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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624852/vasoconstrictor-responsiveness-in-contracting-human-muscle-influence-of-contraction-frequency-contractile-work-and-metabolic-rate
#1
Nicholas T Kruse, William E Hughes, Kenichi Ueda, Darren P Casey
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine whether independent effects exist between contractile work and metabolic demand (VO2m) on vasoconstrictor responsiveness (i.e., functional sympatholysis) under different contraction durations matched for total contractile work in exercising human skeletal muscle. METHODS: Ten young men performed rhythmic forearm contractions at 10 and 15% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) which consisted of muscle contractions using the same duty cycle but altering the duration of the contraction-relaxation cycles of exercise and included: 1) fast frequency contractions at 10% MVC (FFC10%) using a contraction relaxation cycle at 1:2 s; 2) slow frequency contractions at 10% MVC (SFC10%) at 2:4 s; and 3) SFC at 15% MVC (SFC15%) at 2:4 s...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590059/sympatholytic-effect-of-intravascular-atp-is-independent-of-nitric-oxide-prostaglandins-na-k-atpase-and-kir-channels-in-humans
#2
Christopher M Hearon, Jennifer C Richards, Mathew L Racine, Gary J Luckasen, Dennis G Larson, Michael J Joyner, Frank A Dinenno
Exercise and intravascular ATP elicit vasodilatation that is dependent on activation of inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR ) channels, with a modest reliance on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis.  Both exercise and intravascular ATP attenuate sympathetic α-adrenergic vasoconstriction (sympatholysis). However, KIR channels, NO, PGs and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity are not obligatory to observe sympatholysis during exercise. To further determine similarities between exercise and intravascular ATP, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of KIR channels, NO and PG synthesis, and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, would not alter the ability of ATP to blunt α1 -adrenergic vasoconstriction...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549524/-quadratus-lumborum-block-are-we-aware-of-its-side-effects-a-report-of-2-cases
#3
Miguel Sá, José Miguel Cardoso, Hugo Reis, Marta Esteves, José Sampaio, Isabel Gouveia, Pilar Carballada, Célia Pinheiro, Duarte Machado
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The quadratus lumborum block was initially described in 2007 and aims at blocking the same nerves as the ones involved on the Transverse Abdominis Plane block, while accomplishing some visceral enervation as well due to closer proximity with the neuroaxis and sympathetic trunk. Given its versatility, we have successfully used it in a wide range of procedures. We report two cases where we believe the dispersion of local anesthetic is likely to have led to a previously undescribed complication...
May 23, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473610/sex-differences-in-sympathetic-vasoconstrictor-responsiveness-and-sympatholysis
#4
Timothy P Just, Darren S DeLorey
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness would be blunted and NO-mediated inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction enhanced in females compared to males. Male (M; n=8) and Female (F; n=10) Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and surgically instrumented for measurement of arterial blood pressure and femoral artery blood flow and stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic chain. The percentage change of femoral vascular conductance (%FVC) in response to sympathetic chain stimulation delivered at 2 and 5 Hz was determined at rest and during muscle contraction before (control) and after NOS blockade...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381455/2015-ludwig-lecture-abnormal-cardiovascular-responses-to-exercise-in-hypertension-contribution-of-neural-factors
#5
Jere Holloway Mitchell
During both dynamic (e.g. endurance) and static (e.g. strength) exercise there are exaggerated cardiovascular responses in hypertension. This includes greater increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and efferent sympathetic nerve activity than in normals. Two of the known neural factors which contribute to this abnormal cardiovascular response are the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and functional sympatholysis. The EPR originates in contracting skeletal muscle and reflexly increases sympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels as well as decreases parasympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375035/the-effects-of-intraoperative-esmolol-infusion-on-the-postoperative-pain-and-hemodynamic-stability-after-rhinoplasty
#6
Sepideh Vahabi, Yaser Rafieian, Abolfazl Abbas Zadeh
BACKGROUND: Esmolol an ultrashort acting cardioselective β1-adrenergic receptor antagonist), has been successfully employed for perioperative sympatholysis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that perioperative esmolol administration resulted in decreased postoperative pain and improves the hemodynamic balance in patients with rhinoplasty. METHODS: In this clinical trial study, fifty-six patients (56) undergoing rhinoplasty surgery were randomly distributed into two groups (Group E and Group C)...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142307/misdirected-sympathy
#7
Jason A Ferreira, Brittany D Bissell
The spectrum of sepsis and septic shock remains a highly prevalent disease state, carrying a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) plays an important role in this initial cascade, enabling the host to respond to invading pathogens; however, prolonged activation can become pathological. The potential for unregulated sympathetic tone to become of detriment in patients with sepsis has fueled interest in the role and impact of sympatholysis, the selective inhibition of sympathetic tone...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976390/enhanced-functional-sympatholysis-through-endothelial-signalling-in-healthy-young-men-and-women
#8
Steven S Segal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857803/sympatholysis-subsequent-to-intraoperative-amygdalohippocampal-stimulation-a-report-of-three-pediatric-neurosurgical-cases-with-literature-review
#9
Ankur Khandelwal, Rudrashish Haldar, Arun Srivastava, Prabhat K Singh
The existence of neural connection between the limbic system (hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and other adjacent areas) and the autonomic nervous system has been postulated to trigger severe hemodynamic responses. The hemodynamic consequences of stimulation of amygdala or hippocampus have been sporadically reported in animal studies and adult patients. However, the effect of this stimulation in pediatric patients is scarce. We present our experience of three cases of sympatholysis during intraoperative manipulation of amygdalohippocampus and review the pertinent literature...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584298/the-influence-of-gender-on-functional-sympatholysis-1142-board-7-june-1-3-15-pm-5-15-pm
#10
Brandon S Pollock, Keith Burns, Jon Stavres, John McDaniel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558116/resolution-of-postural-orthostatic-tachycardia-syndrome-after-ct-guided-percutaneous-t2-ethanol-ablation-for-hyperhidrosis
#11
Malcolm Brock, Tae Hwan Chung, Sathvika Reddy Gaddam, Anjaneya Singh Kathait, Cecily Ober, Christos Georgiades
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is characterized by orthostatic intolerance. Orthostasis (or other mild physical stress) triggers a cascade of inappropriate tachycardia, lightheadedness, palpitations, and often fainting. The underlying defect is sympathetic dysregulation of the heart, which receives its sympathetic tone from the cervical and upper thoracic sympathetic ganglia. Primary hyperhidrosis is also thought to be the result of sympathetic dysregulation. We present the case of a patient treated with CT-guided, percutaneous T2 EtOH sympatholysis for craniofacial hyperhidrosis...
December 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535492/intraoperative-management-and-early-postoperative-outcomes-of-pediatric-renal-transplants
#12
Katherine Taylor, Wooheon Thomas Kim, Malak Maharramova, Victor Figueroa, Smruthi Ramesh, Armando Lorenzo
INTRODUCTION: Smaller children are presenting for renal transplantation as the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease. Adult donor organs are more successful than pediatric deceased donor organs. An adult kidney may sequester ~75% of the circulating volume of a 5 year-old child and requires significantly increased cardiac output to maintain renal perfusion. Treatment includes volume, inotropic or vasopressor agents, or central neuroaxial blockade for sympatholysis. We describe the perioperative anesthestic management as a guide to clinical outcomes...
October 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460257/ct-guided-ethanol-sympatholysis-for-primary-axillary-palmar-hyperhidrosis
#13
Maria Tsitskari, Gerhard Friehs, Vassilis Zerris, Christos Georgiades
PURPOSE: Primary hyperhidrosis is an excessive sweating due to an overactive sympathetic system. Our objective was to test the feasibility and provide early data on the safety/efficacy of CT-guided sympatholysis, for primary hyperhidrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine consecutive patients with axillary-palmar hyperhidrosis were treated between 2013 and 2015. CT-guided sympathetic block was performed in the outpatients at T-2, T-3, and T-4, bilaterally using alcohol under local anesthesia...
December 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433976/sympathetic-vasoconstriction-in-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-to-exercise-training
#14
Timothy P Just, Ian R Cooper, Darren S DeLorey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27360311/static-passive-stretching-negatively-affects-exercise-endurance-via-reducing-functional-sympatholysis-1392-board-45-june-2-8-00-am-9-30-am
#15
Massimo Venturelli, Emiliano Cè, Eloisa Limonta, Susanna Rampichini, Michela Devoto, Angela V Bisconti, Fabio Esposito
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869686/exercise-training-and-%C3%AE-1-adrenoreceptor-mediated-sympathetic-vasoconstriction-in-resting-and-contracting-skeletal-muscle
#16
Timothy P Just, Darren S DeLorey
Exercise training (ET) increases sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness and enhances contraction-mediated inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction (i.e., sympatholysis) through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. Changes in α2-adrenoreceptor vasoconstriction mediate a portion of these training adaptations, however the contribution of other postsynaptic receptors remains to be determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ET on α1-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in resting and contracting muscle...
February 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26713971/attenuation-of-cardiovascular-stress-with-sympatholytics-does-not-improve-survival-in-patients-with-severe-isolated-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Paul R Lewis, Casey E Dunne, Kimberly A Thompson, Victoria S McDonald, Richard Y Calvo, Jayraan Badiee, Steven R Shackford, C Beth Sise, Michael J Sise
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown improved survival after traumatic brain injury (TBI) with the administration of sympatholytics, including β-blockers and clonidine, which is thought to attenuate the cardiovascular stress response. However, the use of sympatholytics has not been studied in patients with isolated severe TBI (ISTBI). We hypothesized that ISTBI patients receiving sympatholytics who demonstrated a reduction in cardiovascular stress would have improved outcomes compared with similarly injured patients without these cardiovascular changes...
April 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26576429/defining-the-role-of-dexmedetomidine-in-the-prevention-of-delirium-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#18
REVIEW
S Nelson, A J Muzyk, M H Bucklin, S Brudney, J P Gagliardi
Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α 2 agonist used as a sedative agent. It also provides anxiolysis and sympatholysis without significant respiratory compromise or delirium. We conducted a systematic review to examine whether sedation of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with dexmedetomidine was associated with a lower incidence of delirium as compared to other nondexmedetomidine sedation strategies. A search of PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews yielded only three trials from 1966 through April 2015 that met our predefined inclusion criteria and assessed dexmedetomidine and outcomes of delirium as their primary endpoint...
2015: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557662/cardiovascular-reflexes-activity-and-their-interaction-during-exercise
#19
REVIEW
Antonio Crisafulli, Elisabetta Marongiu, Shigehiko Ogoh
Cardiac output and arterial blood pressure increase during dynamic exercise notwithstanding the exercise-induced vasodilation due to functional sympatholysis. These cardiovascular adjustments are regulated in part by neural reflexes which operate to guarantee adequate oxygen supply and by-products washout of the exercising muscles. Moreover, they maintain adequate perfusion of the vital organs and prevent excessive increments in blood pressure. In this review, we briefly summarize neural reflexes operating during dynamic exercise with particular emphasis on their interaction...
2015: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26512327/sympathetic-autonomic-dysfunction-and-impaired-cardiovascular-performance-in-higher-risk-surgical-patients-implications-for-perioperative-sympatholysis
#20
John Whittle, Alexander Nelson, James M Otto, Robert C M Stephens, Daniel S Martin, J Robert Sneyd, Richard Struthers, Gary Minto, Gareth L Ackland
OBJECTIVE: Recent perioperative trials have highlighted the urgent need for a better understanding of why sympatholytic drugs intended to reduce myocardial injury are paradoxically associated with harm (stroke, myocardial infarction). We hypothesised that following a standardised autonomic challenge, a subset of patients may demonstrate excessive sympathetic activation which is associated with exercise-induced ischaemia and impaired cardiac output. METHODS: Heart rate rise during unloaded pedalling (zero workload) prior to the onset of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was measured in 2 observation cohorts of elective surgical patients...
2015: Open Heart
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