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vascular conductance

Germano Guerra, Angela Lucariello, Angelica Perna, Laura Botta, Antonio De Luca, Francesco Moccia
BACKGROUND: Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the mechanism whereby an increase in neuronal activity (NA) leads to local elevation in cerebral blood flow (CBF) to match the metabolic requirements of firing neurons. Following synaptic activity, an increase in neuronal and/or astrocyte Ca2+ concentration leads to the synthesis of multiple vasoactive messengers. Curiously, the role of endothelial Ca2+ signaling in NVC has been rather neglected, although endothelial cells are known to control the vascular tone in a Ca2+ -dependent manner throughout peripheral vasculature...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hidenori Otani, Mitsuharu Kaya, Akira Tamaki, Heita Goto, Takayuki Goto, Minayuki Shirato
Active individuals often perform exercises in the heat following heat stress exposure (HSE) regardless of the time-of-day and its variation in body temperature. However, there is no information concerning the diurnal effects of a rise in body temperature after HSE on subsequent exercise performance in a hot environnment. This study therefore investigated the diurnal effects of prior HSE on both sprint and endurance exercise capacity in the heat. Eight male volunteers completed four trials which included sprint and endurance cycling tests at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity...
March 21, 2018: Chronobiology International
Azuma Takahashi, Xiaodong Zhu, Yusuke Aoyama, Mitsuo Umezu, Kiyotaka Iwasaki
The evaluation of strain induced in a blood vessel owing to contact with a medical device is of significance to examine the causes leading to vascular injury and rupture. The development of a method to assess strain in largely deformed elastic materials is expected. This study's scope was to measure strain in deformed tubular elastic mock vessels using tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV), and to show the applicability of this measurement method by comparing the results with data derived from a finite element analysis (FEA)...
March 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Jian Yang, Ping Zeng, Jun Yang, Xiaowen Liu, Jiawang Ding, Huibo Wang, Lihua Chen
PURPOSE: Hyperglycemia is the high risk factor of vascular remodeling induced by angioplasty, and neointimal hyperplasia is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling caused by carotid artery balloon injury. Studies have shown that MicroRNA 24 (miR-24) plays an important role in angiocardiopathy, However, the role of miR-24 is far from thorough research. In this study, we investigate whether up-regulation of miR-24 by using miR-24 recombinant adenovirus (Ad-miR-24-GFP) can inhibit PDGF-BB signaling pathway and attenuate vascular remodeling in the diabetic rat model...
March 17, 2018: Gene
Stefan J Teipel, Thomas Fritze, Martin Ellenrieder, Britta Haenisch, Wolfram Mittelmeier, Gabriele Doblhammer
BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is an important complication of joint replacement surgeries in senior people. METHODS: We determined incidence rates of dementia diagnosis following endoprosthetic joint replacement surgery (upper and lower extremities). The observation period covered up to 28 quarters using German claims data comprising 154,604 cases 65 years and older. Effects were controlled for cerebrovascular and vascular risk factors, age, sex, the presence of a diagnosis of delirium, and regular prescription of sedative or analgesic drugs (SAD)...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Hwi Young Kim, Dong Hyeon Lee, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Young Youn Cho, Eun Ju Cho, Su Jong Yu, Yoon Jun Kim, Jung-Hwan Yoon
BACKGROUND: Prediction of the outcome of sorafenib therapy using biomarkers is an unmet clinical need in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim was to develop and validate a biomarker-based model for predicting sorafenib response and overall survival (OS). METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 124 consecutive HCC patients (44 with disease control, 80 with progression) with Child-Pugh class A liver function, who received sorafenib...
March 20, 2018: BMC Cancer
Miłosz Zajączkowski, Adam Kosiński, Marek Grzybiak, Rafał Kamiński, Agata Kaczyńska, Stanisław Zajączkowski, Ewa Nowicka
BACKGROUND: In cardiology, the paths of the arteries penetrating the septomarginal trabecula (SMT) are especially important. They provide blood supply to the apparatus of the right atrioventricular orifice and often form anastomoses with the system of the right coronary artery. Despite this, only a few publications discuss the morphological aspect of the septomarginal trabecula, and available histological analyses seldom deal with its blood supply. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the vessel structure of the septomarginal trabecula in terms of the variability of the area of the cross-section of the lumen and the muscular layer of the artery...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Ilaria Giusti, Marianna Di Francesco, Sandra D'Ascenzo, Paola Palumbo, Anna Rughetti, Luigi Dell'Orso, Paola Annunziata Varasano, Gabriella Lucidi Pressanti, Vincenza Dolo
The clinical use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) containing or deprived of leukocytes remains a subject of debate and a controversial issue. It is not yet clear whether leukocyte content has a positive or negative effect on tissue healing processes. Several studies, conducted mainly in the orthopedic field, support the use of leukocyte-poor (LP) PRP, whereas other studies have not identified any significant differences between the use of LP and leukocyte-rich PRP. In the present study, the role of leukocytes contained in PRP was assessed to verify their in vitro effect on fibroblasts and endothelial cells, which have a leading role in the biological processes associated with wound healing (including angiogenesis and matrix remodeling)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Amir Shaban, Toshio Moritani, Sami Al Kasab, Ali Sheharyar, Kaustubh S Limaye, Harold P Adams
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinal cord hemorrhages are rare conditions that can be classified based on the primary location of bleeding into intramedullary (hematomyelia), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), subdural hemorrhage, and epidural hemorrhage. We conducted a literature review to better understand the presenting symptoms, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of spinal cord hemorrhages. METHODS: We performed a literature search using PubMed with the key words spinal hemorrhage, hematomyelia, spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage, spinal subdural hematoma, and spinal epidural hematoma RESULTS: Most commonly, spinal hematomas present with acute onset of pain and myelopathy but a more insidious course also may occur...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Yan Zhang, Hong Li, Yingqin Jia, Pengfei Yang, Feng Zhao, Wei Wang, Wenqing Liu, Guisheng Chen, Xiaoqing Zhuang, Juan Li
BACKGROUD: Vascular calcification is currently recognized as an important pathobiological process in atherosclerosis, but the mechanism remains elusive. Given the similarities in vascular calcification and bone formation,18 F-sodium fluoride (18 F-NaF) is now considered a novel marker of vascular calcification. This study aimed to correlate18 F-NaF accumulation with the histological characterization of vascular calcification in carotid plaques. METHODS: A total of 8 patients who were undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for carotid artery stenosis were recruited...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Xin Xu, Cheuk Ni Kan, Tien Yin Wong, Ching-Yu Cheng, M Kamran Ikram, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbances were found to be associated with more behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPS) in early patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, data on preclinical stages of dementia are lacking. Hence, the present study sought to investigate the association between sleep disturbances and BPS in dementia-free elderly with varying severity of cognitive impairment in an Asian sample. METHODS: Community-living elderly were recruited and administered a comprehensive cognitive battery (vascular dementia battery [VDB]) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess symptoms of sleep disturbances and BPS...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Salomon Y Cohen, Alexandra Miere, Sylvia Nghiem-Buffet, Franck Fajnkuchen, Eric H Souied, Sarah Mrejen
A review of the literature from 2014 to 2016 was conducted, focusing on the results of optical coherence tomography angiography in different chorioretinal diseases. In only 3 years, optical coherence tomography angiography has been shown to be an effective tool for diagnosing choroidal neovascularization complicating age-related macular degeneration, pathologic myopia, and inflammatory conditions. The technique has sometimes been considered superior to conventional multimodal imaging, for example, in choroidal neovascularization associated with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy or multifocal choroiditis...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Roy Tan, Rupesh Agrawal, Swathi Taduru, Arushi Gupta, Kiran Vupparaboina, Jay Chhablani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate structural changes in the choroid of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted comparing 35 eyes of 35 patients with RP and 26 eyes of 26 normal patients. OCT images of the choroid were binarized into luminal and stromal areas to derive choroidal vascularity index (CVI). Subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) was also measured and compared...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
K Imakawa, R Bai, K Kusama
During the peri-implantation period, ruminant conceptuses go through rapid elongation, followed by their attachment to the uterine endometrial epithelial cells, during which interferon-tau (IFNT), a trophectodermal cytokine required for the process of maternal recognition of pregnancy, is expressed in a temporal and spatial manner. On d 22 (d 0 = day of estrus), 2 to 3 d after the initiation of bovine conceptus attachment to the uterine epithelium, when IFNT production begins to subside, the expression of molecules related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1, snail family transcriptional repressor 2, N-cadherin and vimentin was found in the trophectoderm...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Keiichi Torimoto, Yosuke Okada, Yoshiya Tanaka
Vascular endothelial function is important for maintaining the homeostasis of the living body. Especially, nitric oxide (NO) produced in vascular endothelial cells regulates blood vessel tone and has an antiatherosclerotic effect. Type 2 diabetes is a typical disease that causes impaired vascular endothelial function, resulting in various vascular complications and damage to organs. Cardiovascular disease associated with type 2 diabetes is a chronic inflammatory disease that starts with endothelial dysfunction (ED), and vascular ED is important as an initial change in arteriosclerotic lesions...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Huan Tong, Li-Geng Duan, Hong-Ying Zhou, Shi Feng
The hepatic VX2 carcinoma model in rabbits is widely used for the preclinical study of hepatocellular carcinoma. In the present study, a modification was made to the conventional method to establish the animal model, as the conventional method gives rise to frequent tumor seeding due to the drop-out of tumor fragments. In order to evaluate each distinct method of establishing the model, the rabbits were divided into two groups: Group A (the conventional method; n=20) and group B (the modified method; n=20)...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Sheylla M Felau, Lucas P Sales, Marina Y Solis, Ana Paula Hayashi, Hamilton Roschel, Ana Lúcia Sá-Pinto, Danieli Castro Oliveira De Andrade, Keyla Y Katayama, Maria Claudia Irigoyen, Fernanda Consolim-Colombo, Eloisa Bonfa, Bruno Gualano, Fabiana B Benatti
Endothelial cells are thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been shown to improve endothelial function in a number of diseases; thus, it could be of high clinical relevance in APS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of n-3 PUFA supplementation on endothelial function (primary outcome) of patients with primary APS (PAPS). A 16-week randomized clinical trial was conducted with 22 adult women with PAPS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Şuayib Yalçın, Ramazan Yildiz, Faysal Dane, Aziz Karaoğlu, Berna Öksüzoğlu, Özgür Özyılkan, Alper Sevinç, Feyyaz Özdemir, Hande Turna, Rüçhan Uslu, Esat Ulay
Introduction: The introduction of targeted therapies in renal cell carcinoma has significantly improved its prognosis and treatment outcomes in recent years. Such treatment options are targeted therapies of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway and the mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway. With the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and mammalian target of the rapamycin inhibitors, overall survival has increased up to 2 years. In Turkey, due to applicable reimbursement conditions for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), interferon use is mandated as a first-line treatment, thus providing information on the use of everolimus only after initial interferon and second-line VEGF-targeted treatments such as VEGF-TKI...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Chaojie Liang, Yingchen Xu, Hua Ge, Guangming Li, Jixiang Wu
Background and aim: Constitutive activation of STAT3 through its phosphorylation (p-STAT3) plays a key role in the development and progression of various cancers. However, the relationship between p-STAT3 expression and the clinicopathological features and prognostic value in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the role of p-STAT3 in HCC. Methods: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, Chinese CNKI, and Chinese Wanfang databases were searched using the appropriate terms to find the relevant studies on p-STAT3 and HCC...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Hu-Lin Christina Wang, Jia-Hao Zhang, Cheng-Hung How
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are rare vascular abnormalities that permit direct communication between the pulmonary artery and vein. During pregnancy, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation carries an increased risk of enlargement and rupture, which could lead to life-threatening hemothorax. This is the first case reporting successful thoracoscopic surgery for a pregnant woman with pulmonary arteriovenous malformation rupture-related hemothorax. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 32-year-old pregnant Asian woman (31 weeks' gestation) whose pulmonary arteriovenous malformation ruptured, leading to right-sided spontaneous tension hemothorax...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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