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Sodium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445245/ectopic-expression-of-innate-immune-protein-lipocalin-2-in-lactococcus-lactis-protects-against-gut-and-environmental-stressors
#1
Piu Saha, Benoit Chassaing, Beng San Yeoh, Emilie Viennois, Xia Xiao, Mary J Kennett, Vishal Singh, Matam Vijay-Kumar
BACKGROUND: Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is a multifunctional innate immune protein that exhibits antimicrobial activity by the sequestration of bacterial siderophores, regulates iron homeostasis, and augments cellular tolerance to oxidative stress. Studies in the murine model of colitis have demonstrated that Lcn2 deficiency exacerbates colitogenesis; however, the therapeutic potential of Lcn2 supplementation has yet to be elucidated. In light of its potential mucoprotective functions, we, herein, investigated whether expression of Lcn2 in the probiotic bacterium can be exploited to alleviate experimental colitis...
April 25, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440590/sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors-and-fracture-risk-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-meta-analysis
#2
Darin Ruanpeng, Patompong Ungprasert, Jutarat Sangtian, Tasma Harindhanavudhi
INTRODUCTION: Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors could potentially alter calcium and phosphate homeostasis and may increase the risk of bone fracture. METHODS: The current meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the fracture risk among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with SGLT2 inhibitors. Randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors to placebo were identified. The risk ratios of fracture among patients who received SGLT2 inhibitors versus placebo were extracted from each study...
April 25, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428931/the-role-of-renal-proximal-tubule-transport-in-the-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#3
REVIEW
Shoko Horita, Motonobu Nakamura, Masashi Suzuki, Nobuhiko Satoh, Atsushi Suzuki, Yukio Homma, Masaomi Nangaku
The electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) on the basolateral side of the renal proximal tubule plays a pivotal role in systemic acid-base homeostasis. Mutations in the gene encoding NBCe1 cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis accompanied by other extrarenal symptoms. The proximal tubule reabsorbs most of the sodium filtered in the glomerulus, contributing to the regulation of plasma volume and blood pressure. NBCe1 and other sodium transporters in the proximal tubule are regulated by hormones, such as angiotensin II and insulin...
March 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424587/interactions-of-the-mechanosensitive-channels-with-extracellular-matrix-integrins-and-cytoskeletal-network-in-osmosensation
#4
REVIEW
Runsheng Jiao, Dan Cui, Stephani C Wang, Dongyang Li, Yu-Feng Wang
Life is maintained in a sea water-like internal environment. The homeostasis of this environment is dependent on osmosensory system translation of hydromineral information into osmotic regulatory machinery at system, tissue and cell levels. In the osmosensation, hydromineral information can be converted into cellular reactions through osmoreceptors, which changes thirst and drinking, secretion of antidiuretic vasopressin (VP), reabsorption of water and salt in the kidneys at systemic level as well as cellular metabolic activity and survival status at tissue level...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418357/-renal-morphological-changes-in-experimental-oxalate-nephrolithiasis
#5
Yu G Motin, A V Lepilov, P M Larionov
AIM: Тo evaluate renal morphological changes in the early stages of lithogenic processes and during urinary correction of urine with oxalate-chelating compounds (sodium citrate). MATERIAL AND METHODS: An experimental model of oxalate nephrolithiasis was performed on 80 male Wistar rats weighing 180 to 250 g. Rat kidneys were morphologically and ultrastructurally studied. Immunohistochemical techniques were applied to study the features of development of endoplasmic reticulum stress...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414292/dendritic-cells-expressing-immunoreceptor-cd300f-are-critical-for-controlling-chronic-gut-inflammation
#6
Ha-Na Lee, Linjie Tian, Nicolas Bouladoux, Jacquice Davis, Mariam Quinones, Yasmine Belkaid, John E Coligan, Konrad Krzewski
Proinflammatory cytokine overproduction and excessive cell death, coupled with impaired clearance of apoptotic cells, have been implicated as causes of failure to resolve gut inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases. Here we have found that dendritic cells expressing the apoptotic cell-recognizing receptor CD300f play a crucial role in regulating gut inflammatory responses in a murine model of colonic inflammation. CD300f-deficient mice failed to resolve dextran sulfate sodium-induced colonic inflammation as a result of defects in dendritic cell function that were associated with abnormal accumulation of apoptotic cells in the gut...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411859/cd14-plays-a-protective-role-in-experimental-inflammatory-bowel-disease-by-enhancing-intestinal-barrier-function
#7
Stephanie Buchheister, Manuela Buettner, Marijana Basic, Andreas Noack, Gerhard Breves, Barbara Buchen, Lydia M Keubler, Christoph Becker, André Bleich
Intestinal homeostasis disturbance through intestinal barrier disruption presumably plays a key role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) development. Genetic and candidate gene analyses in an Il10-deficient IBD mouse model system identified Cd14 as a potentially protective candidate gene. The role of Cd14 in colitis development was determined using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute and an Il10-deficiency-induced chronic model of intestinal inflammation. Intestinal permeability was investigated by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran uptake assay, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of tight junction proteins, myosin light chain kinase, and proinflammatory cytokine expression...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405625/resistance-to-hypertension-mediated-by-intercalated-cells-of-the-collecting-duct
#8
Johannes Stegbauer, Daian Chen, Marcela Herrera, Matthew A Sparks, Ting Yang, Eva Königshausen, Susan B Gurley, Thomas M Coffman
The renal collecting duct (CD), as the terminal segment of the nephron, is responsible for the final adjustments to the amount of sodium excreted in urine. While angiotensin II modulates reabsorptive functions of the CD, the contribution of these actions to physiological homeostasis is not clear. To examine this question, we generated mice with cell-specific deletion of AT1A receptors from the CD. Elimination of AT1A receptors from both principal and intercalated cells (CDKO mice) had no effect on blood pressures at baseline or during successive feeding of low- or high-salt diets...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405523/histidine-decarboxylase-hdc-expressing-granulocytic-myeloid-cells-induce-and-recruit-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-murine-colon-cancer
#9
Xiaowei Chen, Yoshihiro Takemoto, Huan Deng, Moritz Middelhoff, Richard A Friedman, Timothy H Chu, Michael J Churchill, Yan Ma, Karan K Nagar, Yagnesh H Tailor, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Timothy C Wang
The colorectal tumor microenvironment contains a diverse population of myeloid cells that are recruited and converted to immunosuppressive cells, thus facilitating tumor escape from immunoediting. We have identified a genetically and functionally distinct subset of dynamic bone marrow myeloid cells that are characterized by histidine decarboxylase (HDC) expression. Lineage tracing in Hdc-CreERT2;R26-LSL-tdTomato mice revealed that in homeostasis, there is a strong bias by HDC(+) myeloid cells toward the CD11b(+)Ly6G(hi) granulocytic lineage, which was accelerated during azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced colonic carcinogenesis...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395930/acetylcholine-attenuated-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-intracellular-ca-2-overload-by-inhibiting-the-formation-of-the-ncx1-trpc3-ip3r1-complex-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#10
Ming Zhao, Hang-Huan Jia, Long-Zhu Liu, Xue-Yuan Bi, Man Xu, Xiao-Jiang Yu, Xi He, Wei-Jin Zang
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms discrete junctions with the plasma membrane (PM) that play a critical role in the regulation of Ca(2+) signaling during cellular bioenergetics, apoptosis and autophagy. We have previously confirmed that acetylcholine can inhibit ER stress and apoptosis after inflammatory injury. However, limited research has focused on the effects of acetylcholine on ER-PM junctions. In this work, we evaluated the structure and function of the supramolecular sodium-calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1)-transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3)-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1) complex, which is involved in regulating Ca(2+) homeostasis during inflammatory injury...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395363/natural-products-as-lead-compounds-for-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-sglt-inhibitors
#11
Wolfgang Blaschek
Glucose homeostasis is maintained by antagonistic hormones such as insulin and glucagon as well as by regulation of glucose absorption, gluconeogenesis, biosynthesis and mobilization of glycogen, glucose consumption in all tissues and glomerular filtration, and reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys. Glucose enters or leaves cells mainly with the help of two membrane integrated transporters belonging either to the family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) or to the family of sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs)...
April 10, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391065/novel-lipoproteoplex-delivers-keap1-sirna-based-gene-therapy-to-accelerate-diabetic-wound-healing
#12
Piul S Rabbani, Anna Zhou, Zachary M Borab, Joseph A Frezzo, Nikita Srivastava, Haresh T More, William J Rifkin, Joshua A David, Samuel J Berens, Raymond Chen, Sophia Hameedi, Muhammad H Junejo, Camille Kim, Rita A Sartor, Che F Liu, Pierre B Saadeh, Jin K Montclare, Daniel J Ceradini
Therapeutics utilizing siRNA are currently limited by the availability of safe and effective delivery systems. Cutaneous diseases, specifically ones with significant genetic components are ideal candidates for topical siRNA based therapy but the anatomical structure of skin presents a considerable hurdle. Here, we optimized a novel liposome and protein hybrid nanoparticle delivery system for the topical treatment of diabetic wounds with severe oxidative stress. We utilized a cationic lipid nanoparticle (CLN) composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and the edge activator sodium cholate (NaChol), in a 6:1 ratio of DOTAP:NaChol (DNC)...
July 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390705/the-protection-role-of-atg16l1-in-cd11c-dendritic-cells-in-murine-colitis
#13
Hong Zhang, Libo Zheng, Jeremy Chen, Masayuki Fukata, Ryan Ichikawa, David Q Shih, Xiaolan Zhang
The autophagy-related 16-like 1 gene (Atg16l1) is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and has been shown to play an essential role in paneth cell function and intestinal homeostasis. However, the functional consequences of Atg16l1 deficiency in myeloid cells, particularly in dendritic cells (DCs), are not fully characterized. The aim of this study is to investigate the functional consequence of Atg16l1 in CD11c(+)DCs in murine colitis. We generated mice deficient in Atg16l1 in CD11c(+)DCs. Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) and S...
March 16, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389525/the-role-of-renal-transporters-and-novel-regulatory-interactions-in-the-tal-that-control-blood-pressure
#14
Lesley A Graham, Anna Dominiczak, Nicholas R Ferreri
Hypertension (HTN), a major public health issue is currently the leading factor in the global burden of disease, where associated complications account for 9.4 million deaths worldwide every year (98). Excessive dietary salt intake is among the environmental factors that contribute to HTN, known as salt sensitivity. The heterogeneity of salt sensitivity and the multiple mechanisms that link high salt intake to increases in blood pressure are of upmost importance for therapeutic application. A continual increase in the kidney's reabsorption of sodium (Na+) relies on sequential actions at various segments along the nephron...
April 7, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388946/acetolactate-synthase-regulatory-subunits-play-divergent-and-overlapping-roles-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-synthesis-and-arabidopsis-development
#15
Mohammad H Dezfulian, Curtis Foreman, Espanta Jalili, Mrinal Pal, Rajdeep K Dhaliwal, Don Karl A Roberto, Kathleen M Imre, Susanne E Kohalmi, William L Crosby
BACKGROUND: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are synthesized by plants, fungi, bacteria, and archaea with plants being the major source of these amino acids in animal diets. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the first enzyme in the BCAA synthesis pathway. Although the functional contribution of ALS to BCAA biosynthesis has been extensively characterized, a comprehensive understanding of the regulation of this pathway at the molecular level is still lacking. RESULTS: To characterize the regulatory processes governing ALS activity we utilized several complementary approaches...
April 7, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386731/comparative-metagenomics-reveals-insights-into-the-deep-sea-adaptation-mechanism-of-the-microorganisms-in-iheya-hydrothermal-fields
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hai-Liang Wang, Li Sun
In this study, comparative metagenomic analysis was performed to investigate the genetic profiles of the microbial communities inhabiting the sediments surrounding Iheya North and Iheya Ridge hydrothermal fields. Four samples were used, which differed in their distances from hydrothermal vents. The results showed that genes involved in cell surface structure synthesis, polyamine metabolism and homeostasis, osmoadaptation, pH and Na(+) homeostasis, and heavy-metal transport were abundant. Pathways for putrescine and spermidine synthesis and transport were identified in the four metagenomes, which possibly participate in the regulation of cytoplasmic pH...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385297/renal-tubular-nhe3-is-required-in-the-maintenance-of-water-and-sodium-chloride-homeostasis
#17
Robert A Fenton, Søren B Poulsen, Samantha de la Mora Chavez, Manoocher Soleimani, Jessica A Dominguez Rieg, Timo Rieg
The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3(loxloxCre)) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3(loxloxCre) mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower...
April 3, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384411/kallikrein-kinin-system-as-the-dominant-mechanism-to-counteract%C3%A2-hyperactive-renin-angiotensin-system
#18
Domenico Regoli, Fernand Gobeil
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) generates, maintains and makes worse hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) through its biologically active component Angiotensin II (Ang II), that causes vasoconstriction, sodium retention and structural alterations of the heart and the arteries. A few endogenous vasodilators, kinins, natriuretic peptides and possibly angiotensin (1-7), exert opposite actions and may provide useful therapeutic agents. As endothelial autacoids, the kinins are potent vasodilators, active natriuretics and protectors of the endothelium...
April 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384069/salt-induced-tissue-specific-cytosine-methylation-downregulates-expression-of-hkt-genes-in-contrasting-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-genotypes
#19
Suresh Kumar, Ananda Sankara Beena, Monika Awana, Archana Singh
Plants have evolved several strategies, including regulation of genes through epigenetic modifications, to cope with environmental stresses. DNA methylation is dynamically regulated through the methylation and demethylation of cytosine in response to environmental perturbations. High-affinity potassium transporters (HKTs) have accounted for the homeostasis of sodium and potassium ions in plants under salt stress. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is sensitive to soil salinity, which impedes its growth and development, resulting in decreased productivity...
April 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382468/role-of-hyperkalemia-in-heart-failure-and-the-therapeutic-use-of-potassium-binders
#20
Chaudhry M S Sarwar, Aditi A Bhagat, Stefan D Anker, Javed Butler
Hyperkalemia can be a life-threatening disorder, especially for at-risk patients with heart failure, chronic kidney disease, with diabetes, and patients on certain drugs like renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. There are limited therapeutic options available for hyperkalemia, and they have narrow effectiveness because of their unfavorable side effects profile in long-term and high cost utilization requiring inpatient care. Patiromersorbitex calcium and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate are novel potassium-lowering compounds for the treatment and prevention of hyperkalemia in at-risk population...
April 6, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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