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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340309/analytical-techniques-in-lipidomics-state-of-the-art
#1
Kamil Jurowski, Kamila Kochan, Justyna Walczak, Małgorzata Barańska, Wojciech Piekoszewski, Bogusław Buszewski
Current studies related to lipid identification and determination, or lipidomics in biological samples, are one of the most important issues in modern bioanalytical chemistry. There are many articles dedicated to specific analytical strategies used in lipidomics in various kinds of biological samples. However, in such literature, there is lack of articles dedicated to a comprehensive review of the actual analytical methodologies used in lipidomics. The aim of this article is to characterize the lipidomics methods used in modern bioanalysis according to the methodological point of view: 1) chromatography/separation methods, 2) spectroscopic methods and 3) mass spectrometry and also hyphenated methods...
March 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339967/placental-transporter-localization-and-expression-in-the-human-the-importance-of-species-sex-and-gestational-age-differences1
#2
Natasha Walker, Panagiotis Filis, Ugo Soffientini, Michelle Bellingham, Peter J O'Shaughnessy, Paul A Fowler
The placenta is a critical organ during pregnancy, essential for the provision of an optimal intrauterine environment, with fetal survival, growth and development relying on correct placental function. It must allow nutritional compounds and relevant hormones to pass into the fetal bloodstream and metabolic waste products to be cleared. It also acts as a semi-permeable barrier to potentially harmful chemicals both endogenous and exogenous. Transporter proteins allow for bidirectional transport and are found in the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta and endothelium of fetal capillaries...
March 7, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339803/transcriptional-comparison-of-myogenesis-in-leghorn-and-low-score-normal-embryos
#3
J Griffin, N St-Pierre, M S Lilburn, M Wick
In a previous study, we reported on a quantitative transcriptomic method which confirmed the temporal transcription of developmental fast skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (fsMyHC) embryonic isoforms in the embryonic Pectoralis major (PM) of the Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL). The objective of the current study was to further investigate the transcriptional events underlying embryonic PM growth in the SCWL and a genotype exhibiting partial muscular dystrophy, the Low Score Normal (LSN). We hypothesized that within the SCWL and LSN embryos, there would be differences in the temporal transcription of the fsMyHC isoforms and other myogenic regulatory genes...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339713/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-intermittent-mechanical-pressure-with-short-loading-duration-new-type-of-intermittent-force-for-orthodontic-treatment
#4
Kento Shoman, Yoshiaki Sato, Eisuke Nishikawa, Yuusuke Kudo, Takaaki Yamamoto, Junichiro Iida
Background: Since it is difficult to precisely control the magnitude of force in orthodontic practice, controlling the duration of force is expected to prevent tissue damage. The use of an actuator as an appliance for intermittent force application is a possible solution for controlling the duration. However, effectiveness of an actuator for controlling the duration is still not clear. Aim: To determine whether a short loading duration of intermittent force has the potential to maintain a sound condition of the capillaries and induce dilation of capillaries, which is a requisite phenomenon for orthodontic tooth movement...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339567/role-of-biomechanical-forces-in-hyperfiltration-mediated-glomerular-injury-in-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract
#5
Tarak Srivastava, Ganesh Thiagarajan, Uri S Alon, Ram Sharma, Ashraf El-Meanawy, Ellen T McCarthy, Virginia J Savin, Mukut Sharma
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) including solitary kidney constitute the main cause of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Children born with CAKUT develop signs of CKD only during adolescence and do not respond to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers. Early cellular changes underlying CKD progression to end-stage renal disease by early adulthood are not well understood. The mechanism of maladaptive hyperfiltration that occurs from loss of functional nephrons, including solitary kidney, is not clear...
January 17, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339478/morphological-and-morphometric-specializations-of-the-lung-of-the-andean-goose-chloephaga-melanoptera-a-lifelong-high-altitude-resident
#6
John N Maina, Kevin G McCracken, Beverly Chua, Julia M York, William K Milsom
High altitude flight in rarefied, extremely cold and hypoxic air is a very challenging activity. Only a few species of birds can achieve it. Hitherto, the structure of the lungs of such birds has not been studied. This is because of the rarity of such species and the challenges of preparing well-fixed lung tissue. Here, it was posited that in addition to the now proven physiological adaptations, high altitude flying birds will also have acquired pulmonary structural adaptations that enable them to obtain the large amounts of oxygen (O2) needed for flight at high elevation, an environment where O2 levels are very low...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339187/accurate-mirna-analysis-in-crude-cell-lysate-by-capillary-electrophoresis-based-hybridization-assay-in-comparison-with-quantitative-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction
#7
Liang Hu, Alexander S Stasheuski, David W Wegman, Nan Wu, Burton B Yang, Heyam Hayder, Chun Peng, Stanley K Liu, George M Yousef, Sergey N Krylov
Accurate quantitation of microRNA (miRNA) in tissue samples is required for validation and clinical use of miRNA-based disease biomarkers. Since sample processing, such as RNA extraction, introduces undesirable biases, it is advantageous to measure miRNA in a crude cell lysate. Here we report on accurate miRNA quantitation in crude cell lysate by a CE-based hybridization assay termed direct quantitative analysis of multiple miRNAs (DQAMmiR). Accuracy and precision of miRNA quantitation were determined for miRNA samples in a crude cell lysate, RNA extract from the lysate, and a pure buffer...
March 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338361/method-induced-differences-of-energy-contributions-in-adolescent-female-kayaking
#8
Yongming Li, Margot Niessen, Xiaoping Chen, Ulrich Hartmann
Purpose Different relative aerobic energy contribution (WAER%) has been reported for the two female Olympic kayaking disciplines (i.e. 200 and 500m). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the adopted method of energy calculation influenced the value of WAER% during the kayaking time trials. Methods Eleven adolescent female kayakers (age 14±1 yrs, height 172±4 cm, body mass 65.4±4.2 kg, VO2peak 42.6±4.9 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1), training experience 1.5±0.3 yrs) volunteered to participate in one incremental exercise test and two time trials (40s and 120s) on the kayak ergometer...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337939/bidirectional-apical-basal-traffic-of-the-cation-independent-mannose-6-phosphate-receptor-in-brain-endothelial-cells
#9
Piotr Siupka, Maria Ns Hersom, Karin Lykke-Hartmann, Kasper B Johnsen, Louiza B Thomsen, Thomas L Andresen, Torben Moos, N Joan Abbott, Birger Brodin, Morten S Nielsen
Brain capillary endothelium mediates the exchange of nutrients between blood and brain parenchyma. This barrier function of the brain capillaries also limits passage of pharmaceuticals from blood to brain, which hinders treatment of several neurological disorders. Receptor-mediated transport has been suggested as a potential pharmaceutical delivery route across the brain endothelium, e.g. reports have shown that the transferrin receptor (TfR) facilitates transcytosis of TfR antibodies, but it is not known whether this recycling receptor itself traffics from apical to basal membrane in the process...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337400/prototype-of-an-interface-for-hyphenating-distillation-with-gas-chromatography-and-mass-spectrometry
#10
Ya-Ru Tang, Hui-Hsien Yang, Pawel L Urban
Chemical analysis of complex matrices-containing hundreds of compounds-is challenging. Two-dimensional separation techniques provide an efficient way to reduce complexity of mixtures analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). For example, gasoline is a mixture of numerous compounds, which can be fractionated by distillation techniques. However, coupling conventional distillation with other separations as well as MS is not straightforward. We have established an automatic system for online coupling of simple microscale distillation with gas chromatography (GC) and electron ionization MS...
2017: Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337397/development-and-application-of-a-brush-spray-derived-from-a-calligraphy-brush-style-synthetic-hair-pen-for-use-in-esi-ms
#11
Jen-Ying Liu, Pei-Chun Chen, Yea-Wenn Liou, Kai-Yin Chang, Cheng-Huang Lin
The development of a novel type of a sampling/ionization kit for use in electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry is reported. Using a small calligraphy-brush-style synthetic hair pen (nylon-brush), and analogous to paper-spray mass spectrometry, the analytes can be collected, elution/desorption and then ionized from the surface of the nylon-brush. The body of the kit was produced by means of a commercial 3D-printer, in which ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) was used as the starting material. Meanwhile, a small nylon-brush was embedded inside a 3D-printed plastic cell, in which a solvent was supplied to rinse the brush by means of capillary action...
2017: Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336887/sio2-zno-composite-hollow-sub-micron-fibers-fabrication-from-facile-single-capillary-electrospinning-and-their-photoluminescence-properties
#12
Guanying Song, Zhenjiang Li, Kaihua Li, Lina Zhang, Alan Meng
In this work, SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers were fabricated by a facile single capillary electrospinning technique followed by calcination, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ZnO nanoparticles as raw materials. The characterization results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra indicated that the asprepared composite hollow fibers consisted of amorphous SiO2 and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO...
February 24, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336674/interchangeability-and-reliability-of-macular-perfusion-parameter-measurements-using-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#13
Jing Dong, Ya-Ding Jia, Qiang Wu, Suhua Zhang, Yali Jia, David Huang, Xiaogang Wang
AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the interchangeability and reliability of macular perfusion measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional observational study. Healthy adult Chinese subjects were recruited. Macular perfusion parameters were automatically analysed by software included in a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography system. The vessel density (VD) of the whole, parafovea, superior-hemi, inferior-hemi, fovea, temporal, superior, nasal and inferior quadrants as well as the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and choroidal capillary VD (CCVD) were quantified...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336538/effects-of-dobutamine-on-intestinal-microvascular-blood-flow-heterogeneity-and-oxygen-extraction-during-septic-shock
#14
Gustavo Adolfo Ospina-Tascón, Alberto Federico García Marín, Gabriel J Echeverri, William Fernando Bermúdez, Humberto José Madriñán Navia, Juan David Valencia, Edgardo Quiñones, Fernando Rodríguez, Angela Marulanda, César Augusto Arango Davila, Alejandro Bruhn, Glenn Hernández, Daniel De Backer
Derangements of microvascular blood flow distribution might contribute to disturbing oxygen extraction by peripheral tissues. We evaluated the dynamic relationships between the mesenteric oxygen extraction ratio (mes-ERO2) and the heterogeneity of microvascular blood flow at the gut and sublingual mucosa, during the development and resuscitation of septic shock in a swine model of fecal peritonitis. Jejunal-villi and sublingual microcirculation were evaluated using a portable intravital-microscopy technique...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336536/the-effect-of-aging-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-on-the-lung-diffusing-capacity-response-to-exercise-in-healthy-humans
#15
Kirsten E Coffman, Alex R Carlson, Andrew D Miller, Bruce D Johnson, Bryan Joseph Taylor
Aging is associated with deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation. We characterized the lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO), and pulmonary-capillary blood volume (VC) response to discontinuous incremental exercise at 25, 50, 75, and 90% of peak work (Wpeak) in four groups: 1) Young [27 ± 3 y, maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) 110 ± 18% age-predicted]; 2) Young Highly-Fit (27 ± 3 y, V̇O2max 147 ± 8% age-predicted); 3) Old (69 ± 5 y, V̇O2max 116 ± 13% age-predicted); and 4) Old Highly-Fit (65 ± 5 y, V̇O2max 162 ± 18% age-predicted)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336535/the-effects-of-short-work-versus-longer-work-periods-within-intermittent-exercise-on-v%C3%AC-o2p-kinetics-muscle-deoxygenation-and-energy-system-contribution
#16
Michael Christopher McCrudden, Daniel A Keir, Glen R Belfry
We examined the effects of inserting 3 s recovery periods during high-intensity cycling exercise at 25 s and 10 s intervals on pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2p), muscle deoxygenation (HHb), associated kinetics (τ), and energy system contributions. Eleven men (24±3 years) completed two trials of three cycling protocols: an 8 min continuous protocol (CONT) and two, 8 min intermittent exercise protocols with work-to-rest periods of 25 s-to-3 s (25INT) and 10 s-to-3 s (10INT). Each protocol began with a step-transition from a 20 W baseline to a power output (PO) of 60% between lactate threshold and maximal V̇O2p (Δ60)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335968/dipentaerythritol-penta-hexa-acrylate-based-highly-cross-linked-hybrid-monolithic-column-preparation-and-its-applications-for-ultrahigh-efficiency-separation-of-proteins
#17
Junqian Ma, Qian Dai, Xueyun Li, Xianghui Zhu, Teng Ma, Xiaoqiang Qiao, Shigang Shen, Xiuhua Liu
In this study, multi-acrylate based dipentaerythritol penta-/hexa-acrylate (DPEPA) was exploited for fabrication of highly cross-linked hybrid monolithic column by copolymerization with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane methacryl substituted (POSS-MA) via a "one-pot" method. The new DPEPA-POSS hybrid monolithic column was respectively characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement. When it was used for the separation of amides, thioureas and positional isomers of phenols, ultrahigh column efficiency separation (up to 511,000 N m(-1)) was achieved with excellent selectivity...
April 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335967/an-innovative-monolithic-zwitterionic-stationary-phase-for-the-separation-of-phenolic-acids-in-coffee-bean-extracts-by-capillary-electrochromatography
#18
Adele Murauer, Rania Bakry, Herwig Schottenberger, Christian Huck, Markus Ganzera
A methacrylate based monolith, containing the innovative zwitterionic monomer (3-allyl-1-imidazol)propane sulfonate, was prepared in 100 μm I.D. silica capillaries by UV initiated photo-polymerization. Composition of the porogen, i.e. a mixture of 1-propanol, 1,4 butanediol and water, was of great importance to obtain a homogeneous monolith with satisfactory permeability and good electrochromatographic performance. Morphology of the stationary phase was studied in Scanning Electron Microscopy and IR experiments, which revealed a good attachment to the capillary wall, flowthrough-pores in the range of 0...
April 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335694/construction-of-three-dimensional-dermo-epidermal-skin-equivalents-using-cell-coating-technology-and-their-utilization-as-alternative-skin-for-permeation-studies-and-skin-irritation-tests
#19
Takami Akagi, Mayuka Nagura, Ayami Hiura, Hajime Kojima, Mitsuru Akashi
In vitro generated human skin equivalents are generating interest as promising tools in basic research, as alternatives to animal testing and for clinical applications in regenerative medicine. For prediction of skin irritation and corrosion, three-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalents consisting of differentiated human keratinocytes have been developed and some models have been internationally accepted. However, more delicate assessments using full-thickness skin models, such as skin sensitization tests cannot be performed because of the lack of a dermis containing fibroblasts or appendages...
March 23, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334696/effects-of-hypergravity-on-the-angiogenic-potential-of-endothelial-cells
#20
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Daniel T O Carvalho, Miguel J S Ferreira, Guilherme Aresta, Manuela E Gomes, Jack J W A van Loon, Kim Van der Heiden, Pedro L Granja
Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is a key event in pathology, including cancer progression, but also in homeostasis and regeneration. As the phenotype of endothelial cells (ECs) is continuously regulated by local biomechanical forces, studying endothelial behaviour in altered gravity might contribute to new insights towards angiogenesis modulation. This study aimed at characterizing EC behaviour after hypergravity exposure (more than 1g), with special focus on cytoskeleton architecture and capillary-like structure formation...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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