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Monocyte pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820405/antiphospholipid-syndrome-and-monocytes-new-aspects
#1
A Blbulyan, A Martirosyan, M Petrek, Z Navratilova, G Manukyan
After discovery of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) our understanding of molecular mechanisms of living matter has become more sophisticated and on this way monocytes has become crucial player, particularly in pathogenesis of APS. Thrombotic and non-thrombotic complications of APS could be explained by monocytes' activation too. But mechanisms underlying their activation are poorly investigated. So we aimed to determine transcriptional activity of monocytes after exposing them to low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS+ATP using comparative of RT-PCR...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814429/nintedanib-macrophage-activation-and-ameliorates-vascular-and-fibrotic-manifestations-in-the-fra2-mouse-model-of-systemic-sclerosis
#2
Jingang Huang, Christiane Maier, Yun Zhang, Alina Soare, Clara Dees, Christian Beyer, Ulrike Harre, Chih-Wei Chen, Oliver Distler, Georg Schett, Lutz Wollin, Jörg H W Distler
BACKGROUND: Nintedanib is an inhibitor targeting platelet-derived growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases that has recently been approved for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of nintedanib in the fos-related antigen-2 (Fra2) mouse model of systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: The effects of nintedanib on pulmonary arterial hypertension with proliferation of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs) and luminal occlusion, on microvascular disease with apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) and on fibroblast activation with myofibroblast differentiation and accumulation of extracellular matrix were analysed...
August 16, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812210/increased-il-6-expression-on-thp-1-by-il-34-stimulation-up-regulated-rheumatoid-arthritis-th17-cells
#3
Bing Wang, Yawei Tang, Xiaotong Sun, Xunli Ouyang, Han Li, Jing Wei, Yan Zhang, Xia Li
IL-34 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which is a key regulator of monocytes/macrophages and might participate in the pathogenesis of RA. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of IL-34 on the monocyte-like cell line THP-1 and the quantitative variation of Th17 cells in THP-1 and RA CD4(+)T cells coculture system. CD4(+)T cells were purified from RA PBMC using immunomagnetic beads. THP-1 were cultured with RA CD4(+)T cells. The frequency of Th17 cells was determined by FACS. Fluorscence indensity and expression of ROS were detected by FACS and cell staining, respectively...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811236/interleukin-26-is-overexpressed-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-and-enhances-th17-related-cytokines
#4
Wajih Kaabachi, Eya Bouali, Anissa Berraïes, Imen Ben Dhifallh, Besma Hamdi, Kamel Hamzaoui, Agnès Hamzaoui
Behçet's disease (BD) is a multi-systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by the "triple symptom complex". Several pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly derived from the immune Th17 axis, seem to be involved in different pathogenic pathways leading to development of the clinical manifestations. Here, we have analyzed the expression and role of IL-26 in active BD patients, an inflammatory disorder characterized by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation. On this basis, the primary aim of our work was to study IL-26 levels in serum, BAL CSF) from active BD patients...
August 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808141/a-critical-role-for-plasma-kallikrein-in-the-pathogenesis-of-autoantibody-induced-arthritis
#5
Aizhen Yang, Junsong Zhou, Bo Wang, Jihong Dai, Robert W Colman, Wenchao Song, Yi Wu
The plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) consists of serine proteases, prekallikrein (pKal) and factor XII (FXII), and a cofactor, high-MW kininogen (HK). Upon activation, activated pKal and FXII cleave HK to release bradykinin. Activation of this system has been noted in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and its pathogenic role has been characterized in animal arthritic models. In this study, we generated 2 knockout mouse strains that lacked pKal and HK and determined the role of KKS in autoantibody-induced arthritis...
August 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807053/regulation-of-inflammation-in-japanese-encephalitis
#6
REVIEW
Nils Lannes, Artur Summerfield, Luis Filgueira
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled inflammatory response of the central nervous system is a hallmark of severe Japanese encephalitis (JE). Although inflammation is necessary to mount an efficient immune response against virus infections, exacerbated inflammatory response is often detrimental. In this context, cells of the monocytic lineage appear to be important forces driving JE pathogenesis. MAIN BODY: Brain-infiltrating monocytes, macrophages and microglia play a major role in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation during JE...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804456/lessons-learned-about-neurodegeneration-from-microglia-and-monocyte-depletion-studies
#7
REVIEW
Harald Lund, Melanie Pieber, Robert A Harris
While bone marrow-derived Ly6C(hi) monocytes can infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) they are developmentally and functionally distinct from resident microglia. Our understanding of the relative importance of these two populations in the distinct processes of pathogenesis and resolution of inflammation during neurodegenerative disorders was limited by a lack of tools to specifically manipulate each cell type. During recent years, the development of experimental cell-specific depletion models has enabled this issue to be addressed...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803951/monocytes-inhibit-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-trail-expression-on-cd56-bright-nk-cells
#8
Dalila Mele, Stefania Mantovani, Barbara Oliviero, Giulia Grossi, Andrea Lombardi, Mario U Mondelli, Stefania Varchetta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. We have previously shown that culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) enhance tumor necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expression on healthy but not on HCV-infected patient-derived NK cells, which was likely dependent on accessory cells. Here we sought mechanistic insights involved in altered TRAIL upregulation in this setting. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from controls and HCV-infected patients were exposed to HCVcc...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802852/autophagy-regulates-accumulation-and-functional-activity-of-granulocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-via-stat3-signaling-in-endotoxin-shock
#9
Guanjun Dong, Chuanping Si, Qingqing Zhang, Fenglian Yan, Chunxia Li, Hui Zhang, Qun Ma, Jun Dai, Zhihua Li, Hui Shi, Bo Wang, Junfeng Zhang, Jiankuo Ming, Yuan Hu, Shuo Geng, Yao Zheng, Liwu Li, Huabao Xiong
Autophagy extensively participates in immune responses and inflammatory diseases. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are derived from CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells under pathological conditions and play an immunosuppressive role in the pathogenesis of cancer and inflammatory diseases. However, the role of autophagy in regulating the accumulation and activity of MDSCs remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the effects and mechanisms of autophagy on regulating accumulation and activity of MDSCs. We first found that granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs), but not monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs), were accumulated in mice challenged by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and showed an elevated autophagy activity...
August 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799643/sebocytes-contribute-to-skin-inflammation-by-promoting-the-differentiation-of-th17-cells
#10
M Mattii, M Lovászi, N Garzorz, A Atenhan, M Quaranta, F Lauffer, A Konstantinow, M Küpper, C C Zouboulis, L Kemeny, K Eyerich, C B Schmidt-Weber, D Törőcsik, S Eyerich
BACKGROUND: The main function of sebocytes is considered to be the lipid production for moisturizing the skin. However, it became recently apparent that sebocytes release chemokines and cytokines and respond to pro-inflammatory stimuli as well as presence of bacteria. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the functional communication between human sebocytes and T cells. METHODS: Immunofluorescence stainings for CD4 and IL-17 were performed on acne sections and healthy skin...
August 11, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796997/dynamics-of-inflammatory-factors-in-aqueous-humor-during-ranibizumab-or-aflibercept-treatment-for-age-related-macular-degeneration
#11
Ryosuke Motohashi, Hidetaka Noma, Kanako Yasuda, Osamu Kotake, Hiroshi Goto, Masahiko Shimura
PURPOSE: To evaluate the dynamic changes of the aqueous humor levels of inflammatory factors between patients receiving intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IRI) and aflibercept injection (IAI) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: The study was performed on 30 eyes with AMD that were scheduled to receive 3 doses of IRI (15 eyes) or IAI (15 eyes) at monthly intervals. Aqueous humor samples were collected when injection was done...
August 11, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794498/analysis-of-inflammatory-cytokine-and-tlr-expression-levels-in-type-2-diabetes-with-complications
#12
Saket Gupta, Ashwini Maratha, Jakub Siednienko, Anandan Natarajan, Thusitha Gajanayake, Shu Hoashi, Sinéad Miggin
The pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are closely linked with defective glucose metabolism, obesity, cardiovascular disease and an inability to mount an effective immune response to certain pathogenic organisms. Perturbations in key innate immune receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, TNFα and IL-1β have been linked with T2DM. Herein, we sought to establish whether patients with T2DM and underlying complications exhibit perturbations in cytokine and TLR expression...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792098/identification-of-expression-quantitative-trait-loci-eqtls-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-pbmcs-and-shared-with-liver-and-brain
#13
Pei He, Wei Xia, Lan Wang, Jian Wu, Yu-Fan Guo, Ke-Qin Zeng, Ming-Jun Wang, Peng-Fei Bing, Fang-Fei Xie, Xin Lu, Yong-Hong Zhang, Shu-Feng Lei, Fei-Yan Deng
PBMCs are essential for immunity and involved in various diseases. To identify genetic variations contributing to PBMCs transcriptome-wide gene expression, we performed a genome-wide eQTL analysis by using genome-wide SNPs data and transcriptome-wide mRNA expression data. To assess whether there are common regulation patterns shared among different tissues/organs, public datasets were utilized to identify common eQTLs shared with PBMCs in lymphoblastoid, monocytes, liver, and brain. Allelic expression imbalance (AEI) assay was employed to validate representative eQTLs identified...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791384/curcumin-attenuates-the-development-of-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm-by-inhibiting-vegf-expression-and-inflammation
#14
Xiang Li, Qin Fang, Xiaohong Tian, Xiaohong Wang, Qiang Ao, Weijian Hou, Hao Tong, Jun Fan, Shuling Bai
Angiogenesis is an important process in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm. The aim of the present study was to investigate the angiogenic balance and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). A previous study demonstrated that curcumin exerts a marked effect on aortic aneurysm development. Therefore, the present study determined whether curcumin is able to modulate angiogenesis and inflammatory signaling in TAA by collecting human TAA samples and establishing a rat TAA model using periaortic application of CaCl2...
August 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790977/micro-and-nano-vesicles-from-first-trimester-human-placentae-carry-flt-1-and-levels-are-increased-in-severe-preeclampsia
#15
Mancy Tong, Qi Chen, Joanna L James, Peter R Stone, Lawrence W Chamley
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia is a life-threatening hypertensive disease affecting 3-5% of pregnancies. While the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains unclear, it is known that placenta-derived factors trigger the disease by activating maternal endothelial cells prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) of different sizes extruded by the placenta may be one factor. The truncated/secreted form of Flt-1 (sFlt-1) has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782084/brain-perivascular-macrophages-characterization-and-functional-roles-in-health-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Giuseppe Faraco, Laibaik Park, Josef Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
Perivascular macrophages (PVM) are a distinct population of resident brain macrophages characterized by a close association with the cerebral vasculature. PVM migrate from the yolk sac into the brain early in development and, like microglia, are likely to be a self-renewing cell population that, in the normal state, is not replenished by circulating monocytes. Increasing evidence implicates PVM in several disease processes, ranging from brain infections and immune activation to regulation of the hypothalamic-adrenal axis and neurovascular-neurocognitive dysfunction in the setting of hypertension, Alzheimer disease pathology, or obesity...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780731/unmet-needs-in-the-field-of-psoriasis-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Wolf-Henning Boehncke, Nicolo Costantino Brembilla
In times of targeted therapies, innovative therapeutics become tools to further unravel the pathogenesis of the treated disease, thus influencing current pathogenetic concepts. Based on such paradigm shifts, the next generation of novel therapeutic targets might be identified. Psoriasis is a good example for the resulting most fruitful dialog between clinical and fundamental research. As a result of this, the key role of Th17 lymphocytes, some of their effector molecules, as well as mediators contributing to their maturation have been identified, many of these being targeted by some of the most effective drugs currently available to treat psoriasis...
August 6, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771483/myeloid-specific-deletion-of-nox2-prevents-the-metabolic-and-neurologic-consequences-of-high-fat-diet
#18
Jennifer K Pepping, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar, Sun-Ok Fernandez-Kim, Jingying Zhang, Randall L Mynatt, Annadora J Bruce-Keller
High fat diet-induced obesity is associated with inflammatory and oxidative signaling in macrophages that likely participates in metabolic and physiologic impairment. One key factor that could drive pathologic changes in macrophages is the pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase. However, NADPH oxidase is a pleiotropic enzyme with both pathologic and physiologic functions, ruling out indiscriminant NADPH oxidase inhibition as a viable therapy. To determine if targeted inhibition of monocyte/macrophage NADPH oxidase could mitigate obesity pathology, we generated mice that lack the NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit NOX2 in myeloid lineage cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770826/the-immunoglobulin-d-fc-receptor-expressed-on-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-from-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-contributes-to-the-cell-activation
#19
Yu-Jing Wu, Wen-Sheng Chen, Heng-Shi Chen, Xing Dai, Jin Dong, Ying Wang, Ling-Ling Zhang, Yan Chang, Qiong Huang, Xiao-Yi Jia, Wei Wei
Immunoglobulin IgD might play an important role in autoimmune diseases, but the function of IgD has remained elusive, despite multiple attempts to define its biological function. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) are specialized cells of the synovium that play a key role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study we explored the possible roles of excessive IgD expression on the function of FLSs from RA patients (RA-FLSs). We showed that IgD Fc receptor (IgDR) was constitutively expressed on FLSs, and was significantly elevated in RA-FLSs compared with FLSs prepared from synovial tissues of healthy controls (HC-FLSs)...
August 3, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769925/pharmacodynamic-monitoring-of-ro5459072-a-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-cathepsin-s
#20
Michel Theron, Darren Bentley, Sandra Nagel, Marianne Manchester, Michael Gerg, Thomas Schindler, Ana Silva, Barbara Ecabert, Priscila Teixeira, Camille Perret, Bernhard Reis
Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII)-restricted antigen priming of CD4(+) T cells is both involved in adaptive immune responses and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Degradation of invariant chain Ii, a protein that prevents premature peptide loading, is a prerequisite for nascent MHCII-peptide complex formation. A key proteolytic step in this process is mediated by cathepsin S. Inhibition of this cysteine protease is known to result in the intracellular accumulation of Lip10 in B cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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