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Sodium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226461/role-of-cytosolic-calcium-diffusion-in-cardiac-purkinje-cells
#1
Bijay Limbu, Kushal Shah, Makarand Deo, Bijay Limbu, Kushal Shah, Makarand Deo, Bijay Limbu, Makar Deo, Kushal Shah
The Cardiac Purkinje cells (PCs) exhibit distinct calcium (Ca(2)+) homeostasis than that in ventricular myocytes (VMs). Due to lack of t-tubules in PCs, the Ca(2)+ ions entering the cell have to diffuse through the cytoplasm to reach the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) before triggering Ca(2)+-induced-Ca(2)+-release (CICR). In recent experimental studies PCs have been shown to be more susceptible to action potential (AP) abnormalities than the VMs, however the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we utilize morphologically realistic detailed biophysical mathematical model of a murine PC to systematically examine the role intracellular Ca(2)+ diffusion in the APs of PCs...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222459/elements-for-success-in-managing-type-2-diabetes-with-sglt-2-inhibitors-role-of-the-kidney-in-glucose-homeostasis-implications-for-sglt-2-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Eden M Miller
The focus on the kidney as a therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has led to the development of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, of which 3 are available in the United States. This article addresses the implications for SGLT-2 inhibition in the treatment of T2DM.
February 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214518/potentiating-slc-transporter-activity-emerging-drug-discovery-opportunities
#3
REVIEW
Marie-Laure Rives, Jonathan A Javitch, Alan D Wickenden
Maintaining the integrity of cellular membranes is critical to protecting metabolic activities and genetic information from the environment. Regulation of transport across membranes of essential chemicals, including water, nutrients, hormones and many drugs, is therefore key to cellular homeostasis and physiological processes. The two main transporter superfamilies are ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that primarily function as efflux transporters, and the solute carrier (SLC) transporters. SLC transporters encompass 52 gene families with almost 400 different human transporter genes...
February 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204813/homeostasis-and-the-concept-of-interstitial-fluids-hierarchy-relevance-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-sodium-concentrations-and-brain-temperature-control%C3%A2-review
#4
Luigi F Agnati, Manuela Marcoli, Giuseppina Leo, Guido Maura, Diego Guidolin
In this review, the aspects and further developments of the concept of homeostasis are discussed also in the perspective of their possible impact in the clinical practice, particularly as far as psychic homeostasis is concerned. A brief historical survey and comments on the concept of homeostasis and allostasis are presented to introduce our proposal that is based on the classical assumption of the interstitial fluid (ISF) as the internal medium for multicellular organisms. However, the new concept of a hierarchic role of ISF of the various organs is introduced...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193308/review-exogenous-butyrate-implications-for-the-functional-development-of-ruminal-epithelium-and-calf-performance
#5
B Niwińska, E Hanczakowska, M B Arciszewski, R Klebaniuk
The importance of the use of exogenous butyrate in calves' diets is due to its role as a factor stimulating the functional development of ruminal epithelium and improving calf performance during the transition from preruminant to ruminant status. Our review will first present results related to effects of the administration of butyrate in calves' diets on the development of ruminal epithelium toward a more effective absorption and metabolism of fermentation products from the rumen. The introduction of sodium butyrate at a level of about 0...
February 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192058/the-sodium-iodide-symporter-nis-molecular-physiology-and-preclinical-and-clinical-applications
#6
Silvia Ravera, Andrea Reyna-Neyra, Giuseppe Ferrandino, L Mario Amzel, Nancy Carrasco
Active iodide (I(-)) transport in both the thyroid and some extrathyroidal tissues is mediated by the Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS). In the thyroid, NIS-mediated I(-) uptake plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone (TH) biosynthesis. THs are key during embryonic and postembryonic development and critical for cell metabolism at all stages of life. The molecular characterization of NIS in 1996 and the use of radioactive I(-) isotopes have led to significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer and provide the molecular basis for studies aimed at extending the use of radioiodide treatment in extrathyroidal malignancies...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191818/changes-in-protein-expression-after-treatment-with-ancylostoma-caninum-excretory-secretory-products-in-a-mouse-model-of-colitis
#7
Javier Sotillo, Ivana Ferreira, Jeremy Potriquet, Thewarach Laha, Severine Navarro, Alex Loukas, Jason Mulvenna
Different reports have highlighted the potential use of helminths and their secretions in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) conditions; however, no reports have investigated their effects at a proteome level. Herein, we characterise the protein expression changes that occur in lamina propria (LP) and the intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis treated with Ancylostoma caninum excretory/secretory (ES) products using a quantitative proteomic approach...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190873/the-role-of-uric-acid-in-hypertension-of-adolescents-prehypertension-and-salt-sensitivity-of-blood-pressure
#8
Yang Wang, Jia-Wen Hu, Yong-Bo Lv, Chao Chu, Ke-Ke Wang, Wen-Ling Zheng, Yu-Meng Cao, Zu-Yi Yuan, Jian-Jun Mu
Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism. Metabolic disorders of uric acid are associated with many disease states. Substantial evidence suggests the possible role of uric acid as a mediator of high blood pressure. Elevated uric acid is closely associated with new onset essential hypertension in adolescents and prehypertension; and urate-lowering agents can significantly improve these early stages of hypertension. Uric acid also influences salt sensitivity of blood pressure through two phases. Local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation initiates renal damage, arteriolopathy, and endothelium dysfunction, which is followed by the dysregulation of sodium homeostasis, thereby leading to increased salt sensitivity...
February 13, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179257/interplay-between-renal-endothelin-and-purinergic-signaling-systems
#9
Eman Y Gohar, Malgorzata Kasztan, David M Pollock
Alterations in extracellular fluid volume regulation and sodium balance may result in the development and maintenance of salt-dependent hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Numerous pathways contribute to the regulation of sodium excretion and blood pressure, including endothelin and purinergic signaling. Increasing evidence suggests a link between purinergic receptor activation and endothelin production within the renal collecting duct as a means of promoting natriuresis. A better understanding of the relationship between these two systems, especially in regard to sodium homeostasis, will fill a significant knowledge gap and may provide novel antihypertensive treatment options...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179233/identification-of-a-mammalian-silicon-transporter
#10
Sarah Ratcliffe, Ravin Jugdaohsingh, Julien Vivancos, Alan Marron, Rupesh Deshmukh, Jian Feng Ma, Namiki Mitani-Ueno, Jack Robertson, John Wills, Mark V Boekschoten, Michael Müller, Robert C Mawhinney, Stephen D Kinrade, Paul Isenring, Richard R Bélanger, Jonathan J Powell
Silicon (Si) has long been known to play a major physiological and structural role in certain organisms, including diatoms, sponges, and many higher plants, leading to the recent identification of multiple proteins responsible for Si transport in a range of algal and plant species. In mammals, despite several convincing studies suggesting that silicon is an important factor in bone development and connective tissue health, there is a critical lack of understanding about the biochemical pathways that enable Si homeostasis...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179232/kidney-specific-genetic-deletion-of-both-ampk-%C3%AE-subunits-causes-salt-and-water-wasting
#11
Yoskaly Lazo-Fernández, Goretti Baile, Patricia Meade, Pilar Torcal, Laura Martínez, Carmen Ibañez, Maria Luisa Bernal, Benoit Viollet, Ignacio Giménez
AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) controls cell energy homeostasis by modulating ATP synthesis and expenditure. In vitro studies have suggested AMPK may also control key elements of renal epithelial electrolyte transport but in vivo physiological confirmation is still insufficient. We studied sodium renal handling and extracellular volume regulation in mice with genetic deletion of AMPK catalytic subunits. AMPKα1 knockout (KO) mice exhibit normal renal sodium handling and a moderate antidiuretic state. This is accompanied by higher urinary aldosterone excretion rates and reduced blood pressure...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176358/renal-calcium-oxalate-deposits-induce-a-pro-atherosclerotic-and-pro-osteoporotic-response-in-mice
#12
Kirsten Kusumi, Evan Barr-Beare, Vijay Saxena, Fayez Safedi, Andrew Schwaderer
BACKGROUND: Urinary stone disease (USD) is increasing in adult and pediatric populations Adult and pediatric studies have demonstrated decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture rates. USD has also been independently linked to increased rates of myocardial infarction and cerebral vascular accidents. Although USD is a multisystem disorder involving the kidneys, bone and vasculature, the molecular mechanisms linking these three organs remain unknown. METHODS: Calcium oxalate nephropathy was induced in C57BL/6J mice with intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of sodium glyoxolate...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174748/requirement-of-g%C3%AE-q-g%C3%AE-11-signaling-in-the-preservation-of-mouse-intestinal-epithelial-homeostasis
#13
Noboru Watanabe, Hirosato Mashima, Kouichi Miura, Takashi Goto, Makoto Yoshida, Akiteru Goto, Hirohide Ohnishi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the intestinal epithelium are tightly regulated by a number of molecular pathways. Coordinated action of intestine is achieved by gastrointestinal hormones, most of which exert these actions through G-protein-coupled receptors. We herein investigated the role of Gαq/11-mediated signaling in intestinal homeostasis. METHODS: Intestinal tissues from control (Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(+/+) ), Int-Gq knock-out (KO) (VilCre(+/-)Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(+/+) ), G11 KO (Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(-/-) ), and Int-Gq/G11 double knock-out (DKO) (VilCre(+/-)Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(-/-) ) mice were examined by microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165466/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-protects-bile-acid-homeostasis-under-inflammatory-conditions-and-dampens-crohn-s-disease-like-ileitis
#14
Lien Van den Bossche, Daniel Borsboom, Sarah Devriese, Sophie Van Welden, Tom Holvoet, Lindsey Devisscher, Pieter Hindryckx, Martine De Vos, Debby Laukens
Bile acids regulate the expression of intestinal bile acid transporters and are natural ligands for nuclear receptors controlling inflammation. Accumulating evidence suggests that signaling through these receptors is impaired in inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated whether tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a secondary bile acid with cytoprotective properties, regulates ileal nuclear receptor and bile acid transporter expression and assessed its therapeutic potential in an experimental model of Crohn's disease (CD)...
February 6, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154797/sex-specific-effects-of-serum-sulfate-level-and-slc13a1-nonsense-variants-on-dhea-homeostasis
#15
Christina G Tise, Leslie E Anforth, Albert E Zhou, James A Perry, Patrick F McArdle, Elizabeth A Streeten, Alan R Shuldiner, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong
CONTEXT: Sulfate is critical in the biotransformation of multiple compounds via sulfation. These compounds include neurotransmitters, proteoglycans, xenobiotics, and hormones such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Sulfation reactions are thought to be rate-limited by endogenous sulfate concentrations. The gene, SLC13A1, encodes the sodium-sulfate cotransporter NaS1, responsible for sulfate (re)absorption in the intestines and kidneys. We previously reported two rare, non-linked, nonsense variants in SLC13A1 (R12X and W48X) associated with hyposulfatemia (P = 9 × 10(- 20))...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154180/berberine-induced-inactivation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-5-signaling-promotes-male-specific-expression-of-a-bile-acid-uptake-transporter
#16
Pengli Bu, Yuan Le, Yue Zhang, Youcai Zhang, Xingguo Cheng
Sodium-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (Ntcp/NTCP) is the major uptake transporter of bile salts in mouse and human livers. In certain diseases, including endotoxemia, cholestasis, diabetes, and hepatocarcinoma, Ntcp/NTCP expression is markedly reduced, which interferes with enterohepatic circulation of bile salts, impairing the absorption of lipophilic compounds. Therefore, normal Ntcp/NTCP expression in the liver is physiologically important. Berberine is an herbal medicine used historically to improve liver function and has recently been shown to repress signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) signaling...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150887/differential-effects-of-energy-deprivation-on-intracellular-sodium-homeostasis-in-neurons-and-astrocytes
#17
REVIEW
Niklas J Gerkau, Cordula Rakers, Gabor C Petzold, Christine R Rose
The maintenance of a low intracellular sodium concentration by the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (NKA) is critical for brain function. In both neurons and glial cells, NKA activity is required to counteract changes in the sodium gradient due to opening of voltage- and ligand-gated channels and/or activation of sodium-dependent secondary active transporters. Because NKA consumes about 50% of cellular ATP, sodium homeostasis is strictly dependent on an intact cellular energy metabolism. Despite the high energetic costs of electrical signaling, neurons do not contain significant energy stores themselves, but rely on a close metabolic interaction with surrounding astrocytes...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149983/role-of-the-kidney-in-type-2-diabetes-and-mechanism-of-action-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors
#18
Matthew L Mintz
The aim of this supplement is to discuss the important role of the kidney in glucose homeostasis. It produces glucose via gluconeogenesis, it filters glucose from the blood, and reabsorbs the filtered glucose in the proximal tubule, mainly via the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2). SGLT-2 is paradoxically upregulated in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), which results in increased glucose reabsorption and hyperglycemia. This core defect in the pathophysiology of T2D provides the rationale for the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors to increase urinary glucose excretion and reduce hyperglycemia in an insulin-independent manner...
December 2016: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145733/why-do-team-sport-athletes-drink-fluid-in-excess-when-exercising-in-cool-conditions
#19
Melissa J Bargh, Roderick F G J King, Michael P Gray, Ben Jones
This study assessed the potential physiological and perceptual drivers of fluid intake and thirst sensation during intermittent exercise. Ten male rugby players (17 ± 1 years, stature: 179.1 ± 4.2 cm, body mass (BM): 81.9 ± 8.1 kg) participated in six 6-min small-sided games, interspersed with 2 min rest, where fluid intake was ad libitum during rest periods. Pre- and postmeasurements of BM, subjective ratings (thirst, thermal comfort, thermal sensation, mouth dryness), plasma osmolality (POsm), serum sodium concentration (S[Na(+)]), haematocrit and haemoglobin (to calculate plasma volume change; PV) were taken...
November 10, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142110/role-of-two-sided-crosstalk-between-no-and-h2s-on-improvement-of-mineral-homeostasis-and-antioxidative-defense-in-sesamum-indicum-under-lead-stress
#20
Rayhaneh Amooaghaie, Faezeh Zangene-Madar, Shekoofeh Enteshari
H2S and NO are two important gasotransmitters that modulate stress responses in plants. There are the contradictory data on crosstalk between NO and H2S in the studies. Hence, in the present study, the role of interplay between NO and H2S was assessed on the Pb tolerance of Sesamum indicum using pharmacological and biochemical approaches. Results revealed that Pb stress reduced the plant growth and the content of photosynthetic pigments and Fv/Fm ratio, increased the lipid peroxidation and the H2O2 content, elevated the endogenous contents of nitric oxide (NO), H2S and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (except APX)...
January 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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