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Brian Hutton, Lisa D Burry, Salmaan Kanji, Sangeeta Mehta, Melanie Guenette, Claudio M Martin, Dean A Fergusson, Neill K Adhikari, Ingrid Egerod, David Williamson, Sharon Straus, David Moher, E Wesley Ely, Louise Rose
BACKGROUND: Sedatives and analgesics are administered to provide sedation and manage agitation and pain in most critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Various sedation administration strategies including protocolized sedation and daily sedation interruption are used to mitigate drug pharmacokinetic limitations and minimize oversedation, thereby shortening the duration of mechanical ventilation. At present, it is unclear which strategy is most effective, as few have been directly compared...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Paul A Stewart, Sophie S Liang, Qiushuang Susan Li, Min Li Huang, Ayse B Bilgin, Dukyeon Kim, Stephanie Phillips
BACKGROUND: Residual neuromuscular blockade (RNMB) has been linked to adverse respiratory events (AREs) in the postanesthetic care unit (PACU). However, these events are often not attributed to RNMB by anesthesiologists because they may also be precipitated by other factors including obstructive sleep apnea, opioids, or hypnotic agents. Many anesthesiologists believe RNMB occurs infrequently and is rarely associated with adverse outcomes. This study evaluated the prevalence and predictors of RNMB and AREs...
October 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Yi Kai Johnny Jiang, Shan Wang, Timothy S Lam, Adel Hanna, Jonas P DeMuro, Rose Calixte, Collin E M Brathwaite
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of delirium and coma in mechanically ventilated patients sedated with dexmedetomidine or propofol alone; to evaluate the hospital length of stay for both treatment groups; and to evaluate the level of sedation, adverse effects, and hospital outcomes. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for patients who were admitted to the medical or surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in a 591-bed teaching hospital and who received either dexmedetomidine or propofol alone for 24 hours or more for sedation...
July 2016: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Nadim Mahmud, Tyler M Berzin
Gastrointestinal endoscopic sedation has improved procedural and patient outcomes but is associated with attendant risks of oversedation and hemodynamic compromise. Therefore, close monitoring during endoscopic procedures using sedation is critical. This monitoring begins with appropriate staff trained in visual assessment of patients and analysis of basic physiologic parameters. It also mandates an array of devices widely used in practice to evaluate hemodynamics, oxygenation, ventilation, and depth of sedation...
July 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
Wojciech Weigl, Andrzej Bierylo, Monika Wielgus, Swietlana Krzemień-Wiczyńska, Iwona Szymusik, Marcin Kolacz, Michal J Dabrowski
Cesarean section (CS) is one of the most common surgical procedures in female patients. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of intrathecal fentanyl during the period of greatest postoperative analgesic demand after CS. This period was defined by detailed analysis of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) usage.This double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized trial included 60 parturients who were scheduled for elective CS. Participants received spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine supplemented with normal saline (control group) or with fentanyl 25 μg (fentanyl group)...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mikayla J Klug, Michael P Rivey, Jean T Carter
BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been shown to restore mobility, return an individual to activities of daily living, and improve quality of life. Nearly 80% of patients undergoing TKA report moderate to severe pain in the first 2 weeks following surgery. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 103 patients who underwent TKA between October 12, 2014 and May 30, 2015 by a single surgeon at a small community hospital. During this period, data were analyzed for differences in outcomes with a change from intraoperative periarticular (IOPA) injections containing an anesthetic/analgesic mixture of ropivacaine, epinephrine, ketorolac, and clonidine to liposomal bupivacaine...
April 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
Daniel Franzen, Daniel J Bratton, Christian F Clarenbach, Lutz Freitag, Malcolm Kohler
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Fractionated propofol administration (FPA) in flexible bronchoscopy (FB) may lead to oversedation and an increased risk of adverse events, because a stable plasma concentration of propofol is not maintainable. The purpose of this randomized noninferiority trial was to evaluate whether target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol is noninferior to FPA in terms of safety in FB. METHODS: Coprimary outcomes were the mean lowest arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) during FB and the number of propofol dose adjustments in relation to procedure duration...
June 15, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Jan Foster
Sedation is a necessary component of care for the critically ill. Oversedation, however, is associated with immediate complications and long-term problems, termed post-intensive care unit syndrome. It also contributes to unnecessary costs of care. This article describes the physical, functional, psychiatric, and cognitive complications of oversedation, and multiple research-based strategies that minimize complications.
June 2016: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
DaiWai M Olson, Kyloni Phillips, Carmelo Graffagnino
The sedation-assessment conundrum is the struggle to balance the need for sedation against the need to awaken the patient and perform a neurologic examination. This article discusses the nuances of the sedation-assessment conundrum as well as approaches to resolve this and reduce the negative impact of abruptly stopping sedative infusions. Both oversedation and undersedation affect critically ill patients. This article discusses methods of assessing sedation and interpreting individualized patient responses to sedation...
June 2016: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
Alexandra Fife, Andrea Postier, Andrew Flood, Stefan J Friedrichsdorf
OBJECTIVE: Methadone administration has increased in pediatric clinical settings. This review is an attempt to ascertain an equianalgesic dose ratio for methadone in the pediatric population using standard adult dose conversion guidelines. SETTING: US tertiary children's hospital. PATIENTS: Hospitalized pediatric patients, 0-18 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients who were converted from their initial opioid therapy regimen (morphine, hydromorphone, and/or fentanyl) to methadone...
May 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
Matthew Kohler, Felicia Chiu, Katherine M Gelber, Christopher Aj Webb, Paul D Weyker
Pain management for critically ill patients provides physicians with the challenge of maximizing patient comfort while avoiding the risks that arise with oversedation. Preventing oversedation has become increasingly important as we better understand the negative impact it has on patients' experiences and outcomes. Current research suggests that oversedation can result in complications such as thromboembolism, pulmonary compromise, immunosuppression and delirium. Fortunately, the analgesic options available for physicians to limit these complications are growing as more treatment modalities are being researched and implemented in the intensive care unit...
May 18, 2016: Pain Management
Tara L Sacco, Brenton LaRiccia
Trauma patients experience pain and agitation during their hospitalization. Many complications have been noted both in the absence of symptom management and the in presence of oversedation/narcotization. To combat noted untoward effects of pain and sedation management, an interprofessional team convened to develop a pain and sedation guideline for use in a trauma intensive care unit. Guideline development began with a comprehensive review of the literature. With the input of unit stakeholders, a nurse-driven analgosedation guideline was implemented for a 6-month trial...
May 2016: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
David W Fabi
Hip fracture is one of the most common injuries among the elderly and, because the population is aging, it is expected to remain a major clinical challenge and public health problem for the foreseeable future. The clinical importance of early mobilization and prompt participation in physical therapy after hip fracture surgery is now widely recognized. Because postoperative pain can impair mobility and delay physical therapy, much attention is now being paid to finding more effective ways of controlling pain after hip fracture...
May 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Igor I Galynker, Zimri S Yaseen, Siva S Koppolu, Barney Vaughan, Magdalena Szklarska-Imiolek, Lisa J Cohen, Thomas M Salvanti, Hae-Joon Kim
BACKGROUND: Understanding trajectories of symptom changes may help gauge treatment response and better identify therapeutic targets in treatment of acute mania. We examined how symptoms of sleep disturbance, mania, and psychosis resolved in a naturalistic treatment setting, hypothesizing that improvement in sleep would precede improvement in manic and psychotic symptoms. METHODS: Charts of 100 patients with admitting diagnoses of bipolar mixed or manic episode were retrospectively reviewed...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Nalini Vadivelu, Alice M Kai, Daniel Tran, Gopal Kodumudi, Aron Legler, Eugenia Ayrian
Moderate-to-severe pain following neurosurgery is common but often does not get attention and is therefore underdiagnosed and undertreated. Compounding this problem is the traditional belief that neurosurgical pain is inconsequential and even dangerous to treat. Concerns about problematic effects associated with opioid analgesics such as nausea, vomiting, oversedation, and increased intracranial pressure secondary to elevated carbon dioxide tension from respiratory depression have often led to suboptimal postoperative analgesic strategies in caring for neurosurgical patients...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
Genís Carrasco, Nacho Baeza, Lluís Cabré, Eugenia Portillo, Gemma Gimeno, David Manzanedo, Milagros Calizaya
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness, safety, and cost of dexmedetomidine for the treatment of agitated delirium refractory to haloperidol in nonintubated critically ill patients. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Intensive care department of a tertiary care nonprofit hospital. PATIENTS: All consecutive admissions to a medical-surgical ICU with a diagnosis of agitated delirium. INTERVENTIONS: Initial haloperidol titration: all patients received IV bolus doses of haloperidol until agitation was controlled (Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale scoring range, 0 to -2) or reaching the maximum daily dose...
July 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Niina Kleiber, Saskia N de Wildt, Gérard Cortina, Michael Clifford, Joost van Rosmalen, Monique van Dijk, Dick Tibboel, Johnny Millar
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of two sedation practices on cardiovascular stability during the early postoperative period in young infants following cardiac surgery: the routine early use of midazolam infusion (preemptive sedation) and the discretionary use of sedatives tailored to the patient's clinical condition (targeted sedation). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with matched controls. SETTING: A 15-bedded pediatric cardiac ICU. PATIENTS: Sedation strategies were compared by matching patients before and after the introduction of a targeted sedation guideline, replacing the existing practice of preemptive sedation...
April 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
M M Vu, R D Galiano, J M Souza, C Du Qin, J Y S Kim
PURPOSE: Monitored anesthesia care with intravenous sedation (MAC/IV), recently proposed as a good choice for hernia repair, has faster recovery and better patient satisfaction than general anesthesia; however the possibility of oversedation and respiratory distress is a widespread concern. There is a paucity of the literature examining umbilical hernia repairs (UHR) and optimal anesthesia choice, despite its importance in determining clinical outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of anesthesia type in UHR was performed in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005-2013 database...
August 2016: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Mary Saliski, Sapna R Kudchadkar
Achieving successful early mobilization for the intubated, critically ill child is dependent on optimizing sedation and analgesia. Finding the fine balance between oversedation and undersedation can be challenging. The ideal is for a child to be lucid and interactive during the daytime and demonstrate normal circadian rhythm for sleep with rest at night. Being alert during the day facilitates active participation in therapy including potential ambulation, while decreasing the risk of delirium during mechanical ventilation...
2015: Journal of Pediatric Intensive Care
Frank A Schymik, Ellen M Lavoie Smith, Terri Voepel-Lewis
Tonsillectomy is a common and painful procedure often indicated for children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who are at risk for opioid-related toxicity. Whether parents whose children have OSA understand the risks of opioids is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parents whose children have OSA have greater opioid risk understanding and would be less likely to give an opioid to a child exhibiting oversedation compared to parents whose children do not have OSA. The study design was a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study...
December 2015: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
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