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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551776/targeted-deletion-of-aqp4-promotes-the-formation-of-astrocytic-gap-junctions
#1
Shirin Katoozi, Nadia Skauli, Soulmaz Rahmani, Laura M A Camassa, Henning B Boldt, Ole P Ottersen, Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the brain and is expressed in high density in astrocytes. By fluxing water along osmotic gradients, AQP4 contributes to brain volume and ion homeostasis. Here we ask whether deletion of Aqp4 leads to upregulation of the gap junctional proteins connexin-43 (Cx43) and connexin-30 (Cx30). These molecules couple adjacent astrocytes to each other and allow water and ions to redistribute within the astrocyte syncytium. Immunogold analysis of parietal cortex and hippocampus showed that the number of gap junctions per capillary profile is increased in AQP4 knockout (AQP4 KO) mice...
May 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551524/capillary-flows-across-layers-and-textural-interfaces-pathways-and-colloid-transport-considerations-in-unsaturated-layered-porous-media
#2
Frouke Hoogland, Peter Lehmann, Dani Or
Soils and other geologic porous media often display layering and associated textural contrasts that may alter unsaturated flow and transport pathways. Such natural interfaces are usually represented empirically in continuum flow models with limited mechanistic account of the effect of adjusted pathways across layers on colloid transport and on the nature of unsaturated flow. In this study we present the soil foam drainage equation (SFDE) as alternative framework to simulate unsaturated flow in layered porous media...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551019/determination-of-the-stereoisomeric-impurities-of-sitafloxacin-by-capillary-electrophoresis-with-dual-chiral-additives
#3
Ranran Meng, Jingwu Kang
Because of the bioactivity against the human topoisomerase II, the stereoisomeric impurities of sitafloxacin should be controlled in the process of manufactory. In the present work, a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of three stereoisomeric impurities of sitafloxacin. The separation with high resolution not only for the separation of enantiomers, but also for the separation of diastereoisomers was achieved by using a background electrolyte composed of dual chiral selectors, namely γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) and Cu(2+)-d-phenylalanine (D-Phe) complex...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550912/does-metabolic-alkalosis-influence-cerebral-oxygenation-in-infantile-hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis
#4
Matthias Nissen, Grigore Cernaianu, Rene Thränhardt, Mohammad R Vahdad, Karin Barenberg, Ralf-Bodo Tröbs
BACKGROUND: This pilot study focuses on regional tissue oxygenation (rSO2) in patients with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a perioperative setting. To investigate the influence of enhanced metabolic alkalosis (MA) on cerebral (c-rSO2) and renal (r-rSO2) tissue oxygenation, two-site near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology was applied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Perioperative c-rSO2, r-rSO2, capillary blood gases, and electrolytes from 12 infants were retrospectively compared before and after correction of MA at admission (T1), before surgery (T2), and after surgery (T3)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550346/differential-microvascular-assessment-of-retinal-vein-occlusion-with-coherence-tomography-angiography-and-fluorescein-angiography-a-blinded-comparative-study
#5
Chung Yee Chung, Heather Hoi Yau Tang, Siu Hung Li, Kenneth Kai Wang Li
PURPOSE: To compare the imaging of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and fluorescein angiography (FA) and evaluate their roles in clinical management. METHODS: RVO patients who underwent imaging with both FA and OCTA from 1 June 2015-31 December 2015 were enrolled. An independent retinal specialist blinded from patient identity assessed the FA and OCTA reports. The pixel counting technique was used for FAZ size measurement...
May 26, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550074/muscle-fiber-capillarization-as-determining-factor-on-indices-of-insulin-sensitivity-in-humans
#6
Tim Snijders, Joshua P Nederveen, Lex B Verdijk, Alfons J H M Houben, Gijs H Goossens, Gianna Parise, Luc J C van Loon
To investigate the association between muscle fiber capillarization and indices of insulin sensitivity in healthy older adults. A skeletal muscle biopsy was taken from the m vastus lateralis of 22 healthy (nondiabetic) male older adults. In addition, all participants underwent an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Muscle fiber capillarization was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Participants were divided into a group with relatively low (LOW) or high (HIGH) muscle fiber capillarization (capillary-to-fiber perimeter exchange (CFPE) index), based on the median value for the entire group...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549716/automated-programmable-pressurized-carbonic-acid-eluent-ion-exclusion-chromatography-of-organic-acids
#7
C Phillip Shelor, Purnendu K Dasgupta
Conductometric ion exclusion chromatography of weak acids does not enjoy the same degree of success as its counterpart in suppressed conductometric anion exchange chromatography. Compared to the latter, eluent preparation is not automated. Commonly, a strong acid is used as the eluent leading to a relatively high-detector background and poorer limits of detection. In addition, generally applicable gradient elution has not been possible. We introduce the automated preparation of carbonic acid eluents at concentrations exceeding 0...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548527/liquid-droplets-act-as-compass-needles-for-the-stresses-in-a-deformable-membrane
#8
Rafael D Schulman, René Ledesma-Alonso, Thomas Salez, Elie Raphaël, Kari Dalnoki-Veress
We examine the shape of droplets atop deformable thin elastomeric films prepared with an anisotropic tension. As the droplets generate a deformation in the taut film through capillary forces, they assume a shape that is elongated along the high tension direction. By measuring the contact line profile, the tension in the membrane can be completely determined. Minimal theoretical arguments lead to predictions for the droplet shape and membrane deformation that are in excellent agreement with the data. On the whole, the results demonstrate that droplets can be used as probes to map out the stress field in a membrane...
May 12, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548165/on-the-underestimated-impact-of-the-gelation-temperature-on-macro-and-mesoporosity-in-monolithic-silica
#9
Rafael Meinusch, Rüdiger Ellinghaus, Kristof Hormann, Ulrich Tallarek, Bernd M Smarsly
The preparation of monolithic SiO2 with bimodal porosity using a special sol-gel procedure ("Nakanishi process") generally shows a pronounced sensitivity towards several physico-chemical parameters of the initial solution (concentrations, precursors, pH, temperature, etc.). Thus, temporal and spatial variations of these parameters during the sol-gel reactions can affect the final meso- and macropore space with respect to the pore size distributions and homogeneity. In this study we thoroughly examine the sol-gel reaction in terms of the impact of temperature accuracy and homogeneity during the gelation and their effect on meso- and macropore space...
May 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548148/diverse-configurations-of-columnar-liquid-crystals-in-cylindrical-nano-and-micropores
#10
Rui-Bin Zhang, Goran Ungar, Xiangbing Zeng, Zhihao Shen
Using 2D X-ray diffraction and AFM we studied the configuration, in cylindrical confinement, of hexagonal columnar phases that anchor homeotropically, i.e. with the columns normal to the pore wall. A wide range of pore diameters, from 20 nm to 100 μm, were explored by employing anodic alumina membranes and glass capillaries. The compounds used were a small discotic, hexakis(hexyloxy)triphenylene (HAT6), a large discotic hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC), and a T-shaped bolaamphiphile, forming a honeycomb-type columnar phase...
May 26, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548141/glass-capillary-based-microfluidic-elisa-for-rapid-diagnostics
#11
Xiaotian Tan, Maung Kyaw Khaing Oo, Yuan Gong, Yaoxin Li, Hongbo Zhu, Xudong Fan
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used in medical diagnostics and fundamental biological research due to its high specificity and reproducibility. However, the traditional 96-well-plate based ELISA still suffers from several notable drawbacks, such as long assay time (4-6 hours), burdensome procedures and large sample/reagent volumes (∼100 μl), which significantly limit traditional ELISA's applications in rapid clinical diagnosis and quasi-real-time prognosis of some fast-developing diseases...
May 26, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547381/purinergic-signalling-links-mechanical-breath-profile-and-alveolar-mechanics-with-the-pro-inflammatory-innate-immune-response-causing-ventilation-induced-lung-injury
#12
REVIEW
Djo Hasan, Paul Blankman, Gary F Nieman
Severe pulmonary infection or vigorous cyclic deformation of the alveolar epithelial type I (AT I) cells by mechanical ventilation leads to massive extracellular ATP release. High levels of extracellular ATP saturate the ATP hydrolysis enzymes CD39 and CD73 resulting in persistent high ATP levels despite the conversion to adenosine. Above a certain level, extracellular ATP molecules act as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and activate the pro-inflammatory response of the innate immunity through purinergic receptors on the surface of the immune cells...
May 26, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546763/mutation-analysis-of-%C3%AE-thalassemia-in-east-western-indian-population-a-recent-molecular-approach
#13
Parth S Shah, Nidhi D Shah, Hari Shankar P Ray, Nikunj B Khatri, Ketan K Vaghasia, Rutvik J Raval, Sandip C Shah, Mandava V Rao
BACKGROUND: β-Thalassemia is the most prevalent genetic disorder in India. Its traits and coinheritance vary from mild to severe conditions, resulting in thalassemia minor, intermediate, and major, depending upon many factors. PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of β-thalassemia traits, their coinheritance, and mutations, as well as to support the patients already diagnosed with β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population for better management...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545938/an-update-of-77-cases-diagnosed-as-oral-hemangiomas-based-on-glut-1-positivity
#14
Tiago João da Silva Filho, Denise Hélen Imaculada Pereira de Oliveira, Veruska Lima Moura Brasil, Cassiano Francisco Weege Nonaka, Éricka Janine Dantas da Silveira, Lélia Maria Guedes Queiroz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cases diagnosed as "oral hemangiomas" based on the immunohistochemical expression of human glucose transporter protein (GLUT-1) and on histopathological features, and to investigate whether the classification proposed by the ISSVA was used correctly to classify these lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cases stored in the archives of an Oral Pathology Service and diagnosed as "oral hemangiomas" were reviewed. Seventy-seven cases were analyzed regarding the expression of GLUT-1...
May 22, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545733/simultaneous-on-line-monitoring-of-propofol-and-sevoflurane-in-balanced-anesthesia-by-direct-resistive-heating-gas-chromatography
#15
Hao Dong, Feng Jiang Zhang, Fu Yuan Wang, Ying Ying Wang, Jing Guo, G M Kanhar, Jing Chen, Jun Liu, Chen Zhou, Min Yan, Xing Chen
In balanced anesthesia, sevoflurane and propofol are often used in combination to achieve a better anesthetic effect. However, methods for on-line monitoring of concentrations of the two anesthetics in patients are still rare in clinical. This study proposed a non-invasive method utilizing a fast gas chromatograph combined with a surface acoustic wave sensor (Fast GC-SAW) to simultaneously on-line monitor sevoflurane and propofol in patients' exhaled gas. By using the direct resistive heating capillary column, the single detection time of Fast GC-SAW system was significantly shortened to 90s, as well as the size reduced to (40cm×30cm×20cm)...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545716/connective-tissue-growth-factor-regulates-fibrosis-associated-renal-lymphangiogenesis
#16
Hiroshi Kinashi, Lucas L Falke, Tri Q Nguyen, Niels Bovenschen, Jan Aten, Andrew Leask, Yasuhiko Ito, Roel Goldschmeding
Lymphangiogenesis is correlated with the degree of renal interstitial fibrosis. Pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor β induces VEGF-C production, the main driver of lymphangiogenesis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an important determinant of fibrotic tissue remodeling, but its possible involvement in lymphangiogenesis has not been explored. We found prominent lymphangiogenesis during tubulointerstitial fibrosis to be associated with increased expression of CTGF and VEGF-C in human obstructed nephropathy as well as in diabetic kidney disease...
May 23, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545109/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-for-wound-healing-in-diabetic-rats-varying-efficacy-after-a-clinically-based-protocol
#17
Johan W van Neck, Bastiaan Tuk, Esther M G Fijneman, Jonathan J Redeker, Edwin M Talahatu, Miao Tong
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a clinical treatment in which a patient breathes pure oxygen for a limited period of time at an increased pressure. Although this therapy has been used for decades to assist wound healing, its efficacy for many conditions is unproven and its mechanism of action is not yet fully clarified. This study investigated the effects of HBOT on wound healing using a diabetes-impaired pressure ulcer rat model. Seven weeks after streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats (n = 55), a pressure ulcer was created on dorsal skin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545020/microtubule-inhibitor-sp-6-27-inhibits-angiogenesis-and-induces-apoptosis-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#18
Arpita Kulshrestha, Gajendra K Katara, Safaa A Ibrahim, Renukadevi Patil, Shivaputra A Patil, Kenneth D Beaman
In ovarian cancer (OVCA), treatment failure due to chemo-resistance is a serious challenge. It is therefore critical to identify new therapies that are effective against resistant tumors and have reduced side effects. We recently identified 4-H-chromenes as tubulin depolymerizing agents that bind to colchicine site of beta-tubulin. Here, we screened a chemical library of substituted 4-H-chromenes and identified SP-6-27 to exhibit most potent anti-proliferative activity towards a panel of human cisplatin sensitive and resistant OVCA cell lines with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50; mean ± SD) ranging from 0...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544760/a-novel-pattern-of-yolk-processing-in-developing-snake-eggs-colubridae-lampropeltini-and-its-functional-and-evolutionary-implications
#19
Kathryn G Powers, Daniel G Blackburn
Early amniotic vertebrates evolved large-yolked eggs that permitted production of well-developed, terrestrial hatchlings. This reproductive pattern required new mechanisms for cellularizing the yolk and mobilizing it for embryonic use. In birds, cells that line the yolk sac cavity phagocytose and digest the yolk material, a pattern that is commonly assumed to be universal among oviparous amniotes. However, recent evidence challenges the assumption that all squamate reptiles conform to the avian developmental pattern...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544641/reflectance-spectroscopy-to-shed-new-light-on-the-capillary-refill-test
#20
Rani Toll John, Joakim Henricson, Gert E Nilsson, Daniel Wilhelms, Chris D Anderson
To use Bioengineering methodology is used to achieve, at five anatomical sites, a detailed, quantitative assessment of the return of blood content to the blanched area, during the Capillary Refill (CR) test. An observational, non-randomized, experimental study on 23 healthy subjects (14 females) was performed in our climate controlled skin physiology laboratory. Our main outcome measures were based on the chronological assessment and quantification of red blood cell concentration (RBC) after the release of blanching pressure in the CR test, using Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi), a digital photographic technique based on polarisation spectroscopy...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
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