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Kristin L Jonvik, Jean Nyakayiru, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Floris C Wardenaar, Luc J C Van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
Although beetroot juice, as a nitrate carrier, is a popular ergogenic supplement amongst athletes, nitrate is consumed through the regular diet as well. We aimed to assess the habitual dietary nitrate intake and identify the main contributing food sources in a large group of highly trained athletes. Dutch highly trained athletes (226 women and 327 men) completed 2-4 web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires within a 2-4 week period. The nitrate content of food products and food groups was determined systematically based on values found in regulatory reports and scientific literature...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Fiona Riordan, Kathleen Ryan, Ivan J Perry, Matthias B Schulze, Lene Frost Andersen, Anouk Geelen, Pieter Van't Veer, Simone Eussen, Martien van Dongen, Nicole Wijckmans-Duysens, Janas M Harrington
OBJECTIVE: Research indicates that intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may be associated with negative health consequences. However, differences between assessment methods can affect the comparability of intake data across studies. The current review aimed to identify methods used to assess SSB intake among children and adults in pan-European studies and to inform the development of the DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) toolbox of methods suitable for use in future European studies...
October 21, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Peter N Lee, Alison J Thornton, Barbara A Forey, Jan S Hamling
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to review the epidemiological evidence relating environmental tobacco smoke exposure to stroke in never smokers. METHODS: The study is similar to our review in 2006, with searches extended to March 2016. RESULTS: Twelve further studies were identified. A total of 28 studies varied considerably in design, exposure indices used, and disease definition. Based on 39 sex-specific estimates and the exposure index current spousal exposure (or nearest equivalent), the meta-analysis gave an overall fixed-effect relative risk estimate of 1...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Rachel B Acton, Lana Vanderlee, Christine White, David Hammond
OBJECTIVES: Several countries have proposed changes to calorie labelling on nutrition facts tables (NFTs) on pre-packaged foods. As most research to date has examined general use of NFTs, there is a lack of evidence to guide specific design changes to calorie information on labels. This study examined the efficacy of various calorie labelling formats on recall, comprehension, and consumer preferences for calorie information. METHODS: Experiments were conducted as part of an online survey with a national sample of 2,008 Canadians aged 16-24...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Kathleen A Puntillo, Adeline Max, Marine Chaize, Gerald Chanques, Elie Azoulay
OBJECTIVE: To assess patients' recollections of in-ICU procedural pain and its impact on post-ICU burden. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study of patients who underwent ICU procedures. SETTING: Thirty-four ICUs in France and Belgium. PATIENTS: Two hundred thirty-six patients who had undergone ICU procedures. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were interviewed 3-16 months after hospitalization about: 1) recall of procedural pain intensity and pain distress (on 0-10 numeric rating scale); 2) current pain; that is, having pain in the past week that was not present before hospitalization; and 3) presence of traumatic stress (Impact of Events Scale)...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Giselle Souza Pinto, Anelise Fernanda Zanolla, Cristiane Valle Tovo, Catarina Bertaso Andreatta Gottschall, Caroline Buss
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection may cause nutrient deficiency and affect the nutritional status.Objetive: To assess nutritional status, and energy and macronutrient intake in HCV/HIV coinfected patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated in a public hospital. Nutritional status was assessed by measurements of weight, height, waist circumference (WC), arm circumference (AC), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), non-dominant hand gripltrength (NDHGS), body mass index (BMI) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)...
October 18, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
M K Shea, C H Gilhooly, B Dawson-Hughes
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Acid-producing diets have been associated with adverse health conditions. Dietary acid load can be estimated from dietary intake data, but the available methods require a full dietary assessment. We sought to identify a simpler means to estimate 24-h urinary net acid excretion (NAE), a robust measure of net endogenous acid production, using self-reported intakes of fruits, vegetables (acid-neutralizing foods), grain and/or protein (acid-producing foods) acquired by two different methods in community-dwelling older adults...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Amanda C Trofholz, Allan D Tate, Michael H Miner, Jerica M Berge
BACKGROUND: Research on family meals has demonstrated that family meals are protective for many aspects of child and adolescent health. It is unclear whether distractions at family meals, such as watching TV, are associated with child weight and weight-related behaviors, the emotional atmosphere at the meal, or family meal healthfulness. METHODS: Direct observational and objective data were collected on primarily low-income and minority families (n = 120) with 6-12 year old children...
October 15, 2016: Appetite
Sunny S Kim, Rahul Rawat, Edina M Mwangi, Roman Tesfaye, Yewelsew Abebe, Jean Baker, Edward A Frongillo, Marie T Ruel, Purnima Menon
Optimal breastfeeding (BF) practices in Ethiopia are far below the government's targets, and complementary feeding practices are poor. The Alive & Thrive initiative aimed to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices through large-scale implementation of social and behavior change communication interventions in four regions of Ethiopia. The study assessed the effects of the interventions on IYCF practices and anthropometry over time in two regions-Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region and Tigray...
2016: PloS One
Sarah J Burkhart, Fiona E Pelly
International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete's competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
George Moschonis, Ellen G H M van den Heuvel, Christina Mavrogianni, Cécile M Singh-Povel, Michalis Leotsinidis, Yannis Manios
The benefits of dairy consumption seem to extend beyond its significant contribution to ensuring nutrient intake adequacy as indicated by the favourable associations with several health outcomes reported by different studies. The aims of the present study were to examine the associations of milk consumption with fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices in children and further explore whether the observed associations are attributed to vitamins B₂ and B12 derived from milk. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9-13 years participating in the Healthy Growth Study was examined...
October 13, 2016: Nutrients
Karen Tustin, Harlene Hayne
In two experiments, 3-year-old children were tested using an operant train procedure based on one originally developed by Carolyn Rovee-Collier. Children's behavioral and verbal recall of the event was assessed after a 24 hr (Experiment 1) and a 1-year delay (Experiment 2). After the 1-year delay, their mothers' verbal recall of the same event was also assessed. After both delays, children exhibited excellent nonverbal memory. Children also exhibited verbal, episodic memory of the same event, but their verbal reports were lean relative to those of their mothers, suggesting that the memories may be more vulnerable to forgetting over the long term...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Johanna Freese, Mihaela Pricop-Jeckstadt, Thorsten Heuer, Matthias Clemens, Heiner Boeing, Sven Knüppel, Ute Nöthlings
Next to the information on frequency of food consumption, information on consumption-day amounts is important to estimate usual dietary intake in epidemiological studies. Our objective was to identify determinants of consumption-day amounts to derive person-specific standard consumption-day amounts applicable for the estimation of usual dietary intake using separate sources to assesss information on consumption probability and amount consumed. 24-h Dietary recall data from the German National Nutrition Survey II (n = 8522; aged 20-80 years) conducted between 2005 and 2007 were analysed for determinants of consumption-day amounts of thirty-eight food and beverage groups using LASSO variable selection for linear mixed-effects models...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Mahnaz Zarei, Zahra Farahnak, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht, Payam Hosseinzadeh, Hoda Derakhshanian, Payam Farahbakhsh-Farsi, Mahmoud Djalali
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to compare lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in Type 2 diabetes patients with good or weak glycemic control. METHODS: In this case-control study, 62 Type 2 diabetic patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between 6 and 8 were enrolled as the controlled group and 55 patients with HbA1c > 8 were selected as an uncontrolled group. Patients were all referred to Iranian Diabetes Association in Tehran, Iran, from 2010 onward...
May 2016: ARYA Atherosclerosis
Canan Ziylan, Annemien Haveman-Nies, Stefanie Kremer, Lisette C P G M de Groot
OBJECTIVES: Sufficient protein intake can decrease undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to increase community-dwelling older adults' daily protein intake with acceptable and applicable protein-enriched bread and readymade meals at home. DESIGN: Double-blind randomized controlled trial of 2 weeks. SETTING: Senior residential center in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two community-dwelling elderly residents (≥65 years) participated, with a mean age of 74...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Sandeep Gangadharan, Gunjan Tiyyagura, Marcie Gawel, Barbara M Walsh, Linda L Brown, Megan Lavoie, Khoon-Yen Tay, Marc A Auerbach
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore pediatric emergency department (PED) and general emergency department (GED) providers' perceptions on caring for critically ill infants and children. METHODS: This study utilized qualitative methods to examine the perceptions of emergency department providers caring for critically ill infants and children. Teams of providers participated in 4 in situ simulation cases followed by facilitated debriefings. Debriefings were recorded and professionally transcribed...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Harini C Krishnan, Catherine E Gandour, Joshua L Ramos, Mariah C Wrinkle, Joseph J Sanchez-Pacheco, Lisa C Lyons
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Insufficient sleep in individuals appears increasingly common due to the demands of modern work schedules and technology use. Consequently, there is a growing need to understand the interactions between sleep deprivation and memory. The current study determined the effects of acute sleep deprivation on short- and long-term associative memory using the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, a relatively simple model system well known for studies of learning and memory. DESIGN: Aplysia were sleep deprived for 9 h using context changes and tactile stimulation prior to or after training using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible (LFI)...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Luzmercy Perez, Knashawn H Morales, Heather Klusaritz, Xiaoyan Han, Jingru Huang, Marisa Rogers, Ian M Bennett, Cynthia S Rand, Grace Ndicu, Andrea J Apter
BACKGROUND: Self-management of moderate/severe asthma depends upon patients' ability to: 1) navigate (access health care to obtain diagnoses and treatment), 2) use inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) properly, and 3) understand ICS function. OBJECTIVE: To test whether navigation skills (medication recall, knowledge of copay requirements ability to provide information needed for a medical visit about a persistent cough unresponsive to medication), are related to other self-management skills and to health literacy...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Cheng Sun, Alysa Pomer, Kelsey N Dancause, Chim W Chan, Kathryn M Olszowy, Harold Silverman, Gwang Lee, Len Tarivonda, George Taleo, Ralph Regenvanu, Akira Kaneko, Charles A Weitz, Ralph M Garruto, J Koji Lum
OBJECTIVE: The Republic of Vanuatu, like many developing nations, is undergoing a rapid health transition. Our previous study identified several behavioral risk factors for the rising prevalence of obesity. Unexpectedly, daily time spent using television and radio was revealed as a protective factor for obesity in 2007. In this study, we sought to explore associations between ownership of consumer electronics (CE) and measures of adiposity in Vanuatu in 2011. METHODS: We surveyed 873 adults from five islands varying in level of economic development...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Jacqueline A Vernarelli, Diane C Mitchell, Barbara J Rolls, Terryl J Hartman
PURPOSE: Recent public health messages have advised consumers to lower dietary energy density (ED) for weight management, but it is not known whether the proportion of the diet from low-ED foods is related to weight status. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, we evaluated whether the proportions of dietary energy intake contributed by low- and high-ED foods are associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). METHODS: Data were from a cross-sectional sample of 9551 adults ≥18 years in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
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