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Sodium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330471/slc26a3-dra-prevents-tnf-alpha-induced-barrier-dysfunction-and-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-acute-colitis
#1
Xiangming Ding, Dongxiao Li, Mengke Li, Han Wang, Qin He, Yunwu Wang, Hongbing Yu, Dean Tian, Qin Yu
SLC26A3 encodes a Cl-/HCO3- ion transporter that is also known as downregulated in adenoma (DRA) and is involved in HCO3-/mucus formation. The role of DRA in the epithelial barrier has not been previously established. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro mechanisms of DRA in the colon epithelial barrier. Immunofluorescence (IF) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) studies reveal that DRA binds directly to tight junction (TJ) proteins and affects the expression of TJ proteins in polarized Caco-2BBe cells...
January 12, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322303/salt-tolerance-of-two-perennial-grass-brachypodium-sylvaticum-accessions
#2
Nir Sade, Maria Del Mar Rubio Wilhelmi, Xiaojuan Ke, Yariv Brotman, Matthew Wright, Imran Khan, Wagner De Souza, Elias Bassil, Christian M Tobias, Roger Thilmony, John P Vogel, Eduardo Blumwald
We studied the salt stress tolerance of two accessions isolated from different areas of the world (Norway and Tunisia) and characterized the mechanism(s) regulating salt stress in Brachypodium sylvaticum Osl1 and Ain1. Perennial grasses are widely grown in different parts of the world as an important feedstock for renewable energy. Their perennial nature that reduces management practices and use of energy and agrochemicals give these biomass crops advantages when dealing with modern agriculture challenges such as soil erosion, increase in salinized marginal lands and the runoff of nutrients...
January 10, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322280/direct-cardiovascular-impact-of-sglt2-inhibitors-mechanisms-and-effects
#3
REVIEW
Abdullah Kaplan, Emna Abidi, Ahmed El-Yazbi, Ali Eid, George W Booz, Fouad A Zouein
Diabetes is a global epidemic and a leading cause of death with more than 422 million patients worldwide out of whom around 392 million alone suffer from type 2 diabetes (T2D). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are novel and effective drugs in managing glycemia of T2D patients. These inhibitors gained recent clinical and basic research attention due to their clinically observed cardiovascular protective effects. Although interest in the study of various SGLT isoforms and the effect of their inhibition on cardiovascular function extends over the past 20 years, an explanation of the effects observed clinically based on available experimental data is not forthcoming...
January 11, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318961/targeting-na-k-atpase-signaling-a-new-approach-to-control-oxidative-stress
#4
Jiang Liu, Megan N Lilly, Joseph I Shapiro
Renal and cardiac function are greatly affected by chronic oxidative stress which can cause many pathophysiological states. The Na/K-ATPase is well-described as an ion pumping enzyme involved in maintaining cellular ion homeostasis; however, in the past two decades, extensive research has been done to understand the signaling function of the Na/K-ATPase and determine its role in physiological and pathophysiological states. Our lab has shown that the Na/K-ATPase signaling cascade can function as an amplifier of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can be initiated by cardiotonic steroids or increases in ROS...
January 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315929/wd40-repeat-5a-represses-root-meristem-growth-by-suppressing-auxin-synthesis-through-changes-of-nitric-oxide-accumulation-in-arabidopsis
#5
Wen-Cheng Liu, Si-Qiu Zheng, Zhen-Dong Yu, Xiang Gao, Ran Shen, Ying-Tang Lu
While nitric oxide (NO) is known to regulate root growth, the factor(s) modulating NO during this process have not yet been elucidated. Here, we identified Arabidopsis WD40-REPEAT 5a (WDR5a) as a novel factor that functions in root growth by modulating NO accumulation. The wdr5a-1 mutant accumulated less NO and produced longer roots than the wild type, while the WDR5a overexpression lines had the opposite phenotype. The role of NO was further supported by our observation that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) rescued the root meristem growth phenotypes of the wdr5a-1 and WDR5a overexpression lines, respectively...
January 6, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310825/potassium-intake-modulates-the-thiazide-sensitive-sodium-chloride-cotransporter-ncc-activity-via-the-kir4-1-potassium-channel
#6
Ming-Xiao Wang, Catherina A Cuevas, Xiao-Tong Su, Peng Wu, Zhong-Xiuzi Gao, Dao-Hong Lin, James A McCormick, Chao-Ling Yang, Wen-Hui Wang, David H Ellison
Kir4.1 in the distal convoluted tubule plays a key role in sensing plasma potassium and in modulating the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). Here we tested whether dietary potassium intake modulates Kir4.1 and whether this is essential for mediating the effect of potassium diet on NCC. High potassium intake inhibited the basolateral 40 pS potassium channel (a Kir4.1/5.1 heterotetramer) in the distal convoluted tubule, decreased basolateral potassium conductance, and depolarized the distal convoluted tubule membrane in Kcnj10flox/flox mice, herein referred to as control mice...
January 6, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297498/epithelial-hes1-maintains-gut-homeostasis-by-preventing-microbial-dysbiosis
#7
X-K Guo, J Ou, S Liang, X Zhou, X Hu
Recent advancements suggest that in addition to its roles in developmental processes, transcription repressor hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) also acts as a key regulator of inflammatory responses. A healthy gut microbiota ecology is critical for establishment of tissue homeostasis. However, the role of epithelial Hes1 in regulating intestinal microbiota ecology and intestinal homeostasis remains unexplored. Here we show that epithelial Hes1 deficiency leads to intestinal microbial dysbiosis and disturbed homeostasis...
January 3, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295861/splunc1-is-an-allosteric-modulator-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel
#8
Christine Seulki Kim, Saira Ahmad, Tongde Wu, William G Walton, Matthew R Redinbo, Robert Tarran
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic disease with significantly increased mortality. CF airways exhibit ion transport abnormalities, including hyperactivity of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). Short-palate lung and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1) is a multifunctional innate defense protein that is secreted into the airway lumen. We have previously demonstrated that SPLUNC1 binds to and inhibits ENaC to maintain fluid homeostasis in airway epithelia and that this process fails in CF airways. Despite this, how SPLUNC1 actually regulates ENaC is unknown...
January 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282153/under-control-how-a-dietary-additive-can-restore-the-gut-microbiome-and-proteomic-profile-and-improve-disease-resilience-in-a-marine-teleostean-fish-fed-vegetable-diets
#9
María Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Belén Fouz, Itziar Estensoro, Paula Simó-Mirabet, Mónica Puyalto, Vasileios Karalazos, Oswaldo Palenzuela, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The constant increase of aquaculture production and wealthy seafood consumption has forced the industry to explore alternative and more sustainable raw aquafeed materials, and plant ingredients have been used to replace marine feedstuffs in many farmed fish. The objective of the present study was to assess whether plant-based diets can induce changes in the intestinal mucus proteome, gut autochthonous microbiota and disease susceptibility of fish, and whether these changes could be reversed by the addition of sodium butyrate to the diets...
December 28, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281815/the-nlr-protein-nlrp6-does-not-impact-gut-microbiota-composition
#10
Paul Lemire, Susan J Robertson, Heather Maughan, Ivan Tattoli, Catherine J Streutker, Jaye M Platnich, Daniel A Muruve, Dana J Philpott, Stephen E Girardin
NLRP6 is a Nod-like receptor expressed in the intestinal epithelium. Previous studies reported a protective role for NLRP6 against intestinal injury and colitis-associated carcinogenesis via the regulation and establishment of a healthy microbiota. However, these results were not obtained using littermate animals, leaving the possibility that the pro-colitogenic microbiota phenotype associated with knockout (KO) mice was stochastically acquired and genotype independent. Here, we analyzed the microbiota at three intestinal locations from Nlrp6-/- and wild-type (WT) littermates, either co-caged or individually caged after weaning...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276942/humic-acid-confers-high-affinity-k-transporter-1-mediated-salinity-stress-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#11
Laila Khaleda, Hee Jin Park, Dae-Jin Yun, Jong-Rok Jeon, Min Gab Kim, Joon-Yung Cha, Woe-Yeon Kim
Excessive salt disrupts intracellular ion homeostasis and inhibits plant growth, which poses a serious threat to global food security. Plants have adapted various strategies to survive in unfavorable saline soil conditions. Here, we show that humic acid (HA) is a good soil amendment that can be used to help overcome salinity stress because it markedly reduces the adverse effects of salinity on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. To identify the molecular mechanisms of HA-induced salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, we examined possible roles of a sodium influx transporter HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1 (HKT1)...
December 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251736/pge2-ep1-receptor-inhibits-vasopressin-dependent-water-reabsorption-and-sodium-transport-in-mouse-collecting-duct
#12
Rania Nasrallah, Joseph Zimpelmann, David Eckert, Jamie Ghossein, Sean Geddes, Jean-Claude Beique, Jean-Francois Thibodeau, Chris R J Kennedy, Kevin D Burns, Richard L Hébert
PGE2 regulates glomerular hemodynamics, renin secretion, and tubular transport. This study examined the contribution of PGE2 EP1 receptors to sodium and water homeostasis. Male EP1-/- mice were bred with hypertensive TTRhRen mice (Htn) to evaluate blood pressure and kidney function at 8 weeks of age in four groups: wildtype (WT), EP1-/-, Htn, HtnEP1-/-. Blood pressure and water balance were unaffected by EP1 deletion. COX1 and mPGE2 synthase were increased and COX2 was decreased in mice lacking EP1, with increases in EP3 and reductions in EP2 and EP4 mRNA throughout the nephron...
December 18, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247612/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-ameliorates-experimental-colitis-via-toll-like-receptor-4-dependent-pathway
#13
Sung Wook Hwang, Jee Hyun Kim, Changhyun Lee, Jong Pil Im, Joo Sung Kim
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is an intestinal brush border enzyme which plays an important role in gut homeostasis and mucosal inflammation. However, the mechanism of the protective effect of IAP is not fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the protective effect of IAP on colitis is mediated via the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. For in vitro analysis, peritoneal macrophages from the wild-type (WT) and TLR4-deficient (TLR4-/-) C57BL/6 mice were used...
December 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242247/chip-regulates-aquaporin-2-quality-control-and-body-water-homeostasis
#14
Qi Wu, Hanne B Moeller, Donté A Stevens, Rebekah Sanchez-Hodge, Gabrielle Childers, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Lei Cheng, Lena L Rosenbaek, Carrie Rubel, Cam Patterson, Trairak Pisitkun, Jonathan C Schisler, Robert A Fenton
The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237740/grhl2-is-required-for-collecting-duct-epithelial-barrier-function-and-renal-osmoregulation
#15
Christian Hinze, Janett Ruffert, Katharina Walentin, Nina Himmerkus, Elham Nikpey, Olav Tenstad, Helge Wiig, Kerim Mutig, Zeliha Yesim Yurtdas, Janet D Klein, Jeff M Sands, Federica Branchi, Michael Schumann, Sebastian Bachmann, Markus Bleich, Kai M Schmidt-Ott
Collecting ducts make up the distal-most tubular segments of the kidney, extending from the cortex, where they connect to the nephron proper, into the medulla, where they release urine into the renal pelvis. During water deprivation, body water preservation is ensured by the selective transepithelial reabsorption of water into the hypertonic medullary interstitium mediated by collecting ducts. The collecting duct epithelium forms tight junctions composed of barrier-enforcing claudins and exhibits a higher transepithelial resistance than other segments of the renal tubule exhibit...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236491/short-chain-fatty-acids-suppress-inflammatory-reactions-in-caco-2-cells-and-mouse-colons
#16
Tran Van Hung, Takuya Suzuki
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, play an important role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. In the present study, anti-inflammatory effects of SCFAs were examined in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and mouse colonic cultures. Stimulation of Caco-2 cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced interleukin (IL)-8 (TNF-α, 17.1 ± 7.2 vs Control, 1.00 ± 0.26, P < 0.01) and IL-6 expression (TNF-α, 21.7 ± 10.0 vs Control, 1.00 ± 0.28, P < 0.01) through the activation of nuclear factor κB p65, spleen tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233556/contribution-of-atoh1-cells-to-the-homeostasis-repair-and-tumorigenesis-of-the-colonic-epithelium
#17
Fumiaki Ishibashi, Hiromichi Shimizu, Toru Nakata, Satoru Fujii, Kohei Suzuki, Ami Kawamoto, Sho Anzai, Reiko Kuno, Sayaka Nagata, Go Ito, Tatsuro Murano, Tomohiro Mizutani, Shigeru Oshima, Kiichiro Tsuchiya, Tetsuya Nakamura, Mamoru Watanabe, Ryuichi Okamoto
ATOH1 is a master transcription factor for the secretory lineage differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). However, the comprehensive contribution of ATOH1+ secretory lineage IECs to the homeostasis, repair, and tumorigenesis of the intestinal epithelium remains uncertain. Through our ATOH1+ cell-lineage tracing, we show here that a definite number of ATOH1+ IECs retain stem cell properties and can form ATOH1+IEC-derived clonal ribbons (ATOH1+ICRs) under completely homeostatic conditions. Interestingly, colonic ATOH1+ IECs appeared to exhibit their stem cell function more frequently compared with those of the small intestine...
December 1, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232732/high-salt-intake-promotes-different-responses-to-urodilatin-and-uroguanylin-in-the-isolated-rat-kidney
#18
Antonio Rafael Coelho Jorge, Pedro Henrique Sá Costa, Helena Serra Azul Monteiro, Manassés Claudino Fonteles
Urodilatin (UD) and uroguanylin (UGN) have been implicated in the regulation of salt and water homeostasis, particularly in the balance handling of salt intake. In this sense, the aim of the present work was to study the main effects of these peptides in kidneys from animals subjected to high NaCl (2%) intake, during 10 days in metabolic cages. The control group received only normal water, whereas the treated group drank 2% solution of NaCl (NaCl 2%). In addition, we studied effect of subthreshold UD (0.14 nM) and UGN (0...
December 12, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222175/chitin-protects-gut-epithelial-barrier-in-a-protochordate-model-of-dss-induced-colitis
#19
Assunta Liberti, Ivana Zucchetti, Daniela Melillo, Diana Skapura, Yoshimi Shibata, Rosaria De Santis, Maria Rosaria Pinto, Gary W Litman, Larry J Dishaw
The gastrointestinal tract of Ciona intestinalis, a solitary tunicate that siphon filters water, shares similarities with its mammalian counterpart. The Ciona gut exhibits other features that are unique to protochordates, including certain immune molecules, and other characteristics, e.g. chitin-rich mucus, which appears to be more widespread than considered previously. Exposure of Ciona to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induces a colitis-like phenotype similar to that seen in other systems and is characterized by alteration of epithelial morphology and infiltration of blood cells into lamina propria like regions...
December 8, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221725/protective-effects-of-polyphenol-rich-infusions-from-carob-ceratonia-siliqua-leaves-and-cladodes-of-opuntia-ficus-indica-against-inflammation-associated-with-diet-induced-obesity-and-dss-induced-colitis-in-swiss-mice
#20
Ikram Aboura, Abdelhafid Nani, Meriem Belarbi, Babar Murtaza, Aurélie Fluckiger, Adélie Dumont, Chahid Benammar, Moufida Saidani Tounsi, François Ghiringhelli, Mickaël Rialland, Naim Akhtar Khan, Aziz Hichami
In the present study, we have investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich infusions from carob leaves and OFI-cladodes on inflammation associated with obesity and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in Swiss mice. In vitro studies revealed that aqueous extracts of carob leaves and OFI-cladodes exhibited anti-inflammatory properties marked by the inhibition of IL-6, TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells concomitant with NF-κβ nucleus translocation inhibition...
December 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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