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Monocyte pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913753/neutrophil-derived-microparticles-are-released-into-the-coronary-circulation-following-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-acute-coronary-syndromes
#1
Gonzalo J Martinez, Jennifer Y Barraclough, Shirley Nakhla, Vivian Kienzle, Stacy Robertson, Ziad Mallat, David S Celermajer, Sanjay Patel
AIMS: To evaluate (i) local coronary and systemic levels of microparticles (MP) in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and Stable Angina Pectoris (SAP) patients and (ii) their release after plaque disruption with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Microparticles are small vesicles originating from plasma membranes of cells after activation or apoptosis and are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Neutrophils play a role in plaque destabilisation and shed neutrophil-derived microparticles have the potential to drive significant pro-inflammatory and thrombotic downstream effects...
December 2, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913426/depletion-of-circulating-monocytes-suppresses-il-17-and-hmgb1-expression-in-mice-with-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury
#2
Zhilong Jiang, Qianlin Zhou, Chenlin Gu, Dandan Li, Lei Zhu
Acute lung injury/Acute Respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is an important cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS. To investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of circulating monocytes and resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) in ALI/ARDS, we depleted circulating monocytes and AMs by clodronate-loaded liposome (CL) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI/ARDS mouse model. Our results indicated that depletion of circulating monocytes by intravenous (i...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912071/classical-and-alternative-macrophages-have-impaired-function-during-acute-and-chronic-hiv-1-infection
#3
Leonardo J Galvão-Lima, Milena S Espíndola, Luana S Soares, Fabiana A Zambuzi, Maira Cacemiro, Caroline Fontanari, Valdes R Bollela, Fabiani G Frantz
OBJECTIVES: Three decades after HIV recognition and its association with AIDS development, many advances have emerged - especially related to prevention and treatment. Undoubtedly, the development of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) dramatically changed the future of the syndrome that we know today. In the present study, we evaluate the impact of HAART on macrophage function and its relevance to HIV pathogenesis. METHODS: PBMCs were isolated from blood samples and monocytes (CD14+ cells) were purified...
November 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911427/-modern-approach-to-early-diagnosis-and-pathogenetic-treatment-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#4
I V Vorob'eva
AIM: To improve the approach to pathogenetic treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) through early diagnosis and a new method for predicting disease progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled 330 type 2 diabetes patients with DR (660 eyes), of whom women constituted 64.6%, men - 35.4%. The mean patient age was 62.3±2.3 years. Three groups were formed: the controls - 30 healthy volunteers (60 eyes) and 30 type 2 diabetes patients without ocular involvement (DR 0, 60 eyes); group 1 - 30 type 2 diabetes patients with DR I but no diabetic macular edema (DR I without DME, 60 eyes) that were treated with calcium dobesilate; group 2 - 240 type 2 diabetes patients, who had diabetic retinopathy of different stages (DR I, II, or III with DME, 480 eyes) and received laser retinal photocoagulation (LRP)...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903283/systematic-analysis-of-chromatin-interactions-at-disease-associated-loci-links-novel-candidate-genes-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Claartje A Meddens, Magdalena Harakalova, Noortje A M van den Dungen, Hassan Foroughi Asl, Hemme J Hijma, Edwin P J G Cuppen, Johan L M Björkegren, Folkert W Asselbergs, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis, Michal Mokry
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed many susceptibility loci for complex genetic diseases. For most loci, the causal genes have not been identified. Currently, the identification of candidate genes is predominantly based on genes that localize close to or within identified loci. We have recently shown that 92 of the 163 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-loci co-localize with non-coding DNA regulatory elements (DREs). Mutations in DREs can contribute to IBD pathogenesis through dysregulation of gene expression...
November 30, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902962/sargachromenol-protects-against-vascular-inflammation-by-preventing-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-monocyte-adhesion-to-primary-endothelial-cells-via-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#6
Wi-Gyeong Gwon, Eun-Ji Joung, Mi-Sung Kwon, Su-Jin Lim, Tadanobu Utsuki, Hyeung-Rak Kim
Vascular inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of sargachromenol (SCM) against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced vascular inflammation. SCM decreased the expression of cell adhesion molecules, including intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, in TNF-α-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), resulted in reduced adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs. SCM also decreased the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in TNF-α-induced HUVECs...
November 27, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902385/motor-coordination-and-balance-measurements-reveal-differential-pathogenicity-of-currently-spreading-ev71-strains-in-human-scarb2-transgenic-mice
#7
Mei-Feng Chen, Shin-Ru Shih
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused large-scale epidemics with neurological complications in Asia Pacific region. The C4a and B5 strains are the two major genotypes circulalted in many coutries recently. This study provides a new protocol, a motor coordination task, to assess the differential pathogenicity of C4a and B5 strains in human SCARB2 transgenic mice. We found that the pathogenicity of C4a viruses was more severe than that of B5 viruses. Moreover, we discovered that an increased level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is positively correlated with severely deficient motor function...
October 20, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898462/recent-advances-in-allograft-vasculopathy
#8
Jonathan Merola, Daniel D Jane-Wit, Jordan S Pober
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite considerable advances in controlling acute rejection, the longevity of cardiac and renal allografts remains significantly limited by chronic rejection in the form of allograft vasculopathy. This review discusses recently reported mechanistic insights of allograft vasculopathy pathogenesis as well as recent clinical evaluations of new therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Although adaptive immunity is the major driver of allograft vasculopathy, natural killer cells mediate vasculopathic changes in a transplanted mouse heart following treatment with donor-specific antibody (DSA)...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895095/calprotectin-in-rheumatic-diseases
#9
Francesca Ometto, Lara Friso, Davide Astorri, Costantino Botsios, Bernd Raffeiner, Leonardo Punzi, Andrea Doria
Calprotectin is a heterodimer formed by two proteins, S100A8 and S100A9, which are mainly produced by activated monocytes and neutrophils in the circulation and in inflamed tissues. The implication of calprotectin in the inflammatory process has already been demonstrated, but its role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and monitoring of rheumatic diseases has gained great attention in recent years. Calprotectin, being stable at room temperature, is a candidate biomarker for the follow-up of disease activity in many autoimmune disorders, where it can predict response to treatment or disease relapse...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888719/treponema-pallidum-flagellin-flaa2-induces-il-6-secretion-in-thp-1-cells-via-the-toll-like-receptor-2-signaling-pathway
#10
Yafeng Xie, Man Xu, Yongjian Xiao, Zhuoran Liu, Chuanhao Jiang, Xingxing Kuang, Chuan Wang, Haiying Wu, Jing Peng, Chun Li, Yu Wang, Huaming Liu, Bin Liu, Xiaotuan Zhang, Feijun Zhao, Tiebing Zeng, Shuangquan Liu, Yimou Wu
Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum membrane proteins are considered as potent inducers in the initiation and development of inflammation. In the present study, the mechanism that leads to the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), one of the key proinflammatory cytokines, by human monocytic THP-1 cells when these cells are treated with T. pallidum flagellin FlaA2 was investigated. Stimulation with flagellin FlaA2 can induce IL-6 expression in human monocytes and augment the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and NF-κB, but has no effect on the phosphorylation of JNK...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886531/coagulation-and-sepsis
#11
REVIEW
Marcel Levi, Tom van der Poll
Severe sepsis is almost invariably associated with systemic activation of coagulation. There is ample evidence that demonstrates a wide-ranging cross-talk between hemostasis and inflammation, which is probably implicated in the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction in patients with sepsis. Inflammation not only leads to initiation and propagation of coagulation activity, but coagulation also markedly influences inflammation. Molecular mechanisms that play a role in inflammation-induced effects on coagulation have been recognized in much detail...
November 19, 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881944/-2518-a-g-mcp-1-but-not-403-g-a-rantes-gene-polymorphism-is-associated-with-enhanced-risk-of-basal-cell-carcinoma
#12
Michał Sobjanek, Monika Zabłotna, Aneta Szczerkowska-Dobosz, Katarzyna Ruckemann-Dziurdzińska, Malgorzata Sokolowska-Wojdylo, Roman Nowicki
INTRODUCTION: Polymorphic variants of MCP-1 and RANTES genes and their protein serum levels have been implicated in the increased risk and severity of several malignancies. However, the subject has not been explored in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients so far. AIM: To investigate the association between monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) (-2518 A/G) and RANTES (-403 G/A) polymorphism and risk and clinical course of BCC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 150 unrelated patients with BCC and 140 healthy, unrelated, age- and sex-matched volunteers...
October 2016: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878564/the-role-of-b7-family-costimulatory-molecules-and-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-and-systemic-sclerosis
#13
Nóra Legány, László Berta, László Kovács, Attila Balog, Gergely Toldi
B7 costimulatory molecules are present on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and influence intracellular expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a molecule with important immunoregulatory functions. We determined the frequency of activated (CD11b+) monocytes expressing B7-1, B7-2, B7-H1, and B7-H2 molecules, and that of CD3+ and CD4+ T cells expressing the corresponding CD28, CTLA-4, PD-1, and ICOS receptors in peripheral blood samples of 20 healthy adults and 9 SSc and 15 pSS patients using flow cytometry...
November 23, 2016: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875723/orosomucoid-as-prognosis-factor-associated-with-inflammation-in-acute-or-nutritional-status-in-chronic-heart-failure
#14
Rosa M Agra, Alfonso Varela-Román, Rocío González-Ferreiro, Juan E Viñuela, Ana Castro-Pais, Ángel Fernández-Trasancos, Esther Díaz-Rodríguez, Ezequiel Álvarez, Marcos C Carreira, Felipe F Casanueva, José R González-Juanatey, Sonia Eiras
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and nutritional state are involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). OBJECTIVE: To study the contribution of alpha-1-acid-glycoprotein (AGP) to these factors and its prognostic value in acute (AHF) or chronic HF (CHF). METHODS: The observational study has included 147 patients (mean age 70years, 62% men) admitted to a cardiology department for HF and followed-up for an average 326.6±140.8days. Blood AGP values were measured by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863662/surface-assembled-poly-i-c-on-pegylated-plga-microspheres-as-vaccine-adjuvant-apc-activation-and-bystander-cell-stimulation
#15
Annina M Hafner, Blaise Corthésy, Marcus Textor, Hans P Merkle
Biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres are potential vehicles to deliver antigens for vaccination. Because they lack the full capacity to activate professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), combination with an immunostimulatory adjuvant may be considered. A candidate is the synthetic TLR3 ligand polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid, poly(I:C), which drives cell-mediated immunity. However, poly(I:C) has also been linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, as affected by widespread stimulation of non-hematopoietic bystander cells...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863540/comparison-of-serum-cytokine-levels-between-dogs-with-multicentric-lymphoma-and-healthy-dogs
#16
Jerome Calvalido, Geoffrey A Wood, Anthony J Mutsaers, Darren Wood, William Sears, J Paul Woods
In humans, multiple cytokines have been linked to the development of lymphoma, and are relevant biomarkers for response to chemotherapy and prognosis. In contrast, only a few circulating cytokines have been studied in dogs with lymphoma. We prospectively enrolled thirty-one dogs newly diagnosed with multicentric lymphoma. Immunophenotype was determined by flow cytometry in all dogs, separating them into 2 subgroups: B cell lymphoma (n=21) and T cell lymphoma (n=10). Nineteen healthy dogs were enrolled in the control group...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863506/interleukin-37-limits-monosodium-urate-crystal-induced-innate-immune-responses-in-human-and-murine-models-of-gout
#17
Lei Liu, Yu Xue, Yingfeng Zhu, Dandan Xuan, Xue Yang, Minrui Liang, Juan Wang, Xiaoxia Zhu, Jiong Zhang, Hejian Zou
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-37 has emerged as a fundamental inhibitor of innate immunity. Acute gout is a self-limiting inflammatory response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. In the current study, we assessed the preventive and therapeutic effect of recombinant human IL-37 (rhIL-37) in human and murine gout models. METHODS: We investigated the expression of IL-37 in patients with active and inactive gouty arthritis and assessed the effect of rhIL-37 in human and murine gout models: a human monocyte cell line (THP-1) and human synovial cells (containing macrophage-like and fibroblast-like synoviocytes) exposed to MSU crystals, a peritoneal murine model of gout and a murine gouty arthritis model...
November 18, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860077/critical-in-vivo-roles-of-histamine-and-histamine-receptor-signaling-in-animal-models-of-metabolic-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Sohsuke Yamada, Akihide Tanimoto, Yasuyuki Sasaguri
Histamine, a classic low-molecular-weight amine, is synthesized from L-histidine by histidine decarboxylase (HDC), and histamine-specific receptors (HRs) are essential for its actions. Our serial in vivo studies have uniquely reported that expression of histamine/HRs is variably identified in atherosclerotic lesions, and that HDC-gene knockout mice without histamine/HRs signaling show a marked reduction of atherosclerotic progression. These data have convinced us that histamine plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
December 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859685/cd147-modulates-the-differentiation-of-t-helper-17-cells-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
Hui Yang, Jian Wang, Yu Li, Zhen-Jie Yin, Ting-Ting Lv, Ping Zhu, Yan Zhang
The role of CD147 in regulation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cell-to-cell contact of activated CD14(+) monocytes with CD4(+) T cells, and the modulatory role of CD147 on T-helper 17 (Th17) cells differentiation in patients with RA. Twenty confirmed active RA patients and twenty normal controls were enrolled. CD4(+) T cells and CD14(+) monocytes were purified by magnetic beads cell sorting. Cells were cultured under different conditions in CD4(+) T cells alone, direct cell-to-cell contact co-culture of CD4(+) and CD14(+) cells, or indirect transwell co-culture of CD4(+) /CD14(+) cells in response to LPS and anti-CD3 stimulation with or without anti-CD147 antibody pretreatments...
November 16, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859623/plasma-cytokines-eotaxin-mip-1%C3%AE-mcp-4-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#20
Mette Marie Relster, Anette Holm, Court Pedersen
Major overlaps of clinical characteristics and the limitations of conventional diagnostic tests render the initial diagnosis and clinical management of pulmonary disorders difficult. In this pilot study, we analyzed the predictive value of eotaxin, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1α), monocyte chemoattractant protein 4 (MCP-4), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 40 patients hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). The cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of several inflammatory respiratory diseases, indicating a potential as markers for LRTI...
November 16, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
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