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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720479/interaction-between-prenatal-risk-and-infant-parasympathetic-and-sympathetic-stress-reactivity-predicts-early-aggression
#1
J Suurland, K B Van der Heijden, S C J Huijbregts, S H M Van Goozen, H Swaab
Nonreciprocal action of the parasympathetic (PNS) and sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems, increases susceptibility to emotional and behavioral problems in children exposed to adversity. Little is known about the PNS and SNS in interaction with early adversity during infancy. Yet this is when the physiological systems involved in emotion regulation are emerging and presumably most responsive to environmental influences. We examined whether parasympathetic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and sympathetic pre-ejection period (PEP) response and recovery at six months, moderate the association between cumulative prenatal risk and physical aggression at 20 months (N=113)...
July 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717053/pure-autonomic-failure
#2
REVIEW
Thomas P Brown
Pure autonomic failure is a degenerative disorder of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Patients experience symptomatic hypotension that requires them to sit, squat or lie down to prevent syncope. It is associated with characteristic histopathological findings, resulting in neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the peripheral autonomic nerves. These lesions are responsible for defects in the synthesis and release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals, resulting in significant hypotension. Patients with autonomic failure also have exaggerated blood pressure responses to common stimuli such as food or fluid intake, heat, exercise and medications...
July 17, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717028/the-norepinephrine-metabolite-3-4-dihydroxymandelic-acid-is-produced-by-the-commensal-microbiota-and-promotes-chemotaxis-and-virulence-gene-expression-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli
#3
Nitesh Sule, Sasi Pasupuleti, Nandita Kohli, Rani Menon, Lawrence J Dangott, Michael D Manson, Arul Jayaraman
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a commonly occuring foodborne pathogen responsible for numerous multistate outbreaks in the US. It is known to infect the host gastrointestinal tract, specifically in locations associated with lymphoid tissue. These niches serve as sources of enteric neurotransmitters such as epinephrine and norepinephrine that are known to increase virulence in several pathogens, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli The mechanisms that allow pathogens to target these niches are poorly understood...
July 17, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715351/interacting-influences-of-gender-and-chronic-pain-status-on-parasympathetically-mediated-heart-rate-variability-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#4
Lynn S Walker, Amanda L Stone, Craig A Smith, Stephen Bruehl, Judy Garber, Martina Puzanovova, André Diedrich
Considerable research links chronic pain to autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, specifically low heart rate variability (HRV) mediated by reduced parasympathetic activity. However, little is known about factors that influence ANS function in chronic pain. The ANS is the primary pathway for brain-gut communication, making it of particular interest in gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, characterized by functional abdominal pain (FAP). We evaluated the relation of sex, pain severity, and psychological stress to ANS function in adolescents/young adults from a database of pediatric FAP and control participants enrolled 8 years earlier in a prospective study of pain...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714862/a-leptin-regulated-circuit-controls-glucose-mobilization-during-noxious-stimuli
#5
Jonathan N Flak, Deanna Arble, Warren Pan, Christa Patterson, Thomas Lanigan, Paulette B Goforth, Jamie Sacksner, Maja Joosten, Donald A Morgan, Margaret B Allison, John Hayes, Eva Feldman, Randy J Seeley, David P Olson, Kamal Rahmouni, Martin G Myers
Adipocytes secrete the hormone leptin to signal the sufficiency of energy stores. Reductions in circulating leptin concentrations reflect a negative energy balance, which augments sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation in response to metabolically demanding emergencies. This process ensures adequate glucose mobilization despite low energy stores. We report that leptin receptor-expressing neurons (LepRb neurons) in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the largest population of LepRb neurons in the brain stem, mediate this process...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714262/baroreflex-mediated-sympathetic-overactivation-induced-by-mental-stress-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-depends-on-the-type-of-stressor
#6
Luiz Eduardo Virgilio Silva, Pedro Lourenço Katayama
Sympathetic overactivation has long been recognized as a deleterious condition, involved in the physiopathology of several diseases. The overactivity of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) may be the consequence of different conditions and an intriguing question that still remains is whether diseases, such as hypertension and heart failure, are induced by increased SNS or increased SNS is a consequence of the disease progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714085/neural-control-of-sweat-secretion-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Y Hu, C Converse, M C Lyons, W H Hsu
Humans have 4 million exocrine sweat glands, which can be classified into two types: eccrine and apocrine glands. Sweat secretion is a constitutive feature, which is directly involved in thermoregulation and metabolism. Sweat secretion is regulated by both the central nervous system(1) and autonomic nervous system.(2) In peripheral areas, the ANS, especially the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), mediates the transmission of neurotransmitters to sweat glands. Two principal chemical mediators, acetylcholine and noradrenaline (NA)/adrenaline (ADR), are released by the SNS, which stimulate sweat secretion...
July 17, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713263/the-frequency-dependent-aerobic-exercise-effects-of-hypothalamic-gabaergic-expression-and-cardiovascular-functions-in-aged-rats
#8
Yan Li, Ziqi Zhao, Jiajia Cai, Boya Gu, Yuanyuan Lv, Li Zhao
A decline in cardiovascular modulation is a feature of the normal aging process and associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as hypertension and stroke. Exercise training is known to promote cardiovascular adaptation in young animals and positive effects on motor and cognitive capabilities, as well as on brain plasticity for all ages in mice. Here, we examine the question of whether aerobic exercise interventions may impact the GABAergic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in aged rats which have been observed to have a decline in cardiovascular integration function...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713088/-pathogenic-factors-of-regulatory-mechanisms-of-organism-adaptation-to-conditions-with-a-high-level-of-psychoemotional-load
#9
Oksana V Gorsha, Vasily I Gorsha
INTRODUCTION: The urgency of the issue is determined by the value of the stress impact of environmental conditions on workers of the operator personnel contingent, because the deterioration of their health and well-being is a factor in dangerous situations. However, the search for early diagnostic markers forming diseases, with a view to their prevention, is still a challenge. The aim was to establish the most important (among studied) pathogenetic factors of status of regulatory mechanisms of adaptation of individuals with a high level of psychoemotional load that is conditional upon profession...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712414/anxiety-during-pregnancy-and-autonomic-nervous-system-activity-a-longitudinal-observational-and-cross-sectional-study
#10
Taeko Mizuno, Koji Tamakoshi, Keiko Tanabe
OBJECTIVES: To assess the longitudinal change in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during pregnancy and the association between anxiety during pregnancy and ANS activity. METHODS: Pregnant Japanese women with a singleton fetus and normal pregnancy were recruited (n=65). ANS activity and anxiety were measured using a self-rating questionnaire at approximately 20, 30, and 36weeks of gestation. Very low (VLF) and high (HF) frequency bands of heart rate variability spectrums were used...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712386/neuropeptide-y-improves-cisplatin-induced-bone-marrow-dysfunction-without-blocking-chemotherapeutic-efficacy-in-a-cancer-mouse-model
#11
Min Hee Park, In Kyung Jung, Woo-Kie Min, Jin Ho Choi, Gyu Man Kim, Hee Kyung Jin, Jae-Sung Bae
Cisplatin is the most effective and widely used chemotherapeutic agent for many types of cancer. Unfortunately, its clinical use is limited by its adverse effects, notably bone marrow suppression leading to abnormal hematopoiesis. We previously revealed that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is responsible for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function by protecting the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) fibers survival from chemotherapy-induced bone marrow impairment. Here, we show the NPY-mediated protective effect against bone marrow dysfunction due to cisplatin in an ovarian cancer mouse model...
July 17, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711699/lower-catecholamine-activity-is-associated-with-greater-levels-of-anger-in-adults
#12
Joseph A Schwartz, Jill Portnoy
Previous research has revealed a consistent association between heart rate at rest and during stress and behavioral problems, potentially implicating autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning in the etiological development of antisocial behavior. A complementary line of research has focused on the potential independent and interactive role of the two subsystems that comprise the ANS, the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), on behavioral problems. The current study aims to contribute to the existing literature by examining the influence of heart rate (HR) reactivity, high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) reactivity, and catecholamine activity on a comprehensive measure of anger in a large, nationally-representative sample of adults from the United States...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710773/reciprocal-modulation-of-helper-th1-and-th17-cells-by-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-drug-terbutaline
#13
Catalina M Carvajal Gonczi, Mahdieh Tabatabaei Shafiei, Ashley East, Erika Martire, Meagane H I Maurice-Ventouris, Peter J Darlington
Catecholamine hormones are powerful regulators of the immune system produced by the sympathetic nervous system. They regulate the adaptive immune system by altering T cell differentiation into T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cell subsets, but the effect on Th17 cells is not known. Th17 cells, defined in part by chemokine receptor CCR6 and cytokine IL-17A, are crucial for mediating certain pathogen-specific responses, and are linked with several autoimmune diseases. We demonstrated that a proportion of human Th17 cells express β2-adrenergic receptor, a G protein coupled receptor that responds to catecholamines...
July 15, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710030/differences-of-sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-modulation-in-major-depression
#14
Andy Schumann, Caroline Andrack, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Inconsistent results have been reported with respect to cardiac autonomic function in major depression. The aim of our study was to investigate autonomic function in various branches of the autonomic nervous system in order to better understand parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation in the disease. We investigated 29 unmedicated patients suffering from major depression (MD) in comparison to matched control subjects (gender, age, BMI). The autonomic assessment at rest included values of heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), respiration, skin conductance (SC) as well as the calculation of pupillary diameter and the unrest index (PUI)...
July 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709776/effects-of-four-atypical-antipsychotics-on-autonomic-nervous-system-activity-in-schizophrenia
#15
Saki Hattori, Ikuko Kishida, Akira Suda, Masatoshi Miyauchi, Yohko Shiraishi, Mami Fujibayashi, Natsuki Tsujita, Chie Ishii, Norio Ishii, Tosiho Moritani, Masataka Taguri, Yoshio Hirayasu
Antipsychotic drugs are associated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, but the effects of individual atypical antipsychotic drugs are not clear. This study investigated how four atypical antipsychotic drugs-risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole, and quetiapine-differ in their effects on ANS activity. A total of 241 Japanese patients with schizophrenia participated in this study. All of the participants received an atypical antipsychotic as monotherapy: 90 participants received risperidone, 68 olanzapine, 52 aripiprazole, and 31 quetiapine...
July 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706586/influence-of-cardiac-nerve-status-on-cardiovascular-regulation-and-cardioprotection
#16
REVIEW
John G Kingma, Denys Simard, Jacques R Rouleau
Neural elements of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system transduce sensory inputs from the heart, blood vessels and other organs to ensure adequate cardiac function on a beat-to-beat basis. This inter-organ crosstalk is critical for normal function of the heart and other organs; derangements within the nervous system hierarchy contribute to pathogenesis of organ dysfunction. The role of intact cardiac nerves in development of, as well as protection against, ischemic injury is of current interest since it may involve recruitment of intrinsic cardiac ganglia...
June 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704625/neuro-endocrine-response-following-a-thoracic-spinal-manipulation-in-healthy-men
#17
Kesava Kovanur Sampath, Erik Botnmark, Ramakrishnan Mani, James David Cotter, Rajesh Katare, Pujika Emani Munasinghe, Steve Tumilty
Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Spinal manipulation (SM) can trigger a cascade of responses involving multiple systems including the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the endocrine system, specifically the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis. However, no manual therapy study has investigated the neuroendocrine response to SM (i.e., SNS-HP axis) in the same trial. Objective To determine short-term changes in SNS activity; heart rate variability (HRV) and endocrine activity (cortisol, testosterone and testosterone/cortisol (T/C) ratio) following a thoracic SM...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703308/odors-generated-from-the-maillard-reaction-affect-autonomic-nervous-activity-and-decrease-blood-pressure-through-the-olfactory-system
#18
Lanxi Zhou, Motoko Ohata, Chisato Owashi, Katsuya Nagai, Issei Yokoyama, Keizo Arihara
BACKGROUND: Systolic blood pressure of rats decreases significantly following exposure to the odor generated from the Maillard reaction of protein digests with xylose. In the current study, we identified active odorants that affect blood pressure and demonstrated the mechanism of action. RESULTS: Among the four potent odorants that contribute most to the odor of the Maillard reaction sample, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone and 5-methylpyrazine-2-methanol decreased systolic blood pressure significantly...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701539/measuring-and-quantifying-skin-sympathetic-nervous-system-activity-in-humans
#19
Jody L Greaney, W Larry Kenney
Development of the technique of microneurography has substantially increased our understanding of the function of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in health and in disease. The ability to directly record signals from peripheral autonomic nerves in conscious humans allows for qualitative and quantitative characterization of SNS responses to specific stimuli and over time. Further, distinct neural outflow to muscle (MSNA) and skin (SSNA) can be delineated. However, there are limitations and caveats to the use of microneurography, measurement criteria, and signal analysis and interpretation...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700617/a-new-analysis-of-heart-rate-variability-in-the-assessment-of-fetal-parasympathetic-activity-an-experimental-study-in-a-fetal-sheep-model
#20
C Garabedian, C Champion, E Servan-Schreiber, L Butruille, E Aubry, D Sharma, R Logier, P Deruelle, L Storme, V Houfflin-Debarge, J De Jonckheere
Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is a recognized tool in the assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Indeed, both time and spectral analysis techniques enable us to obtain indexes that are related to the way the ANS regulates the heart rate. However, these techniques are limited in terms of the lack of thresholds of the numerical indexes, which is primarily due to high inter-subject variability. We proposed a new fetal HRV analysis method related to the parasympathetic activity of the ANS...
2017: PloS One
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