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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774968/granulysin-mediated-apoptosis-of-trophoblasts-in-blighted-ovum-and-missed-abortion
#1
Tamara Gulic, Gordana Laskarin, Marin Dominovic, Lana Glavan Gacanin, Emina Babarović, Zeljka Rubesa, Herman Haller, Daniel Rukavina
PROBLEM: Granulysin (GNLY) is a cytotoxic molecule mostly present in decidual natural killer (NK) cells. Blighted ovum (BO) and missed abortion (MA) represent the early pathological pregnancies with hindered development of the embryoblast or a dead embryo. We investigated the GNLY-mediated apoptotic mechanism potentially responsible for delayed termination of pregnancy. METHOD OF STUDY: We performed immunohistological and immunofluorescence labeling of decidual tissues (GNLY, Apaf-1, NF-κB)...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774963/glucocorticoid-signaling-regulates-cell-invasion-and-migration-in-the-human-first-trimester-trophoblast-cell-line-sw-71
#2
Edwina P Kisanga, Zhonghua Tang, Seth Guller, Shannon Whirledge
PROBLEM: The development of the placenta and its functions are sensitive to infection and stress, which can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Adrenally produced glucocorticoids are the body's primary mediators of the inflammatory and stress response. Although the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is expressed in all human villous trophoblast tissue, the effect of glucocorticoids on placentation is not well understood. METHOD OF STUDY: Using microarray analysis, we identified the glucocorticoid-regulated transcriptional profile in the immortalized first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line Swan...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774074/placenta-specific-drug-delivery-by-trophoblast-targeted-nanoparticles-in-mice
#3
Baozhen Zhang, Lunbo Tan, Yan Yu, Baobei Wang, Zhilong Chen, Jinyu Han, Mengxia Li, Jie Chen, Tianxia Xiao, Balamurali K Ambati, Lintao Cai, Qing Yang, Nihar R Nayak, Jian Zhang, Xiujun Fan
Rationale: The availability of therapeutics to treat pregnancy complications is severely lacking, mainly due to the risk of harm to the fetus. In placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum- infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) on the surfaces of trophoblasts. Based on this principle, we have developed a method for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta using a synthetic placental CSA-binding peptide (plCSA-BP) derived from VAR2CSA, a CSA-binding protein expressed on IEs...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773648/ten-eleven-translocation-2-demethylates-the-mmp9-promoter-and-its-down-regulation-in-preeclampsia-impairs-trophoblast-migration-and-invasion
#4
Xiaoliang Li, Chunlian Wu, Ying Shen, Ke Wang, Li Tang, Mi Zhou, Ming Yang, Tianying Pan, Xinghui Liu, Wenming Xu
Preeclampsia is the most common clinical disorder in pregnancy and might result from disordered uterine environments caused by epigenetic modifications, including deregulation of DNA methylation/demethylation. Recent research has indicated that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a DNA base derived from 5-methylcytosine (5mC) via oxidation by ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes, is involved in DNA methylation-related plasticity. Here, we report that TET2 expression and 5hmC abundance are significantly altered in the placentas from preeclampsia patients...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768638/gestational-trophoblastic-neoplasia-after-ectopic-molar-pregnancy-clinical-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-aspects
#5
Consuelo Lozoya López, Vania Gloria Silami Lopes, Fabiana Rodrigues Resende, Jessica Lara Steim, Lilian Padrón, Sue Yazaki Sun, Edward Araujo Júnior, Antonio Braga
This report presents the case of a patient with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after a partial hydatidiform mole formed in the Fallopian tube. Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare condition, with an estimated incidence of 1 in every 20,000 to 100,000 pregnancies; less than 300 cases of it have been reported in the Western literature. The present report is important because it presents current diagnostic criteria for this rare condition, which has been incorrectly diagnosed in the past, not only morphologically but also immunohistochemically...
May 16, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768178/trained-memory-of-human-uterine-nk-cells-enhances-their-function-in-subsequent-pregnancies
#6
Moriya Gamliel, Debra Goldman-Wohl, Batya Isaacson, Chamutal Gur, Natan Stein, Rachel Yamin, Michael Berger, Myriam Grunewald, Eli Keshet, Yoach Rais, Chamutal Bornstein, Eyal David, Adam Jelinski, Iris Eisenberg, Caryn Greenfield, Arbel Ben-David, Tal Imbar, Ronit Gilad, Ronit Haimov-Kochman, David Mankuta, Matan Elami-Suzin, Ido Amit, Jacob H Hanna, Simcha Yagel, Ofer Mandelboim
Natural killer cells (NKs) are abundant in the human decidua, regulating trophoblast invasion and angiogenesis. Several diseases of poor placental development are associated with first pregnancies, so we thus looked to characterize differences in decidual NKs (dNKs) in first versus repeated pregnancies. We discovered a population found in repeated pregnancies, which has a unique transcriptome and epigenetic signature, and is characterized by high expression of the receptors NKG2C and LILRB1. We named these cells Pregnancy Trained decidual NK cells (PTdNKs)...
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765697/analytical-model-of-the-feto-placental-vascular-system-consideration-of-placental-oxygen-transport
#7
Parisa Mirbod
The placenta is a transient vascular organ that enables nutrients and blood gases to be exchanged between fetal and maternal circulations. Herein, the structure and oxygen diffusion across the trophoblast membrane between the fetal and maternal red blood cells in the feto-placental vasculature system in both human and mouse placentas are presented together as a functional unit. Previous models have claimed that the most efficient fetal blood flow relies upon structures containing a number of 'conductive' symmetrical branches, offering a path of minimal resistance that maximizes blood flow to the terminal villi, where oxygen diffusion occurs...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765448/overexpressed-ho-1-is-associated-with-reduced-stat3-activation-in-preeclampsia-placenta-and-inhibits-stat3-phosphorylation-in-placental-jeg-3-cells-under-hypoxia
#8
Hong-Mei Qu, Li-Ping Qu, Xiao-Yan Li, Xian-Zhen Pan
Introduction: Inadequate trophoblast invasion and placentation are widely believed to contribute to preeclampsia, and multiple lines of evidence indicate the involvement of hypoxia in preeclampsia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of placental hypoxia with preeclampsia are not clear. Material and methods: The present study focused on the role in preeclampsia of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), which is an inducible isoform of HO in response to hypoxia, via examining the expression of HO-1 and the expression and phosphorylation (Tyr705) of Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 in preeclamptic placentas via the immunohistochemical method, western blotting assay and RT-qPCR method...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763784/alterations-in-the-distribution-of-actin-and-its-binding-proteins-in-the-porcine-endometrium-during-early-pregnancy-possible-role-in-epithelial-remodeling-and-embryo-adhesion
#9
Beenu Moza Jalali, Pawel Likszo, Aneta Andronowska, Dariusz J Skarzynski
During early pregnancy, uterine epithelial cells undergo major transformations in their cytoskeleton that make the endometrium receptive for conceptus attachment. Actin binding proteins (ABPs) such as cofilin, gelsolin, and vinculin are involved in regulating actin polymerization, severing or crosslinking actin to integrins. However, whether ABPs are involved in epithelial remodeling or embryo adhesion in pigs is unknown. Therefore, the expression and distribution of these proteins were investigated in porcine endometrium on Days 10 and 13 (pre-implantation period), and 16 (attachment phase) of the estrous cycle or pregnancy...
May 8, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762819/mir-134-inhibits-infiltration-of-trophoblast-cells-in-placenta-of-patients-with-preeclampsia-by-decreasing-itgb1-expression
#10
A-X Zou, B Chen, Q-X Li, Y-C Liang
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia (PE) is an idiopathic disorder of pregnancy. The specific regulatory mechanisms of microRNAs (miRs) in the placenta of PE patients have not yet been completely revealed. This study mainly explored the mechanism of miR-134 in preeclampsia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of miR-134 and ITGB1 in the placenta of patients with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women. Dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to detect luciferase activity in miR-134 and NC groups, respectively...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759106/stage-specific-feed-intake-restriction-differentially-regulates-placental-traits-and-proteome-of-goats
#11
Qiongxian Yan, Juanzhi Xu, Xiaosong Wu, Dingding Su, Zhiliang Tan
A total of twenty-four healthy twin-bearing Liuyang black goats were allocated to two trials. In Trial 1, twelve goats received either the control diet (CG, n 6, 100 % feed) or restricted diet (RG, n 6, 60 % feed of CG) from gestation days 26 to 65 after synchronisation. In Trial 2, the remaining goats were randomly and equally divided into two treatments: CG and RG from days 95 to 125 of gestation. Placental traits, fetal weight, serum parameters, nitric oxide (NO), angiogenesis gene expression and cotyledon proteome were measured at the end of each trial...
May 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758194/knockdown-of-trnau1ap-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-nih3t3-jeg-3-and-bewo-cells-via-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#12
Xiaoyan Hu, Jincheng Luo, Hehuan Lai, Mengdi Li, Xiaolin Zheng, Tingting Nie, Fenglan Li, Hui Li
The tRNA selenocysteine 1 associated protein 1 (Trnau1ap, initially named SECp43) is involved in Selenocysteine (Sec) biosynthesis and incorporation into selenoproteins, which play a key role in biological processes, such as embryonic development. We previously reported that downregulation of Trnau1ap inhibited proliferation of cardiomyocyte-like H9c2 cells. However, the effects of Trnau1ap on cell proliferation and migration of embryonic development are not known, and the mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, lentiviral shRNA vectors were transfected in NIH3T3, JEG-3 and Bewo cells (embryonic, trophoblast and placental cells)...
May 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757875/surgery-and-platinum-etoposide-based-chemotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-epithelioid-trophoblastic-tumor
#13
Janelle Sobecki-Rausch, Abigail Winder, Kruti P Maniar, Anna V Hoekstra, Emily Berry, Karen Novak, John R Lurain
OBJECTIVE: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a rare variant of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that develops from chorionic-type intermediate trophoblast, simulates carcinoma, presents years after a pregnancy event, is associated with low or normal human chorionic gonadotropin levels, and is relatively resistant to chemotherapy. Our aim was to identify the role of surgery in combination with platinum/etoposide-based chemotherapy in the management of both localized and metastatic ETT...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757275/isolation-of-primary-human-decidual-cells-from-the-fetal-membranes-of-term-placentae
#14
Tali Farine, Michael Parsons, Stephen Lye, Oksana Shynlova
The decidua, also known as the pregnant endometrium, is a critically important reproductive tissue. Decidual cells, comprised mainly of decidualized stromal cells and immune cells, are responsible for the secretion of hormonal and inflammatory factors which are critical for successful blastocyst implantation, placental development and play a role in the initiation of labor at term and preterm. Many pregnancy complications can arise from perturbations of a fine balance of different cell populations comprising decidua...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755409/glial-cells-missing-1-regulates-equine-chorionic-gonadotrophin-beta-subunit-via-binding-to-the-proximal-promoter
#15
Jordan E Read, Victoria Cabrera-Sharp, Phoebe Kitscha, Judith E Cartwright, Peter J King, Robert C Fowkes, Amanda M de Mestre
Equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) is a placental glycoprotein critical for early equine pregnancy and used therapeutically in a number of species to support reproductive activity. The factors in trophoblast that transcriptionally regulate eCGβ-subunit ( LHB ), the gene which confers the hormones specificity for the receptor, are not known. The aim of this study was to determine if glial cells missing 1 regulates LHB promoter activity. Here, studies of the LHB proximal promoter identified four binding sites for glial cells missing 1 (GCM1) and western blot analysis confirmed GCM1 was expressed in equine chorionic girdle (ChG) and surrounding tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751777/high-efficiency-derivation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-lines-using-a-culture-system-with-minimized-trophoblast-cell-proliferation
#16
Chuti Laowtammathron, Pimjai Chingsuwanrote, Roungsin Choavaratana, Suphadtra Phornwilardsiri, Ketsara Sitthirit, Chidchanok Kaewjunun, Orawan Makemaharn, Papussorn Terbto, Supaporn Waeteekul, Chanchao Lorthongpanich, Yaowalak U-Pratya, Pimonwan Srisook, Pakpoom Kheolamai, Surapol Issaragrisil
BACKGROUND: Due to their extensive self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have great potential for studying developmental biology, disease modeling, and developing cell replacement therapy. The first hESC line was generated in 1998 by culturing inner cell mass (ICM) cells isolated from human blastocysts using an immunosurgery technique. Since then, many techniques including mechanical ICM isolation, laser dissection, and whole embryo culture have been used to derive hESC lines...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748248/bromodomain-protein-brd4-is-increased-in-human-placentas-from-women-with-early-onset-preeclampsia
#17
Stella Liong, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
Preeclampsia affects 5% of all pregnancies and is a serious disorder of pregnancy, characterised by high maternal blood pressure, placental hypoxia, fluid retention (oedema) and proteinuria. Women with preeclampsia are associated with exaggerated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and anti-angiogenic factors such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1). Studies in non-gestational tissues have described the bromodomain (BRD) and extraterminal family of proteins, in particular BRD4 to play a critical role in propagating inflammation and is currently a therapeutic target for treating cancer, lung inflammation and asthma...
June 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748167/kdm5b-decommissions-the-h3k4-methylation-landscape-of-self-renewal-genes-during-trophoblast-stem-cell-differentiation
#18
Jian Xu, Benjamin L Kidder
Trophoblast stem (TS) cells derived from the trophectoderm (TE) of mammalian embryos have the ability to self-renew indefinitely or differentiate into fetal lineages of the placenta. Epigenetic control of gene expression plays an instrumental role in dictating the fate of TS cell self-renewal and differentiation. However, the roles of histone demethylases and activating histone modifications such as methylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3/me2) in regulating TS cell expression programs, and in priming the epigenetic landscape for trophoblast differentiation, are largely unknown...
May 10, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748088/innate-immune-cells-in-the-placental-bed-in-healthy-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#19
Marijke M Faas, Paul De Vos
Immune cells in the placental bed are important for adequate development of the placental bed. The most prominent immune cells in the placental bed early in pregnancy are uterine natural killer cells (uNK) cells and macrophages. Also dendritic cells and mast cells can be found in the early placental bed. These cells not only have an immune regulatory function, but are also involved in the regulation of trophoblast invasion, angiogenesis and spiral artery remodeling. In preeclampsia, one of the major complications of pregnancy, decreased trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling has been found...
April 25, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746846/o-linked-n-acetyl-glucosamine-deposition-in-placental-proteins-varies-according-to-maternal-glycemic-levels
#20
Vanessa Dela Justina, Rinaldo R Dos Passos Junior, Alecsander F Bressan, Rita C Tostes, Fernando S Carneiro, Thaigra S Soares, Gustavo T Volpato, Victor Vitorino Lima, Sebastian San Martin, Fernanda R Giachini
AIMS: Hyperglycemia increases glycosylation with O-linked N‑acetyl‑glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) contributing to placental dysfunction and fetal growth impairment. Our aim was to determine how O-GlcNAc levels are affected by hyperglycemia and the O-GlcNAc distribution in different placental regions. MAIN METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: severe hyperglycemia (>300 mg/dL; n = 5); mild hyperglycemia (>140 mg/dL, at least than two time points during oral glucose tolerance test; n = 7) or normoglycemia (<120 mg/dL; n = 6)...
May 7, 2018: Life Sciences
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