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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675414/spondyloarthritis-acute-anterior-uveitis-and-fungi-updating-the-catterall-king-hypothesis
#1
Martin Laurence, Mark Asquith, James T Rosenbaum
Spondyloarthritis is a common type of arthritis which affects mostly adults. It consists of idiopathic chronic inflammation of the spine, joints, eyes, skin, gut, and prostate. Inflammation is often asymptomatic, especially in the gut and prostate. The HLA-B*27 allele group, which presents intracellular peptides to CD8+ T cells, is by far the strongest risk factor for spondyloarthritis. The precise mechanisms and antigens remain unknown. In 1959, Catterall and King advanced a novel hypothesis explaining the etiology of spondyloarthritis: an as-yet-unrecognized sexually acquired microbe would be causing all spondyloarthritis types, including acute anterior uveitis...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670613/innate-immunity-in-the-persistent-inflammation-immunosuppression-and-catabolism-syndrome-and-its-implications-for-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Horiguchi, Tyler J Loftus, Russell B Hawkins, Steven L Raymond, Julie A Stortz, McKenzie K Hollen, Brett P Weiss, Elizabeth S Miller, Azra Bihorac, Shawn D Larson, Alicia M Mohr, Scott C Brakenridge, Hironori Tsujimoto, Hideki Ueno, Frederick A Moore, Lyle L Moldawer, Philip A Efron
Clinical and technological advances promoting early hemorrhage control and physiologic resuscitation as well as early diagnosis and optimal treatment of sepsis have significantly decreased in-hospital mortality for many critically ill patient populations. However, a substantial proportion of severe trauma and sepsis survivors will develop protracted organ dysfunction termed chronic critical illness (CCI), defined as ≥14 days requiring intensive care unit (ICU) resources with ongoing organ dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670154/comprehensive-comparison-of-polysaccharides-from-ganoderma-lucidum-and-g-sinense-chemical-antitumor-immunomodulating-and-gut-microbiota-modulatory-properties
#3
Li-Feng Li, Hong-Bing Liu, Quan-Wei Zhang, Zhi-Peng Li, Tin-Long Wong, Hau-Yee Fung, Ji-Xia Zhang, Su-Ping Bai, Ai-Ping Lu, Quan-Bin Han
Both Ganoderma lucidum (GL) and G. sinense (GS) are used as Lingzhi in China. Their functions are assumed to mainly derive from triterpenes and polysaccharides; however, the two species have very different triterpenes profiles, if this was the case, then the bioactivity of these two species should differ. Instead, could the polysaccharides be similar, contributing to the shared therapeutic basis? In this study, two main polysaccharide fractions from different batches of GL and GS were systematically compared by a series of chemical and biological experiments...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670137/a-systems-biology-approach-to-predict-and-characterize-human-gut-microbial-metabolites-in-colorectal-cancer
#4
QuanQiu Wang, Li Li, Rong Xu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. It is estimated that about half the cases of CRC occurring today are preventable. Recent studies showed that human gut microbiota and their collective metabolic outputs play important roles in CRC. However, the mechanisms by which human gut microbial metabolites interact with host genetics in contributing CRC remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that computational approaches that integrate and analyze vast amounts of publicly available biomedical data have great potential in better understanding how human gut microbial metabolites are mechanistically involved in CRC...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662881/the-continuum-of-aging-and-age-related-diseases-common-mechanisms-but-different-rates
#5
REVIEW
Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani, Cristina Morsiani, Maria Conte, Aurelia Santoro, Andrea Grignolio, Daniela Monti, Miriam Capri, Stefano Salvioli
Geroscience, the new interdisciplinary field that aims to understand the relationship between aging and chronic age-related diseases (ARDs) and geriatric syndromes (GSs), is based on epidemiological evidence and experimental data that aging is the major risk factor for such pathologies and assumes that aging and ARDs/GSs share a common set of basic biological mechanisms. A consequence is that the primary target of medicine is to combat aging instead of any single ARD/GSs one by one, as favored by the fragmentation into hundreds of specialties and sub-specialties...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656393/cancer-drugs-and-bugs-bacteriotherapy-on-the-rise
#6
EDITORIAL
Alexandra Adamczyk, Astrid M Westendorf
Discussion on how the gut microbiota orchestrates immune responses during cancer therapies and how targeting the microbiota can prevent chemotherapy-induced toxicity.
April 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655782/lithocholic-acid-a-bacterial-metabolite-reduces-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-aggressiveness
#7
Edit Mikó, András Vida, Tünde Kovács, Gyula Ujlaki, György Trencsényi, Judit Márton, Zsanett Sári, Patrik Kovács, Anita Boratkó, Zoltán Hujber, Tamás Csonka, Péter Antal-Szalmás, Mitsuhiro Watanabe, Imre Gombos, Balazs Csoka, Borbála Kiss, László Vígh, Judit Szabó, Gábor Méhes, Anna Sebestyén, James J Goedert, Péter Bai
Our study aimed at finding a mechanistic relationship between the gut microbiome and breast cancer. Breast cancer cells are not in direct contact with these microbes, but disease could be influenced by bacterial metabolites including secondary bile acids that are exclusively synthesized by the microbiome and known to enter the human circulation. In murine and bench experiments, a secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (LCA), reduced cancer cell proliferation (by 10-20%) and VEGF production (by 37%), aggressiveness and metastatic potential of primary tumors through inducing mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, increased antitumor immune response, OXPHOS and the TCA cycle...
April 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655462/obesity-thrombotic-risk-and-inflammation-in-cancer
#8
Benjamín Rubio-Jurado, Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña, Eduardo E García-Luna, María G Zavala-Cerna, Carlos Riebeling-Navarro, Pedro A Reyes, Arnulfo H Nava-Zavala
Neoplasms exhibits a high incidence and mortality rates due to their complex and commonly overlapping clinical, biochemical, and morphologic profiles influenced by acquired or inherited molecular abnormalities, cell of origin, and level of differentiation. Obesity appears related to ~20% of cancers including endometrial, esophageal, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal. Several factors other than obesity, i.e., insulin, insulin-like growth factor, sexual hormones, and adipokines may play a potential role in neoplasia...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651173/in-vitro-anticancer-activity-of-staphyloxanthin-pigment-extracted-from-staphylococcus-gallinarum-kx912244-a-gut-microbe-of-bombyx-mori
#9
Delicia Avilla Barretto, Shyam Kumar Vootla
The present study reports the in vitro biological nature of the pigment produced by Staphylococcus gallinarum KX912244, isolated as the gut microflora bacterium of the insect Bombyx mori . The purified pigment was characterized as Staphyloxanthin based on bio-physical characterization techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H NMR), Liquid chromatography-Mass spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650970/crosstalk-between-gut-microbiota-and-sirtuin-3-in-colonic-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis
#10
Yong Zhang, Xiao-Lan Wang, Min Zhou, Chao Kang, He-Dong Lang, Meng-Ting Chen, Suo-Cheng Hui, Bin Wang, Man-Tian Mi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease involving a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is expressed at a low level in cancer tissues of CRC, but it is unclear how Sirt3 modulates colonic tumorigenesis. In this study, we found that gut microbiota play a central role in the resistance to CRC tumor formation in wild-type (WT) mice through APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli)-mutant mouse microbiota transfer via Wnt signaling. We also found that Sirt3-deficient mice were hypersusceptible to colonic inflammation and tumor development through altered intestinal integrity and p38 signaling, respectively...
April 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644870/a-novel-polyphenolic-prebiotic-and-probiotic-formulation-have-synergistic-effects-on-the-gut-microbiota-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-physiology
#11
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is a vast community of synergistic bacterial species providing health benefits to the host. Imbalances in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) due to diet, antibiotic use, age and stress contribute to disease development including diabetes, obesity, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammaging and neurodegeneration. Fortunately, a probiotic regime with a diet rich in prebiotics may reverse dysbiosis promoting health and wellness in age. The current study designs, optimizes and tests a novel probiotic and synbiotic formulation consisting of three metabolically active probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacteria infantis together with a novel polyphenol-rich prebiotic, Triphala...
April 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644622/microbial-metabolites-short-chain-fatty-acids-restrain-tissue-bacterial-load-chronic-inflammation-and-associated-cancer-in-the-colon-of-mice
#12
Myunghoo Kim, Leon Friesen, Jeongho Park, Hyungjin M Kim, Chang H Kim
The intestinal immune system is regulated by microbes and their metabolites. The roles of gut microbial metabolites in regulating intestinal inflammation and tumorigenesis are incompletely understood. We systematically studied the roles of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and their receptors (GPR43 or GPR41) in regulating tissue bacterial load, acute versus chronic inflammatory responses, and intestinal cancer development. SCFA receptor-, particularly GPR43-, deficient mice were defective in mounting appropriate acute immune responses to promote barrier immunity, and developed uncontrolled chronic inflammatory responses following epithelial damage...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642940/multi-cohort-analysis-of-colorectal-cancer-metagenome-identified-altered-bacteria-across-populations-and-universal-bacterial-markers
#13
Zhenwei Dai, Olabisi Oluwabukola Coker, Geicho Nakatsu, William K K Wu, Liuyang Zhao, Zigui Chen, Francis K L Chan, Karsten Kristiansen, Joseph J Y Sung, Sunny Hei Wong, Jun Yu
BACKGROUND: Alterations of gut microbiota are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in different populations and several bacterial species were found to contribute to the tumorigenesis. The potential use of gut microbes as markers for early diagnosis has also been reported. However, cohort specific noises may distort the structure of microbial dysbiosis in CRC and lead to inconsistent results among studies. In this regard, our study targeted at exploring changes in gut microbiota that are universal across populations at species level...
April 11, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628046/mechanisms-underlying-the-effects-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-fear-memory-processing-and-their-hypothetical-effects-on-fear-of-cancer-recurrence-in-cancer-survivors
#14
REVIEW
R Okubo, C Chen, M Sekiguchi, K Hamazaki, Y J Matsuoka
The relationship of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and gut microbiota with brain function has been extensively reported. Here, we review how n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect fear memory processing. n-3 PUFAs may improve dysfunctional fear memory processing via immunomodulation/anti-inflammation, increased BDNF, upregulated adult neurogenesis, modulated signal transduction, and microbiota-gut-brain axis normalization. We emphasize how n-3 PUFAs affect this axis and also focus on the hypothetical effects of PUFAs in fear of cancer recurrence (FCR), the primary psychological unmet need of cancer survivors...
April 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627471/anti-colon-cancer-effects-of-polysaccharides-a-mini-review-of-the-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Xiaolong Ji, Qiang Peng, Min Wang
Polysaccharides are an important class of functional phytochemicals, and various studies have demonstrated the beneficial pharmacological effects of polysaccharides, including against colorectal cancer and colitis. Numerous studies have shown that natural polysaccharides display anti-colon cancer activity through a variety of mechanisms. Our research group undertook a comprehensive review of the literature to summarize the studies reported in 2012-2017, and assessed the apoptogenic mechanisms of polysaccharide-rich extracts in colon cancer tumor cells...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624892/antibiotic-mediated-bacteriome-depletion-in-apc-min-mice-is-associated-with-reduction-in-mucus-producing-goblet-cells-and-increased-colorectal-cancer-progression
#16
Kamaljeet Kaur, Arpit Saxena, Irina Debnath, Jacqueline L O'Brien, Nadim J Ajami, Thomas A Auchtung, Joseph F Petrosino, Alexander-Jacques Sougiannis, Sarah Depaep, Alexander Chumanevich, Phani M Gummadidala, Mayomi H Omebeyinje, Sourav Banerjee, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Paramita Chakraborty, Raja Fayad, Franklin G Berger, James A Carson, Anindya Chanda
Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to antibiotics in early-to-middle adulthood is associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. However, mechanistic studies in established preclinical cancer to examine these claims are extremely limited. Therefore, we investigated the effect of long-term exposure of an antibiotic cocktail composed of Vancomycin, Neomycin, and Streptomycin, on tumor development and progression in the ApcMin/+ mouse, an established genetic model for familial adenomatous polyposis...
April 6, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617710/negative-association-of-antibiotics-on-clinical-activity-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-patients-with-advanced-renal-cell-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
L Derosa, M D Hellmann, M Spaziano, D Halpenny, M Fidelle, H Rizvi, N Long, A J Plodkowski, K C Arbour, J E Chaft, J A Rouche, L Zitvogel, G Zalcman, L Albiges, B Escudier, B Routy
Background: The composition of gut microbiota affects anti-tumor immune responses, preclinical and clinical outcome following immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in cancer. Antibiotics (ATB) alter gut microbiota diversity and composition leading to dysbiosis, which may affect effectiveness of ICI. Patients and Methods: We examined patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with anti-PD-(L)1 mAb monotherapy or combination at two academic institutions...
March 30, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616249/anti-aging-potential-of-tree-nuts-with-a-focus-on-the-phytochemical-composition-molecular-mechanisms-and-thermal-stability-of-major-bioactive-compounds
#18
REVIEW
Marius Emil Rusu, Ana-Maria Gheldiu, Andrei Mocan, Laurian Vlase, Daniela-Saveta Popa
Tree nuts, complete functional foods, contain macro- and micronutrients of high biological value. These bioactive compounds have a synergistic effect in preventing and delaying many age-related pathologies (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus, certain types of cancer, and several neurodegenerative diseases). Tree nuts are low in carbohydrates, but they abound in healthy fatty acids, in optimal proportion for a good plasma lipid profile, and are a good source of proteins, rich in proteinogenic amino acids...
April 4, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615974/presence-and-effects-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions-in-the-stomach
#19
REVIEW
Dora Reglodi, Anita Illes, Balazs Opper, Eszter Schafer, Andrea Tamas, Gabriella Horvath
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide with widespread occurrence throughout the body including the gastrointestinal system. In the small and large intestine, effects of PACAP on cell proliferation, secretion, motility, gut immunology and blood flow, as well as its importance in bowel inflammatory reactions and cancer development have been shown and reviewed earlier. However, no current review is available on the actions of PACAP in the stomach in spite of numerous data published on the gastric presence and actions of the peptide...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615557/wingless-wnt-signaling-in-intestinal-development-homeostasis-regeneration-and-tumorigenesis-a-drosophila-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Ai Tian, Hassina Benchabane, Yashi Ahmed
In mammals, the Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway regulates intestinal stem cell maintenance and proliferation, whereas Wnt pathway hyperactivation, resulting primarily from the inactivation of the tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), triggers the development of the vast majority of colorectal cancers. The Drosophila adult gut has recently emerged as a powerful model to elucidate the mechanisms by which Wingless/Wnt signaling regulates intestinal development, homeostasis, regeneration, and tumorigenesis...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
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