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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633955/the-microbiome-and-transfusion-in-cancer-patients
#1
REVIEW
Hadi Goubran, Jerard Seghatchian, Julia Radosevic, Gaafar Ragab, Thierry Burnouf
Our microbiota is determined by many variables including ABO blood groups. The microbiota is not only confined to the gut and skin but is also recoverable from blood of healthy donors. The microbiota shape our immune system through cross reactivity with antigens, the expression of direct molecular patterns, the release of cytokines, the effects on nutrients and micronutrients and even through an interplay with epigenetics. It is likely, therefore, that a donor's microbiota could alter the antigenicity of blood and its components and potentially contribute to transfusion-related immune modulation [TRIM]...
June 3, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625867/understanding-the-holobiont-how-microbial-metabolites-affect-human-health-and-shape-the-immune-system
#2
REVIEW
Thomas Siegmund Postler, Sankar Ghosh
The human gastrointestinal tract is populated by a diverse, highly mutualistic microbial flora, which is known as the microbiome. Disruptions to the microbiome have been shown to be associated with severe pathologies of the host, including metabolic disease, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Mood and behavior are also susceptible to alterations in the gut microbiota. A particularly striking example of the symbiotic effects of the microbiome is the immune system, whose cells depend critically on a diverse array of microbial metabolites for normal development and behavior...
June 14, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625152/lipid-oxidation-products-in-the-pathogenesis-of-inflammation-related-gut-diseases
#3
Barbara Sottero, Daniela Rossin, Giuseppe Poli, Fiorella Biasi
A defective mucosal barrier function is the principal cause of the uncontrolled onset and progression of a number of human inflammatory gut diseases, most of which are characterized by chronic intermittent immune and inflammatory responses leading to structural intestinal damage, which can represent a potential risk for colorectal cancer development. During the active disease phase the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and the induction of oxidative reactions by activated leukocytes and epithelial cells represent the main event in intestinal inflammation...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625074/do-checkpoint-inhibitors-rely-on-gut-microbiota-to-fight-cancer
#4
Belal Firwana, Nathan Avaritt, Bradley Shields, Rahul Ravilla, Issam Makhoul, Laura Hutchins, Alan J Tackett, Fade Mahmoud
The field of gut microbiota is of growing interest, especially in the recent discoveries of its interaction with host immune responses, which when disrupted, can further alter immunity. It also plays a role in cancer development, its microenvironment and response to anticancer therapeutics. Several recently published experimental studies had explored the efficacy of modifying microbiota to enhance the response of checkpoint inhibitors, suggesting its beneficial function in cancer management and potential to be targeted as a therapeutic agent to enhance efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624548/glucocorticoids-and-gut-bacteria-the-galf-hypothesis-in-the-metagenomic-era
#5
REVIEW
David J Morris, Jason M Ridlon
A new concept is emerging in biomedical sciences: the gut microbiota is a virtual 'organ' with endocrine function. Here, we explore the literature pertaining to the role of gut microbial metabolism of endogenous adrenocorticosteroids as a contributing factor in the etiology of essential hypertension. A body of literature demonstrates that bacterial products of glucocorticoid metabolism are absorbed into the portal circulation, and pass through the kidney before excretion into urine. Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess (AME) syndrome patients were found to have congenital mutations resulting in non-functional renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD2) and severe hypertension often lethal in childhood...
June 14, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620698/potential-disease-biomarkers-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-and-fibroblast-activation-protein
#6
REVIEW
Roger Yazbeck, Simone E Jaenisch, Catherine A Abbott
The importance of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) gene family in regulating critical biochemical pathways continues to emerge. The two most well-studied members of the family, DPP4 and fibroblast activation protein (FAP), have been investigated both as therapeutic targets for disease and as diagnostic biomarkers. The interest in DPP4 and FAP as potential disease biomarkers has been driven primarily by observations of altered expression profiles in inflammatory diseases and cancer. Furthermore, the stability and persistence of soluble DPP4 and FAP in the serum make them attractive candidate serology markers...
June 16, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619710/heme-oxygenase-1-production-by-intestinal-cx3cr1-macrophages-helps-to-resolve-inflammation-and-prevents-carcinogenesis
#7
Giulia Marelli, Marco Erreni, Achille Anselmo, Valentina Taverniti, Simone Guglielmetti, Alberto Mantovani, Paola Allavena
CX3CR1(+) macrophages in the intestinal lamina propria contribute to gut homeostasis through the immunomodulatory interleukin IL-10, but there is little knowledge on how these cells or the CX3CR1 receptor may affect colorectal carcinogenesis. In this study, we show that CX3CR1-deficient mice fail to resolve gut inflammation despite high production of IL-10 and have increased colitis and adenomatous polyps in chemical and genetic models of colon carcinogenesis. Mechanistically, CX3CL1-mediated engagement of the CX3CR1 receptor induced upregulation of hemoxygenase-1 (HMOX-1), an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory enzyme...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611768/innate-immunity-and-breast-milk
#8
REVIEW
Nicole Theresa Cacho, Robert M Lawrence
Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606141/metaproteomic-analysis-of-human-gut-microbiota-where-are-we-heading
#9
REVIEW
Pey Yee Lee, Siok-Fong Chin, Hui-Min Neoh, Rahman Jamal
The human gut is home to complex microbial populations that change dynamically in response to various internal and external stimuli. The gut microbiota provides numerous functional benefits that are crucial for human health but in the setting of a disturbed equilibrium, the microbial community can cause deleterious outcomes such as diseases and cancers. Characterization of the functional activities of human gut microbiota is fundamental to understand their roles in human health and disease. Metaproteomics, which refers to the study of the entire protein collection of the microbial community in a given sample is an emerging area of research that provides informative details concerning functional aspects of the microbiota...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600626/mucosa-associated-microbiota-signature-in-colorectal-cancer
#10
R Gao, C Kong, L Huang, H Li, X Qu, Z Liu, P Lan, J Wang, H Qin
The aim of this study was to explore the gut microbiota profiles of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and to examine the relationship between gut microbiota and other key molecular factors involved in CRC tumorigenesis. In this study, a 16S rDNA sequencing platform was used to identify possible differences in the microbiota signature between CRC and adjacent normal mucosal tissue. Differences in the microbiota composition in different anatomical colorectal tumor sites and their potential association with KRAS mutation were also explored...
June 9, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600122/oxidative-stress-plays-a-key-role-in-butyrate-mediated-autophagy-via-akt-mtor-pathway-in-hepatoma-cells
#11
Kishor Pant, Anoop Saraya, Senthil K Venugopal
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, responsible for a number of deaths in humans. Butyrate, one of the short chain fatty acids produced by the gut microbiota during anaerobic fermentation, was shown to be beneficial for inhibiting cancer growth. In this study, we showed that sodium butyrate induced autophagy via reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatoma cells. Butyrate (0-6 mM) incubation significantly increased intracellular ROS levels (45.2% compared to control), which in turn inhibited phosphorylation of akt and mTOR, leading to the upregulation of autophagic proteins, such as beclin 1, ATG 5, LC3-II, followed by the increased autophagosome formation (34...
June 11, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599320/keratin-8-reduces-colonic-permeability-and-maintains-gut-microbiota-homeostasis-protecting-against-colitis-and-colitis-associated-tumorigenesis
#12
Chao Liu, En-Dong Liu, Yun-Xiao Meng, Xiao-Ming Dong, Ya-Lan Bi, Huan-Wen Wu, Yan-Chao Jin, Ke Zhao, Jian-Jie Li, Miao Yu, Yi-Qun Zhan, Hui Chen, Chang-Hui Ge, Xiao-Ming Yang, Chang-Yan Li
Keratin 8 (CK8) is the major component of the intermediate filaments of simple or single-layered epithelia. Gene targeting mice model suggest that CK8 is involved in colonic active ion transport, colorectal hyperplasia and inflammation. In the present study, we found that CK8 is downregulated in the colon during DSS-induced colitis and AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) development. In human patients with colon cancer, CK8 is downregulated. Using CK8 heterozygous knockout mice (CK8+/-), we found that CK8+/- mice are highly susceptible to DSS-induced colitis and more prone to AOM/DSS-induced CAC than wild type (WT) mice...
May 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598354/message-in-a-bottle-dialog-between-intestine-and-skin-modulated-by-probiotics
#13
REVIEW
Adrián D Friedrich, Mariela L Paz, Juliana Leoni, Daniel H González Maglio
At the beginning, probiotics were used exclusively for gastrointestinal conditions. However, over the years, evidence has shown that probiotics exert systemic effects. In this review article, we will summarize recent reports that postulate probiotic treatment as an efficient one against skin pathologies, such as cancer, allergy, photoaging and skin infections. The focus will be restricted to oral probiotics that could potentially counteract the ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin alterations. Moreover, the possible underlying mechanisms by which probiotics can impact on the gut and exert their skin effects will be reviewed...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598238/nlrc3-regulates-cellular-proliferation-and-apoptosis-to-attenuate-the-development-of-colorectal-cancer
#14
Rajendra Karki, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Qifan Zhu, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-repeat-containing proteins (NLRs) are intracellular innate immune sensors of pathogen-associated and damage-associated molecular patterns. NLRs regulate diverse biological processes such as inflammatory responses, cell proliferation and death, and gut microbiota to attenuate tumorigenesis. In a recent publication in Nature, we identified NLRC3 as a negative regulator of PI3K-mTOR signaling and characterized its potential tumor suppressor function. Enterocytes lacking NLRC3 cannot control cellular proliferation because they are unable to suppress activation of PI3K-mTOR signaling pathways...
June 9, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594817/a-shifting-mutational-landscape-in-6-nutritional-states-stress-induced-mutagenesis-as-a-series-of-distinct-stress-input-mutation-output-relationships
#15
Ram P Maharjan, Thomas Ferenci
Environmental stresses increase genetic variation in bacteria, plants, and human cancer cells. The linkage between various environments and mutational outcomes has not been systematically investigated, however. Here, we established the influence of nutritional stresses commonly found in the biosphere (carbon, phosphate, nitrogen, oxygen, or iron limitation) on both the rate and spectrum of mutations in Escherichia coli. We found that each limitation was associated with a remarkably distinct mutational profile...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592228/anti-fibrogenic-effect-of-ppar-%C3%AE-agonists-in-human-intestinal-myofibroblasts
#16
Jun Bon Koo, Myeong-Ok Nam, Younshin Jung, Jongman Yoo, Duk Hwan Kim, Gwangil Kim, Sung Jae Shin, Kee Myung Lee, Ki Baik Hahm, Jong Woo Kim, Sung Pyo Hong, Kwang Jae Lee, Jun Hwan Yoo
BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis is a serious complication of inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. There is no specific treatment for intestinal fibrosis. Studies have indicated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ (PPAR-γ) agonists have anti-fibrogenic properties in organs besides the gut; however, their effects on human intestinal fibrosis are poorly understood. This study investigated the anti-fibrogenic properties and mechanisms of PPAR-γ agonists on human primary intestinal myofibroblasts (HIFs)...
June 7, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590950/systematic-review-the-impact-of-cancer-treatment-on-the-gut-and-vaginal-microbiome-in-women-with-a-gynecological-malignancy
#17
Ann Muls, Jervoise Andreyev, Susan Lalondrelle, Alexandra Taylor, Christine Norton, Ailsa Hart
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Worldwide, 1,470,900 women are diagnosed yearly with a gynecological malignancy (21,000 in the UK). Some patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy develop chronic changes in their bowel function. This systematic review summarizes current research on the impact of cancer treatment on the gut and vaginal microbiome in women with a gynecological malignancy. METHODS: The Preferred reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines for systematic reviews were used to ensure transparent and complete reporting...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588586/the-research-progress-on-intestinal-stem-cells-and-its-relationship-with-intestinal-microbiota
#18
REVIEW
Qihang Hou, Lulu Ye, Lulu Huang, Qinghua Yu
The intestine is home to trillions of microorganisms, and the vast diversity within this gut microbiota exists in a balanced state to protect the intestinal mucosal barrier. Research into the association of the intestinal microbiota with health and disease (including diet, nutrition, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer) continues to expand, with the field advancing at a rapid rate. Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are the fundamental component of the mucosal barrier; they undergo continuous proliferation to replace the epithelium, which is also intimately involved in intestinal diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588430/gut-microbial-diversity-in-health-and-disease-experience-of-healthy-indian-subjects-and-colon-carcinoma-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#19
V Deepak Bamola, Arnab Ghosh, Raj Kishor Kapardar, Banwari Lal, Simrita Cheema, Priyangshu Sarma, Rama Chaudhry
Background: The intestinal microbiota, through complex interactions with the gut mucosa, play a key role in the pathogenesis of colon carcinoma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The disease condition and dietary habits both influence gut microbial diversity. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the gut microbial profile of healthy subjects and patients with colon carcinoma and IBD. Healthy subjects included 'Indian vegetarians/lactovegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, and 'Indian non-vegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, certain meats and fish, and the eggs of certain birds and fish...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587887/effect-of-diet-and-gut-environment-on-the-gastrointestinal-formation-of-n-nitroso-compounds-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Jun Kobayashi
Diet is associated with the development of cancer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, because dietary nitrate and nitrite are the main nitrosating agents that are responsible for the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) when nitrosatable substrates, such as amine and amide, are present in the GI tract. However, whether the nitroso compounds become beneficial S-nitroso compounds or carcinogenic NOCs might depend on dietary and environmental factors including food stuffs, gastric acidity, microbial flora, and the mean transit time of digesta...
June 3, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
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