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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437586/pathogenesis-of-vascular-leak-in-dengue-virus-infection
#1
REVIEW
Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige, Graham S Ogg
Endothelial dysfunction leading to vascular leak is the hallmark of severe dengue. Vascular leak typically becomes clinically evident during 3-6 days since the onset of illness, which is known as the critical phase. This critical phase follows the period of peak viraemia, and lasts for 24 to 48 hours and usually shows rapid and complete reversal, suggesting it is likely to occur as a result of inflammatory mediators, rather than infection of the endothelium. Cytokines such as TNFα, which are known to be elevated in the critical phase of dengue, are likely to be contributing factors...
April 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436298/adenocarcinoma-of-the-appendix-occurring-in-a-patient-treated-with-paclitaxel-for-locally-advanced-esophageal-cancer
#2
Constantin A Dasanu, David M Hyams, Frank J Senatore
Paclitaxel has been linked with a number of immunosuppressive effects such as decreased numbers and activity of dendritic cells, NK-cells and monocytes, which may in turn lead to defective T-cell activation. In addition, this agent was shown to cause mitotic arrest resembling high-grade dysplasia throughout the gastrointestinal tract, including the appendix. We have previously documented a series of lung cancer patients who developed pre-malignant colonic polyps and/or colon cancer either during or weeks following chemotherapy with paclitaxel, suggesting a potential role of this agent in their pathogenesis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433861/c-reactive-protein-and-enzymatically-modified-ldl-cooperatively-promote-dendritic-cell-mediated-t-cell-activation
#3
Wei He, Yong Ren, Xiao Wang, Qiao Chen, Shifang Ding
BACKGROUND: Enzymatically modified low density lipoprotein (eLDL), C reactive protein (CRP), dendritic cells (DCs), and T cells were shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate whether eLDL and CRP could cooperatively promote DC-mediated T cell activation and proliferation. METHOD: Low density lipoprotein was isolated from healthy human plasma and treated with proteases and cholesterol esterase. CD14(+) monocytes were isolated from human peripheral blood by gradient centrifugation and enriched with CD14 Microbeads, which were then induced with recombinant human IL-4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor before treated with eLDL and/or CRP...
April 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430139/the-metalloproteinase-adam28-promotes-metabolic-dysfunction-in-mice
#4
Lakshini Herat, Caroline Rudnicka, Yasunori Okada, Satsuki Mochizuki, Markus Schlaich, Vance Matthews
Obesity and diabetes are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The current study builds upon our previous association studies highlighting that A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 28 (ADAM28) appears to be implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Our novel study characterised the expression of ADAM28 in mice with the metabolic syndrome and used molecular inhibition approaches to investigate the functional role of ADAM28 in the pathogenesis of high fat diet-induced obesity...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429668/the-role-of-mitochondria-associated-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-production-of-angiogenic-factors-by-arpe-19-cells
#5
L Wu, X Tan, L Liang, H Yu, C Wang, D Zhang, A Kijlstra, P Yang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms whereby Amyloid-beta (Aβ) induces the production of angiogenic factors by a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) cells. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) were utilized in this study. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and complement activation fragments C3a and C5a were measured by Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
March 31, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425943/beneficial-effect-of-voluntary-exercise-on-experimental-colitis-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet-the-role-of-irisin-adiponectin-and-proinflammatory-biomarkers
#6
Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy, Jan Bilski, Dagmara Wojcik, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Surmiak, Magdalena Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Anna Chmura, Marcin Magierowski, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Mach, Tomasz Brzozowski
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders exhibited by two major phenotypic forms: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the aetiology of IBD is unknown, several factors coming from the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, such as cytokines, adipokines and myokines, were suggested in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; however, it has not been extensively studied whether voluntary exercise can ameliorate that disorder. We explored the effect of moderate exercise (i...
April 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424682/interactions-between-type-1-interferons-and-the-th17-response-in-tuberculosis-lessons-learned-from-autoimmune-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Bas C Mourik, Erik Lubberts, Jurriaan E M de Steenwinkel, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Pieter J M Leenen
The classical paradigm of tuberculosis (TB) immunity, with a central protective role for Th1 responses and IFN-γ-stimulated cellular responses, has been challenged by unsatisfactory results of vaccine strategies aimed at enhancing Th1 immunity. Moreover, preclinical TB models have shown that increasing IFN-γ responses in the lungs is more damaging to the host than to the pathogen. Type 1 interferon signaling and altered Th17 responses have also been associated with active TB, but their functional roles in TB pathogenesis remain to be established...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419983/pam3csk4-induces-mmp-9-expression-in-human-monocytic-thp-1-cells
#8
Fatema Al-Rashed, Shihab Kochumon, Safa Usmani, Sardar Sindhu, Rasheed Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is known to degrade the extracellular matrix and increased MMP-9 levels are related with the pathogenesis of many inflammatory conditions including obesity. Pam3CSK4 is a synthetic triacylated lipopeptide (LP) which is a potent activator of immune cells and induces cytokine production. However, it is unclear whether Pam3CSK4 is able to induce MMP-9 expression in monocytic cells. We, therefore, determined MMP-9 production by Pam3CSK4-treated THP-1 cells and also investigated the signal transduction pathway(s) involved...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416511/heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia
#9
Gowthami M Arepally
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune complication of heparin therapy caused by antibodies to complexes of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin. Pathogenic antibodies to PF4/heparin bind and activate cellular FcγRIIA on platelets and monocytes to propagate a hypercoagulable state culminating in life-threatening thrombosis. It is now recognized that anti-PF4/heparin antibodies develop commonly after heparin exposure, but only a subset of sensitized patients progress to life-threatening complications of thrombocytopenia and thrombosis...
April 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413625/hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-recent-advances-in-pathogenesis-biomarkers-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Antonia Carroll, Bruce Brew
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent despite plasma viral suppression by antiretroviral agents. In fact, the prevalence of milder subtypes of cognitive impairment is increasing. Neuropsychologic testing remains the "gold standard" of diagnosis; however, this is time consuming and costly in a resource-poor environment. Recently developed screening tools, such as CogState and the revised HIV dementia scale, have very good sensitivity and specificity in the more severe stages of HAND...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413498/dynamic-variations-of-the-peripheral-blood-immune-cell-subpopulation-in-patients-with-critical-h7n9-swine-origin-influenza-a-virus-infection-a-retrospective-small-scale-study
#11
Cheng Chen, Wei Sun, Jun Chen, Jian-An Huang
H7N9 influenza is a recently emerging infection with a high mortality rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate dynamic fluctuations of peripheral blood immune cell subgroups in patients with critical H7N9 infection. Flow cytometry was used to assess the cells in whole blood samples from 9 cases. With regard to the innate immune system, in the majority of patients, the natural killer (NK) cell counts were similar to those of monocytes, which demonstrated a gradual increase in the progression period and an early increase followed by a reduction during recovery...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413044/expression-profiling-feline-peripheral-blood-monocytes-identifies-a-transcriptional-signature-associated-with-type-two-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Caroline A O'Leary, Mamdouh Sedhom, Mia Reeve-Johnson, John Mallyon, Katharine M Irvine
Diabetes mellitus is a common disease of cats and is similar to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans, especially with respect to the role of obesity-induced insulin resistance, glucose toxicity, decreased number of pancreatic β-cells and pancreatic amyloid deposition. Cats have thus been proposed as a valuable translational model of T2D. In humans, inflammation associated with adipose tissue is believed to be central to T2D development, and peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) are important in the inflammatory cascade which leads to insulin resistance and β-cell failure...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408068/quercus-infectoria-inhibits-set7-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inflammatory-pathway-in-macrophages-exposed-to-a-diabetic-environment
#13
Julalak Chokpaisarn, Norifumi Urao, Supayang P Voravuthikunchai, Timothy J Koh
Chronic inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of myriad complications associated with diabetes and thus anti-inflammatory therapies may ameliorate these complications. Quercus infectoria (Qi) extract has been shown to downregulate inflammatory processes; however, the molecular mechanisms of this anti-inflammatory activity remain unclear. The hypothesis of our study was that Qi extract exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by downregulating the Set7/NF-κB pathway. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) were treated with high glucose plus palmitate medium (HG/Pa) to simulate the diabetic environment...
April 10, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405802/vasculo-protective-effect-of-bms-309403-is-independent-of-its-specific-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4
#14
Yuta Okamura, Kosuke Otani, Akihiro Sekiguchi, Taisuke Kogane, Chiharu Kakuda, Yuzaburo Sakamoto, Tomoko Kodama, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
Fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 4 is an adipocytokine mainly expressed in adipocyte and macrophage. Blood FABP4 is related not only to metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and atherosclerosis but also increased blood pressure. We tested the hypothesis that FABP4 plays roles in pathogenesis of hypertension development including proliferation, migration, and inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) as well as contractile reactivity. FABP4 alone had no influence on proliferation, migration, and inflammation of rat mesenteric arterial SMCs, while it significantly enhanced smooth muscle contraction and increases of systolic blood pressure (SBP) induced by noradrenaline (NA)...
April 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400731/il-1-inhibition-may-have-an-important-role-in-treating-refractory-kawasaki-disease
#15
REVIEW
Perrine Dusser, Isabelle Koné-Paut
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute inflammatory vasculitis occurring in young children before 5 years and representing at this age, the main cause of acquired heart disease. A single infusion of 2 g/kg of intravenous immunoglobulins along with aspirin has reduced the frequency of coronary artery aneurysms from 25 to 5%. However, 10-20% of patients do not respond to standard treatment and have an increased risk of cardiac complications and death. The development of more potent therapeutic approaches of KD is an urgent need...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399645/prohibitin-at-the-crossroads-of-obesity-linked-diabetes-and-cancer
#16
Suresh Mishra, Bl Grégoire Nyomba
The promoter of a gene that is selectively expressed in just a few cell types provides unique opportunities to study: (1) the pleiotropic function of a protein in two different cell types including the cell compartment specific function, and (2) the crosstalk between two cell/tissue types at the systemic level. This is not possible with a ubiquitous or a highly specific gene promoter. The adipocyte protein-2 ( aP2) is one such gene. It is primarily expressed in adipocytes, but also selectively in monocytic macrophages and dendritic cells, among various immune cell types...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398147/salmeterol-a-long-acting-%C3%AE-2-aderenergic-receptor-agonist-inhibits-macrophage-activation-by-lipopolysaccharide-from-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#17
Monika Sharma, Lindsay Patterson, Elisha Chapman, Patrick M Flood
BACKGROUND: Salmeterol is a long-acting beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist that is used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previously we had shown that pre-incubation of primary microglial enriched cells with Salmeterol could inhibit the inflammatory response induced by E. Coli LPS, a TLR-4 (toll-like receptor-4) agonist. In this study, we sought to determine if Salmeterol had a similar inhibitory effect on the inflammatory response of the murine macrophage cell line RAW264...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396236/skin-inflammation-induced-by-lupus-serum-was-inhibited-in-il-1r-deficient-mice
#18
Xiaoyan Li, Xuanxuan Guo, Huicheng Liu, Gongming Gao, Guangqiong Xu, Xibin Fei, Xiang Fang, Wei Qiao, Guo-Min Deng
Skin inflammation induced by lupus serum is a useful tool to investigate the pathogenesis of lupus skin injury. IL-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine, and its role in lupus skin lesion is still unclear. We determined the role of IL-1 in lupus skin injury by using gene deficient mice. We found that skin inflammation induced by lupus serum was significantly reduced in IL-1R deficient mice and caspase-1 deficient mice. IL-1R deficiency did not affect the expression of FcγRI (CD64), FcγRII (CD32) and MHC class II (CD74) induced by lupus serum...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389038/mass-cytometry-identifies-a-distinct-monocyte-cytokine-signature-shared-by-clinically-heterogeneous-pediatric-sle-patients
#19
W E O'Gorman, D S Kong, I M Balboni, P Rudra, C R Bolen, D Ghosh, M M Davis, G P Nolan, E W Y Hsieh
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease with heightened disease severity in children. The incomplete understanding of the precise cellular and molecular events that drive disease activity pose a significant hurdle to the development of targeted therapeutic agents. Here, we performed single-cell phenotypic and functional characterization of pediatric SLE patients and healthy controls blood via mass cytometry. We identified a distinct CD14(hi) monocyte cytokine signature, with increased levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (Mip1β), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA)...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388545/the-diagnostic-value-of-white-blood-cell-neutrophil-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-lymphocyte-to-monocyte-ratio-in-patients-with-primary-angle-closure-glaucoma
#20
Shengjie Li, Wenjun Cao, Jianping Han, Binghua Tang, Xinghuai Sun
OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory mechanisms may have a role in the pathogenesis of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) in patients with PACG and its association with glaucoma severity. METHOD: The study was retrospectively assessed in 771 consecutive PACG patients and 770 control subjects, laboratory parameters and clinical parameters were obtained from a medical data platform...
March 25, 2017: Oncotarget
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