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Precision medicine statistics

Ting-Ting Zhao, Ling-Ling Zhu, Meng Chen, Quan Zhou
BACKGROUND: According to prescribing information for Myrtol standardized enteric-coated soft capsules, the medicine should be taken on an empty stomach. Some patients may experience stomach discomfort after oral administration in fasted state and would prefer to take the medicine after a meal. However, there is no literature addressing the effect of meal on absorption of this drug; therefore, it is desirable to explore the feasibility of taking the capsule after a meal from pharmacokinetic perspective...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Jyoti Dahiya, Jitender Singh, Ashwani Kumar, Anupam Sharma
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaves of M. koenigii Linn. Spreng (Rutaceae) have been used as traditional medicine for anxiety disorders. Aim of the study was to isolate antianxiety principle(s) from the leaves of M. koenigii using bioactivity guided approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hydroalcoholic extract of M. koenigii leaves was prepared using soxhlet apparatus, and the same was evaluated for antianxiety activity at 250, 500 and 750mg/kg, po, using Elevated plus-maze (EPM)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Etheresia Pretorius
The latest statistics from the 2016 heart disease and stroke statistics update shows that cardiovascular disease is the leading global cause of death, currently accounting for more than 17.3 million deaths per year. Type II diabetes is also on the rise with out-of-control numbers. To address these pandemics, we need to treat patients using an individualized patient care approach, but simultaneously gather data to support the precision medicine initiative. Last year the NIH announced the precision medicine initiative to generate novel knowledge regarding diseases, with a near-term focus on cancers, followed by a longer-term aim, applicable to a whole range of health applications and diseases...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Shelby R Hayes, Ashley J Vargas
: Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD004827. BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. They alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via restoration of the gut microflora...
August 26, 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Paul L Auer, Alex P Reiner, Gao Wang, Hyun Min Kang, Goncalo R Abecasis, David Altshuler, Michael J Bamshad, Deborah A Nickerson, Russell P Tracy, Stephen S Rich, Suzanne M Leal
Massively parallel whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data have ushered in a new era in human genetics. These data are now being used to understand the role of rare variants in complex traits and to advance the goals of precision medicine. The technological and computing advances that have enabled us to generate WGS data on thousands of individuals have also outpaced our ability to perform analyses in scientifically and statistically rigorous and thoughtful ways. The past several years have witnessed the application of whole-exome sequencing (WES) to complex traits and diseases...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Dung-Tsa Chen, Po-Yu Huang, Hui-Yi Lin, Eric B Haura, Scott J Antonia, W Douglas Cress, Jhanelle E Gray
PURPOSE: Biomarkers and genomic signatures represent potentially predictive tools for precision medicine. Validation of predictive biomarkers in prospective or retrospective studies requires statistical justification of power and sample size. However, the design of these studies is complex and the statistical methods and associated software are limited, especially in survival data. Herein, we address common statistical design issues relevant to these two types of studies and provide guidance and a general template for analysis...
September 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Jun-Sheng Tian, Xiao-Tao Xia, Yan-Fei Wu, Lei Zhao, Huan Xiang, Guan-Hua Du, Xiang Zhang, Xue-Mei Qin
Individuals in the state of psychological suboptimal health keep increasing, only scales and questionnaires were used to diagnose in clinic under current conditions, and symptoms of high reliability and accuracy are destitute. Therefore, the noninvasive and precise laboratory diagnostic methods are needed. This study aimed to develop an objective method through screen potential biomarkers or a biomarker panel to facilitate the diagnosis in clinic using plasma metabolomics. Profiles were based on H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) metabolomics techniques combing with multivariate statistical analysis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Emilie R Mainz, Qunzhao Wang, David S Lawrence, Nancy L Allbritton
Tools to evaluate oncogenic kinase activity in small clinical samples have the power to guide precision medicine in oncology. Existing platforms have demonstrated impressive insights into the activity of protein kinases, but these technologies are unsuitable for the study of kinase behavior in large numbers of primary human cells. To address these limitations, we developed an integrated analysis system that utilizes a light-programmable, cell-permeable reporter deliverable simultaneously to many cells. The reporter's ability to act as a substrate for Akt, a key oncogenic kinase, was masked by a 2-4,5-dimethoxy 2-nitrobenzyl (DMNB) moiety...
October 10, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Hallam Stevens
BACKGROUND: The nineteenth century saw the rise of what historians of medicine have termed the 'medical gaze'. Physicians used instrumentation and trained senses to locate the site of disease within the patient's body. This change in practice went alongside changes in the physician's power and how diseases were understood. In the twenty-first century, the rise of high-throughput biomedical experiments, especially in genomics, is leading to equally dramatic shifts in medicine. Increasingly, clinical decisions may be made on the basis of data and statistical associations rather than the particularities of the case at hand...
September 2016: Australian Family Physician
Wolfgang Orthuber
Medicine is becoming more and more complex and humans can capture total medical knowledge only partially. For specific access a high resolution search engine is demonstrated, which allows besides conventional text search also search of precise quantitative data of medical findings, therapies and results. Users can define metric spaces ("Domain Spaces", DSs) with all searchable quantitative data ("Domain Vectors", DSs). An implementation of the search engine is online in In future medicine the doctor could make first a rough diagnosis and check which fine diagnostics (quantitative data) colleagues had collected in such a case...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Sheila V Kusnoor, Taneya Y Koonce, Mia A Levy, Christine M Lovly, Helen M Naylor, Ingrid A Anderson, Christine M Micheel, Sheau-Chiann Chen, Fei Ye, Nunzia B Giuse
This study tested an innovative model for creating consumer-level content about precision medicine based on health literacy and learning style principles. "Knowledge pearl" videos, incorporating multiple learning modalities, were created to explain genetic and cancer medicine concepts. Cancer patients and caregivers (n=117) were randomized to view professional-level content directly from the My Cancer Genome (MCG) website (Group A; control), content from MCG with knowledge pearls embedded (Group B), or a consumer translation, targeted at the sixth grade level, with knowledge pearls embedded (Group C)...
2016: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
Andrzej Śliwczynski, Ewa Orlewska
Precision medicine (PM) is an important modern paradigm for combining new types of metrics with big medical datasets to create prediction models for prevention, diagnosis, and specific therapy of chronic diseases. The aim of this paper was to differentiate PM from personalized medicine, to show potential benefits of PM for managing chronic diseases, and to define problems with implementation of PM into clinical practice. PM strategies in chronic airway diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases show that the key to developing PM is the addition of big datasets to the course of individually profiling diseases and patients...
August 18, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
Ruiqi Cen, Azad Hussain, Kirk J Pak, Geoffrey Mitchell, Jane Nikles, Stephanie Gaudreau, Lydia A Bazzano, Joseph L Breault
There is no standard policy regarding the regulatory or institutional approval of N-of-1 trials in the United States. The objective of this study was to examine whether institutional review boards (IRBs) accredited by the Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs (AAHRPP) consider N-of-1 trials as meeting the definition of human subjects research (45CFR46.102) and requiring IRB approval. A questionnaire was distributed via email to 170 AAHRPP-accredited IRBs in the United States...
July 2016: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
Hudson Reddon, Jean-Louis Guéant, David Meyre
The worldwide obesity epidemic has been mainly attributed to lifestyle changes. However, who becomes obese in an obesity-prone environment is largely determined by genetic factors. In the last 20 years, important progress has been made in the elucidation of the genetic architecture of obesity. In parallel with successful gene identifications, the number of gene-environment interaction (GEI) studies has grown rapidly. This paper reviews the growing body of evidence supporting gene-environment interactions in the field of obesity...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Eneko Barbería, Rosa Gispert, Belén Gallo, Gloria Ribas, Anna Puigdefàbregas, Adriana Freitas, Elena Segú, Pilar Torralba, Francisco García-Sayago, Aina Estarellas
INTRODUCTION: Monitoring and preventing suicidal behaviour requires, among other data, knowing suicide deaths precisely. They often appear under-reported or misclassified in the official mortality statistics. The aim of this study is to analyse the under-reporting found in the suicide mortality statistics of Tarragona (a province of Catalonia, Spain). METHOD AND MATERIALS: The analysis takes into account all suicide deaths that occurred in the Tarragona Area of the Catalan Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (TA-CILMFS) between 2004 and 2012...
July 20, 2016: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
Zahra Behboodi Moghadam, Elham Rezaei, Roghaieh Shirood Gholami, Masomeh Kheirkhah, Hamid Haghani
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common disorder. Due to the knowledge lack of the precise etiology of this syndrome, different treatment methods are recommended, one of them is the use of medicinal herbs. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Valerian ( xié cǎo) root extract on the intensity of PMS symptoms. In this double-blind clinical trial, 100 female students of Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Mazandaran Province, Iran, with PMS were randomly divided into groups receiving Valerian (scientific name: Valeriana officinalis) and placebo in 2013...
July 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Christine M Friedenreich, Heather K Neilson, Megan S Farris, Kerry S Courneya
There is increasing interest in applying a precision medicine approach to understanding exercise as a potential treatment for cancer. We aimed to inform this new approach by appraising epidemiologic literature relating post-diagnosis physical activity to cancer outcomes overall and by molecular/genetic subgroups. Across 26 studies of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer patients, there was a 37% reduction in risk of cancer-specific mortality, comparing the most versus the least active patients (pooled relative risk=0...
July 12, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Ashley J Vargas, Curtis C Harris
Precision medicine relies on validated biomarkers with which to better classify patients by their probable disease risk, prognosis and/or response to treatment. Although affordable 'omics'-based technology has enabled faster identification of putative biomarkers, the validation of biomarkers is still stymied by low statistical power and poor reproducibility of results. This Review summarizes the successes and challenges of using different types of molecule as biomarkers, using lung cancer as a key illustrative example...
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Siobhan Corcoran, Kaleigh Briggs, Hugh O' Connor, Sieglinde Mullers, Cathy Monteith, Jennifer Donnelly, Patrick Dicker, Orla Franklin, Fergal D Malone, Fionnuala M Breathnach
INTRODUCTION: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common major structural fetal abnormality and the benefits of prenatal detection are well described. The objective of this study was to evaluate the precision of prenatal diagnosis at a single tertiary referral unit over two three year periods (2006, 2007, 2008 and 2010, 2011, 2012), before and after a prenatal screening protocol for CHD was developed to include extended cardiac views, mandatory recall for suboptimal views, and a multidisciplinary Fetal Cardiac clinic was established...
August 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Ana I Robles, Curtis C Harris
More than half of all new lung cancer diagnoses are made in patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease, at which point therapeutic options are scarce. It is anticipated, however, that the widespread use of Low-Dose Computed Tomography (LDCT) screening, will lead to a greater proportion of lung cancers being diagnosed at an early, operable, stage. Still, the overall rate of recurrence for surgically treated Stage I lung cancer patients is up to 30% within 5 years of diagnosis. Thus, the identification and clinical application of biomarkers of early stage lung cancer are a pressing medical need...
June 14, 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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