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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209617/mirroring-the-multiple-potentials-of-micrornas-in-acute-myocardial-infarction
#1
REVIEW
Solenne Paiva, Onnik Agbulut
At present, cardiovascular diseases are depicted to be the leading cause of death worldwide according to the World Health Organization. In the future, projections predict that ischemic heart disease will persist in the top main causes of illness. Within this alarming context, some tiny master regulators of gene expression programs, namely, microRNAs (miRNAs) carry three promising potentials. In fact, miRNAs can prove to be useful not only in terms of biomarkers allowing heart injury detection but also in terms of therapeutics to overcome limitations of past strategies and treat the lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205435/relative-efficiency-of-precision-medicine-designs-for-clinical-trials-with-predictive-biomarkers
#2
Weichung Joe Shih, Yong Lin
Prospective randomized clinical trials addressing biomarkers are time consuming and costly, but are necessary for regulatory agencies to approve new therapies with predictive biomarkers. For this reason, recently, there have been many discussions and proposals of various trial designs and comparisons of their efficiency in the literature. We compare statistical efficiencies between the marker-stratified design and the marker-based precision medicine design regarding testing/estimating 4 hypotheses/parameters of clinical interest, namely, treatment effects in each marker-positive and marker-negative cohorts, marker-by-treatment interaction, and the marker's clinical utility...
December 4, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173074/improving-the-power-to-establish-clinical-similarity-in-a-phase-3-efficacy-trial-by-incorporating-prior-evidence-of-analytical-and-pharmacokinetic-similarity
#3
Donglin Zeng, Jean Pan, Kuolung Hu, Eric Chi, D Y Lin
To improve patients' access to safe and effective biological medicines, abbreviated licensure pathways for biosimilar and interchangeable biological products have been established in the US, Europe, and other countries around the world. The US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency have published various guidance documents on the development and approval of biosimilars, which recommend a "totality-of-the-evidence" approach with a stepwise process to demonstrate biosimilarity. The approach relies on comprehensive comparability studies ranging from analytical and nonclinical studies to clinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) and efficacy studies...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173004/advancing-cancer-drug-development-through-precision-medicine-and-innovative-designs
#4
Weidong Zhang, Jing Wang, Sandeep Menon
Precision medicine has been a hot topic in drug development over the last decade. Biomarkers have been proven useful for understanding the disease progression and treatment response in precision medicine development. Advancement of high-throughput omics technologies has enabled fast identification of molecular biomarkers with low cost. Although biomarkers have brought many promises to drug development, steep challenges arise due to a large amount of data, complexity of technology, and lack of full understanding of biology...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168563/pelvic-examination-may-be-meaningfully-taught-to-novices-and-be-used-to-predict-operating-times-for-laparoscopic-excision-of-endometriosis-in-one-surgical-procedure
#5
Mominah Bhatti, Ashradha Ketheeswaran, Amy Arnold, Erin Nesbitt-Hawes, Rebecca Deans, HaRyun Won, Jason Abbott
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pelvic examination may be meaningfully taught to novice medical students and its accuracy in predicting operating times for laparoscopic excision of endometriosis at a single surgical procedure. METHODS: Women with suspected endometriosis scheduled for laparoscopy underwent pelvic examination to estimate operative time by medical students (novices), trainees, senior clinicians with <10 years surgical experience (experts) and ≥10 years (masters)...
November 23, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140430/the-european-society-for-medical-oncology-esmo-precision-medicine-glossary
#6
L R Yates, J Seoane, C Le Tourneau, L L Siu, R Marais, S Michiels, J C Soria, P Campbell, N Normanno, A Scarpa, J S Reis-Filho, J Rodon, C Swanton, F Andre
Background: Precision medicine is rapidly evolving within the field of oncology and has brought many new concepts and terminologies that are often poorly defined when first introduced, which may subsequently lead to miscommunication within the oncology community. The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) recognises these challenges and is committed to support the adoption of precision medicine in oncology. To add clarity to the language used by oncologists and basic scientists within the context of precision medicine, the ESMO Translational Research and Personalised Medicine Working Group has developed a standardised glossary of relevant terms...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110668/measuring-the-bias-against-low-income-country-research-an-implicit-association-test
#7
Matthew Harris, James Macinko, Geronimo Jimenez, Pricila Mullachery
BACKGROUND: With an increasing array of innovations and research emerging from low-income countries there is a growing recognition that even high-income countries could learn from these contexts. It is well known that the source of a product influences perception of that product, but little research has examined whether this applies also in evidence-based medicine and decision-making. In order to examine likely barriers to learning from low-income countries, this study uses established methods in cognitive psychology to explore whether healthcare professionals and researchers implicitly associate good research with rich countries more so than with poor countries...
November 6, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099017/a-comparative-evaluation-of-gait-between-children-with-autism-and-typically-developing-matched-controls
#8
Janet S Dufek, Jeffrey D Eggleston, John R Harry, Robbin A Hickman
Anecdotal reports suggest children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ambulate differently than peers with typical development (TD). Little empirical evidence supports these reports. Children with ASD exhibit delayed motor skills, and it is important to determine whether or not motor movement deficits exist during walking. The purpose of the study was to perform a comprehensive lower-extremity gait analysis between children (aged 5-12 years) with ASD and age- and gender-matched-samples with TD. Gait parameters were normalized to 101 data points and the gait cycle was divided into seven sub-phases...
January 5, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090929/age-and-sex-effects-on-plasma-metabolite-association-networks-in-healthy-subjects
#9
Alessia Vignoli, Leonardo Tenori, Claudio Luchinat, Edoardo Saccenti
In the era of precision medicine, the analysis of simple information like sex and age can increase the potential to better diagnose and treat conditions that occur more frequently in one of the two sexes, present sex-specific symptoms and outcomes, or are characteristic of a specific age group. We present here study of the association networks constructed from an array of 22 plasma metabolites measured on a cohort of 844 healthy blood donors. Through differential network analysis we show that specific association networks can be associated with sex and age: different connectivity patterns where observed suggesting sex-related variability in several metabolic pathways (branched-chain amino acids, ketone bodies and propanoate metabolism)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059494/molecular-based-diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-its-progressive-stage
#10
Christopher Barbour, Peter Kosa, Mika Komori, Makoto Tanigawa, Ruturaj Masvekar, Tianxia Wu, Kory Johnson, Panagiotis Douvaras, Valentina Fossati, Ronald Herbst, Yue Wang, Keith Tan, Mark Greenwood, Bibiana Bielekova
OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers aid diagnosis, allow inexpensive screening of therapies, and guide selection of patient-specific therapeutic regimens in most internal medicine disciplines. In contrast, neurology lacks validated measurements of the physiological status, or dysfunction(s) of cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Accordingly, patients with chronic neurological diseases are often treated with a single disease-modifying therapy without understanding patient-specific drivers of disability...
November 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054261/development-and-validation-of-various-phenotyping-algorithms-for-diabetes-mellitus-using-data-from-electronic-health-records
#11
Santiago Esteban, Manuel Rodríguez Tablado, Francisco E Peper, Yamila S Mahumud, Ricardo I Ricci, Karin S Kopitowski, Sergio A Terrasa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Recent progression towards precision medicine has encouraged the use of electronic health records (EHRs) as a source for large amounts of data, which is required for studying the effect of treatments or risk factors in more specific subpopulations. Phenotyping algorithms allow to automatically classify patients according to their particular electronic phenotype thus facilitating the setup of retrospective cohorts. Our objective is to compare the performance of different classification strategies (only using standardized problems, rule-based algorithms, statistical learning algorithms (six learners) and stacked generalization (five versions)), for the categorization of patients according to their diabetic status (diabetics, not diabetics and inconclusive; Diabetes of any type) using information extracted from EHRs...
December 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052956/meta-analysis-of-full-roc-curves-using-bivariate-time-to-event-models-for-interval-censored-data
#12
Annika Hoyer, Stefan Hirt, Oliver Kuss
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are the cornerstones of evidence based medicine and inform treatment, diagnosis, or prevention of individual patients as well as policy decisions in health care. Statistical methods for the meta-analysis of intervention studies are well established today. Meta-analysis for diagnostic accuracy trials has also been a vivid research area in recent years which is especially due to the increased complexity of their bivariate outcome of sensitivity and specificity. The situation is even more challenging when single studies report a full ROC curve with several pairs of sensitivity and specificity, each pair for a different threshold...
October 20, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043940/using-maps-to-promote-data-driven-decision-making-one-library-s-experience-in-data-visualization-instruction
#13
Michelle Malizia Catalano, Porcia Vaughn, Joshua Been
Data play a crucial role in health research, education, and patient care. Initiatives such as Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) and Precision Medicine point to the increasing focus and value of data use and reuse. As the universe of data continues to grow exponentially, health education needs to provide students with practical hands-on learning sessions that illustrate the multitude of uses for data and statistics. Giving students early exposure to data reuse provides a solid background for the more complex data they may gather later in their education...
October 2017: Medical Reference Services Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038172/precision-medicine-for-cardiac-resynchronization-predicting-quality-of-life-benefits-for-individual-patients-an-analysis-from-5-clinical-trials
#14
Michael E Nassif, Yuanyuan Tang, John G Cleland, William T Abraham, Cecilia Linde, Michael R Gold, James B Young, J Claude Daubert, Lou Sherfesee, Dan Schaber, Anthony S L Tang, Philip G Jones, Suzanne V Arnold, John A Spertus
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have established the average benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), but estimating benefit for individual patients remains difficult because of the heterogeneity in treatment response. Accordingly, we created a multivariable model to predict changes in quality of life (QoL) with and without CRT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patient-level data from 5 randomized trials comparing CRT with no CRT were used to create a prediction model of change in QoL at 3 months using a partial proportional odds model for no change, small, moderate, and large improvement, or deterioration of any magnitude...
October 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035190/brain-tumor-epidemiology-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-the-2017-brain-tumor-epidemiology-consortium-meeting-report
#15
Kimberly J Johnson, Judith Schwartzbaum, Carol Kruchko, Michael E Scheurer, Ching C Lau, Adelheid Woehrer, Johannes A Hainfellner, Joseph Wiemels
The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an international consortium that aims to advance the development of multicenter and interdisciplinary collaborations that focus on research related to the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors. The 18th annual BTEC meeting was held in Banff, AB, Canada, on June 27 - 29, 2017. The meeting focused on the intersection between epidemiology and precision medicine, that is, the use of molecular indicators of risk, early disease and prognosis or precision epidemiology...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984192/a-link-prediction-approach-to-cancer-drug-sensitivity-prediction
#16
Turki Turki, Zhi Wei
BACKGROUND: Predicting the response to a drug for cancer disease patients based on genomic information is an important problem in modern clinical oncology. This problem occurs in part because many available drug sensitivity prediction algorithms do not consider better quality cancer cell lines and the adoption of new feature representations; both lead to the accurate prediction of drug responses. By predicting accurate drug responses to cancer, oncologists gain a more complete understanding of the effective treatments for each patient, which is a core goal in precision medicine...
October 3, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978191/incorporation-of-biological-knowledge-into-the-study-of-gene-environment-interactions
#17
Marylyn D Ritchie, Joe R Davis, Hugues Aschard, Alexis Battle, David Conti, Mengmeng Du, Eleazar Eskin, M Daniele Fallin, Li Hsu, Peter Kraft, Jason H Moore, Brandon L Pierce, Stephanie A Bien, Duncan C Thomas, Peng Wei, Stephen B Montgomery
A growing knowledge base of genetic and environmental information has greatly enabled the study of disease risk factors. However, the computational complexity and statistical burden of testing all variants by all environments has required novel study designs and hypothesis-driven approaches. We discuss how incorporating biological knowledge from model organisms, functional genomics, and integrative approaches can empower the discovery of novel gene-environment interactions and discuss specific methodological considerations with each approach...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925156/-plant-metabolomics-approach-for-age-discrimination-of-mountain-cultivated-ginseng-using-uplc-q-tof-ms
#18
Xiang-Wei Chang, Bo-Ran Wang, Tong Wang, De-Kun Li, Ying Zhao, Yu-Ling Zhang, Da-Zheng Zhou, Zheng-Liang Ye
Growth year is one of the important factors for the quality of mountain cultivated ginseng (MCG). For age differentiation of MCG, rhizome extracts of ginseng aged from 11 to 15 years were analyzed using a non-targeted approach with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS)-based on plant metabolomics technique. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to compare the derived patterns among the samples...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913731/inter-and-intra-observer-reproducibility-of-quantitative-analysis-for-fp-cit-spect-in-patients-with-dlb
#19
Atsutaka Okizaki, Michihiro Nakayama, Kaori Nakajima, Takayuki Katayama, Takahiro Uno, Fumiyoshi Morikawa, Juichiro Naoe, Koji Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Dopamine transporter single photon emission CT (DAT-SPECT) is useful in the evaluation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The specific binding ratio (SBR) is an index to measure DAT density. However, poorly reproducible cases are occasionally experienced in clinical practice. We hypothesized that distance-weighted histogram (DWH) may be useful to improve the reproducibility of SBR. The purpose of this study was to investigate inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of SBR with conventional and DWH methods, and to visually evaluate the precision in reference voxel of interest (VOI) definition using these methods...
September 14, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912940/technical-report-on-the-modification-of-3-dimensional-non-contact-human-body-laser-scanner-for-the-measurement-of-anthropometric-dimensions-verification-of-its-accuracy-and-precision
#20
Akram Sadat Jafari Roodbandi, Hamid Naderi, Naser Hashenmi-Nejad, Alireza Choobineh, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Vafa Feyzi
Introduction: Three-dimensional (3D) scanners are widely used in medicine. One of the applications of 3D scanners is the acquisition of anthropometric dimensions for ergonomics and the creation of an anthropometry data bank. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of a modified 3D scanner fabricated in this study. Methods: In this work, a 3D scan of the human body was obtained using DAVID Laser Scanner software and its calibration background, a linear low-power laser, and one advanced webcam...
2017: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
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