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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533056/white-matter-damage-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-role-for-damage-associated-molecular-patterns
#1
REVIEW
Molly Braun, Kumar Vaibhav, Nancy M Saad, Sumbul Fatima, John R Vender, Babak Baban, Md Nasrul Hoda, Krishnan M Dhandapani
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and long-term morbidity worldwide. Despite decades of pre-clinical investigation, therapeutic strategies focused on acute neuroprotection failed to improve TBI outcomes. This lack of translational success has necessitated a reassessment of the optimal targets for intervention, including a heightened focus on secondary injury mechanisms. Chronic immune activation correlates with progressive neurodegeneration for decades after TBI; however, significant challenges remain in functionally and mechanistically defining immune activation after TBI...
May 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530470/cd73-controls-extracellular-adenosine-generation-in-the-trigeminal-nociceptive-nerves
#2
X Liu, L Ma, S Zhang, Y Ren, R T Dirksen
Purinergic signaling is involved in pain generation and modulation in the nociceptive sensory nervous system. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) induces pain via activation of ionotropic P2X receptors while adenosine mediates analgesia via activation of metabotropic P1 receptors. These purinergic signaling are determined by ecto-nucleotidases that control ATP degradation and adenosine generation. Using enzymatic histochemistry, we detected ecto-AMPase activity in dental pulp, trigeminal ganglia (TG) neurons, and their nerve fibers...
June 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528728/spontaneous-calcium-waves-in-the-developing-enteric-nervous-system
#3
Marlene M Hao, Annette J Bergner, Caroline S Hirst, Lincon A Stamp, Franca Casagranda, Joel C Bornstein, Werend Boesmans, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Heather M Young
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is an extensive network of neurons in the gut wall that arises from neural crest-derived cells. Like other populations of neural crest cells, it is known that enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) influence the behaviour of each other and therefore must communicate. However, little is known about how ENCCs communicate with each other. In this study, we used Ca(2+) imaging to examine communication between ENCCs in the embryonic gut, using mice where ENCCs express a genetically-encoded calcium indicator...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522214/p2-purinergic-receptor-antagonists-disrupt-maternal-behavior-in-lactating-rats
#4
Luciana C Teodoro, Layla D M Cabral, Fabiana C Vilela, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva
The involvement of purinergic signaling in several brain functions has been recognized, but the modulation on maternal behavior by the purinergic system is not established, even though there are functional interactions between the purinergic and oxytocinergic systems. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether central administration of P2 receptor antagonists affected the maternal behavior of lactating rats and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the forebrain. On day 7 of lactation, female rats were treated with vehicle (5μL; i...
May 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521702/role-of-ectonucleotidases-in-the-synapse-formation-during-brain-development-physiological-and-pathological-implications
#5
Ivana Grković, Dunja Drakulić, Jelena Martinović, Nataša Mitrović
Extracellular adenine nucleotides and nucleosides, such as ATP and adenosine, are among the most recently identified and least investigated diffusible signaling factors that contribute to the structural and functional remodeling of the brain, both during embryonic and postnatal development. Their levels in the extracellular milieu are tightly controlled by various ectonucleotidases: ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (E-NPP), alkaline phosphatases (AP), ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN)...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516276/p2x7-receptor-pannexin-1-interaction-mediates-extracellular-alpha-synuclein-induced-atp-release-in-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#6
Anna Wilkaniec, Magdalena Gąssowska, Grzegorz A Czapski, Magdalena Cieślik, Grzegorz Sulkowski, Agata Adamczyk
Abnormalities of alpha-synuclein (ASN), the main component of protein deposits (Lewy bodies), were observed in Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. These alterations include increase in the levels of soluble ASN oligomers in the extracellular space. Numerous works have identified several mechanisms of their toxicity, including stimulation of the microglial P2X7 receptor leading to oxidative stress. While the significant role of purinergic signaling-particularly, P2 family receptors-in neurodegenerative disorders is well known, the interaction of extracellular soluble ASN with neuronal purinergic receptors is yet to be studied...
May 17, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515278/critical-role-of-p2y12-receptor-in-regulation-of-th17-differentiation-and-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-pathogenesis
#7
Chaoyan Qin, Jinfeng Zhou, Yuan Gao, Weiming Lai, Cuixia Yang, Yingying Cai, Shuai Chen, Changsheng Du
Adenosine 5'-diphosphate is a key endogenous cell-signaling molecule that can activate P2 purinergic receptor family members. ADP-P2Y signaling is reported to be associated with inflammation, but its function in T cell differentiation and autoimmune diseases pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that the P2Y12 receptor was upregulated in the peripheral immune tissues of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. Deficiency of P2Y12 led to a reduced peak severity and cumulative disease score in EAE mice, followed by a dramatic reduction of leukocyte infiltration and less extensive demyelination...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512397/leukocyte-expression-of-type-1-and-type-2-purinergic-receptors-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-during-total-sleep-deprivation-and-or-sleep-extension-in-healthy-subjects
#8
Mounir Chennaoui, Pierrick J Arnal, Catherine Drogou, Damien Leger, Fabien Sauvet, Danielle Gomez-Merino
The purinergic type P1 (adenosine A1 and A2A) receptors and the type P2 (X7) receptor have been suggested to mediate physiological effects of adenosine and adenosine triphosphate on sleep. We aimed to determine gene expression of A1R (receptor), A2AR, and P2RX7 in leukocytes of healthy subjects during total sleep deprivation followed by sleep recovery. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were also determined as they have been characterized as sleep regulatory substances, via P2RX7 activation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503575/association-between-nlpr1-nlpr3-and-p2x7r-gene-polymorphisms-with-partial-seizures
#9
Haidong Wang, Pengfei Xu, Dehua Liao, Ruili Dang, Xin He, Yujin Guo, Pei Jiang
Objectives. Clinical and experimental evidence has clarified that the inflammatory processes within the brain play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of seizures and epilepsy. Inflammasomes and P2X7 purinergic receptor (P2X7R) are important mediators during the inflammatory process. Therefore, we investigated the possible association between partial seizures and inflammasomes NLPR1, NLRP3, and P2X7R gene polymorphisms in the present study. Method. A total of 163 patients and 201 health controls were enrolled in this study and polymorphisms of NLPR1, NLRP3, and P2X7R genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction- (PCR-) ligase detection reaction method...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497417/purinergic-p2x7-receptor-functional-genetic-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-the-susceptibility-to-osteoporosis-in-chinese-postmenopausal-women
#10
Hong Xu, Chengxin Gong, Luling He, Shenqiang Rao, Xingzi Liu, Yijun Nie, Changle Liu, Tao Li, Lu Ding, Yunming Tu, Yuping Yang, Fangfang Hu, Yongfang Fan, Hui Wang, Shuo Wang, Chaopeng Xiong, Peipei Zhong, Lan Tang, Shangdong Liang
Osteoporosis (OP) is a major public health problem worldwide. Genetic factors are considered to be major contributors to the pathogenesis of OP. The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity and has been considered as an important candidate gene for OP. A case-control study was performed to investigate the associations of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P2X7R gene (rs2393799, rs7958311, rs1718119, rs2230911, and rs3751143) with susceptibility to OP in 400 Chinese OP patients and 400 controls...
May 11, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496447/inosine-released-from-dying-or-dead-cells-stimulates-cell-proliferation-via-adenosine-receptors
#11
Jin Chen, Ricardo A Chaurio, Christian Maueröder, Anja Derer, Manfred Rauh, Andriy Kost, Yi Liu, Xianming Mo, Axel Hueber, Rostyslav Bilyy, Martin Herrmann, Yi Zhao, Luis E Muñoz
INTRODUCTION: Many antitumor therapies induce apoptotic cell death in order to cause tumor regression. Paradoxically, apoptotic cells are also known to promote wound healing, cell proliferation, and tumor cell repopulation in multicellular organisms. We aimed to characterize the nature of the regenerative signals concentrated in the micromilieu of dead and dying cells. METHODS: Cultures of viable melanoma B16F10 cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in the presence of dead and dying cells, their supernatants (SNs), or purified agonists and antagonists were used to evaluate the stimulation of proliferation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495929/tissue-factor-prothrombotic-activity-is-regulated-by-integrin-arf6-trafficking
#12
Andrea S Rothmeier, Patrizia Marchese, Florian Langer, Yuichi Kamikubo, Florence Schaffner, Joseph Cantor, Mark H Ginsberg, Zaverio M Ruggeri, Wolfram Ruf
OBJECTIVE: Coagulation initiation by tissue factor (TF) is regulated by cellular inhibitors, cell surface availability of procoagulant phosphatidylserine, and thiol-disulfide exchange. How these mechanisms contribute to keeping TF in a noncoagulant state and to generating prothrombotic TF remain incompletely understood. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Here, we study the activation of TF in primary macrophages by a combination of pharmacological, genetic, and biochemical approaches...
May 11, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495860/p2x7-receptor-crosstalk-regulates-atp-induced-pannexin-1-internalization
#13
Andrew K J Boyce, Leigh A Swayne
In the nervous system, extracellular ATP levels transiently increase in physiological and pathophysiological circumstances, effecting key signalling pathways in plasticity and inflammation through purinergic receptors. Pannexin 1 (Panx1) forms ion and metabolite-permeable channels that mediate ATP release and are particularly enriched in the nervous system. Our recent study demonstrated that elevation of extracellular ATP triggers Panx1 internalization in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Notably, this effect was sensitive to inhibition of ionotropic P2X7 purinergic receptors (P2X7Rs)...
May 11, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494865/transformation-of-astrocytes-to-a-neuroprotective-phenotype-by-microglia-via-p2y1-receptor-downregulation
#14
Youichi Shinozaki, Keisuke Shibata, Keitaro Yoshida, Eiji Shigetomi, Christian Gachet, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Kenji F Tanaka, Schuichi Koizumi
Microglia and astrocytes become reactive following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the coordination of this reactivity and its relation to pathophysiology are unclear. Here, we show that microglia transform astrocytes into a neuroprotective phenotype via downregulation of the P2Y1 purinergic receptor. TBI initially caused microglial activation in the injury core, followed by reactive astrogliosis in the peri-injured region and formation of a neuroprotective astrocyte scar. Equivalent changes to astrocytes were observed in vitro after injury...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494003/p2y6-receptors-are-involved-in-mediating-the-effect-of-inactivated-avian-influenza-virus-h5n1-on-il-6-cxcl8-mrna-expression-in-respiratory-epithelium
#15
Nawiya Huipao, Suparerk Borwornpinyo, Suwimon Wiboon-Ut, Craig R Campbell, Il-Ha Lee, Siriphun Hiranyachattada, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Arunee Thitithanyanont, Chumpol Pholpramool, David I Cook, Anuwat Dinudom
One of the key pathophysiologies of H5N1 infection is excessive proinflammatory cytokine response (cytokine storm) characterized by increases in IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL10, CCL4, CCL2 and CCL5 in the respiratory tract. H5N1-induced cytokine release can occur via an infection-independent mechanism, however, detail of the cellular signaling involved is poorly understood. To elucidate this mechanism, the effect of inactivated (β-propiolactone-treated) H5N1 on the cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in 16HBE14o- human respiratory epithelial cells was investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488967/purinergic-control-of-red-blood-cell-metabolism-novel-strategies-to-improve-red-cell-storage-quality
#16
REVIEW
Kaiqi Sun, Angelo D'alessandro, Yang Xia
Transfusion of stored blood is regarded as one of the great advances in modern medicine. However, during storage in the blood bank, red blood cells (RBCs) undergo a series of biochemical and biomechanical changes that affect cell morphology and physiology and potentially impair transfusion safety and efficacy. Despite reassuring evidence from clinical trials, it is universally accepted that the storage lesion(s) results in the altered physiology of long-stored RBCs and helps explain the rapid clearance of up to one-fourth of long-stored RBCs from the recipient's bloodstream at 24 hours after administration...
April 12, 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487635/vpac-receptor-subtypes-tune-purinergic-neuron-to-glia-communication-in-the-murine-submucosal-plexus
#17
Candice Fung, Werend Boesmans, Carla Cirillo, Jaime P P Foong, Joel C Bornstein, Pieter Vanden Berghe
The enteric nervous system (ENS) situated within the gastrointestinal tract comprises an intricate network of neurons and glia which together regulate intestinal function. The exact neuro-glial circuitry and the signaling molecules involved are yet to be fully elucidated. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the main neurotransmitters in the gut, and is important for regulating intestinal secretion and motility. However, the role of VIP and its VPAC receptors within the enteric circuitry is not well understood...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487312/complete-deletion-of-cd39-is-atheroprotective-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#18
Marco De Giorgi, Keiichi Enjyoji, Gordon Jiang, Eva Csizmadia, Shuji Mitsuhashi, Richard J Gumina, Ryszard T Smolenski, Simon C Robson
CD39 scavenges extracellular ATP and ADP, ultimately generating adenosine, a nucleoside, which has anti-inflammatory effects in the vasculature. We have evaluated the role of CD39 in the development of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. ApoE KO (Cd39+/+/ApoE-/-) and Cd39/ApoE double knockout (Cd39-/-/ApoE-/-, DKO) mice were maintained on chow or Western diet for up to 20 weeks before evaluation of atherosclerotic lesions. We found that DKO mice exhibited significantly less atherosclerotic lesions than ApoE KO mice, irrespective of diet...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487256/lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-pulmonary-neutrophil-recruitment-and-platelet-activation-is-mediated-via-the-p2y1-and-p2y14-receptors-in-mice
#19
R T Amison, S Arnold, B G O'Shaughnessy, S J Cleary, J Ofoedu, M Idzko, C P Page, S C Pitchford
Platelet activation occurs during host defence and in various inflammatory disorders. In animal models of infection and inflammation, experimental depletion of platelets leads to significantly reduced leukocyte recruitment and impaired clearance of pathogens from the lung. It is now appreciated that purinergic receptor activation is required for leukocyte activation, motility and adhesion, and platelet interactions with leukocytes can be modulated by purinergic stimulation of platelets. Here, we have investigated the role of platelet P2Y1, P2Y12, P2Y14, and P2X1 receptors on leukocyte recruitment and chemotaxis...
May 6, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486969/activation-of-p2x7-receptor-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-assembly-in-hippocampal-glial-cells-mediates-chronic-stress-induced-depressive-like-behaviors
#20
Na Yue, Huijie Huang, Xiaocang Zhu, Qiuqin Han, Yalin Wang, Bing Li, Qiong Liu, Gencheng Wu, Yuqiu Zhang, Jin Yu
BACKGROUND: In recent years, proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of depression. In addition, P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a member of the purinergic receptor family, which is predominantly present on microglia, as well as on astrocytes and neurons in lesser amounts in the central nervous system, was suggested to be involved in the processing and releasing of IL-1β. Here, we investigated the role of P2X7R in the pathogenesis of depression...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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