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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331105/dietary-factors-modulate-colonic-tumorigenesis-through-the-interaction-of-gut-microbiota-and-host-chloride-channels
#1
Yong Zhang, Chao Kang, Xiao-Lan Wang, Min Zhou, Meng-Ting Chen, Xiao-Hui Zhu, Kai Liu, Bin Wang, Qian-Yong Zhang, Jun-Dong Zhu, Man-Tian Mi
SCOPE: In recent decades, the association between diet, gut microbiota and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been established. Gut microbiota and associated metabolites, such as bile acids and butyrate, are now known to play a key role in CRC development. The aim of this study was to identify the progression to CRC is influenced by cholic acid, sodium butyrate, a high-fat diet or different dose of dihydromyricetin (DMY) interacted with gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: An AOM/DSS (azoxymethan/dextran sodium sulfate) model was established to study the gut microbiota compsition before and after tumor formation during colitis-induced tumorigenesis...
January 13, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329645/polysaccharides-extracted-from-the-roots-of-bupleurum-chinense-dc-modulates-macrophage-functions
#2
Zhi-De Zhang, Hong Li, Fen Wan, Xiao-Yu Su, Yan Lu, Dao-Feng Chen, Yun-Yi Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of polysaccharides extracted from Bupleurum chinense DC (BCPs) on macrophage functions. In the in vivo experiment, 1 mL of 5% sodium thioglycollate was injected into the abdomen of the mice on Day 0 and macrophages were harvested on Day 4. The macrophages were cultured in plates and treated with different concentrations of BCPs and stimulus. Effects of BCPs on macrophage functions were assessed by chemotaxis assay, phagocytosis assay and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327161/effects-of-channel-blocking-on-information-transmission-and-energy-efficiency-in-squid-giant-axons
#3
Yujiang Liu, Yuan Yue, Yuguo Yu, Liwei Liu, Lianchun Yu
Action potentials are the information carriers of neural systems. The generation of action potentials involves the cooperative opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels. This process is metabolically expensive because the ions flowing through open channels need to be restored to maintain concentration gradients of these ions. Toxins like tetraethylammonium can block working ion channels, thus affecting the function and energy cost of neurons. In this paper, by computer simulation of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model, we studied the effects of channel blocking with toxins on the information transmission and energy efficiency in squid giant axons...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326302/role-of-clc-k-and-barttin-in-low-potassium-induced-sodium-chloride-cotransporter-activation-and-hypertension-in-mouse-kidney
#4
Naohiro Nomura, Wakana Shoda, Yuanlong Wang, Shintaro Mandai, Taisuke Furusho, Daiei Takahashi, Moko Zeniya, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
The sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) has been identified as a key molecule regulating potassium balance. The mechanisms of NCC regulation during low extracellular potassium concentrations have been studied in vitro. These studies have shown that hyperpolarization increased chloride efflux, leading to the activation of chloride-sensitive WNK kinases and their downstream molecules, including STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and NCC. However, this mechanism was not studied in vivo Previously, we developed the barttin hypomorphic mouse ( Bsndneo/neo mice), expressing very low levels of barttin and ClC-K channels, because barttin is an essential ß-subunit of ClC-K...
January 11, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325125/age-phosphorus-and-25-hydroxycholecalciferol-regulate-mrna-expression-of-vitamin-d-receptor-and-sodium-phosphate-cotransporter-in-the-small-intestine-of-broiler-chickens
#5
J C Han, J L Zhang, N Zhang, X Yang, H X Qu, Y Guo, C X Shi, Y F Yan
Four experiments were conducted in this study. Experiment 1 was carried out to examine mRNA expressions of nuclear vitamin D receptor (nVDR), membrane vitamin D receptor (mVDR), and type IIb sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) in the small intestine of broiler chickens. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 were implemented to evaluate effects of age, non-phytate phosphorus (NPP), and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) on mRNA expressions of nVDR, mVDR, and NaPi-IIb in the duodenum of chickens. Results showed that mRNA expression levels of nVDR and NaPi-IIb were highest in the duodenum of 21-day-old broilers, lower in the jejunum, and lowest in the ileum...
January 6, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324661/protein-activity-of-the-fusarium-fujikuroi-rhodopsins-caro-and-opsa-and-their-relation-to-fungus-plant-interaction
#6
Alexander Adam, Stephan Deimel, Javier Pardo-Medina, Jorge García-Martínez, Tilen Konte, M Carmen Limón, Javier Avalos, Ulrich Terpitz
Fungi possess diverse photosensory proteins that allow them to perceive different light wavelengths and to adapt to changing light conditions in their environment. The biological and physiological roles of the green light-sensing rhodopsins in fungi are not yet resolved. The rice plant pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi exhibits two different rhodopsins, CarO and OpsA. CarO was previously characterized as a light-driven proton pump. We further analyzed the pumping behavior of CarO by patch-clamp experiments. Our data show that CarO pumping activity is strongly augmented in the presence of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid and in sodium acetate, in a dose-dependent manner under slightly acidic conditions...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323457/impact-of-subchronic-exposure-to-triclosan-and-or-fluoride-on-estrogenic-activity-in-immature-female-rats-the-expression-pattern-of-calbindin-d9k-and-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-genes
#7
Yasmina M Abd-Elhakim, Amany T Mohammed, Haytham A Ali
This study explored the influence of triclosan (TCS) in the absence and presence of sodium fluoride (NaF) on estrogenic activity and thyroid function of adolescent female rats. The results indicated that the individual exposure to TCS evoked a significant decline in T3 and T4 but the levels of estradiol, FSH, and LH were significantly elevated beside marked up regulation of calbindin-D9k and estrogen α mRNA expression. On the other hand, the single exposure to NaF causes insignificant changes in thyroid hormones, but evoked a trend toward an increase in both estradiol and LH levels...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323234/caveolin-1-promotes-renal-water-and-salt-reabsorption
#8
Yan Willière, Aljona Borschewski, Andreas Patzak, Tatiana Nikitina, Carsten Dittmayer, Anna L Daigeler, Markus Schuelke, Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig
Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is essential for the formation of caveolae. Little is known about their functional role in the kidney. We tested the hypothesis that caveolae modulate renal salt and water reabsorption. Wild-type (WT) and Cav1-deficient (Cav1-/-) mice were studied. Cav1 expression and caveolae formation were present in vascular cells, late distal convoluted tubule and principal connecting tubule and collecting duct cells of WT but not Cav1-/- kidneys. Urinary sodium excretion was increased by 94% and urine flow by 126% in Cav1-/- mice (p < 0...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322303/salt-tolerance-of-two-perennial-grass-brachypodium-sylvaticum-accessions
#9
Nir Sade, Maria Del Mar Rubio Wilhelmi, Xiaojuan Ke, Yariv Brotman, Matthew Wright, Imran Khan, Wagner De Souza, Elias Bassil, Christian M Tobias, Roger Thilmony, John P Vogel, Eduardo Blumwald
We studied the salt stress tolerance of two accessions isolated from different areas of the world (Norway and Tunisia) and characterized the mechanism(s) regulating salt stress in Brachypodium sylvaticum Osl1 and Ain1. Perennial grasses are widely grown in different parts of the world as an important feedstock for renewable energy. Their perennial nature that reduces management practices and use of energy and agrochemicals give these biomass crops advantages when dealing with modern agriculture challenges such as soil erosion, increase in salinized marginal lands and the runoff of nutrients...
January 10, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321495/tanshinone-iia%C3%A2-sulfonate-protects-against-cigarette-smoke-induced-copd-and-down-regulation-of-cftr-in-mice
#10
Defu Li, Jian Wang, Dejun Sun, Xuefang Gong, Hua Jiang, Jiaze Shu, Ziyi Wang, Zhen Long, Yiguan Chen, Zili Zhang, Liang Yuan, Ruijuan Guan, Xue Liang, Ziying Li, Hongwei Yao, Nanshan Zhong, Wenju Lu
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease characterized by abnormal inflammation, persistent and progressive lung function decline. The anti-inflammatory actions of tanshinone IIA, which is the most important active component from Chinese herbal medicine Danshen, have been well studied. However, it remains unknown whether sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) protects against the development of COPD. Here we found that STS inhalation (5 mg/kg, 30 min per session, twice a day) significantly attenuated lung function decline, airspace enlargement, mucus production, bronchial collagen deposition, inflammatory responses and oxidative stress caused by cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposures in mice...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320529/how-exogenous-nitric-oxide-regulates-nitrogen-assimilation-in-wheat-seedlings-under-different-nitrogen-sources-and-levels
#11
Sadegh Balotf, Shahidul Islam, Gholamreza Kavoosi, Bahman Kholdebarin, Angela Juhasz, Wujun Ma
Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important nutrients for plants and nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling plant growth regulator involved in nitrogen assimilation. Understanding the influence of exogenous NO on nitrogen metabolism at the gene expression and enzyme activity levels under different sources of nitrogen is vitally important for increasing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). This study investigated the expression of key genes and enzymes in relation to nitrogen assimilation in two Australian wheat cultivars, a popular high NUE cv...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320235/a-limited-survey-of-metal-content-in-blue-jack-mackerel-trachurus-picturatus-obtained-from-markets-in-the-canary-islands
#12
Carmen Rubio, Laura Acosta, Gara Luis-González, Dailos González-Weller, Consuelo Revert, Arturo Hardisson, Ángel Gutiérrez
The levels of 20 metals (aluminum, boron, barium, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, sodium, nickel, lead, strontium, vanadium, and zinc) were analyzed in muscle and liver tissue of Trachurus picturatus marketed in the Canary Islands (Spain) by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. In the liver samples, the mean concentrations in milligrams per kilogram wet weight (wt) of Al (14.7), B (0.99), Ba (1.64), Ca (314), Cd (2...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318961/targeting-na-k-atpase-signaling-a-new-approach-to-control-oxidative-stress
#13
Jiang Liu, Megan N Lilly, Joseph I Shapiro
Renal and cardiac function are greatly affected by chronic oxidative stress which can cause many pathophysiological states. The Na/K-ATPase is well-described as an ion pumping enzyme involved in maintaining cellular ion homeostasis; however, in the past two decades, extensive research has been done to understand the signaling function of the Na/K-ATPase and determine its role in physiological and pathophysiological states. Our lab has shown that the Na/K-ATPase signaling cascade can function as an amplifier of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can be initiated by cardiotonic steroids or increases in ROS...
January 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318784/divalproex-sodium-modulates-nuclear-localization-of-ataxin-3-and-prevents-cellular-toxicity-caused-by-expanded-ataxin-3
#14
Zi-Jian Wang, Aoife Hanet, Daniel Weishäupl, Inês M Martins, Anna S Sowa, Olaf Riess, Thorsten Schmidt
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of SCA worldwide. It is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the ataxin-3 protein. Nuclear localization of the affected protein is a key event in the pathology of SCA3 via affecting nuclear organization, transcriptional dysfunction, and seeding aggregations, finally causing neurodegeneration and cell death...
January 9, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317494/hydrogen-sulfide-inhibits-kir2-and-kir3-channels-by-decreasing-sensitivity-to-the-phospholipid-pip2
#15
Junghoon Ha, Yu Xu, Takeharu Kawano, Tyler Hendon, Lia Baki, Sumanta Garai, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Ganesh Thakur, Leigh D Plant, Diomedes E Logothetis
Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels establish and regulate the resting membrane potential of excitable cells in the heart, brain and other peripheral tissues. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a key direct activator of ion channels, including Kir channels. The gasotransmitter carbon monoxide has been shown to regulate Kir channel activity by altering channel-PIP2 interactions.  Here, we tested in two cellular models the effects and mechanism of action of another gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), thought to play a key role in cellular responses under ischemic conditions...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316923/comparative-assessment-of-probiotics-and-monensin-in-the-prophylaxis-of-acute-ruminal-lactic-acidosis-in-sheep
#16
Leonardo Frasson Reis, Rejane Santos Sousa, Francisco Leonardo Costa Oliveira, Frederico Augusto Mazzocca Lopes Rodrigues, Carolina Akiko Sato Cabral Araújo, Enoch Brandão Souza Meira-Júnior, Raimundo Alves Barrêto-Júnior, Clara Satsuki Mori, Antonio Humberto Hamad Minervino, Enrico Lippi Ortolani
BACKGROUND: Acute ruminal lactic acidosis (ARLA) is a major nutritional and metabolic disorder usually characterized by excessive or non-adapted intake of diets rich in nonstructural carbohydrates. Feed additives that regulate the ruminal environment have been used to prevent ARLA, such as ionophores and, more recently, yeast culture. Thus, we aimed to compare the efficacy of a yeast-based culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with that of monensin sodium in the prevention of ARLA in sheep...
January 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316438/smoothened-sensor-places-sodium-and-sterols-center-stage
#17
Robert Blassberg, James Briscoe
Regulation of Smoothened by PTCH1 is central to Hedgehog signal transduction. Reporting recently in PNAS, Myers et al. (2017) provide evidence that a transmembrane flux of sodium ions drives PTCH1 activity and that cholesterol regulates Smoothened via its transmembrane domain.
January 8, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315929/wd40-repeat-5a-represses-root-meristem-growth-by-suppressing-auxin-synthesis-through-changes-of-nitric-oxide-accumulation-in-arabidopsis
#18
Wen-Cheng Liu, Si-Qiu Zheng, Zhen-Dong Yu, Xiang Gao, Ran Shen, Ying-Tang Lu
While nitric oxide (NO) is known to regulate root growth, the factor(s) modulating NO during this process have not yet been elucidated. Here, we identified Arabidopsis WD40-REPEAT 5a (WDR5a) as a novel factor that functions in root growth by modulating NO accumulation. The wdr5a-1 mutant accumulated less NO and produced longer roots than the wild type, while the WDR5a overexpression lines had the opposite phenotype. The role of NO was further supported by our observation that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) rescued the root meristem growth phenotypes of the wdr5a-1 and WDR5a overexpression lines, respectively...
January 6, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311318/freshwater-salinization-syndrome-on-a-continental-scale
#19
Sujay S Kaushal, Gene E Likens, Michael L Pace, Ryan M Utz, Shahan Haq, Julia Gorman, Melissa Grese
Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311138/bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-differentially-regulate-intestinal-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-1a1-partially-through-tlr4-mapk-pi3k-pathway
#20
Xuejiao Gao, Ting Li, Bin Wei, Zhixiang Yan, Nan Hu, Yanjuan Huang, Beilei Han, Tai-Seng Wai, Wei Yang, Ru Yan
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) constitutes an important part of intestinal epithelial barrier and catalyzes glucuronidation of many endogenous compounds and drugs. Down-regulation of UGT1A1 in inflammation has been reported, while the association with gut dysbiosis is poorly defined. This study verified the involvement of gut microbiota in intestinal UGT1A1 regulation using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced rat colitis model plus fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Generally, both DSS induction and colitis-to-normal FMT suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of UGT1A1 and nuclear xenobiotic receptors (NRs) in colon, but enhanced mRNA and decreased protein of rUGT1A1/rNRs in small intestine...
January 8, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
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