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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930524/hypertension-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#1
Ivan Tasic, Dragan Lovic
Hypertension has  a central role in cardiometabolic disease and is usually associated with  metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Hyperinsulinemia may increase cardiovascular (CV) risk through its promotion of hypertension, which is possibly a result of chronic enhancement of sympathetic nervous system activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, modulating cation transport, or inducing vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929331/glutamatergic-regulation-of-hypothalamic-presympathetic-neurons-in-hypertension
#2
De-Pei Li, Hui-Lin Pan
Elevated sympathetic vasomotor tone emanating from the brain is a major mechanism involved in the development of hypertension. Increased glutamatergic excitatory input to presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus leads to increased sympathetic outflow in various animal models of hypertension. Recent studies have revealed molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying enhanced glutamatergic synaptic input to PVN presympathetic neurons in hypertension. In this review article, we summarize recent findings on changes in inotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, at both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites, responsible for increased glutamatergic input to PVN presympathetic neurons in hypertension...
September 19, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918935/dense-intra-adipose-sympathetic-arborizations-are-essential-for-cold-induced-beiging-of-mouse-white-adipose-tissue
#3
Haochen Jiang, Xiaofan Ding, Ying Cao, Huanhuan Wang, Wenwen Zeng
Efferent signals from the central nervous system represent a key layer of regulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the mechanism by which efferent neural signals control WAT metabolism remains to be better understood. Here, we exploit the volume fluorescence-imaging technique to visualize the neural arborizations in mouse inguinal WAT at single-fiber resolution. The imaging reveals a dense network of sympathetic arborizations that had been previously undetected by conventional methods, with sympathetic fibers being in close apposition to > 90% of adipocytes...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917022/epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-management-of-takotsubo-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Shams Y-Hassan, Per Tornvall
Takotsubo syndrome is a recently recognized acute cardiac disease entity with a clinical presentation resembling that of an acute coronary syndrome. The typical takotsubo syndrome patient has a unique circumferential left (bi-) ventricular contraction abnormality profile that extends beyond a coronary artery supply territory and appears to follow the anatomical cardiac sympathetic innervation. The syndrome predominantly affects postmenopausal women and is often preceded by emotional or physical stress. Patients with predisposing factors such as malignancy and other chronic comorbidities are more prone to suffer from takotsubo syndrome...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916152/effects-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-on-cardiovascular-autonomic-control-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Raphael Martins de Abreu, Patrícia Rehder-Santos, Vinicius Minatel, Gabriela Lopes Dos Santos, Aparecida Maria Catai
PURPOSE: To carry out a systematic review to determine if inspiratory muscle training (IMT) promotes changes in cardiovascular autonomic responses in humans. METHODS: The methodology followed the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic review analysis. MEDLINE, PEDro, SCOPUS and PubMed electronic databases were searched from the inception to March 2017. The quality assessment was performed using a PEDro scale. The articles were included if: (1) primary objective was related to the effects of IMT on the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system, and (2) randomized clinical trials and quasi-experimental studies...
September 7, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#6
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912251/neuro-immune-interaction-and-the-regulation-of-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#7
Simon Verheijden, Guy E Boeckxstaens
Many essential gastrointestinal functions, including motility, secretion and blood flow are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), both through intrinsic enteric neurons and extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. Recently identified neuro-immune mechanisms, in particular the interplay between enteric neurons and muscularis macrophages, are now considered to be essential for fine-tuning peristalsis. These findings shed new light on how intestinal immune cells can support enteric nervous function...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911009/contemporaneous-social-environment-and-the-architecture-of-late-life-gene-expression-profiles
#8
Morgan E Levine, Eileen M Crimmins, David R Weir, Steve W Cole
Environmental or social challenges can stimulate a cascade of coordinated physiological changes in stress response systems. Unfortunately, chronic activation of these adaptations under conditions such as low socioeconomic status (SES) can have negative consequences for long-term health. While there is substantial evidence tying low SES to increased disease risk and reduced life expectancy, the underlying biology remains poorly understood. Using pilot data on 120 older adults from the Health and Retirement Study (United States, 2002-2010), we examined the associations between SES and gene expression levels in adulthood, with particular focus on a gene expression program known as the conserved transcriptional response to adversity...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905088/new-horizons-in-cardiac-innervation-imaging-introduction-of-novel-18-f-labeled-pet-tracers
#9
Ryohei Kobayashi, Xinyu Chen, Rudolf A Werner, Constantin Lapa, Mehrbod S Javadi, Takahiro Higuchi
Cardiac sympathetic nervous activity can be uniquely visualized by non-invasive radionuclide imaging techniques due to the fast growing and widespread application of nuclear cardiology in the last few years. The norepinephrine analogue (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) is a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracer for the clinical implementation of sympathetic nervous imaging for both diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure. Meanwhile, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has become increasingly attractive because of its higher spatial and temporal resolution compared to SPECT, which allows regional functional and dynamic kinetic analysis...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904566/is-vitamin-d-deficiency-implicated-in-autonomic-dysfunction
#10
REVIEW
Rozina Wadhwania
Dysautonomia, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, presents with heterogeneous clinical features from an imbalanced regulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Low Vitamin D levels can explain the heterogeneous clinical features of migraine headaches, cardiac and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and oxidative stress evident in dysautonomia patients. The role of Vitamin D in modulating pain sensitivity has been recently established. However, there is a lack of research and understanding regarding the association between Vitamin D deficiency and autonomic dysfunction...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903938/atrial-fibrillation-in-acute-obstructive-sleep-apnea-autonomic-nervous-mechanism-and-modulation
#11
Lilei Yu, Xuefei Li, Bing Huang, Xiaoya Zhou, Menglong Wang, Liping Zhou, Guannan Meng, Yuhong Wang, Zhenya Wang, Jielin Deng, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF) induced by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are not completely understood. This study investigated the roles of the intrinsic and extrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system in OSA-induced AF and provided noninvasive autonomic nervous modulation for the suppression of OSA-induced AF by using low-level transcutaneous electrical stimulation (LL-TS) of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve at the tragus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen dogs received tracheostomy under general anesthesia and were randomly divided into 3 groups: the OSA group (OSA was simulated via clamping of the endotracheal tube at end expiration for 1...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903579/loneliness-social-isolation-and-cardiovascular-health
#12
Ning Xia, Huige Li
SIGNIFICANCE: Social and demographic changes have led to an increased prevalence of loneliness and social isolation in modern society. Recent Advances: Population-based studies have demonstrated that both objective social isolation and perceived social isolation (loneliness) are associated with increased mortality and that both are clearly risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Lonely individuals have increased peripheral vascular resistance and elevated blood pressure. Socially isolated animals develop more atherosclerosis than those housed in groups...
September 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895408/sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-innervation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
L Zhang, L L Wu, H B Huan, X J Chen, X D Wen, D P Yang, F Xia
Autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the development of multiple cancers via regulating cancer cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. However, no detailed studies have been performed to study the role of autonomic nerve fibers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as its correlation with the progression of HCC. Here, we examined the distribution of the autonomic nerve fibers and analyzed the correlation between autonomic nerve fibers and the pathological characteristics of HCC patients...
September 12, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893245/age-dependent-redox-status-in-the-brain-stem-of-no-deficient-hypertensive-rats
#14
Miroslava Majzúnová, Zuzana Pakanová, Peter Kvasnička, Peter Bališ, Soňa Čačányiová, Ima Dovinová
BACKGROUND: The brain stem contains important nuclei that control cardiovascular function via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which is strongly influenced by nitric oxide. Its biological activity is also largely determined by oxygen free radicals. Despite many experimental studies, the role of AT1R-NAD(P)H oxidase-superoxide pathway in NO-deficiency is not yet sufficiently clarified. We determined changes in free radical signaling and antioxidant and detoxification response in the brain stem of young and adult Wistar rats during chronic administration of exogenous NO inhibitors...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891509/role-of-the-medullary-lateral-tegmental-field-in-sympathetic-control
#15
Michael George Zaki Ghali
The sympathetic nervous system maintains and regulates arterial pressure and tissue perfusion, via control of cardiac output and vasomotor tone. Sympatho-vascular-mediated increases in blood pressure are effected by arterioloconstriction, which causes an increase in afterload, and/or venoconstriction, which increases venous return, left ventricular preload, and consequently, the force of cardiac contraction via Frank-Starling mechanisms; withdrawal of sympathetic drive elicits reciprocal effects. Spinalization reduces mammalian arterial pressure to 40-50 mm Hg consequent to the elimination of descending medullary pre-sympathetic bulbospinal drive to preganglionic sympathetic fibers in the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891450/the-neurocentric-approach-to-essential-hypertension-how-reliable-is-the-paradigm-of-hyperkinetic-hypertension-a-focus-on-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-dysregulation-in-essential-hypertensive-patients-with-elevated-resting-heart-rate
#16
Domenico Di Raimondo, Gaia Musiari, Mauro Grova, Giuseppe Miceli, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Antonio Pinto
BACKGROUND: Clinic resting heart rate (RHR), is one of the cardiovascular parameters more easily measurable. In the general population RHR has been associated with total and cardiovascular mortality and higher rate of vascular events. OBJECTIVE: The case of essential hypertension is in some ways peculiar: in the past decades has often been attributed to hypertensive subjects higher values of RHR than healthy controls as a result of the effects of the different factors leading to the development of essential hypertension itself, first of all the presence of an increased tone of the sympathetic nervous system Methods: Several excellent articles debated the issue of autonomic dysfunction in essential hypertension; nevertheless of this, after various decades of debate, this issue is to-date unresolved...
September 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890182/transient-heart-rate-acceleration-in-association-with-spontaneous-eyeblinks
#17
Tamami Nakano, Chiho Kuriyama
The reason why people spontaneously blink several times more frequently than is necessary for ocular lubrication has been a mystery. However, spontaneous eyeblinks selectively occur at attentional breakpoints of information processing, suggesting the involvement of spontaneous eyeblink in attentional disengagement from external stimuli. Physiological activity also changes considerably according to attention state. Heart rate decreases when attention is directed at stimuli, while it increases as attention is released...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883863/the-evolution-of-natriuretic-peptide-augmentation-in-management-of-heart-failure-and-the-role-of-sacubitril-valsartan
#18
Srikanth Yandrapalli, Wilbert S Aronow, Pratik Mondal, David R Chabbott
Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures in the US and worldwide. For three decades, the pillars of treatment of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were medications that targeted the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Prior attempts to augment the natriuretic peptide system (NPS) for the management of HF failed either due to lack of significant clinical benefit or due to the unacceptable side effect profile...
August 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877510/heart-rate-variability-modifications-induced-by-high-doses-of-incobotulinumtoxina-and-onabotulinumtoxina-in-hemiplegic-chronic-stroke-patients-a-single-blind-randomized-controlled-crossover-pilot-study
#19
Alessio Baricich, Elisa Grana, Stefano Carda, Andrea Santamato, Claudio Molinari, Carlo Cisari, Marco Invernizzi
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin type A is a valid and safe treatment for focal spasticity, with documented effects on both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Heart rate variability can provide detailed information about the control of the autonomic nervous system on cardiovascular activities. Previous studies in literature showed no significant changes in Heart Rate Variability with doses >600 U of incobotulinumtoxinA in chronic post stroke spastic patients; however, at present time, these results have not been confirmed with doses >600 U of onabotulinumtoxinA...
September 4, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875352/specificity-of-reward-sensitivity-and-parasympathetic-based-regulation-among-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-and-disruptive-behavior-disorders
#20
Rachel B Tenenbaum, Erica D Musser, Joseph S Raiker, Erika K Coles, Elizabeth M Gnagy, William E Pelham
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with disruptionsin reward sensitivity and regulatory processes. However, it is unclear whether thesedisruptions are better explained by comorbid disruptive behavior disorder (DBD)symptomology. This study sought to examine this question using multiple levels ofanalysis (i.e., behavior, autonomic reactivity). One hundred seventeen children (aged 6 to 12 years; 72.6% male; 69 with ADHD) completed theBalloon-Analogue Risk Task (BART) to assess external reward sensitivity behaviorally...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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