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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144026/heart-rate-variability-and-implication-for-sport-concussion
#1
REVIEW
Scott A Bishop, Ryan T Dech, Przemyslaw Guzik, J Patrick Neary
Finding sensitive and specific markers for sports-related concussion is both challenging and clinically important. Such biomarkers might be helpful in the management of patients with concussion (i.e. diagnosis, monitoring and risk prediction). Among many parameters, blood flow-pressure metrics and heart rate variability (HRV) have been used to gauge concussion outcomes. Reports on the relation between HRV and both acute and prolonged concussion recovery are conflicting. While some authors report on differences in the low-frequency (LF) component of HRV during postural manipulations and postexercise conditions, others observe no significant differences in various HRV measures...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143123/recovery-of-the-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-and-vascular-system-after-maximal-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-recreational-athletes
#2
Heidi Weberruss, Johannes Maucher, Renate Oberhoffer, Jan Müller
OBJECTIVE: The body's adaptation to physical exercise is modulated by sympathetic and parasympathetic (vagal) branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat variation of the heart, is a proxy measure for ANS activity, whereas blood pressure (BP) is an indicator for cardiovascular function. Impaired vagal activity and lower BP is already described after exercise. However, inconsistent results exist about how long vagal recovery takes and how long post-exercise hypotension persists...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142091/physiological-and-pathophysiological-firing-properties-of-single-postganglionic-sympathetic-neurons-in-humans
#3
Vaughan G Macefield, B Gunnar Wallin
It has long been known from microneurographic recordings in human subjects that activity of postganglionic sympathetic axons occurs as spontaneous bursts, with muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) exhibiting strong cardiac rhythmicity via the baroreflex and skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) showing much weaker cardiac modulation. Here we review the firing properties of single sympathetic neurons, obtained using highly selective microelectrodes. Individual vasoconstrictor neurons supplying muscle or skin, or sudomotor neurones supplying sweat glands, always discharge with a low firing probability (~30%) and at very low frequencies (~0...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141540/polyphenols-antioxidants-and-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#4
Rosa Maria Bruno, Lorenzo Ghiadoni
BACKGROUND: A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. METHODS: This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138224/short-term-metformin-and-exercise-training-effects-on-strength-aerobic-capacity-glycemic-control-and-mitochondrial-function-in-children-with-burn-injury
#5
Eric Rivas, David N Herndon, Craig Porter, Walter Meyer, Oscar E Suman
Severely burned children experience a chronic state of sympathetic nervous system activation that is associated with hypermetabolic/cardiac stress and muscle wasting. Metformin, a diabetes medication, helps control hyperglycemia in diabetic populations, and exercise has been shown to improve exercise strength and aerobic exercise capacity after severe burns. However, whether exercise improves glycemic control in burned children and whether combining exercise and metformin improves outcomes to a greater degree than exercise alone is unknown...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138216/autonomic-regulation-of-the-immune-system-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#6
François M Abboud, Madhu V Singh
The autonomic nervous system is a powerful regulator of circulatory adjustments to acute hemodynamic stresses. Here we focus on new concepts that emphasize the chronic influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on cardiovascular pathology. The autonomic neurohumoral system can dramatically influence morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease through newly discovered influences on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Specifically, the end-organ damage in heart failure or hypertension may be worsened or alleviated by pro- or anti-inflammatory pathways of the immune system, respectively, that are activated through neurohumoral transmitters...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137381/gene-expression-and-molecular-pathway-activation-signatures-of-mycn-amplified-neuroblastomas
#7
Ivan Petrov, Maria Suntsova, Elena Ilnitskaya, Sergey Roumiantsev, Maxim Sorokin, Andrew Garazha, Pavel Spirin, Timofey Lebedev, Nurshat Gaifullin, Sergey Larin, Olga Kovalchuk, Dmitry Konovalov, Vladimir Prassolov, Alexander Roumiantsev, Anton Buzdin
Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer arising from sympathetic nervous system. Remarkable heterogeneity in outcomes is one of its widely known features. One of the traits strongly associated with the unfavorable subtype is the amplification of oncogene MYCN. Here, we performed cross-platform biomarker detection by comparing gene expression and pathway activation patterns from the two literature reports and from our experimental dataset, combining profiles for the 761 neuroblastoma patients with known MYCN amplification status...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137090/diabetic-and-sympathetic-influences-on-the-water-permeability-barrier-function-of-human-skin-as-measured-using-transepidermal-water-loss-a-case-control-study
#8
Seung Hoon Han, Ji Woong Park
The presence of long-standing hyperglycemic conditions has been suggested to lead to many skin problems associated with an impaired skin barrier function. However, the relationship between impaired skin barrier status and altered peripheral nervous system function has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the water evaporation rate as a measure of the permeability barrier function of diabetic skin and its relationship to diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) and peripheral autonomic neuropathy (PAN) using well-controlled confounding variables...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122559/constant-hepatic-atp-concentrations-during-prolonged-fasting-and-absence-of-effects-of-cerbomed-nemos-%C3%A2-on-parasympathetic-tone-and-hepatic-energy-metabolism
#9
Sofiya Gancheva, Alessandra Bierwagen, Daniel F Markgraf, Gidon J Bönhof, Kevin G Murphy, Erifili Hatziagelaki, Jesper Lundbom, Dan Ziegler, Michael Roden
OBJECTIVE: Brain insulin-induced improvement in glucose homeostasis has been proposed to be mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system. Non-invasive transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) activating afferent branches of the vagus nerve may prevent hyperglycemia in diabetes models. We examined the effects of 14-min taVNS vs sham stimulation by Cerbomed Nemos(®) on glucose metabolism, lipids, and hepatic energy homeostasis in fasted healthy humans (n = 10, age 51 ± 6 yrs, BMI 25...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121716/risk-prediction-in-post-infarction-patients-with-moderately-reduced-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-by-combined-assessment-of-the-sympathetic-and-vagal-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-system
#10
W Hamm, L Stülpnagel, N Vdovin, G Schmidt, K D Rizas, A Bauer
AIM: Most deaths after myocardial infarction (MI) occur in patients with normal or moderately reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF >35%). Periodic repolarization dynamics (PRD) and deceleration capacity (DC) are novel ECG-based markers related to sympathetic and vagal cardiac autonomic nervous system activity. Here, we test the combination of PRD and DC to predict risk in post-infarction patients with LVEF >35%. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 823 survivors of acute MI with LVEF >35%, aged ≤80years and in sinus rhythm...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119585/effects-of-dopamine-receptor-antagonist-antipsychotic-therapy-on-blood-pressure
#11
REVIEW
N H Gonsai, V H Amin, C G Mendpara, R Speth, G M Hale
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Hypertension, a major risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, affects 80 million American adults. The aetiology of hypertension is multifaceted and difficult to identify. Dopamine receptors, especially those in the kidneys, play a role in blood pressure regulation, and alterations in their function can cause hypertension. The objective of this review was to investigate the association between the use of dopamine antagonists with hypertension focusing especially on second-generation antipsychotics, like clozapine that is D4 receptor antagonist...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118721/gut-brain-axis-in-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#12
REVIEW
Tao Yang, Jasenka Zubcevic
Hypertension (HTN) is an escalating health issue worldwide. It is estimated that 1.56 billion people will suffer from high blood pressure (BP) by 2025. Recent studies reported an association between gut dysbiosis and HTN, thus proposing interesting avenues for novel treatments of this condition. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the immune system (IS) play a recognized role in the onset and progression of HTN, while reciprocal communication between gut microbiota and the brain can regulate BP by modulating the interplay between the IS and SNS...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113358/down-regulation-of-cherp-inhibits-neuroblastoma-cell-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-through-er-stress-induction
#13
Dunke Zhang, Feng Wang, Yi Pang, Xiao-Xue Ke, Shunqin Zhu, Erhu Zhao, Kui Zhang, Lixue Chen, Hongjuan Cui
Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor that is derived from the sympathetic nervous system. In recent years, great progress has been made in our understanding of neuroblastoma. However, applying theories to improve disease outcomes remains challenging. In this study, we observed that calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP) was involved in the maintenance of neuroblastoma cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. Moreover, elevated CHERP expression was positively correlated with poor patient survival, whereas low CHERP expression was predictive of better outcomes...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110883/linear-and-nonlinear-parameters-of-heart-rate-variability-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#14
V Constantinescu, D Matei, V Costache, D Cuciureanu, C Arsenescu-Georgescu
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular system presents cortical modulation. Post-stroke outcome can be highly influenced by autonomic nervous system disruption. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a simple non-invasive method to assess sympatho-vagal balance. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiac autonomic activity in ischemic stroke patients and to asses HRV nonlinear parameters beside linear ones. METHODS: We analyzed HRV parameters in 15 right and 15 left middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke patients, in rest condition and during challenge (standing and deep breathing)...
October 11, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110282/metabolic-benefits-of-1-3-4-o-tolyl-piperazin-1-yl-propyl-pyrrolidin-2-one-a-non-selective-%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-antagonist
#15
Magdalena Kotańska, Katarzyna Kulig, Monika Marcinkowska, Marek Bednarski, Katarzyna Malawska, Paula Zaręba
PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that several components of the metabolic syndrome, such as hypertension, obesity or imbalanced lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis, are associated with the sympathetic nervous system overactivity. Therefore, the inhibition of the adrenergic nervous system seems to be a reasonable and appropriate therapeutic approach for the treatment of metabolic disturbances. It has been suggested that non-selective adrenoceptor antagonists could be particularly beneficial, since α1-adrenoceptor antagonists can improve disrupted lipid and carbohydrate profiles, while the inhibition of the α2-adrenoceptor may contribute to body weight reduction...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110167/assessment-of-autonomic-nervous-system-modulation-after-novel-catheter-ablation-techniques-for-atrial-fibrillation-using-multiple-short-term-electrocardiogram-recordings
#16
Satoshi Yanagisawa, Yasuya Inden, Aya Fujii, Yosuke Kamikubo, Yasunori Kanzaki, Monami Ando, Junya Funabiki, Yosuke Murase, Masaki Takenaka, Noriaki Otake, Yoshihiro Ikai, Yusuke Sakamoto, Rei Shibata, Toyoaki Murohara
PURPOSE: The effect of novel catheter ablation techniques for atrial fibrillation (AF) on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is unclear. This study aimed to assess the ANS after three novel catheter ablation techniques for paroxysmal AF by evaluating heart rate variability (HRV) parameters using a 3-min electrocardiogram recording. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-five patients who underwent catheter ablation for paroxysmal AF (119 in irrigated-tip, 51 in contact-force sensing-guided, and 65 patients in second-generation cryoballoon ablation) were included...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108934/cardiovascular-control-is-associated-with-pair-bond-success-in-male-prairie-voles
#17
Robert Lewis, Brek Wilkins, Bruce Benjamin, J Thomas Curtis
Social support structures reduce mortality and morbidity in humans, but the mechanisms underlying these reductions are not fully understood. The prevailing hypothesis is that social support buffers stress and reduces allostatic load, thereby increasing longevity. However, the possibility that affiliative social interactions confer health benefits independent of stress buffering is understudied. We examined autonomic function in prairie voles - arguably the premier species for modeling human social affiliation - to assess the possibility that the formation of strong social bonds alters autonomic function and contributes to health benefits...
October 2, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108651/targeting-couple-and-parent-child-coercion-to-improve-health-behaviors
#18
Amy M Smith Slep, Richard E Heyman, Danielle M Mitnick, Michael F Lorber, Theodore P Beauchaine
This phase of the NIH Science of Behavior Change program emphasizes an "experimental medicine approach to behavior change," that seeks to identify targets related to stress reactivity, self-regulation, and social processes for maximal effects on multiple health outcomes. Within this framework, our project focuses on interpersonal processes associated with health: coercive couple and parent-child conflict. Diabetes and poor oral health portend pain, distress, expense, loss of productivity, and even mortality...
October 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107952/hereditary-angioedema-assessing-the-hypothesis-for-underlying-autonomic-dysfunction
#19
Maddalena A Wu, Francesco Casella, Francesca Perego, Chiara Suffritti, Nada Afifi Afifi, Eleonora Tobaldini, Andrea Zanichelli, Chiara Cogliati, Nicola Montano, Marco Cicardi
BACKGROUND: Attacks of Hereditary Angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE)are often triggered by stressful events/hormonal changes. OBJECTIVE: Our study evaluates the relationship between autonomic nervous system (ANS) and contact/complement system activation. METHODS: Twenty-three HAE patients (6 males, mean age 47.5±11.4 years) during remission and 24 healthy controls (8 males, mean age 45.3±10.6 years) were studied. ECG, beat-by-beat blood pressure, respiratory activity were continuously recorded during rest (10') and 75-degrees-head-up tilt (10')...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106801/contagious-anxiety-anxious-european-americans-can-transmit-their-physiological-reactivity-to-african-americans
#20
Tessa V West, Katrina Koslov, Elizabeth Page-Gould, Brenda Major, Wendy Berry Mendes
During interracial encounters, well-intentioned European Americans sometimes engage in subtle displays of anxiety, which can be interpreted as signs of racial bias by African American partners. In the present research, same-race and cross-race stranger dyads ( N = 123) engaged in getting-acquainted tasks, during which measures of sympathetic nervous system responses (preejection period, PEP) and heart rate variability were continuously collected. PEP scores showed that African American partners had stronger physiological linkage to European American partners who evidenced greater anxiety-greater cortisol reactivity, behavioral tension, and self-reported discomfort-which suggests greater physiological responsiveness to momentary changes in partners' affective states when those partners were anxious...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
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