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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088638/the-dlno-dlco-ratio-physiological-significance-and-clinical-implications
#1
J M B Hughes, A T Dinh-Xuan
DLNO/DLCO directly measures the ratio of the diffusing capacities of the lung for nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). In terms of the Roughton and Forster, 1957; equation, 1/DL=1/Dm+1/θVc, where Dm is the membrane (Dm) and θVc is the red cell component of the overall diffusing conductance (DL), DLNO mostly reflects the Dm component and DLCO the θVc red cell component. The DLNO/DLCO ratio is positively related to the DmCO/Vc ratio and the CO red cell resistance (1/θCOVc) as a percentage of the total resistance (1/DLCO), independent of the absolute values of DLNO or DLCO...
January 11, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088305/inertial-particle-dynamics-in-large-artery-flows-implications-for-modeling-arterial-embolisms
#2
Debanjan Mukherjee, Shawn C Shadden
The complexity of inertial particle dynamics through swirling chaotic flow structures characteristic of pulsatile large-artery hemodynamics renders significant challenges in predictive understanding of transport of such particles. This is specifically crucial for arterial embolisms, where knowledge of embolus transport to major vascular beds helps in disease diagnosis and surgical planning. Using a computational framework built upon image-based CFD and discrete particle dynamics modeling, a multi-parameter sampling-based study was conducted on embolic particle dynamics and transport...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087731/increased-nbcn1-expression-na-hco3-co-transport-and-intracellular-ph-in-human-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-with-a-risk-allele-for-hypertension
#3
Fu Liang Ng, Ebbe Boedtkjer, Katarzyna Witkowska, Meixia Ren, Ruoxin Zhang, Arthur Tucker, Christian Aalkjær, Mark J Caulfield, Shu Ye
Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between variation at the SLC4A7 locus and blood pressure. SLC4A7 encodes the electroneutral Na(+)/HCO3 co-transporter NBCn1 which regulates intracellular pH (pHi). We conducted a functional study of variants at this locus in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. In both cell types, we found genotype-dependent differences for rs13082711 in DNA-nuclear protein interactions, where the risk allele is associated with increased SLC4A7 expression level, NBCn1 availability and function as reflected in elevated steady-state pHi and accelerated recovery from intracellular acidosis...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087173/at-the-heart-of-the-problem-a-person-centred-developmental-perspective-on-the-link-between-alcohol-consumption-and-cardio-vascular-events
#4
Valéria Lima Passos, Sven Klijn, Kevin van Zandvoort, Latifa Abidi, Paul Lemmens
INTRODUCTION: The cardio-protective effect of alcohol has been the subject of a long-standing scientific controversy. Emerging evidence remains equivocal, as the validity of the dose-dependent J-shape association is tainted by conceptual, theoretical and methodological problems. A major impediment for a resolution on the matter is the lack of a life-long developmental approach to pinpoint alcohol's specific impact on the risk for cardio-vascular events (CVE). OBJECTIVE: Using retrospective and prospective individual-level data of alcohol consumption (AC) we applied a model-based clustering technique to uncover life-course trajectories of AC and explored their links to CVE...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080134/alveolar-epithelial-cell-derived-mediators-potential-direct-regulators-of-large-airway-and-vascular-responses
#5
Elizabeth A Oczypok, Timothy N Perkins, Tim D Oury
Bronchial epithelial cells and pulmonary endothelial cells are thought to be the primary modulators of conducting airways and vessels, respectively. However, histological examination of both mouse and human lung tissue reveals that alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) line the adventitia of large airways and vessels and thus are also in a position to directly regulate these structures. The primary purpose of this perspective is to highlight that AECs coat the adventitial surface of every vessel and airway in the lung parenchyma...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078997/lipoprotein-a-and-cardiovascular-risk-the-show-must-go-on
#6
Niki Katsiki, Khalid Al-Rasadi, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent but moderate, predictor for coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence and severity. Several established and emerging cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including age, gender, ethnicity, smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, arterial stiffness and hyperuricemia have been linked to Lp(a) metabolism. Apart from CHD, Lp(a) has been also associated with non-cardiac vascular diseases and diseases associated with increased CV risk such as chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, erectile dysfunction, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infection...
January 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078981/resilience-to-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-physical-activity
#7
Pedrinolla Anna, Schena Federico, Venturelli Massimo
BACKGROUND: Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles at cerebral level, recent studies highlighted that AD might be the result of many altered physiological processes occurring at whole-organism level. The ability to adapt to stressors by "bending" but not "breaking" can be considered as "resilience". Individuals incline to withstand such pathophysiological challenges, can be considered more resilient than those that do not...
January 11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078374/-anaesthesia-procedures-and-invasive-vascular-access-in-severely-injured-patients-at-trauma-room-admission-in-germany-an-online-survey
#8
M F Struck, P Hilbert-Carius, B Hossfeld, J Hinkelbein, M Bernhard, T Wurmb
BACKGROUND: The continuous monitoring of vital parameters and subsequent therapy belong to the core duties of anaesthetists during acute trauma resuscitation in the trauma room. Important procedures may include placement of arterial lines and central venous catheters (CVCs). Knowledge of indication, performance and localization of invasive catheterisation of trauma care in Germany is scarce. METHODS: After approval of the German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine we conducted an online survey about arterial and central venous catheterisation of severely injured patients with consideration of common practice used by anaesthetists in German trauma rooms...
January 11, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076672/prenatal-psychostimulant-and-antidepressant-exposure-and-risk-of-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy
#9
D Jeffrey Newport, Amy L Hostetter, Sarah H Juul, Sunny M Porterfield, Bettina T Knight, Zachary N Stowe
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association, if any, of prenatal mental illness and psychotropic exposure with the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). METHODS: A case-cohort analysis was conducted of 686 pregnant women participating in prospective, longitudinal observational studies in a tertiary referral center between January 1998 and May 2012. Risk estimates were produced using multivariate logistic regression modeling. Medication- and diagnosis-specific data were utilized to conduct post hoc confirmatory analyses of the risk estimates...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076518/serum-klotho-but-not-haplotypes-associate-with-the-post-myocardial-infarction-status-of-older-adults
#10
Roberta S Paula, Vinícius C Souza, Wilcelly Machado-Silva, Bruno Ratier S Almeida, Andersen C Daros, Lucy Gomes, Aparecido P Ferreira, Ciro J Brito, Cláudio Córdova, Clayton F Moraes, Otávio T Nóbrega
OBJECTIVES: The number of deaths from vascular diseases is incredibly high worldwide, and reliable markers for major events are still needed. The current cross-sectional study investigated the association of Klotho haplotypes and Klotho serum levels with classic risk factors and a clinical history of vascular events. METHODS: Clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and nutritional assessments were conducted with 168 older adults, complemented by genotyping (rs9536314 and rs9527025) and the detection of serum Klotho (ELISA)...
December 1, 2016: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074802/goal-directed-therapy-improves-the-outcome-of-high-risk-cardiac-patients-undergoing-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass
#11
Poonam Malhotra Kapoor, Rohan Magoon, Rajinder Singh Rawat, Yatin Mehta, Sameer Taneja, R Ravi, Milind P Hote
BACKGROUND: There has been a constant emphasis on developing management strategies to improve the outcome of high-risk cardiac patients undergoing surgical revascularization. The performance of coronary artery bypass surgery on an off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) avoids the risks associated with extra-corporeal circulation. The preliminary results of goal-directed therapy (GDT) for hemodynamic management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients are encouraging. The present study was conducted to study the outcome benefits with the combined use of GDT with OPCAB as compared to the conventional hemodynamic management...
January 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073955/establishment-of-a-rat-model-of-thrombosis-induced-by-intravenous-injection-of-anti-phosphatidylserine-prothrombin-complex-antibody
#12
Mai Yamada, Tamihiro Kawakami, Kohei Takashima, Yusuke Nishioka, Yuka Nishibata, Sakiko Masuda, Shigeru Yoshida, Utano Tomaru, Akihiro Ishizu
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that aPS-PT antibody is one of the most relevant autoantibodies to APS. This study aimed to demonstrate the pathogenicity of aPS-PT antibody in vivo METHODS: At first, cultured rat vascular endothelial cells (RECs) were exposed to calf thymus-derived histones. Two hours later, lactate dehydrogenase release from the RECs and expression of PS on the cell surface were assessed. Next, we administered an i.v. injection of calf thymus-derived histones into Wistar rats (12...
January 9, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068653/exosomes-derived-from-human-pulmonary-artery-endothelial-cells-shift-the-balance-between-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-smooth-muscle-cells
#13
Lin Zhao, Hui Luo, Xiaohui Li, Tangzhiming Li, Jingni He, Qiangqiang Qi, Yuwei Liu, Zaixin Yu
BACKGROUND: The overproliferation of pulmonary vascular cells is noted in pulmonary hypertension. The role of exosomes from pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) in the proliferation and apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) remains unclear. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated and purified from the culture medium of PAEC using a commercial kit. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), hypoxia, and hydrogen peroxide were utilized to induce PAEC injury. Coculture of PAEC and PASMC was conducted using Transwell plates, and GW4869 was applied to inhibit exosome release...
January 10, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067964/cardiovascular-consequences-of-binge-drinking-an-integrative-review-with-implications-for-advocacy-policy-and-research
#14
Mariann R Piano, Adriana Mazzuco, Minkyung Kang, Shane A Phillips
Worldwide, binge drinking is a major public health problem. The popularized health risks associated with binge drinking include physical injury and motor vehicle crashes; less attention has been given to the negative effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. The primary aims of this review were to provide a summary of the adverse effects of binge drinking on the risk and development of CV disease and to review potential pathophysiologic mechanisms. Using specific inclusion criteria, an integrative review was conducted that included data from human experimental, prospective cross-sectional, and cohort epidemiological studies that examined the association between binge drinking and CV conditions such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and arrhythmias...
January 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065691/difference-in-vascular-response-between-sirolimus-eluting-and-everolimus-eluting-stents-in-ostial-left-circumflex-artery-after-unprotected-left-main-as-observed-by-optical-coherence-tomography
#15
Yusuke Fujino, Guilherme F Attizzani, Satoko Tahara, Toru Naganuma, Kensuke Takagi, Hiroto Yabushita, Wei Wang, Kentaro Tanaka, Takahiro Matsumoto, Hiroyoshi Kawamoto, Yuya Yamada, Shinnosuke Amano, Yusuke Watanabe, Takayuki Warisawa, Tomohiko Sato, Satoru Mitomo, Naoyuki Kurita, Hisaaki Ishiguro, Koji Hozawa, Takahiro Tsukahara, Masahiro Motosuke, Hiram G Bezerra, Shotaro Nakamura, Sunao Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Kissing-balloon technique (KBT) is commonly performed during percutaneous coronary intervention of distal unprotected left main coronary artery (ULM) aiming at obtaining optimal opening of the side branch (left circumflex artery; LCX) ostium. Nonetheless, detailed evaluation of vascular response to stents in LCX ostium is lacking. We therefore evaluated the vascular response to different drug-eluting stents (DES) in ostial LCX after ULM by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065188/flavanone-rich-citrus-beverages-counteract-the-transient-decline-in-postprandial-endothelial-function-in-humans-a-randomised-controlled-double-masked-cross-over-intervention-study
#16
Catarina Rendeiro, Honglin Dong, Caroline Saunders, Laura Harkness, Melvin Blaze, Yanpeng Hou, Ronald L Belanger, Giulia Corona, Julie A Lovegrove, Jeremy P E Spencer
Specific flavonoid-rich foods/beverages are reported to exert positive effects on vascular function; however, data relating to effects in the postprandial state are limited. The present study investigated the postprandial, time-dependent (0-7 h) impact of citrus flavanone intake on vascular function. An acute, randomised, controlled, double-masked, cross-over intervention study was conducted by including middle-aged healthy men (30-65 years, n 28) to assess the impact of flavanone intake (orange juice: 128·9 mg; flavanone-rich orange juice: 272·1 mg; homogenised whole orange: 452·8 mg; isoenergetic control: 0 mg flavanones) on postprandial (double meal delivering a total of 81 g of fat) endothelial function...
January 9, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064160/specific-heparanase-inhibition-reverses-glucose-induced-mesothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#17
Valentina Masola, Simona Granata, Gloria Bellin, Giovanni Gambaro, Maurizio Onisto, Carlo Rugiu, Antonio Lupo, Gianluigi Zaza
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells induced by high glucose (HG) levels is a major biological mechanism leading to myofibroblast accumulation in the omentum of patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Heparanase (HPSE), an endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate chains, is involved in the EMT of several cell lines, and may have a major role in this pro-fibrotic process potentially responsible for the failure of dialysis. Its specific inhibition may therefore plausibly minimize this pathological condition...
January 7, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063782/acceptable-clinical-outcomes-and-recommended-reconstructive-strategies-for-secondary-maxillary-reconstruction-with-vascularized-fibula-osteomyocutaneous-flap-a-retrospective-analysis
#18
Yi Shen, Jun Li, Andrew Ow, Liang Wang, Ming-Ming Lv, Jian Sun
BACKGROUND: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical outcomes and evaluated the reconstructive strategies in patients who underwent secondary maxillary reconstruction with a vascularized fibula osteomyocutaneous flap (VFOF). METHODS: From May of 2001 to June of 2014, 34 patients who underwent secondary maxillary reconstruction with VFOF, with or without titanium mesh, were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups of maxillary reconstruction, according to different planning and treatment strategies...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063278/combined-anterolateral-thigh-and-tensor-fasciae-latae-flaps-an-option-for-reconstruction-of-large-head-and-neck-defects
#19
Ramzey Tursun, Hisham Marwan, J Marshall Green, Fawaz Alotaibi, Andre LeDoux
PURPOSE: The advent of microvascular free tissue transfer has provided the reconstructive surgeon with an enormous array of treatment options for reconstruction of large head and neck defects. However, when indicated by defect size, the need for more than 1 flap not only increases surgical complexity but also patient morbidity. The combination of the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap and the tensor fascia latae (TFL) flap can be used to reconstruct such complex head and neck defects, thereby minimizing any additional morbidity that would be imposed by an additional flap harvest site...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062898/why-vascular-surgeons-and-interventional-radiologists-collaborate-or-compete-a-look-at-endovascular-stent-placements
#20
Eric J Keller, Jeremy D Collins, Megan Crowley-Matoka, Howard B Chrisman, Magdy P Milad, Robert L Vogelzang
PURPOSE: To understand how cultural differences between vascular surgeons (VSs) and interventional radiologists (IRs) affect their clinical decision making and inter-specialty relationships. METHODS: Twenty-four conversational interviews were conducted with IRs and VSs about their approaches to patient care, views of their specialty and others, and solutions to any expressed concerns. Interview transcripts were systematically analyzed to identify and compare key themes according to the constructivist grounded theory and content analysis using NVivo 10 software...
January 6, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
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