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Sodium regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539392/sodium-pump-regulation-of-locomotor-control-circuits
#1
Laurence David Picton, HongYan Zhang, Keith Thomas Sillar
Sodium pumps are ubiquitously expressed membrane proteins that extrude three N(a+) ions in exchange for two K(+) ions using ATP as an energy source. Recent studies have illuminated additional, dynamic roles for sodium pumps in regulating the excitability of neuronal networks in an activity-dependent fashion. Here we review their role in a novel form of short-term memory within rhythmic locomotor networks. The data we review derives mainly from recent studies on Xenopus tadpoles and neonatal mice. The role and underlying mechanisms of pump action broadly match previously published data from an invertebrate, the Drosophila larva...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539224/inhaled-enac-antisense-oligonucleotide-ameliorates-cystic-fibrosis-like-lung-disease-in-mice
#2
Jeff R Crosby, Chenguang Zhao, Chong Jiang, Dong Bai, Melanie Katz, Sarah Greenlee, Hiroshi Kawabe, Michael McCaleb, Daniela Rotin, Shuling Guo, Brett P Monia
BACKGROUND: Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, Scnn1) hyperactivity in the lung leads to airway surface dehydration and mucus accumulation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and in mice with CF-like lung disease. METHODS: We identified several potent ENaC specific antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and tested them by inhalation in mouse models of CF-like lung disease. RESULTS: The inhaled ASOs distributed into lung airway epithelial cells and decreased ENaC expression by inducing RNase H1-dependent degradation of the targeted Scnn1a mRNA...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538700/stability-profiles-and-therapeutic-effect-of-cu-zn-superoxide-dismutase-chemically-coupled-to-o-quaternary-chitosan-derivatives-against-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis
#3
Nan Zhao, Zhaolong Feng, Meng Shao, Jichao Cao, Fengshan Wang, Chunhui Liu
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has attracted considerable attention on treatment of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related disorders. We previously conjugated Cu/Zn SOD to O-quaternary chitosan derivatives (O-HTCC) to yield a polymer-enzyme conjugate O-HTCC-SOD that demonstrated superior therapeutic effect to native SOD. The present study demonstrated that O-HTCC-SOD had wider pH activity range, better thermal stability, excellent long-term stability for storage, as well as unique reinstatement of activity exposure to proteolytic degradation that was helpful for longer half-life in vivo...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536900/hopes-for-the-future-of-pain-control
#4
REVIEW
Kirsty Bannister, Mateusz Kucharczyk, Anthony H Dickenson
Here we aim to present an accessible review of the pharmacological targets for pain management, and succinctly discuss the newest trends in pain therapy. A key task for current pain pharmacotherapy is the identification of receptors and channels orchestrating nociception. Notwithstanding peripheral alterations in the receptors and channels following pathophysiological events, the modulatory mechanisms in the central nervous system are also fundamental to the regulation of pain perception. Bridging preclinical and clinical studies of peripheral and central components of pain modulation, we present the different types of pain and relate these to pharmacological interventions...
May 23, 2017: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535667/involvement-of-a-gr2a-expressing-drosophila-pharyngeal-gustatory-receptor-neuron-in-regulation-of-aversion-to-high-salt-foods
#5
Haein Kim, Yong Taek Jeong, Min Sung Choi, Jaekyun Choi, Seok Jun Moon, Jae Young Kwon
Regulation of feeding is essential for animal survival. The pharyngeal sense organs can act as a second checkpoint of food quality, due to their position between external taste organs such as the labellum which initially assess food quality, and the digestive tract. Growing evidence provides support that the pharyngeal sensory neurons regulate feeding, but much is still unknown. We found that a pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the LSO, a Drosophila adult pharyngeal organ which expresses four gustatory receptors, is involved in feeding inhibition in response to high concentrations of sodium ions...
May 2, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535513/pkc-%C3%AE-triggers-egfr-ubiquitination-endocytosis-and-erk-activation-in-podocytes-stimulated-with-high-glucose
#6
Chun-Tao Lei, Yan-Hong Wei, Hui Tang, Qian Wen, Chen Ye, Chun Zhang, Hua Su
BACKGROUND: Protein Kinase C-α (PKC-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are both involved in diabetic kidney disease; however, the connection between these two proteins during high glucose-induced podocyte injury remains uncertain. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in SD rats by streptozotocin (STZ). Fourteen days later, the kidney cortex was removed and subjected to plasma membrane isolation and lipid raft fractionation. In vitro study human podocyte cell line was differentiated and subjected to various treatments...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534026/how-cells-can-control-their-size-by-pumping-ions
#7
Alan R Kay
The ability of all cells to set and regulate their size is a fundamental aspect of cellular physiology. It has been known for sometime but not widely so, that size stability in animal cells is dependent upon the operation of the sodium pump, through the so-called pump-leak mechanism (Tosteson and Hoffman, 1960). Impermeant molecules in cells establish an unstable osmotic condition, the Donnan effect, which is counteracted by the operation of the sodium pump, creating an asymmetry in the distribution of Na(+) and K(+) staving off water inundation...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532435/early-growth-response-protein-1-regulates-promoter-activity-of-%C3%AE-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpase-2-a-major-calcium-pump-in-the-brain-and-auditory-system
#8
Rebecca R Minich, Jin Li, Bruce L Tempel
BACKGROUND: Along with sodium/calcium (Ca(2+)) exchangers, plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPases (ATP2Bs) are main regulators of intracellular Ca(2+) levels. There are four ATP2B paralogs encoded by four different genes. Atp2b2 encodes the protein pump with the fastest activation, ATP2B2. In mice, the Atp2b2 transcript has several alternate transcriptional start site variants: α, β, µ and δ. These variants are expressed in developmental and tissue specific manners. The α and β Atp2b2 transcripts are equally expressed in the brain...
May 22, 2017: BMC Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530662/pd-l1-inhibits-acute-and-chronic-pain-by-suppressing-nociceptive-neuron-activity-via-pd-1
#9
Gang Chen, Yong Ho Kim, Hui Li, Hao Luo, Da-Lu Liu, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Mark Lay, Wonseok Chang, Yu-Qiu Zhang, Ru-Rong Ji
Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is typically produced by cancer cells and suppresses immunity through the receptor PD-1 expressed on T cells. However, the role of PD-L1 and PD-1 in regulating pain and neuronal function is unclear. Here we report that both melanoma and normal neural tissues including dorsal root ganglion (DRG) produce PD-L1 that can potently inhibit acute and chronic pain. Intraplantar injection of PD-L1 evoked analgesia in naive mice via PD-1, whereas PD-L1 neutralization or PD-1 blockade induced mechanical allodynia...
May 22, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529953/bis-4-4-dimethyl-2-2-bipyridine-oxidovanadium-iv-sulfate-dehydrate-potential-candidate-for-controlling-lipid-metabolism
#10
Renata Francik, Jadwiga Kryczyk-Kozioł, Sławomir Francik, Ryszard Gryboś, Mirosław Krośniak
Vanadium is a trace element mainly connected with regulation of insulin metabolism which is particularly important in diabetes. In recent years, organic complexes of vanadium seem to be more interesting than inorganic salts. Nevertheless, the effect of vanadium on lipid metabolism is still a problematic issue; therefore, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 organic complexes of vanadium such as sodium (2,2'-bipyridine)oxidobisperoxovanadate(V) octahydrate, bis(2,2'-bipyridine)oxidovanadium(IV) sulfate dehydrate, and bis(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)oxidovanadium(IV) sulfate dihydrate in conjunction with high-fat as well as control diet in nondiabetes model on the following lipid parameters: total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein as well as activity of paraoxonase 1...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529474/mir-30b-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-by-regulating-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-nav1-3-in-rats
#11
Songxue Su, Jinping Shao, Qingzan Zhao, Xiuhua Ren, Weihua Cai, Lei Li, Qian Bai, Xuemei Chen, Bo Xu, Jian Wang, Jing Cao, Weidong Zang
Nav1.3 is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive isoform among voltage-gated sodium channels that are closely associated with neuropathic pain. It can be up-regulated following nerve injury, but its biological function remains uncertain. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs that can regulate post-transcriptional gene expression by binding with their target mRNAs. Using Target Scan software, we discovered that SCN3A is the major target of miR-30b, and we then determined whether miR-30b regulated the expression of Nav1...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528452/tumor-suppressor-protein-p53-exerts-negative-transcriptional-regulation-on-human-sodium-iodide-symporter-gene-expression-in-breast-cancer
#12
Madhura G Kelkar, Bhushan Thakur, Abhishek Derle, Sushmita Chatterjee, Pritha Ray, Abhijit De
PURPOSE: Aberrant expression of human sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in breast cancer (BC) is well documented but the transcription factors (TF) regulating its aberrant expression is poorly known. We identify the presence of three p53 binding sites on the human NIS promoter sequence by conducting genome-wide TF analysis, and further investigate their regulatory role. METHODS: The differences in transcription and translation were measured by real-time PCR, luciferase reporter assay, site-directed mutagenesis, in vivo optical imaging, and chromatin immunoprecipitation...
May 20, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528375/hypothalamic-signaling-in-body-fluid-homeostasis-and-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Brian J Kinsman, Haley N Nation, Sean D Stocker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The central nervous system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and consequently arterial blood pressure. Key hypothalamic regions sense and integrate neurohumoral signals to subsequently alter intake (thirst and salt appetite) and output (renal excretion via neuroendocrine and autonomic function). Here, we review recent findings that provide new insight into such mechanisms that may represent new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Implementation of cutting edge neuroscience approaches such as opto- and chemogenetics highlight pivotal roles of circumventricular organs to impact body fluid homeostasis...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527083/shared-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-migraine-and-affective-disorders
#14
Davide Zarcone, Simona Corbetta
Since the nineteenth century several clinical features have been observed in common between migraine and epilepsy (such as episodic attacks, triggering factors, presence of aura, frequent familiarity), but only in recent years researchers have really engaged in finding a common pathogenic mechanism. From studies of disease incidence, we understand how either migraine among patients with epilepsy or epilepsy among migraine patients are more frequent than in the general population. This association may result from a direct causality, by the same environmental risk factors and/or by a common genetic susceptibility...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526540/sodium-dependent-glucose-transporters-sglt-in-human-ischemic-heart-a-new-potential-pharmacological-target
#15
Alessandra Di Franco, Giulia Cantini, Alessia Tani, Raffaele Coppini, Sandra Zecchi-Orlandini, Laura Raimondi, Michaela Luconi, Edoardo Mannucci
BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin is reported to reduce cardiovascular mortality and the rate of hospitalization for heart failure in type 2 diabetic patients with prior cardiovascular events. The mechanisms underlying the cardiac effects of this sodium/glucose transporter 2 (SGT2) inhibitor have not yet been clarified, though a direct action of the drug on the cardiomyocytes could be hypothesized. The aim of the present study is to assess the relative expression of SGLT2 and SGLT1, the two most relevant members of the SGLT family being potentially responsive to empagliflozin, in normal, ischemic and hypertrophic human hearts...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524086/dietary-green-pea-protects-against-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice-challenged-with-high-fat-diet
#16
Shima Bibi, Luís Fernando de Sousa Moraes, Noelle Lebow, Mei-Jun Zhu
Obesity is a risk factor for developing inflammatory bowel disease. Pea is unique with its high content of dietary fiber, polyphenolics, and glycoproteins, all of which are known to be health beneficial. We aimed to investigate the impact of green pea (GP) supplementation on the susceptibility of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Six-week-old C57BL/6J female mice were fed a 45% HFD or HFD supplemented with 10% GP. After 7-week dietary supplementation, colitis was induced by adding 2...
May 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522594/sphingomyelin-synthase-2-deficiency-inhibits-the-induction-of-murine-colitis-associated-colon-cancer
#17
Toshio Ohnishi, Chieko Hashizume, Makoto Taniguchi, Hidehiro Furumoto, Jia Han, Rongfen Gao, Shinichi Kinami, Takeo Kosaka, Toshiro Okazaki
Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) is the synthetic enzyme of sphingomyelin (SM), which regulates membrane fluidity and microdomain structure. SMS2 plays a role in LPS-induced lung injury and inflammation; however, its role in inflammation-mediated tumorigenesis is unclear. We investigated the effect of SMS2 deficiency on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced murine colitis and found inhibition of DSS-induced inflammation in SMS2-deficient (SMS2(-/-)) mice. DSS treatment induced a significant increase in ceramide levels, with a decrease of SM levels in SMS2(-/-) colon tissue, and demonstrated attenuation of the elevation of both inflammation-related gene expression and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, leukocyte infiltration, and MAPK and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation...
May 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522431/wnk1-and-p38-mapk-distribution-in-ionocytes-and-accessory-cells-of-euryhaline-teleost-fish-implies-ionoregulatory-function
#18
W S Marshall, R R F Cozzi, M Spieker
Ionocytes of euryhaline teleost fish secrete NaCl, under regulation by serine and threonine kinases, including with-no-lysine kinase (WNK1) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus L.) were acclimated to freshwater (FW), full strength seawater (SW) and hypersaline conditions (2SW). Immunocytochemistry of ionocytes in opercular epithelia of fish acclimated to SW and 2SW revealed that WNK1-anti-pT58 phosphoantibody localized strongly to accessory cells and was present in the cytosol of ionocytes close to, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in the apical membrane and sodium, potassium, 2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC) in basolateral membrane...
May 18, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515088/loss-of-nherf-1-expression-prevents-dopamine-mediated-na-k-atpase-regulation-in-renal-proximal-tubule-cells-from-rat-models-of-hypertension-aged-f344-and-shrs
#19
Michelle T Barati, Corey J Ketchem, Michael L Merchant, Walter B Kusiak, Pedro A Jose, Edward J Weinman, Amanda J LeBlanc, Eleanor D Lederer, Syed J Khundmiri
Dopamine decreases Na-K ATPase (NKA) activity by PKC-dependent phosphorylation and endocytosis of the NKA alpha1. Dopamine-mediated regulation of NKA is impaired in aging and some forms of hypertension. Using opossum (OK) proximal tubule cells (PTCs), we demonstrated that sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) associates with NKA alpha1 and dopamine-1 receptor (D1R). This association is required for the dopamine-mediated regulation of NKA. In OK cells dopamine decreases NHERF-1 association with NKA alpha1 but increases its association with D1R...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511917/evidence-of-the-role-of-the-vagal-nerves-as-a-monitor-in-the-gastrointestinal-renal-axis-of-natriuresis-in-human-effects-of-vagotomy
#20
Constantinos E Alifieris, Dimitrios T Trafalis, Aris D Efstratopoulos, Emmanuel K Alifieris
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of gastrointestinal regulation of natriuresis. Sixteen subjects without (group I) and sixteen subjects with a truncal vagotomy (group II), were given a daily diet of 18mmol of sodium for 5days (D1-D5). The sodium deficit for this period was calculated for each subject and on the morning of day-6 (D6), their cumulative deficit (E) was given as 3% NaCl. In both groups the subjects were divided to receive the hypertonic saline either orally (Ior, IIor) or intravenously (Iiv, IIiv)...
May 10, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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