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Sodium homeostasis

Gediminas Greicius, Zahra Kabiri, Kristmundur Sigmundsson, Chao Liang, Ralph Bunte, Manvendra K Singh, David M Virshup
Wnts and R-spondins (RSPOs) support intestinal homeostasis by regulating crypt cell proliferation and differentiation. Ex vivo, Wnts secreted by Paneth cells in organoids can regulate the proliferation and differentiation of Lgr5 -expressing intestinal stem cells. However, in vivo, Paneth cell and indeed all epithelial Wnt production is completely dispensable, and the cellular source of Wnts and RSPOs that maintain the intestinal stem-cell niche is not known. Here we investigated both the source and the functional role of stromal Wnts and RSPO3 in regulation of intestinal homeostasis...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiao Wei, Zongshi Lu, Tao Yang, Peng Gao, Sijiao Chen, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: High salt consumption is a major risk factor for hypertension, and sodium homeostasis is regulated by both intestinal sodium absorption and urinary sodium excretion. Chronic caffeine intake has been reported to attenuate salt-sensitive hypertension by promoting urinary sodium excretion; however, its exact role in intestinal sodium absorption remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether and how chronic caffeine consumption antagonizes salt-sensitive hypertension by inhibiting intestinal sodium absorption...
March 16, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Pierpaolo Cerullo, Paola Brancaccio, Serenella Anzilotti, Antonio Vinciguerra, Ornella Cuomo, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Paola Di Vaio, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato, Giuseppe Pignataro
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HI) accounts for the majority of developmental, motor and cognitive deficits in children, leading to life-long neurological impairments. Since the plasmamembrane sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) plays a fundamental role in maintaining ionic homeostasis during adult brain ischemia, in the present work we aimed to demonstrate (1)the involvement of NCX in the pathophysiology of neonatal HI and (2)a possible NCX-based pharmacological intervention. HI was induced in neonatal mice at postnatal day 7(P7) by unilateral cut of the right common carotid artery, followed by 60 min exposure to 8%O2 ...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Satoshi Murao, Yasunori Takata, Mitsugi Yasuda, Haruhiko Osawa, Fumikazu Kohi
Background: Considering sex differences, salt sensitivity and insulin resistance (IR), the effect of sodium restriction and increased potassium intake on blood pressure remains unclear in normotensive Asian individuals, compared to that in hypertensive patients. Methods: To assess the influence of sodium and potassium intake in normotensive individuals, we evaluated the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion rate in 3,392 drug-naïve normotensive Japanese individuals (average age: 48...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Jianjun Chang, Yan Ding, Zhiyu Zhou, Hong-Guang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Transepithelial fluid and salt re-absorption in epithelial tissues play an important role in fluid and salt homeostasis. In absorptive epithelium, fluid and salt flux is controlled by machinery mainly composed of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE), aquaporin, and sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase). Dysregulation of fluid and salt transport across epithelium contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as pulmonary edema and cystic fibrosis...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ana Cardoso, Antonio Gil Castro, Ana Catarina Martins, Guilhermina M Carriche, Valentine Murigneux, Isabel Castro, Ana Cumano, Paulo Vieira, Margarida Saraiva
Inflammatory bowel disease encompasses a group of chronic-inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. These conditions are characterized by exacerbated inflammation of the organ that greatly affects the quality of life of patients. Molecular mechanisms counteracting this hyperinflammatory status of the gut offer strategies for therapeutic intervention. Among these regulatory molecules is the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, as shown in mice and humans. Indeed, IL-10 signaling, particularly in macrophages, is essential for intestinal homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
A Covarrubias-Pinto, A I Acuña, G Boncompain, E Pápic, P V Burgos, F Perez, M A Castro
Ascorbic acid (Asc) is an antioxidant molecule essential for physiological functions. The concentration of extracellular Asc increases during synaptic transmission and renal reabsorption. These phenomena induce an increase of the Sodium-dependent-Vitamin-C-transporter 2 (SVCT2) at plasma membrane (PM) localization, as we previously demonstrated in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate intracellular SVCT2 trafficking kinetics in response to Asc. We observed two peaks of SVCT2 localization and function at the PM (at 5-10min, "acute response", and 30-60min, "post-acute response") when cells were incubated with Asc...
March 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yu-Ju Peng, Tang-Long Shen, Yu-Shan Chen, Harry John Mersmann, Bing-Hsien Liu, Shih-Torng Ding
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipokine derived from adipocytes. It binds to adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and R2) to exert its function in regulating whole-body energy homeostasis and inflammatory responses. However, the role of ADN-AdipoR1 signaling in intestinal inflammation is controversial, and its role in the regulation of neutrophils is still unclear. Our goal was to clarify the role of AdipoR1 signaling in colitis and the effects on neutrophils. METHODS: We generated porcine AdipoR1 transgenic mice (pAdipoR1 mice) and induced murine colitis using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to study the potential role of AdipoR1 in inflammatory bowel disease...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Ning Xu, Yingying Zheng, Xiaochen Wang, Terry A Krulwich, Yanhe Ma, Jun Liu
Corynebacterium glutamicum is generally regarded as a moderately salt-alkali-tolerant industrial organism. However, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these specific adaptations. Here, we found that the Mrp1 antiporter played crucial roles in conferring both environmental Na+ -resistance and alkali-tolerance, whereas the Mrp2 antiporter was necessary in coping with high KCl stress at alkaline pH. Furthermore, the Δ mrp1mrp2 double mutant showed most severe growth retardation, and failed to grow under high salt or alkaline conditions...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Katarzyna Wyskida, Jarosław Wajda, Dariusz Klein, Joanna Witkowicz, Rafał Ficek, Sylwia Rotkegel, Urszula Spiechowicz-Zatoń, Joanna Kocemba-Dyczek, Jarosław Ciepał, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Andrzej Więcek, Jerzy Chudek
BACKGROUND: Diet is a key factor that determines proper alignment of calcium-phosphate and nutritional status among hemodialysis (HD) patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the nutrient intake in relation to long-term calcium-phosphate control in HD patients with end-stage renal failure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 107 patients (66 men, 41 women) from 10 dialysis centers in the Upper Silesia region of Poland. To analyze the diet composition during the previous year, a portion-sized version of the Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ-II) from National Institutes of Health was used...
February 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Khaled M Hazzouri, Basel Khraiwesh, Khaled M A Amiri, Duke Pauli, Tom Blake, Mohammad Shahid, Sangeeta K Mullath, David Nelson, Alain L Mansour, Kourosh Salehi-Ashtiani, Michael Purugganan, Khaled Masmoudi
Sodium (Na+ ) accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5 -like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2 . In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley ( Hordeum vulgare ). A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was performed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hui Fang, Xiao-Yu Qin, Kai-Duan Zhang, Yong Nie, Xiao-Lei Wu
The six- and seven-subunit Na+ /H+ antiporters (Mrp) are widely distributed in bacteria. They are reported to be integral for pH homeostasis in alkaliphilic bacteria when adapting to high pH environments. In this study, operons encoding for the six-subunit Na+ /H+ antiporters were found in the genomes of all studied Dietzia strains, which have different alkaline-resistant abilities. Disruption of the operon in the strain Dietzia sp. DQ12-45-1b which leads to declined growth in presence of hypersaline and alkaline conditions suggested that the six-subunit Na+ /H+ antiporter played an important role in hypersaline and alkaline resistance...
March 3, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Eugene Choi, Derek Alsop, Joanna Y Wilson
In this study, we examined if rainbow trout chronically exposed to acetaminophen (10 and 30 μgL-1 ) showed histological changes that coincided with functional changes in the kidney, gill and liver. Histological changes in the kidney included movement and loss of nuclei, non-uniform nuclei size, non-uniform cytoplasmic staining, and loss of tubule integrity. Histological effects were more severe at the higher concentration and coincided with concentration dependent increases in urine flow rate and increased urinary concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, urea, ammonia, glucose, and protein...
February 15, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Christian Niederwanger, Silvia Lechner, Lisa König, Andreas R Janecke, Claus Pototschnig, Beatrice Häussler, Sabine Scholl-Bürgi, Thomas Müller, Peter Heinz-Erian
BACKGROUND: Choanal (CA) and gastrointestinal atresias (GA) are an important feature of syndromic congenital sodium diarrhea (sCSD), a disorder recently associated with mutations in the gene for serine protease inhibitor type 2 (SPINT2). It is, however, not known whether isolated non-syndromic CA and GA themselves might result from SPINT2 mutations. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study to investigate 19 CA and/or GA patients without diarrhea ("non-sCSD") for potential sCSD characteristic clinical features and SPINT2 mutations...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Medical Research
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Giovambattista Capasso
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop is a crucial segment for many tasks of the nephron. Indeed, the TAL is not only a mainstay for reabsorption of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), and divalent cations such as calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) from the luminal fluid, but also has an important role in urine concentration, overall acid-base homeostasis, and ammonia cycle. Transcellular Na+ transport along the TAL is a prerequisite for Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ homeostasis, and water reabsorption, the latter through its contribution in the generation of the cortico-medullar osmotic gradient...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Yingli Jia, Jinzhao He, Liang Wang, Limin Su, Lei Lei, Wei Huang, Xiaoqiang Geng, Shun Zhang, Xiaolu Meng, Hong Zhou, Baoxue Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin is widely used for lowering blood glucose and its usage is limited in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with moderate renal impairment. As its effect on kidney function is discrepant and complicated, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of dapagliflozin on the progression of diabetic nephropathy and related mechanisms. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male C57BL/6 wild-type and db/db mice were treated with vehicle or 1 mg/kg dapagliflozin for 12 weeks...
February 23, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jay Ian Lakkis, Matthew R Weir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperkalemia develops in a patient with systemic arterial hypertension (HTN) if one or more risk factors are present, namely chronic kidney disease (CKD) (especially severe stage 4-5 CKD), diabetes mellitus (DM), heart failure (HF), or pharmacological therapies that interfere with potassium homeostasis, mainly through renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibition (RAASi). Hyperkalemia is a considerable reason of morbidity (emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations) and portends a higher mortality risk in patients at risk; for instance, hyperkalemia increases the risk of mortality within 1 day of a hyperkalemic event...
March 1, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Kamlesh Kant Nutan, Gautam Kumar, Sneh Lata Singla-Pareek, Ashwani Pareek
Background: Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway is a well-known pathway in arabidopsis, essential for maintenance of ion homeostasis and thus conferring salt stress tolerance. In arabidopsis, the Ca2+ activated SOS3 interacts with SOS2 which further activates SOS1, a Na+/H+ antiporter, responsible for removing toxic sodium ions from the cells. In the present study, we have shown that these three components of SOS pathway, BjSOS1, BjSOS2 and BjSOS3 genes exhibit differential expression pattern in response to salinity and ABA stress in contrasting cultivars of Brassica...
January 2018: Current Genomics
Stefania Muzzachi, Lorenzo Guerra, Nicola Antonio Martino, Maria Favia, Giuseppe Punzi, Fabio Silvestre, Antonio Ciro Guaricci, Maria Teresa Roscino, Ciro Leonardo Pierri, Maria Elena Dell'Aquila, Valeria Casavola, Giovanni Michele Lacalandra, Elena Ciani
Sperm motility, a feature essential for in vivo fertilization, is influenced by intracellular pH (pHi ) homeostasis. Several mechanisms are involved in pHi regulation, among which sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHEs), a family of integral transmembrane proteins that catalyse the exchange of Na+ for H+ across lipid bilayers. A preliminary characterization of NHE activity and kinetic parameters, followed by analysis of the expression and localization of the protein in ram spermatozoa was performed. NHE activity showed an apparent Km for external Na+ of 17...
February 28, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Kais Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
The phytochemical composition and the effect of the green and ripe Opuntia ficus-indica juice on some gastrointestinal (GI) physiological parameters such as stomach emptying and small-intestinal motility and permeability were determined in rats administered multiple concentrations of the prickly pear juice (5, 10, and 20 mL kg-1 , b.w., p.o.). Other separate groups of rats were received, respectively; sodium chloride (0.9%, b.w., p.o.), clonidine (α-2 -adrenergic agonist, 1 mg kg-1 , b.w., i.p.), yohimbine (α-2 -adrenergic antagonist, 2 mg kg-1 , b...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
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