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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822617/microbiota-dysbiosis-in-select-human-cancers-evidence-of-association-and-causality
#1
REVIEW
Jie Chen, Jada C Domingue, Cynthia L Sears
The human microbiota is a complex ecosystem of diverse microorganisms consisting of bacteria, viruses, and fungi residing predominantly in epidermal and mucosal habitats across the body, such as skin, oral cavity, lung, intestine and vagina. These symbiotic communities in health, or dysbiotic communities in disease, display tremendous interaction with the local environment and systemic responses, playing a critical role in the host's nutrition, immunity, metabolism and diseases including cancers. While the profiling of normal microbiota in healthy populations is useful and necessary, more recent studies have focused on the microbiota associated with disease, particularly cancers...
August 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814809/non-thermal-plasma-treated-solution-demonstrates-antitumor-activity-against-pancreatic-cancer-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Kim Rouven Liedtke, Sander Bekeschus, André Kaeding, Christine Hackbarth, Jens-Peter Kuehn, Claus-Dieter Heidecke, Wolfram von Bernstorff, Thomas von Woedtke, Lars Ivo Partecke
Pancreatic cancer is associated with a high mortality rate. In advanced stage, patients often experience peritoneal carcinomatosis. Using a syngeneic murine pancreatic cancer cell tumor model, the effect of non-thermal plasma (NTP) on peritoneal metastatic lesions was studied. NTP generates reactive species of several kinds which have been proven to be of relevance in cancer. In vitro, exposure to both plasma and plasma-treated solution significantly decreased cell viability and proliferation of 6606PDA cancer cells, whereas mouse fibroblasts were less affected...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810829/blocking-il-10-signalling-at-the-time-of-immunization-does-not-increase-unwanted-side-effects-in-mice
#3
Guoying Ni, Zaowen Liao, Shu Chen, Tianfang Wang, Jianwei Yuan, Xuan Pan, Kate Mounsey, Shelley Cavezza, Xiaosong Liu, Ming Q Wei
BACKGROUND: Cancer therapeutic vaccine induced cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses are pivotal for the killing of tumour cells. Blocking interleukin 10 (IL-10) signalling at the time of immunization increases vaccine induced CTL responses and improves prevention of tumour growth in animal models compared to immunization without an IL-10 signalling blockade. Therefore, this immunization strategy may have potential to curtail cancer in a clinical setting. However, IL-10 deficiency leads to autoimmune disease in the gut...
August 15, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808878/role-of-intestinal-microbiome-in-american-ginseng-mediated-colon-cancer-protection-in-high-fat-diet-fed-aom-dss-mice
#4
C-Z Wang, W-H Huang, C-F Zhang, J-Y Wan, Y Wang, C Yu, S Williams, T-C He, W Du, M W Musch, E B Chang, C-S Yuan
OBJECTIVE: Chronic intestinal inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and development. Diets that are rich in Western style fats have been shown to promote CRC. This study was conducted to investigate the role of intestinal microbiome in American ginseng-mediated CRC chemoprevention in a mouse model. The population and diversity of enteric microbiome were evaluated after the ginseng treatment. METHODS: Using an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced gut inflammation and tumorigenesis mouse model, the effects of oral American ginseng on high fat diet-associated enteric pathology were determined...
August 14, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#5
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in over 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for over forty percent of that burden; there will be over 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to these cancers' incidence and mortality exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in Non-Hispanic Whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among Blacks...
August 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802143/extrinsic-control-of-wnt-signaling-in-the-intestine
#6
REVIEW
Stefan Koch
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a central regulator of development and tissue homeostasis. In the intestine, Wnt signaling is primarily known as the principal organizer of epithelial stem cell identity and proliferation. Within the last decade, numerous scientific breakthroughs have shed light on epithelial self-organization in the gut, and organoids are now routinely used to study stem cell biology and intestinal pathophysiology. The contribution of non-epithelial cells to Wnt signaling in the gut has received less attention...
August 5, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797931/changes-in-the-gut-microbial-communities-following-addition-of-walnuts-to-the-diet
#7
Lauri O Byerley, Derrick Samuelson, Eugene Blanchard, Meng Luo, Brittany N Lorenzen, Shelia Banks, Monica A Ponder, David A Welsh, Christopher M Taylor
Walnuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, phytochemicals and antioxidants making them unique compared to other foods. Consuming walnuts has been associated with health benefits including a reduced risk of heart disease and cancer. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome has been linked to several chronic diseases. One potential mechanism by which walnuts may exert their health benefit is through modifying the gut microbiome. This study identified the changes in the gut microbial communities that occur following the inclusion of walnuts in the diet...
July 9, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797248/the-role-of-bariatric-surgery-to-treat-diabetes-current-challenges-and-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Chrysi Koliaki, Stavros Liatis, Carel W le Roux, Alexander Kokkinos
Bariatric surgery is emerging as a powerful weapon against severe obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Given its role in metabolic regulation, the gastrointestinal tract constitutes a meaningful target to treat T2DM, especially in light of accumulating evidence that surgery with gastrointestinal manipulations may result in T2DM remission (metabolic surgery). The major mechanisms mediating the weight loss-independent effects of bariatric surgery comprise effects on tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and incretin responses, changes in bile acid composition and flow, modifications of gut microbiota, intestinal glucose metabolism and increased brown adipose tissue metabolic activity...
August 10, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795875/animal-models-for-studying-epithelial-barriers-in-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colorectal-cancer
#9
Tiaosi Xing, Rolando Camacho Salazar, Yan-Hua Chen
The intestinal epithelial cells line the luminal surface of the entire gastrointestinal tract which is crucial for the absorption of nutrients and prevention of pathogens entering from the external environment. The epithelial barrier plays an important role in organ development, disease pathogenesis, and aging. The major component of an epithelial barrier is the single columnar epithelium and tight junctions. Tight junctions are located at the most apical region of the junctional complex and contain many integral membrane proteins, such as occludin, the claudin family, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783170/loss-of-claudin-3-expression-induces-il6-gp130-stat3-signaling-to-promote-colon-cancer-malignancy-by-hyperactivating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#10
R Ahmad, B Kumar, Z Chen, X Chen, D Müller, S M Lele, M K Washington, S K Batra, P Dhawan, A B Singh
The hyperactivated Wnt/β-catenin signaling acts as a switch to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition and promote colorectal cancer. However, due to its essential role in gut homeostasis, therapeutic targeting of this pathway has proven challenging. Additionally, IL-6/Stat-3 signaling, activated by microbial translocation through the dysregulated mucosal barrier in colon adenomas, facilitates the adenoma to adenocarcinomas transition. However, inter-dependence between these signaling pathways and key mucosal barrier components in regulating colon tumorigenesis and cancer progression remains unclear...
August 7, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772225/an-lc-ms-ms-method-for-quantitation-of-chemopreventive-sphingadienes-in-food-products-and-biological-samples
#11
J H Suh, A M Makarova, J M Gomez, L A Paul, J D Saba
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality. Diet has a significant influence on colon cancer risk. Identifying chemopreventive agents, dietary constituents, practices and/or diet supplements that promote gut health and reduce the incidence of intestinal neoplasias and CRC could significantly impact public health. Sphingadienes (SDs) are dietary sphingolipids found in plant-based food products. SDs are cytotoxic to colon cancer cells and exhibit chemopreventive properties. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitive and robust ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for quantifying SDs in food products and biological samples...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771157/the-risk-of-cancer-as-a-result-of-elevated-levels-of-nitrate-in-drinking-water-and-vegetables-in-central-india
#12
Pinky Taneja, Pawan Labhasetwar, Pranav Nagarnaik, Jeroen H J Ensink
The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of nitrates on the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer development. Nitrate converted to nitrite under reducing conditions of gut results in the formation of N-nitrosamines which are linked to an increased gastric cancer risk. A population of 234 individuals with 78 cases of GI cancer and 156 controls residing at urban and rural settings in Nagpur and Bhandara districts of India were studied for 2 years using a case-control study. A detailed survey of 16 predictor variables using Formhub software was carried out...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768836/s-equol-activates-camp-signaling-at-the-plasma-membrane-of-ins-1-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-protects-against-streptozotocin-induced-hyperglycemia-by-increasing-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-male-mice
#13
Hiroko Horiuchi, Atsuko Usami, Rie Shirai, Naoki Harada, Shinichi Ikushiro, Toshiyuki Sakaki, Yoshihisa Nakano, Hiroshi Inui, Ryoichi Yamaji
Background:S-equol, which is enantioselectively produced from daidzein by gut microbiota, has been suggested as a chemopreventive agent against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.Objective: We investigated the effects of S-equol on pancreatic β-cell function.Methods: β-Cell growth and insulin secretion were evaluated with male Institute of Cancer Research mice and isolated pancreatic islets from the mice, respectively. The mechanisms by which S-equol stimulated β-cell response were examined in INS-1 β-cells...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768258/septic-complications-after-resection-for-middle-or-low-rectal-cancer-role-of-gut-barrier-function-and-inflammatory-serum-markers
#14
Mario Schietroma, Beatrice Pessia, Sara Colozzi, Francesco Carlei, Marco Clementi, Gianfranco Amicucci, Stefano Guadagni
BACKGROUND: The focus of this study was to understand the relationship between the failure of gut barrier function, inflammatory markers and septic complications after resection for extraperitoneal rectal cancer. METHODS: One hundred seven patients were enrolled into this prospective observational study and underwent open colorectal resection for extraperitoneal cancer. All patients underwent an assessment of intestinal permeability (L/M ratio), endotoxemia, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and elastase levels before surgery and on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7...
August 3, 2017: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766918/the-skin-microbiome-and-immune-system-potential-target-for-chemoprevention
#15
REVIEW
Mohammad Asif Sherwani, Saba Tufail, Anum Fatima Muzaffar, Nabiha Yusuf
There has been increasing interest in understanding the role of the human microbiome in skin diseases. Microbiome studies are being utilized in skin cancer research in numerous ways. Commensal bacteria are being studied as a potential tool to judge the biggest environmental risk of skin cancer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Owing to the recognized link of skin microbes in the process of inflammation, there have been theories linking commensal bacteria to skin cancer. Viral metagenomics has also provided insight into virus linked forms of skin cancers...
August 2, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755525/a-distinct-serum-metabolic-signature-of-distant-metastatic-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#16
Chen-Tian Shen, Yinan Zhang, Yu-Min Liu, Shan Yin, Xin-Yun Zhang, Wei-Jun Wei, Zhen-Kui Sun, Hong-Jun Song, Zhong-Ling Qiu, Cong-Rong Wang, Quan-Yong Luo
BACKGROUND: Although the incidence rate for thyroid cancer seems to have begun stabilizing in recent years, an increased rate of advanced stage of this disease has been reported. Additionally, distant metastasis is one of the most important prognostic factors of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms of distant metastasis as well as cell status like metabolism changes in distant metastatic tumors have not been clearly elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To identify serum metabolic signature of distant metastatic PTC...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753429/fusobacterium-nucleatum-promotes-chemoresistance-to-colorectal-cancer-by-modulating-autophagy
#17
TaChung Yu, Fangfang Guo, Yanan Yu, Tiantian Sun, Dan Ma, Jixuan Han, Yun Qian, Ilona Kryczek, Danfeng Sun, Nisha Nagarsheth, Yingxuan Chen, Haoyan Chen, Jie Hong, Weiping Zou, Jing-Yuan Fang
Gut microbiota are linked to chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Chemotherapy failure is the major cause of recurrence and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Here, we investigated the contribution of gut microbiota to chemoresistance in patients with colorectal cancer. We found that Fusobacterium (F.) nucleatum was abundant in colorectal cancer tissues in patients with recurrence post chemotherapy, and was associated with patient clinicopathological characterisitcs. Furthermore, our bioinformatic and functional studies demonstrated that F...
July 27, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744336/oxidative-phosphorylation-system-in-gastric-carcinomas-and-gastritis
#18
René G Feichtinger, Daniel Neureiter, Tom Skaria, Silja Wessler, Timothy L Cover, Johannes A Mayr, Franz A Zimmermann, Gernot Posselt, Wolfgang Sperl, Barbara Kofler
Switching of cellular energy production from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by mitochondria to aerobic glycolysis occurs in many types of tumors. However, the significance of this switching for the development of gastric carcinoma and what connection it may have to Helicobacter pylori infection of the gut, a primary cause of gastric cancer, are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the expression of OXPHOS complexes in two types of human gastric carcinomas ("intestinal" and "diffuse"), bacterial gastritis with and without metaplasia, and chemically induced gastritis by using immunohistochemistry...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731992/-effect-of-sacha-inchi-oil-plukenetiavolubilis-l-on-1-2-dimethylhydrazine-induced-colon-carcinogenesis-in-holtzman-rats
#19
César Abel Centurión-Rodríguez, Juan Jorge Huamán-Saavedra, Víctor Raúl Requena-Fuentes
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the preventive effect of Sacha Inchi oil (SIO) on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis (CC) in Holtzman rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental study with 28 Holtzman male albino rats randomly distributed into 4 groups: a positive control group exposed to DMH (C1), a negative control group exposed to SIO at 150 uL/kg/day (C2), and two experimental groups exposed to DMH with SIO at 150 uL/kg/day (E1) and SIO at 300 uL/kg/day (E2)...
April 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729245/a-novel-mouse-model-of-radiation-induced-cancer-survivorship-diseases-of-the-gut
#20
Cecilia Magdalena Bull, Dilip Malipatlolla, Marie Kalm, Fei Sjöberg, Eleftheria Alevronta, Rita Grandér, Pedram Sultanian, Linda Persson, Martina Boström, Yohanna Eriksson, John Swanpalmer, Agnes E Wold, Klas Blomgren, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, Gunnar Steineck
A deeper understanding of the radiation-induced pathophysiological processes that develop in the gut is imperative in order to prevent, alleviate or eliminate cancer survivorship diseases after radiotherapy to the pelvic area. Most rodent models of high-dose gastrointestinal radiation injury are limited by high mortality. We therefore established a model that allows for the delivering of radiation in fractions at high doses, while maintaining long-term survival. Adult male C57/BL6 mice were exposed to small-field irradiation, restricted to 1,5 cm of the colorectum using a linear accelerator...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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