ones share many properties such as invasiveness, metastasis and local immunosuppressive effects. The goal of the present article is to hypothesize a theory about cancer origin that links placental and cancerous tissues at molecular level. This hypothesis explain that cancer origin could be due to low hypoxic conditions in the peripheral zones of benign tumors which might up-regulate the expression of IGF2, and, consequently, trophoblastic genes. In fact, many phenotypic characteristics and molecular markers are shared between these two cell types (cancerous and trophoblastics ones), providing evidences to support this hypothesis...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Fernanda Spadotto Baptista, Maria Rita de Figueiredo Lemos Bortolotto, Fabiola Roberta Marim Bianchini, Vera Lucia Jornada Krebs, Marcelo Zugaib, Rossana Pulcinelli Vieira Francisco
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether thrombophilia worsens maternal and foetal outcomes among patients with severe preeclampsia (PE). METHOD: From October 2009 to October 2014, an observational retrospective cohort study was performed on pregnant women with severe PE diagnosed before 34 weeks of gestation and their newborns hospitalized at the Clinics Hospital, FMUSP. Patients who had no heart disease, nephropathies, pre-gestational diabetes, gestational trophoblastic disease, foetal malformation, or twin pregnancy and who underwent thrombophilia screening during the postnatal period were included...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Akiko Ohwaki, Haruki Nishizawa, Noriko Aida, Takema Kato, Asuka Kambayashi, Jun Miyazaki, Mayuko Ito, Makoto Urano, Yuka Kiriyama, Makoto Kuroda, Masahiro Nakayama, Shin-Ichi Sonta, Kaoru Suzumori, Takao Sekiya, Hiroki Kurahashi, Takuma Fujii
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Jin Xu, Yanqing Xia, Helong Zhang, Haibin Guo, Ke Feng, Cuilian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE), characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, is a leading cause of perinatal and maternal mortality. Considering that mutation of H19 gene is closely associated with PE, we aimed to explore the functional role of long non-coding RNA H19 (lncRNA-H19) in trophoblast cells. METHODS: Expression of lncRNA-H19 in placenta tissues from patients with PE and healthy pregnant women after delivery was determined by quantitative reverse transcription PCR...
March 6, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Chenxing Ji, Hua Guo, Pei Zhang, Wei Kuang, Yanghua Fan, Lei Wu
As an important member of the Annexins, AnnexinA5 has been attributed important functions in trophoblast membrane repair, anticoagulation and cellular signal transduction. Accumulated studies show that AnnexinA5 is closely associated with various types of carcinomas. However, the potential contribution of AnnexinA5 to glioma cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we report that AnnexinA5 is significantly upregulated in both high-grade glioma samples and glioma cell lines. Moreover, overexpression of AnnexinA5 promotes cell migration and invasion in vitro and tumorigenicity of glioma cells in nude mice, while knockdown of AnnexinA5 manifests a repressive function during these cellular processes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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