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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227818/detecting-divisions-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-using-wearables
#1
Annamalai Natarajan, Kevin S Xu, Brian Eriksson, Annamalai Natarajan, Kevin S Xu, Brian Eriksson, Kevin S Xu, Brian Eriksson, Annamalai Natarajan
The ability to assess a user's emotional reaction from biometrics has applications in personalization, recommendation, and enhancing user experiences, among other areas. Unfortunately, understanding the connection between biometric signals and user reactions has previously focused on black box techniques that are opaque to the underlying physiology of the user. In this paper, we explore a novel user study connecting biometric reaction to external stimuli and changes in the user's autonomic nervous system. Specifically, we focus on two competing responses, namely the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, and how differing activations are related to different user responses...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227138/assessment-of-autonomic-neurodevelopment-in-the-mouse-fetuses-by-using-fetal-electrocardiography
#2
Ahsan H Khandoker, Thuraia Al Khoori, Takuya Ito, Rika Sugibayashi, Yoshitaka Kimura, Ahsan H Khandoker, Thuraia Al Khoori, Takuya Ito, Rika Sugibayashi, Yoshitaka Kimura, Thuraia Al Khoori, Yoshitaka Kimura, Rika Sugibayashi, Takuya Ito, Ahsan H Khandoker
Fetal Electrocardiography (FECG) offers unique capabilities for assessment of beat-to-beat fetal heart rate (FHR) and fetal heart rate variability (FHRV), which are indirect markers of autonomic nervous system, its development. In this study the fetal ECG signals, FHR and FHRV are successfully recorded to assess the neurodevelopment in fetal mice in the second and third trimester from days 12.5 to 18.5 by using direct insertion of fetal ECG electrodes in the uterine. FHR increases from day 12.5 till 15.5 reaching a plateau and then shows a sudden increase on the day 18...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226650/disentanglement-of-sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-activity-by-instantaneous-analysis-of-human-heartbeat-dynamics
#3
Gaetano Valenza, Luca Citi, Riccardo Barbieri, Gaetano Valenza, Luca Citi, Riccardo Barbieri, Luca Citi, Riccardo Barbieri, Gaetano Valenza
Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is one of the most effective techniques for the assessment of the influence of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) on the heartbeat. Despite its widespread use, it has been demonstrated that HRV subdivision in the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands does not accurately reflect separate sympathetic and parasympathetic influences, respectively, mainly due to overlap of the two branches in the low frequencies. Here we propose two novel indices, namely the instantaneous sympathetic autonomic index (SAI) and parasympathetic autonomic index (PAI), that are able to separately assess the time-varying ANS synergic functions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226649/heart-rate-independent-qt-variability-component-can-detect-subclinical-cardiac-autonomic-neuropathy-in-diabetes
#4
Mohammad H Imam, Chandan K Karmakar, Ahsan H Khandoker, Herbert F Jelinek, M Palaniswami, Mohammad H Imam, Chandan K Karmakar, Ahsan H Khandoker, Herbert F Jelinek, M Palaniswami, Ahsan H Khandoker, Herbert F Jelinek, Chandan K Karmakar, Mohammad H Imam, M Palaniswami
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) may lead to life threatening arrhythmia due to denervation of both the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of autonomic nervous system innervating the heart. CAN is a frequently under diagnosed complication of diabetes, because a patient can have asymptomatic CAN for several years before it is clinically apparent. However, detection of CAN at the early or subclinical stage leads to more effective treatment outcomes. Cardiac autonomic reflex tests (CART) (i.e. Ewing test battery) are normally used for the detection and staging of CAN...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223827/common-variations-within-hace1-gene-and-neuroblastoma-susceptibility-in-a-southern-chinese-population
#5
Zhuorong Zhang, Ruizhong Zhang, Jinhong Zhu, Fenghua Wang, Tianyou Yang, Yan Zou, Jing He, Huimin Xia
Neuroblastoma is a common fatal pediatric cancer of the developing sympathetic nervous system, which accounts for ~10% of all pediatric cancer deaths. To investigate genetic risk factors related to neuroblastoma, many genome-wide association studies have been performed, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within HACE1 gene have been identified to associate with neuroblastoma risk. However, the association of the HACE1 SNPs with neuroblastoma needs to be validated in Southern Chinese children. We genotyped five SNPs located in the HACE1 gene (rs4336470 C>T, rs9404576 T>G, rs4079063 A>G, rs2499663 T>C, and rs2499667 A>G) in 256 Southern Chinese patients in comparison with 531 ethnically matched healthy controls...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220146/horseback-riding-improves-the-ability-to-cause-the-appropriate-action-go-reaction-and-the-appropriate-self-control-no-go-reaction-in-children
#6
Nobuyo Ohtani, Kenji Kitagawa, Kinuyo Mikami, Kasumi Kitawaki, Junko Akiyama, Maho Fuchikami, Hidehiko Uchiyama, Mitsuaki Ohta
BACKGROUND: There are many obvious health benefits to riding, including developing a strong core and legs, but there are also many less obvious benefits, such as increased confidence and introspection. Few studies have addressed the effects of horseback riding on children and the mechanisms underlying how riding affects humans. We examined the effects of horseback riding on the ability to distinguish Go/No-go tasks and solve arithmetic problems in children. METHODS: The subjects were 34 boys and 72 girls, aged 10-12 years old, which were divided into three groups (horse riding, walking, and resting)...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219980/activation-of-neuronal-endothelin-b-receptors-mediates-pressor-response-through-alpha-1-adrenergic-receptors
#7
Bryan K Becker, Joshua S Speed, Mackenzie Powell, David M Pollock
Abnormalities in activity of the endothelin (ET) system have been widely reported in a number of cardiovascular disease states such as hypertension and heart failure. Although the vascular responses to ET are well established, the interaction between ET and other important modulators of blood pressure, such as the sympathetic nervous system, are less understood. Previous reports implicate ET signaling through ET type B (ETB) receptors in increasing neuronal activity. Therefore, we hypothesized that activation of ETB receptors on sympathetic nerves would increase blood pressure through an adrenergic-mediated mechanism...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219848/bioelectronic-neuromodulation-of-the-paravertebral-cardiac-efferent-sympathetic-outflow-and-its-effect-on-ventricular-electrical-indices
#8
Una Buckley, Ray W Chui, Pradeep S Rajendran, Tina Vrabec, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jeffrey L Ardell
INTRODUCTION: Neuromodulation of the paravertebral ganglia, using symmetric voltage controlled kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC), has the potential to be a reversible alternative to surgical intervention in patients with refractory ventricular arrhythmias. KHFAC creates scalable focal inhibition of action potential conduction. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of KHFAC, when applied to T1-T2 paravertebral chain, to mitigate sympathetic outflow to the heart...
February 17, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217927/hypertension-induced-remodelling-on-the-interactions-of-cardiac-risk-factors
#9
Jakub Tomek, Gil Bub
Hypertension induces considerable cardiac remodelling, such as hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and abnormal activity of cardiac sympathetic nervous system, which are established risk factors in several highly dangerous heart diseases, such as ventricular fibrillation and congestive heart failure. All these risk factors and heart diseases are studied extensively in isolation, but to our knowledge, there is no comprehensive review of their interactions. At the same time, there is growing evidence suggesting that such interactions are numerous and that a successful therapy against a particular condition may have unexpectedly weak effects on mortality, as treated patients may die of a different cause exacerbated by the therapy...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217060/ultrasonography-guided-pulsed-radiofrequency-of-sciatic-nerve-for-the-treatment-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-type-ii
#10
Yi Hwa Choi, Dong Jin Chang, Woon Suk Hwang, Jin Hwan Chung
Although the major mechanism of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) involves dysfunctional central or sympathetic nervous system activation, the peripheral nervous system also contributes significantly to its clinical manifestations. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is a recently developed treatment option for neuropathic pain syndromes. Here, we report a case of CRPS Type II after a femur fracture and sciatic nerve injury, in which the pain was treated successfully with ultrasonography-guided selective sciatic nerve PRF application...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215623/higher-locus-coeruleus-mri-contrast-is-associated-with-lower-parasympathetic-influence-over-heart-rate-variability
#11
Mara Mather, Hyun Joo Yoo, David V Clewett, Tae-Ho Lee, Steven G Greening, Allison Ponzio, Jungwon Min, Julian F Thayer
The locus coeruleus (LC) is a key node of the sympathetic nervous system and suppresses parasympathetic activity that would otherwise increase heart rate variability. In the current study, we examined whether LC-MRI contrast reflecting neuromelanin accumulation in the LC was associated with high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), a measure reflecting parasympathetic influences on the heart. Recent evidence indicates that neuromelanin, a byproduct of catchecholamine metabolism, accumulates in the LC through young and mid adulthood, suggesting that LC-MRI contrast may be a useful biomarker of individual differences in habitual LC activation...
February 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215570/the-cardiac-electrophysiology-of-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Michael Manogue, David S Hirsh, Michael Lloyd
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a clinical syndrome encountered frequently in trauma centers and is accompanied by both acute and chronic heart rhythm abnormalities. The injury is characterized by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) impairment with preservation of parasympathetic output via the vagus nerve. Severe bradycardia in the form of life-threatening sinus arrest or complete heart block may be observed in the acute recovery phase. Therapy for arrhythmias in the acute phase includes atropine, intravenous chronotropes, methylxanthines for prevention of episodic bradycardia, and pacemaker implantation in severe cases...
February 12, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215292/emergent-role-of-coronin-1a-in-neuronal-signaling
#13
M Martorella, K Barford, B Winkler, C D Deppmann
The Coronin family of proteins were first noted for their role in pathogen-host interactions and for modulating actin dynamics. Recently, however, Coronins have been found in a greater variety of cell types, and novel roles for the Coronins within the nervous system have been discovered. In the immune system, Coronin-1a enables Mycobacterium tuberculosis to evade lysosomal destruction. This activity appears to be analogous to protection of the NGF-TrkA signaling endosome during sympathetic nervous system development that is required for survival signaling...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215154/stress-and-salivary-glands
#14
Beáta Kerémi, Anita Beck, Tibor Károly Fábián, Gábor Fábián, Géza Szabó, Ákos Nagy, Gábor Varga
Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system...
February 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214401/association-between-loss-of-bone-mass-due-to-short-sleep-and-leptin-sympathetic-nervous-system-activity
#15
Nagato Kuriyama, Masaaki Inaba, Etsuko Ozaki, Yutaro Yoneda, Daisuke Matsui, Kanae Hashiguchi, Teruhide Koyama, Komei Iwai, Isao Watanabe, Rika Tanaka, Chie Omichi, Shigeto Mizuno, Masao Kurokawa, Motoyuki Horii, Fumitoshi Niwa, Koichi Iwasa, Shinsuke Yamada, Yoshiyuki Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Sleep has been reported to be an important factor in bone metabolism, and sympathetic nervous system activity has been reported to regulate bone metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the association between sleep, sympathetic nervous system activity, and bone mass. METHODS: The study subjects were 221 individuals (108 males; 113 females; mean age: 55.1±7.0years) divided into two groups: those who slept for less than 6h a day (short sleep [SS] group), and those who slept 6h or longer (normal sleep [NS] group)...
February 10, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212885/epinephrine-promotes-cox-2-dependent-immune-suppression-in-myeloid-cells-and-cancer-tissues
#16
Ravikumar Muthuswamy, Nana J Okada, Frank J Jenkins, Kandace McGuire, Priscilla F McAuliffe, Herbert J Zeh, David L Bartlett, Callen Wallace, Simon Watkins, Jill D Henning, Dana H Bovbjerg, Pawel Kalinski
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (e.g., due to stress) has been implicated in cancer progression and recurrence, but its cancer-promoting effects have been variable between different studies. Here, we report that although catecholamines, mediators of systemic sympathetic activity, display only weak immunosuppressive impact on their own, their combination with inflammatory signals leads to the induction of COX-2 and multiple COX-2-dependent suppressive factors in human myeloid cells and cancer tissues...
February 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212603/effects-of-renal-denervation-on-cardiac-oxidative-stress-and-local-activity-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-and-renin-angiotensin-system-in-acute-myocardial-infracted-dogs
#17
Qiaoli Feng, Chengzhi Lu, Li Wang, Lijun Song, Chao Li, Ravi Chandra Uppada
BACKGROUND: This study sought to evaluate the therapeutic effects of renal denervation (RDN) on acute myocardial infarction (MI) in canines and explore its possible mechanisms of action. METHODS: Eighteen healthy mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to either the control group, the MI group or the MI + RDN group. To assess cardiac function, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVESD) and fraction shortening (FS) were recorded...
February 17, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212075/towards-photoplethysmography-based-estimation-of-instantaneous-heart-rate-during-physical-activity
#18
Delaram Jarchi, Alex Casson
OBJECTIVE: Recently numerous methods have been proposed for estimating average heart rate using photoplethysmography (PPG) during physical activity, overcoming the significant interference that motion causes in PPG traces. We propose a new algorithm framework for extracting instantaneous heart rate from wearable PPG and ECG signals to provide an estimate of heart rate variability during exercise. METHODS: For ECG signals we propose a new spectral masking approach which modifies a particle filter tracking algorithm, and for PPG signals constrains the instantaneous frequency obtained from the Hilbert transform to a region of interest around a candidate heart rate measure...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211138/nocturnal-autonomic-nervous-system-activity-and-morning-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-young-adult-african-americans
#19
Kimberly A Bell, Ihori Kobayashi, Yuanxiu Chen, Thomas A Mellman
Compromised sleep and increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity are implicated in the pathogenesis of, and disparities in, cardiovascular disease. Parasympathetic dominance during sleep may be important for cardiovascular health. Sleep and autonomic balance influence immune activity, which impacts atherogenesis. We evaluated relationships between autonomic balance during sleep and morning levels of the immune activating cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6. Ninety-four (59 female) young adult African Americans without medical conditions and substance use disorders spent 2 consecutive nights in a clinical research unit for sleep recordings and blood drawing on awakening...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210440/analytical-parameters-and-vital-signs-in-patients-subjected-to-dental-extraction
#20
Enric Jané-Pallí, Carlos Arranz-Obispo, Beatriz González-Navarro, Jesús Murat, Raúl Ayuso-Montero, Santiago Rojas, Amparo Santamaría, Enric Jané-Salas, José López-López
BACKGROUND: Dental consultation may provoke stress to the patient, especially when a dental surgery is going to be performed, stressful situations can cause a reaction in the sympathetic nervous system that could lead to cardiovascular alterations. Blood pressure and cardiac frequency are used often as an indirect measurement and this parameters combined can serve as good indicators of stress. Objective: Analyze the changes in vital signs and analytical parameters induced by a dental extraction...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
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